This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Young people today are more likely than those of past generations to have sex before marriage (Boonstra). While the age of marriage has increased, especially in more prosperous countries (Seager 21), the age of sexual initiation has not changed. These two factors and a lack of contraceptive knowledge have led to an increase in unintended teen pregnancy and single mothers (Boonstra). There were two million births among Latin American and Caribbean adolescents in 2008 alone; these births were 18% of all Latin American and Caribbean births that year. 1.2 million of the adolescent pregnancies among Latin American and Caribbean adolescents were unintentional (“Facts on the Sexual”). In the USA, 48% of all pregnancies are unintended (“Facts on Unintended” 2) Only 20% of married Latin American and Caribbean adolescents (ages 15-19) wish to be pregnant or are intentionally pregnant. Of the 80% of married Latin American and Caribbean adolescents who do not wish to become pregnant, 37% do not use modern contraceptive methods, and 78% of these use no contraceptive method at all. Modern contraceptive methods include hormonal birth control, IUDs, surgical sterilization, condoms, and modern vaginal methods such as a diaphragm (“Facts on the Sexual” 2). Pregnancy, especially teen pregnancy, impacts women more than men. Expecting mothers are more visually obvious than expecting fathers, and may be judged more harshly for having been sexually active. There is still distain in American culture for women who are sexually active before marriage. American males are not usually judged as harshly for being
and their high rates of sexual activity put them at considerable risk of contracting STIs (Bales). which is often the case with coerced sex (“Women”). particularly those who were brought up with in with strong anti-sex views. which allow for transmission. Micro-lesions are especially likely if she is not aroused enough to produce adequate lubrication. Some males may even be praised for having sex often and/or with many women (“Slut”). Women may also get small lesions in the walls of the vagina during intercourse. contraception is not only less well known. Pregnancy and birth are both expensive in the US. In my experience in the American Midwest. it is also less available and more expensive. Warm and moist with a mucous membrane. thereby increasing friction and the chances of contracting an STI. put her baby up for adoption or raise the child.sexually active outside of marriage. One reason for this is the structure and function of the vagina. If a couple cannot afford condoms. and birth is inherently dangerous. Women are four times as vulnerable to some STIs as are men. Comprehensive sexual education might help alleviate the anxieties some women have about sex and contraception use (Wainer). may fear sex. the social pressure on a pregnant woman to raise the child is strong. Some women. Another reason women are more likely to contract STIs is that they are more likely to work in the sex industry than men. A pregnant woman must decide whether to have an abortion. In developing countries. Prostitutes may not have any say in whether they use condoms. In 2002. the vagina presents a weaker barrier to disease than the skin of the phallus does. they will also probably not be able to . The father is not forced to undergo a battery of hormonal and physical changes if the fetus is not aborted and does not face the same level of social stigma for not taking part in his child‟s upbringing (Arditti 201). only one Latin American country was in the top five to receive donations of condoms (Seager 37).
Where information about contraception is sparse.920. According to a 2004 study by Ahman and Shah. who are a high risk demographic for STIs due to their . just to raise it to the age of 18 (Bjerga). such as those in Latin America. misinformation about sexual health is rampant among adolescents (Boonstra). women may not know what their contraceptive options are or have access to medically sound information about contraception (Wainer). In lieu of factual contraceptive information. It is estimated that 95% of all abortions in Central and South America are unsafe. though. so is the quality of medical care available. The stigma women face when they are sexually active before or outside of marriage may prevent them from seeking out contraceptives or information about sexual health (“Facts on the Sexual”). birth and raising a child is quite high. Abortion is illegal or highly restricted in all of Latin America except Guyana and Belize. The cost of pregnancy. are performed on women from ages 15 to 19. The rates of maternal mortality are higher in Latin America than in the United States. Once the child is born. Deaths from illegal abortions in Latin America and the Caribbean account for 3% of all deaths from unsafe abortions (Seager 38-39). In the developing world. illegal abortions. It is therefore unsurprising that some Latin American women opt for abortion. which include years of healthy life lost due to premature death) inflicted on adolescent women are due to maternal mortality and morbidity (“Facts on the Sexual”).afford to raise children above the poverty level. The lack of legal abortions has led to the use of unsafe. While the cost of pregnancy is lower in Latin America. About half of all children are currently being raised in poverty (“Facts on the Sexual”). it can be expected that it will cost American parents $226. 14% of all unsafe abortions in developing countries. 16% of all DALYs (disability adjusted life years. especially in Peru and Bolivia (Seager 40).
but do increase the rates of STIs and teen pregnancy. In 1999. While sexual education policies in American school districts have become more prevalent and comprehensive within the last decade. some American politicians continue to oppose insurance coverage of contraception. Studies show that more holistic programs are more effective in preventing STIs. decreasing the frequency of sexual intercourse. February 29th. To promote health and prevent unwanted pregnancies. Unfortunately. Abstinence-only sexual education programs which withhold information about contraceptives do not affect the age of first sexual intercourse. Unsafe. and preventing unwanted teen pregnancies (Boonstra). America lags behind many other first world countries in the area of effective sexual education (Boonstra). only 10% of American school districts had a comprehensive sexual education policy and only 9% of American students were in districts with a comprehensive sexual education policy (“Sexuality”). America currently has the highest rate of teen pregnancy of any developed country (“Prepregnancy”). On Wednesday. Painful. even when the legal penalties are harsh and the health risks of the illegal abortion are known (Wainer). illegal abortions may be chosen above child birth when these methods fail.relative lack of monogamy and correct condom use (“Facts on Unintended”). ineffective and potentially hazardous birth control methods may be attempted by women intense on preventing pregnancy. the teen pregnancy rate and percentage of young people with STIs in America indicate that there is still much to be done. sexual education has been implemented in many first world countries. Unfortunately. Rush Limbaugh stated on his talk show that women who want their birth control to be covered by insurance in the manner . as well as abortion. raising the age of sexual initiation.
women who become teen mothers are more likely to drop out of high school. putting Latin American women at an increased risk for STIs and unintended pregnancy (“Facts on the Sexual”). This lack of contraceptive knowledge also puts Latin American adolescents at higher risk than their American counterparts (Boonstra). restricted freedom in deciding when to have children or use contraceptives and a lack of funds with which to buy contraceptives (“Facts on the Sexual” 1). including Latin America. and Arizona has made it legal to fire women because they use birth control (Bassett). High school drop outs earn less than those women with high school diplomas. While Limbaugh is a radically conservative man who grossly misrepresented many of the facts during his tirade on Ms.other preventative medicines are covered are sluts and prostitutes. he is not alone in his dislike of insurance covering birth control for women. lack of contraceptive knowledge. . Poor women and women in developing countries are especially likely to contract STIs and become unintentionally pregnant. The rate of teen pregnancy among poor and less well educated women is significantly higher (“Facts on Unintented” 3). Several states in the US have made loopholes for employers to refuse to cover birth control for women. targeting Georgetown University law student Sandra Fluke specifically (tmznewstoday). formal sexual education of any sort – let alone the more effective comprehensive sexual education available to a minority of American high schoolers – is still largely unavailable in many undeveloped parts of the world. which means that becoming a teen mother permanently affects a woman‟s potential income (“Prepregnancy”). More than 40% of Latin American women report having had sex by their 18th birthday. Poverty rates are higher in Latin American than in the USA. and literacy rates are lower. But. Some contributing factors are: lack of knowledge on where to get medical information and treatment. In America. Fluke.
Women devote more time to childcare than men. This fact is reflected in the vast inequality between the number of men and women who have part-time employment (Seager 66). even in two-parent households. which restricts the number of hours women can spend at a paying job. .
A.. 2002. “Advancing Sexuality Education in Developing Countries: Evidence and Implications. Newborn is $336. “Cost to Raise 2012 U.html>. . Bales.org/pubs/gpr/ 14/3/gpr140317. <http://www. J. K. March 2012.edu/bbcswebdav/courses/20120114244/Kevin%20Bales%2C %20Because%20she%20looks%20like%20a%20Child. April 2012..com/ 2012/03/14/arizona-birth-control-bill-contraception-medical-reasons_n_1344557.” Because She Looks Like a Child. Laura. & Joest. Web. Print. 2012. “Arizona Birth Control Bill Penalizes Women For Using Contraception For NonMedical Reasons.S. Web.” Bloomberg.” Family Relations. Bassett. 52(3).com/news/2011-06-09/u-s-child-born-in-2010-may-cost-226920-to-raise-usda-says.bloomberg. “Saturday morning at the jail: Implications of incarceration for families and children. April 2012. Boonstra. 195-204.html>. Lambert-Shute.920. Web. “Global Women.html>. Bjerga.indstate. <https://blackboard. J. Web. (2003).” Guttmacher Institute.huffingtonpost. April.” Huffington Post.pdf>.guttmacher. Heather. <http://www. Alan.Works Cited Arditti. Kevin. <http://www.
indstate.edu/ bbcswebdav/courses/20120114244/Slut%2C%20The%20Other%20Four%20Letter%20 Word.pdf>.org/pubs/FB-AdolescentsSRH.S. Web. “Prepregnancy Contraceptive Use Among Teens with Unintended Pregnancies Resulting in Live Births. January 2012. April 2012. <http://www. 37-40. . Seager. Pages 21. <http://www. 66 “Sexuality and Abstinence Education Policies in U.” Guttmacher Institute.org/pubs/FB-Unintended-Pregnancy-US. April 2012.” April 2012.guttmacher. April 2012. 2012. Web. Public School Districts. 2009. Web. “Slut.cdc. <https://blackboard.htm?s_cid=mm6102a1_w>.gov/mmwr/preview/ mmwrhtml/mm6102a1.” January 20. Web.guttmacher. April 2012. Print. “Facts on the Unintended Pregnancy in the United States. New York: Penguin Books.“Facts on the Sexual and Reproductive Health Of Adolescent Women in the Developing World. Joni.pdf>.guttmacher. Web.html>. <http://www.org/pubs/factsheet_121399. The Other Four Letter Word.” Guttmacher Institute. “The Penguine Atlas of Women in the World.mp3>.” New York.” Guttmacher Institute. <http://www.
20-28.thebody.‟” Youtube.” TheBody. April 2012.edu/bbcswebdav/ courses/20120114244/Amy%27s%20Story. <http://www. Jo.Tmznewstoday. April 2012.pdf>. “Amy‟s Story. <http://www. “Rush Limbaugh Calls Sandra Fluke a „Slut.html>.com/watch?v=ODI-NALkI4c&feature=player_embedded>.” Lost. <https://blackboard.com.indstate. . Web. Web. March 2012. Web. Wainer.com/content/art2634. “Women and HIV/AIDS: Key Facts and Issues.youtube.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.