modern mnemonics

‘The problem with numbers is that they don’t mean anything in isolation. So the number 213964102 sounds horrendous but if you break it down into chunks it is more palatable. Now that’s alright for short term memory, if you want to translate it to your long term memory I break it down into pairs of numbers and I would make up a story. So for example 21 are the first two digits. It’s your 21st birthday, you’ve got the key to the door. It’s a key to a tower. A mysterious tower. As you go up the steps you notice there are 39 steps from the film ‘The 39 Steps’. You also, what comes into your head is a tune, ‘When I’m 64, The Beatles. Thinking about that. When you get to the top of the tower you see Tony Blair, number 10 Downing Street. Now a swan that has a number shape of 2 swoops down and carries him off into the clouds forever and ever. Now you’ll remember that story.’ Dominic O’Brien, British Mnemonist and Memory Champion (2006)

contents

Introduction What is a mnemonic The Major System Instructions Letters Words Images Narratives

3 5 5 7 13 17 41 243

introduction

‘We are looking at the rapid collapse of mnemonic consolidation.’ Virilio (1994)

Almost without noticing it, we’ve outsourced important peripheral brain functions to the silicon around us. The human mind is being robbed of its memories; the informational function of modern media is such as to make us forget. This is highlighted by research done two years ago by neuroscientist Peter Simons at University College Dublin. He noticed an unexpected byproduct of the digital age is that a third of under thirties (the principal consumers of digital technology) did not know their own phone numbers. The energy needed to obtain the required information from the hard drive or the internet has diminished to almost nothing, meaning it is less demanding than memorising the information for ourselves. For the past three months I have been researching and contemporising existing mnemonic devices in order to assist memory and recognition for the digital generation.

3

what is a mnemonic
A mnemonic device is a mind memory or learning aid. Commonly, mnemonics are verbal—such as a very short poem or a special word used to help a person remember something—but may be visual, kinesthetic or auditory. Mnemonics rely on associations between easy-to-remember constructs which can be related back to the data that is to be remembered. This is based on the principle that the human mind more easily remembers spatial, personal, surprising, sexual, humorous or otherwise meaningful information than arbitrary sequences.

the major system
Also called the phonetic mnemonic system or phonetic number system is a technique used to aid memorisation of series of numbers. The system works by converting numbers into consonant sounds, then into words by adding vowels. The system depends on the principle that emotive images can be remembered more easily than numbers. However ‘The Major System’ was first created over 300 years ago and has often been criticised for being dry and overcomplicated. In this book I have tried to simplify and modernise the system in order to make it more accessible and relevent to people today.

5

instructions
The system works by converting number sequences into words, words into images, and linking images through narratives. These can be very complex and detailed.

numbers into letters The building blocks of the system are the association of the numbers below with the following consonant sounds: 0 s, z, soft-c 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Remember Z is the first letter of zero. The other letters have a similar sound. d, t, th Remember as letters with one downstroke n Remember as having two downstrokes m Three downstrokes and looks like a 3 on its side r Last letter of four, also 4 and R are almost mirror images of each other L L is the Roman Numeral for 50 j, sh, soft-ch, dg, soft-g g is 6 rotated 180 degrees. k, hard-ch, hard-c, hard-g, ng Imagine K as two 7s rotated and glued together f, v Script f resembles a figure-8. V sounds similar. p, b Remember as 9 rotated 180 degrees. a, e, i, o, u, w, h, y These can be used anywhere without changing a word’s number value

These associations although initially complicated need to be learned thoroughly before going further with the technique.

7

letters into words The system operates on a number of levels, depending on the amount of time you are prepared to devote to learning the system. The first level involves coding single digit numbers into letters and then into small words. The trick with converting numbers into words is to use only the consonants that code information within the word, while using vowels to pad the consonants out with meaning. If you use other consonants to make up a word, use only those that do not code for numbers - i.e. h, q, w, x, and y. At the first level we code each number into a short noun. This is made up of the consonant coding for the number, and vowels that turn the consonant into a word. On a sheet of paper, write the numbers 0 to 9, and apply these rules to create your own memory words. Some examples are shown below: 0 - saw 1 - toe 2 - neigh 3 - aim 4 - ray 5 - law 6 - jaw 7 - key 8 - fee 9 - pie

These can be used to make short sentences and rhymes or as part of The Number Shape System where the numbeform matches the word for example swan is two.

8

words into images Similar rules apply to creating a standard word from two numbers. It is best not to try to use a single number word as a root, as this can confuse the image. A few examples are shown below: 09 - s, p - soap 17 - t, k - takeaway 23 - n, m - name 36 - m, sh - mash 41 - r,d - radio 52 - l, n - lawn 64 - t, r - tiara 75 - q, l - quill 89 - f, b - fab 98 - b, f - beef You can use these words in association to create simple memory images. More examples of these words can be found in the latter sections of this book.

9

Just using double number words may be enough to make this a sufficiently powerful mnemonic for you. Alternatively you may decide to use triple number words, using the same construction rules as double number words. Examples are: 304 - m, s, r - miser 400 - r, c, s - races 651 - j, l, d - jellied 801 - f, z, d - fazed At this level of complexity it may be worth writing them down to make them easier to remember. You can then run through them many times to strengthen the link in your mind between the numbers and the associated words. This will help you to remember the appropriate word faster.

images into narratives Once you have come up with words and images to link to your numbers, you can start to apply the technique to remember longer numbers such as telephone numbers, passwords and access codes. A good way of doing this is to associate Major System words with stops on a journey.

10

For example, the number Pi is 3.14159265359 (to 11 decimal places). Using the major system as a journey, you can remember this as: To sum (3) up I have had an estremely bad day. Someone has dared (1,4,1) to borrow my lippy (5,9) without asking my permission. I found it on my dressing table and there is at least and inch (2,6) missing since the last time I used it. I am going to break limb (5,3) of the last person that used it if I ever find out who it is. Now I am going to have to buy another lippy (59) to replace it.

The major memory system works by linking numbers to consonants and then by linking these into words. By using the images these words create, and linking them together with the journey system, large amounts of information can be accurately memorized. Over the next pages I have provided examples of how the system can be used and have selected words and imagery for the numbers 0-99 to get you started. If you find that these images do not attract you or stick in your mind, then change them for something more meaningful to you. In order to explore the area of narrative further I have provided a series of cards to accompany this book.

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modern mnemonics part one

letters

0 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29
14

s/z/c s/z/c s/z/c s/z/c s/z/c s/z/c s/z/c s/z/c s/z/c s/z/c d/t d/t d/t d/t d/t d/t d/t d/t d/t d/t n n n n n n n n n n

d/t n m r l j/sh/ch/dg/zh/g k/c/g/ch/q/qu f/v b/p s/z/c d/t n m r l j/sh/ch/dg/zh/g k/c/g/ch/q/qu f/v b/p s/z/c d/t n m r l j/sh/ch/dg/zh/g k/c/g/ch/q/qu f/v b/p

30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59

m m m m m m m m m m r r r r r r r r r r l l l l l l l l l l

s/z/c d/t n m r l j/sh/ch/dg/zh/g k/c/g/ch/q/qu f/v b/p s/z/c d/t n m r l j/sh/ch/dg/zh/g k/c/g/ch/q/qu f/v b/p s/z/c d/t n m r l j/sh/ch/dg/zh/g k/c/g/ch/q/qu f/v b/p
15

60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89
16

j/sh/ch/dg/zh/g j/sh/ch/dg/zh/g j/sh/ch/dg/zh/g j/sh/ch/dg/zh/g j/sh/ch/dg/zh/g j/sh/ch/dg/zh/g j/sh/ch/dg/zh/g j/sh/ch/dg/zh/g j/sh/ch/dg/zh/g j/sh/ch/dg/zh/g k/c/g/ch/q/qu k/c/g/ch/q/qu k/c/g/ch/q/qu k/c/g/ch/q/qu k/c/g/ch/q/qu k/c/g/ch/q/qu k/c/g/ch/q/qu k/c/g/ch/q/qu k/c/g/ch/q/qu k/c/g/ch/q/qu f/v f/v f/v f/v f/v f/v f/v f/v f/v f/v

s/z/c d/t n m r l j/sh/ch/dg/zh/g k/c/g/ch/q/qu f/v b/p s/z/c d/t n m r l j/sh/ch/dg/zh/g k/c/g/ch/q/qu f/v b/p s/z/c d/t n m r l j/sh/ch/dg/zh/g k/c/g/ch/q/qu f/v b/p

90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99

b/p b/p b/p b/p b/p b/p b/p b/p b/p b/p

s/z/c d/t n m r l j/sh/ch/dg/zh/g k/c/g/ch/q/qu f/v b/p

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modern mnemonics part two

words

0

ass assay awes ayes ease easy essay ewes eyes has haws hays haze hazy heehaws he’s hews highs highways his hiss hoes hose house how’s hussy huzzah ice icy is issue ohs ooze oozy owes oz saw say SE sea seaway see sew sigh sighs so sow soy soya sue sway use was ways wees weighs wheeze wheezy wheys whiz whizz who’s whose who so whys wise wiz woes woos woozy wows wuss wussy yahoo yazoo yeahs yeas yes yews zoo aced acid aside assayed asset asst cede cedi cite city eased east essayed eyesight hast haste hasty hayseed hazed heist highest hissed hoist hosed host housed huzzaed iced issued oozed oust sad said sat satay sate sati sauté sawed seat seaweed seed seedy seethe set sett settee sewed side sighed sight sit site sod soda soot sooth soothe sooty sot sought south sowed stay stew stow stowaway sty sued suede suet suit suite suttee swat swath swathe swayed sweat sweaty swede sweet sweetie swot used waist waist-high waste wayside west wheezed whist whizzed wised yeast yeasty zed zeta zit ziti cine cyan eosin hessian ozone sane sauna sawn scene scion seen seine sewn sienna sin sine sinew sinewy snow snowy son sonny soon sown sun sunny swain swan swine swoon wizen zany zen zine zinnia zone assume awesome same seam seamy seem semi soma some somehow someway sum sumo swam swami swim swum zoom assayer assure azure cirri easier essayer eyesore hawser hazer hazier hosier hosiery hussar icier issuer oozier osier ossuary sari sawyer sear seer sera sere sewer sierra sir sire soar soiree sore sorrow sorry sour sure surrey swear swore user usury wheezier wiser woozier

0

0 0 0
20

0 0 0 08 0 0

aisle assail asshole azalea cell celli cilia easel easily hassle hazel hazily icily isle sail sale sallow sally seal seawall sell sill silly silo slaw slay sleigh slew sloe slow slue sly soil sol sole soli solo soul sully swale swallow swell swill usual usually wassail weasel wisely woozily zeal assuage ice-age sachet sage sash sashay sedge sewage siege such sushi swash swatch swish switch swoosh usage ask askew assoc hassock hoosegow husk husky ice hockey psych psyche psycho sac sack sag saga saggy sago sake scow seek segue sequoia sic sick skew ski sky sky-high soak soc sock sockeye soggy souk squaw suck swag swig whisk whiskey whisky wise-guy housewife ossify safe save savoy savvy sieve sofa suave asp espy hasp houseboy hyssop sabot sap sappy seep sepia sip soap soapy sob soba sop soppy soup soupy spa spay spew spy sub subway sup swab swap sweep swipe swoop wasabi wasp wisp wispy zap zappy zebu zip zippy adds adduce adieus adios ads adze aides AIDS audios autos awaits dace dais daisy days daze dehisce deice deuce dews dhows dice dicey dies diss dizzy does doozy dos dose doss douse dowse doze dozy dues duos dyes eats educe eidos eighths eighties eights etas ethos hates hats heads headways heaths heats heeds heights heydays hiatus hideaways hideous hides hits hoodoos hoods hoots hot house huts ideas ides idiocy ids iodize iotas it’s oaths oats odds odes odious odyssey outhouse outs outweighs taus teas tease tees thaws these thews thighs this those thus ties ‘tis tissue tizz tizzy toes toss towhees tows toys Tues ‘twas tweeze twice twos wades wads waits watts weds weeds weights wets what’s whets whites whiteys whits widows wights withes wits woods woodsy yachts yetis youths
21

added aided aoudad audit awaited dad dada daddy data date dead deadeye death deed deity did dido died diet diode ditto ditty dodo doodah dot dote doth dotty doughty dowdy dud dude due-to duet duty dyad dyed edit eightieth etude eyeteeth eyetooth hated hated headed heated heeded hided hideout high-tide hit-the-hay hooded hoodooed hooted hothead ideate idiot iodide oddity ought-to outdo outed outhit outwait outweighed outwit tad tat tattoo tatty taught taut teat ted teddy teed teeth teethe that thawed theta they’d thought thud tide tideway tidy tied tie-dye tight tithe toad toady today toddy to-do toed toot tooth toothy tot tote tout towed towhead toyed tut tutu tweed tweedy tweet twit wadded waded waited wedded weeded weighted wetted whetted white-hat white-heat whited whitehead white-hot whiteout whitewood wide-eyed widowed widow-hood width withed with-it without witted wooded yachted add-on atone attain attn attune dawn dean den deny din dine don done down downy doyen doyenne duenna dun dune dunno eaten Eden eighteen ethane head-on heathen heighten hidden hoedown hoyden iodine oaten Odeon tawny teen teeny ten than thane then thin thine tine tinny tiny ton tone tonne town townie tun tuna tune tunny twain tween twin twine wheaten white wine whiten widen within wooden ATM atom daimio daimyo dam dame deem demo dim dime dome doom dumb dummy edam edema high time idem idiom item odium oedema tame team teem them theme thumb thyme time tomb tome tum tummy adder adhere adore aider atria attar attire auteur author dairy dare dear dearie deary deer dewier diarrhoea diary dire doer door doorway dory doughier dour dower dowry Dr draw drawee dray drew dry

22

durrie dyer eater eatery eider either ether hater hatter haughtier hauteur header headier heater heather heathery hetero hider hither hitter hooter hot-air hotter hot-wire hydra hydrae hydro odder odour other otter outer outré outwear outwore tar tare taro tarot tarry tear tear-away teary terry their theory there they’re thorough three threw throe through throughway throw throwaway thru thruway tier tire tiro tor tore Tory tour tower tray tree trey trio trow troy true try tyre tyro udder uteri utter wader waiter water waterway watery weather weeder weedier weightier wether wetter whether whetter whiter whither wider widower wither witter wittier woodier addle at all atoll audial ayatollah dahlia daily dale dally deal delay dele deli dell dewily dial dill dilly doily dole doll dolly dowel dual dually duel dull dully duly dwell eidola et al haughtily headily hiatal hightail hotel hotly huddle ideal ideally idle idly idol idyll it’ll oddly outlaw outlay tail tale tall tallowc tallowy tally tally-ho teal tell telly they’ll tile till toil toile tole toll toll-way tool towel tulle utile waddle wattle weightily wetly wheedle white-lie whitewall whitlow whittle widely withal wittily yodel adage adagio atishoo attach attaché dash deejay dish dishy ditch DJ dodge dodgy doge dosh douche duchy dutch outage teach thatch touch touché touchy towage tush twitch twitchy wattage whitewash whitish ad hoc attack attic dag DC decay deck decoy dick dickey dig dike doc dock dog doggie doggy doohickey duck ducky dug duke dyke etc ethic haddock headache headachy high-tech outgo outtake tack tacky taco tag taiga take takeaway teak tech techie thick thicko thug thwack tic tick tike tog toga togae toke took toque tuck tug tuque tweak twig twiggy tyke wide-awake
23

8

daffy deaf def defy deify div diva dive divvy doff dove duff heat-wave out of taffy they’ve thief thieve tiff toff toffee tofu tough toughie tuff TV what-if adobe atop ATP dab daub deep dip dippy dob dope dopey dopy doughboy dub dupe dweeb HTTP tab tabby taboo tap tape taupe TB TBA teepee tepee thebe tibia tie-up tip top tope toupee toy-boy tub tuba tubby tube type typo utopia

0

aeons anise annoys anus anyways anywise awns eons heinous Heinz hence hennas hens highness hones honeys hons hyaenas hyenas in-house inns ionize ionize ions knees knows NASA nausea nays Nazi neighs news newsy nice niece nisi noes noise noisy noose nos nose nosey nosy nous noways nowise nows nus once ones onus ounce owns unease uneasy unis unsay unwise wains wanes wanness weans weenies weens weensy wens whence whens whines whinnies wienies wince wines winnows winos wins yawns yens yins ain’t and annoyed annuity anode ant ante anti aunt auntie aunty awned end endow endue ennead hand handy haunt hennaed high-end hind honed honeydew honeyed honied hound hunt indie indue innate innit into knead kneed knight knit knot knotty knout natty naught naughty neat need needy neighed net newt night nightie nit nod noddy node not note nought nowt nude nut nutty onto owned unit unite unity untie unto unwed wand waned want weaned wend went whined whinnied wind window windy wined winnowed won’t wound yawned

24

anion anon anyone high noon inane known naan nan nanny neon nine ninny no-one none no-no noon noun no-win nun onion union winwin anaemia anime anomie anomy enema enemy name numb anywhere honour honouree inhere inner inure knower narrow nary near new year newer nor nowhere owner unaware unwary whiner whinier wiener winery winner winnower yawner anal anally anneal annual annually annul annuli anole inhale in-law inlay kneehole kneel knell knoll nail newel newly nil noel null only unholy unwell wanly enjoy haunch hinge honcho hunch inch knish nacho new-age newish niche Nietzsche nosh no-show notch nudge unhitch wench whinge whingy winch ankh awing eunuch eyeing eying gnocchi hang hank hankie hanky hawing haying heehawing hewing hoeing honk hung hunk hunky inc ink inky ionic knack knock nag neck nick no-go nook nookie nooky nuke NYC oink oohing owing unhook unique unyoke wank weeing weighing wing wink wonk wonky wooing wowing yang yank yawing young

25

8

enough envoi envoy envy info inveigh knave knife naff naïf naïve nave navy navy nephew nevi nova novae unify unweave unwove honeybee knob knobby nab nap nape nappy neap neb newbie nib nip nippy nob nope nub nubby one-up own-up unhappy wannabe

0

ahimsa aims amass amaze amiss ammos amuse emcee ems emus hams haymows hems homes homeys homos houmous houmus hummus hums humus iambs mace maize mass massy maws maze mazy meows mesa mess messiah messy mews mezzo miaows mice miso Miss moos moose mosey moss mossy mouse mousey mousse mousy mows muse muss mussy muzzy ohms whammies whams whims whimsy wombs yams aimed amid amide amity emit emote hammed hemmed homed humid hummed mad made maid mat mate matey math matt matte May Day mayday mead meadow meat meaty med media meet meowed met mewed miaowed mid midday middy midi midway might mighty mite mitt moat mod mode moiety mood moody mooed moot mote moth motte motto mouth mouthy mowed mud muddy mute mutt myth omit whammed amen amine ammonia he-man highwayman highwaymen hominy human humane hymen hymn immune main man mane mania many mean meanie meany men menu mien min mine mini minnow moan money mono moon moony mown myna mynah omen woman women yeoman yeomen

26

imam maim mam mama mamma mammy mayhem meme memo mime mom momma mommie mommy mum mummy muumuu amir amour emery emir hammer hammier hemmer homer homier humeri hummer humour immure mare marrow marry mayor mere merry mire miry mohair moire moor moray more morrow mower Mr myrrh yammer yummier e-mail homely homily mail male mall mallei mallow maul meal mealy melee mellow mewl mil mile milieu mill moil mol mole moll mule mull homage image macho magi mash match mesh midge mojo mooch mosh much mush mushy amigo amok amuck hammock hummock hummocky imago mac macaw mack mag maguey make MC mecca meek meg mega MG mic mocha mock moggie moggy mohawk muck mucky mug muggy omega

8

humph Mafia mauve miff move movie muff my wife oomph ameba amebae amoeba amoebae amp hemp homeboy hump iambi imbue imp map maybe mob mop mope mopey MP myopia ump wimp wimpy

27

0

aeries airs airways arose arouse arrays arrows arse areas arias arise auras ears eras erase errs Euros ewers hairs harass hares harrows hears hearsay hearse heiress heirs here’s heresy heroes hers hewers high-rise hires hoarse hoers hoorays horse horsey horsy hours hrs hurrahs hurrays hurries iris oars ores orzo ours race raceway racy raise rays raze razz re-house reissue res reuse reweighs rice rise roes rose rosy rouse rows rues ruse ryes warehouse wares wars wearies wears weirs whereas where’s whirrs whirs whorehouse whores wires wooers worries worse wrasse yarrows years yours aerate aired airhead airtight arrayed arrowhead art aorta arid aright arty ate award eared earth earthy erode errata erred hairdo haired hard hardy hared harried harrowed hart hayride heard heart hearth hearty heart herd here to here with highroad hired hoard hoorayed horde horrid hurrahed hurrayed hurried hurt irate oared orate ort rad radii radio raid rat rate ratty rawhide read ready red red-eye redo reed reedy reheat retie re-wed reweighed rid ride right right-away riot road roadie roadway rod rode rodeo rood root rot rota route rowdy rowed ruddy rude rued rut warhead warred wart warty wayward wearied weird weirdo wert whereat whereto wherewith whirred wired word wordy worried worth worthy wraith wrath wreath wreathe writ write writhe wrote wroth wrought yard yurt arena earn erne herein hereon hernia heroin heroine heron horn horny iron irony rain rainy ran rayon rein renew rhino roan ruin runaway rune runny runway urine urn warn warren wherein whereon worn wren yarn year army aroma arm harem harm herm ream rem rheum rheumy rhyme rim rimy roam room roomy rum rummy uremia warm worm wormy

28

airier aurora eerier error eyrir hairier harrier hearer hirer hoarier horror rah-rah rarer rear rehear rehire rewire roar rower warier warrior wearer wearier wirehair wirier worrier wrier wryer aerial aerially airily areal areola areolae aril aural aurally aureola aureole awhirl earl early eerily hoarily hourly hurl oral orally oriel oriole rail railway rale rally real really reel relay rely rial riel rile rill rille riyal roil roily role roll rowel royal royally rule URL warily wearily whirl whorl wryly yearly air-show arch archway harsh irish orgy rage raj raja rajah rash ratio reach rehash reshow retch rewash rich ridge roach rouge rush urge whorish wretch arc argue ark earache earwig erg ergo eureka hark hayrick heroic irk orca rack rag raga rake reawake re-awoke reecho reek reggae rig rock rocky rogue rook rookie ruck rug work wrack wreak wreck York Yorkie

8

airwave arrive hereof horrify raffia rave reef reeve ref reify review revue reweave rewove rife riff rive roof roofie rough rove ruff rufiyaa wharf whereof aerobe harp harpy herb herby hereby higher-up orb rabbi rap reap rehab repay rib rip ripe rob robe rope ropey ropy rough-up rub rube ruby rupee warp whereby wrap

29

0

ails alas alehouse ales alias allays alleys alleyways allies allows alloys aloes alohas also always awls eels hails hales halloos hallows halls hallways haloes halos hauls heals heelless heels hellos hells high heels hills holes hollies hollows hols howls hulas hulls ills illus ill-use lace lacy lass lassie lasso laws layaways lays laze lazy leas lease lees leis less lessee liaise lice lies loci loess loos loose lose loss louse lousy lows luaus oils oleos owls wails walleyes wallies wallows walls waylays wellies wells whales wheals wheelhouse wheelies wheel-less wheels whiles wholes wiles willies willows wills woolies woollies wools yawls yellows yells yowls ailed alight alit allayed allied allot all-out allowed alloyed allude aloud although alto auld elate elide elite elodea elude elute eyelet eyelid hailed haled halide halite hallooed hallowed haloed healed health healthy heeled held thigh-heeled highlight holed holiday hollowed howled hulled Iliad lad laddie lade lady laid laity lat late lath lathe latte laud layette layout lid lido lied light lit lithe load loath loathe lode loot lot loti lotto loud lout lowed lute oiled old oldie owlet wailed walled wallet walleyed wallowed waylaid weald wealth wealthy weld welled wellhead welt whaled wheeled whiled whole-wheat wield wieldy wild wiled willed wilt would yellowed yield yowled alien aline alone élan Halloween hellion Ilion lanai lane lawn lean lien line lino liny lion llano loan loin lone loon loony well-nigh woolen elm Elmo helium lam lama lamb lame lamia lemma limb lime limey limo limy llama loam loamy loom whelm whilom

30

allure hailer haler hauler healer hillier holier holler hollowware howler huller lair lawyer layer leer leery liar lira lire lore lorry lour lower lowery lure lyre oiler oilier wailer whaler wheeler wilier willowier willow ware woollier yellower halal hallelujah hellhole holily holly hollowly ileal ill-will lilo lily loll lolly lowly loyal loyally lull lulu oil-well wilily allege elegy eulogy eyelash haulage hellish lash latch leach leash lech ledge leech letch lichee liege lodge loge loggia louche lowish luge lush owlish ullage welsh yellowish alack alga algae alike hillock holly hock hulk hulky ileac iliac ilk lack lackey lag laic lake league leak leaky leek leg leggy lick like loch lock loco log logo look low-key luck lucky lug walk walk away walkway whelk yolk

8

alewife alive alluvia aloof alpha elf half halfway halve helve laugh lav lava lave layoff leaf leafy leave levee levi levy life live loaf loofah love lovey luff luv luvvie olive well-off wolf alb alibi alley-oop alp elbow elope help lab labia lap layup leap lib lip lippy lob lobby lobe loop loopy lop lope lowboy LP lube wallaby wallop whelp yelp

31

0

aegis ages aitches ashes chaise chase chassis cheese cheesy chess chews chihuahuas choice choose choosey choosy chose chows edges edgeways edgewise egis eschews etches eyewashes gee whiz gees geese geez hashes hatches hatchways hedges hitches hushes hutches itches jaws jays jazz jazzy jeez joyous joys juice juicy otiose schuss schwas shahs she’s shies shoes shoos shows wages washes washhouse watches wedges wedgies whooshes wishes witches aged chat chateau chatty cheat cheetah chewed chide chit chute edged eschew etched eye-shadow geed geode giddy hashed hatched hatchet hedged hitched hushed itched jade jawed jet jetty jot jut jute shad shade shadow shadowy shady shat sheath sheathe shed sheet shied shoat shod shoddy shoed shooed shoots shut shuteye waged washed washout watched wedged whooshed widget wished ashen chain chin china chine chino gene genie hygiene ocean sheen shin shine shinny shiny shone shoo-in chime chum chummy gem gemmy gym jam jamb jammy schmo sham shame shammy shim shimmy ajar ashier ashore chair char chary cheer cheerio cheery cherry chewer chewier edger edgier etcher giro gyre hatchery hedger hedgerow high-chair hitcher jar jeer jury share shear sheer sherry shier shire shirr shore shower showery showier shrew shyer tiara usher wager washer washier watcher wisher witchery

6

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agile cello chili chill chilly edgily gel hugely jail jelly jewel jolly joule jowl jowly July shale shall shallow shawl shell shill shoal showily shyly cha-cha chichi choo-choo chowchow hashish hush-hush Jewish judge shush wishy-washy check cheek cheeky cheque chic chick chock choke chuck chug geek hatcheck hedgehog highjack hijack hitchhike jagjig jock jockey jog joke jokey jug juke shack shag shaggy shake shako shaky shock shook shuck

8

achieve chaff chaffy chef chief chive chivvy chivy jaffa java jayvee jiff jiffy jive shave sheaf sheave shove showoff show-off chap chapeau chappy cheap cheapo cheep chip chippie chop choppy chub chubby gibe gyp hedgehop jab jape Jeep jib jibe job shabby shape sheep ship shop

0

accuse aches acquiesce acts agues aqueous auks awakes ax axe case cassia cause causeway caws cays chaos coos cows cozy cues cuss echoes eggs egos ekes ex gas gassy gauze gauzy gays gaze goes goose guess guise gussie gussy guys hacks hacksaw haggis hags hakes hawks hex hickeys hicks hikes hoagies hoax hocks hogs hoicks hookahs hooks hugs kayos kazoo keys kHz kiss kiwis oaks oiks okays ox quasi quays queasy queues quiz wackos wags wakes wax waxy weeks whacks wicks wigs woks yacks yaks yikes yogis yokes yuccas

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ached acquit act acuity acute agate awaked cad caddie caddy cahoot cat catty caught cawed CD coat coati coda code coed co-ed cooed coot cootie cot cote couth cowed cowhide coyote ct cud cued cut cutaway cute cutey cutie echoed echt egad egged egghead eked equate equity gad gaiety gait gate gateau gateway gaud gaudy gayety get getaway ghetto git goad go-ahead goat goatee god good goodie gout gouty guide gut gutty guyed hacked hawked hawk-eyed hawkweed hiked hocked hogtie hog-tie hooked kayoed keyed kid kiddo kiddy kit kite kith kitty kowtow kudu okayed quad queued quid quiet quit quite quota quote wagged waked weekday whacked wicked wicket wigged yacked yakked yoked acne again agony akin awaken awoken can cane canny canoe cayenne chon coin con cone equine gain gnaw gnu gone gonna goon gown guano gun gunny icon iguana kana keen ken keno kin kina oaken quean queen quoin wagon waken weaken woken acme cam came cameo chemo coma comb come comma commie cum game gamey gamma gammy gamy gimme gum gummy hokum oakum wigwam accrue achier acquire acre agar agro agora agorae agree auger augur augury car caraway care carry choir chore chorea coheir cohere coir cor core cower cowry coyer craw crew crow cry cur cure curia curiae curie curio curry eager echoer ecru equerry euchre gar gayer gear go haywire gooier gore gory gray grew grey grow guar guru hacker hawker hickory hiker hokier hooker ickier occur ocher ochre ogre okra quarry queer query quire wackier weaker whacker whicker wicker
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aglow cal call calla callow chyle claw clay clayey clew cloy clue coal coil cola collie cool coolie coolly coulee cowl coyly cull eagle eagle eye equal equally gaily gal gala gale gall galley gaol gaily ghoul gill gillie glee glow glue gluey goal goalie golly guile gull gulley gully hackle haggle heckle igloo kale keel keyhole kill kilo koala kohl kola ogle quail qualia quell quill ugly waggle weakly weekly wiggle wiggly yokel acacia aguish cache cachet cadge cage cagey cagy cash cashew catch catchy coach couch cushy gage gash gauche gaucho gauge geisha gosh gotcha gouache gouge gush gushy haggish hawkish hoggish hogwash kedge ketch kitsch kitschy quash quiche waggish agog cacao cake cakey coca cock cocky coco cocoa cog coke cook cookie cuckoo echoic gag gaga gawk gawky gecko geeky gewgaw gig go-go guck haycock kayak keg khaki kick kicky kike kook kooky quack quake quaky quick quickie wigwag

8

agave café cave cavy coffee coif cough cove covey cuff gaff gaffe gave give giveaway goof goofy guava guff guv kava kiev quaff quiff agape cab cabbie cabby cap cape capo cob coop co-op cop cope copy cough up coup coupe cowboy coypu CPU cub cube cup cuppa equip gab gabby gap gape gappy gawp GB go-ape gob goop GP guppy hiccup hookup kappa keep kip kobo occupy quip

35

80

aphasia aphis avows eaves efface effuse eves face fays faze fees fess fez fizz fizzy foci foes fuse fuss fussy fuzz fuzzy haves heaves heavies hives hoofs hooves huffs ivies oafs office offs phase vase vice vies views visa vise voice vows waifs waives waves weaves whiffs wives woofs afoot aft aphid avid avoid avowed effete evade fad faddy fade faith fat fate fatty feat fed feed feet feta fete feud fiat fight fit food foodie foot footie footy fought ft haft have to heaved heavyweight heft hefty hived hoof it hoofed hophead huffed ivied offed off-white oft ovate ovoid phat photo vat vatu vet veto vide video vied viewed vita vitae void voodoo vote vowed waft waived waved weaved weft whiffed wifehood woofed avenue avian euphony even fain fan fane fanny faun fauna faunae fawn fen fenny fin fine finny fun funny haven heaven hyphen oven ovine phone phoney phony vain van vane vein veiny venue vine vino woven fame fem FM foam foamy fume fumy ovum vim afar affair affray afire afro aver aviary euphoria ever every faerie fair fairway fairy far faraway fare faro fear ferry fewer fiery fir fire fire-away for foray fore four foyer fray free freeway fro fry fur furrow furry fury heaver heavier heifer hoofer hover however huffier iffier ivory oeuvre offer off-hour ovary over overawe overweigh vary veer very viewer vireo voyeur wafer waiver waver wavier weaver whoever

8

8 8 8

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8

afoul aphelia avail avowal awful awfully evil evil-eye evilly eyeful fail faille fall fallow feel fell fella fellah fellow file fill filly filo flaw flay flea flee flew floe flow flu flue fly flyaway flyway foal foil folio follow folly fool foul foully fowl fuel full fully heavily hovel huffily offal Ophelia oval ovule phalli phial phyla uvula vail vale valley value veal veil vela vial vile villa viol viola voila voile vole volley vowel waffle weevil wifely woeful woefully avouch effigy fascia fetch fiche fichu fish fisheye fishy fogey fogy fudge oafish offish phage physio veejay veg veggie vetch vouch voyage evacuee evoke fag fake FAQ fig fog foggy fuck fug fuggy fugue havoc off-key vague vogue faff fave fief fife five high-five viva vive ephebe fab FBI Feb fib fob fop phobia veep vibe VIP

8 8 88 8 0

abase abbacy abbes abbess abbeys abs abuse abuzz abyss apace apes apiece appease appose apse baas base bass bayous bays beaus bees bias bios boas boohoos boos booze boozy boss bossy boughs bows boys bozo buoys bus busy buys buzz byes byways ebbs eyepiece haps heaps highboys hippies hippos hips hobbies hobos hobs hoops hopes hops hubbies hubs hypes hypos obese obeys oboes oops oppose ops opus pace pacey paisa pass passé pause paws payees pays peace peas pees peewees peso pewees pews piazza piece pies pious piss pizza poesy poise pose posse posy powwows puce pus puss pussy webs weeps whips whipsaw whoops whops wipes woops yaps yips yobs yuppies
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9

abate abbot abed abet abide abode about abut apathy aped apt baaed bad baddie baddy bade bait bat bate bateau bath bathe batty baud bawd bawdy bayed bead beady beat beauty bed bedew beet behead bet beta bid biddy bid bight biot bit bite bitty boat bod bode body booed boohooed boot bootee booth bootie booty both bought bout bow-tie bowed boyhood bud Buddha buddy buoyed but butt butte butty buyout byte ebbed epode habit heaped hipped hooped hoped hopped howbeit hyped ibid obeyed obit opiate opt pad paid pat pate path pathway patio patty pawed payday payout peat peaty peed peewit pet petty pewit peyote pied pie-eyed pieta piety pit pita pith pithy pitta pity pod podia poet pot potty pout pouty powwowed put putt puttee putty U-boat upped uppity uptight wapiti webbed wept whipped whippet whooped whopped wiped yapped yipped apnea ban bane bean beanie beano been biennia bin bone boney bonnie bonny bony boon bun bunny ebon ebony happen open opine paean pain pan pane pawn peahen peen pen penne penny peon peony piano PIN pine piney pinny pone pony pun puny upon weapon abeam beam biome bomb boom bum opium PM poem pom pommy puma abhor apiary appear bar bare barrio barrow bear beer beery berry beware bier birr boar boor bore borough borrow bower bra brae bray brew Brie brio bro brow bur bureau burr burro burrow burry bury buyer byre eyebrow happier happy hour highbrow hipper hopper hyper opera pair par pare pariah parry payer pear peer per pier poor pore pour power PR pray prey pro prow pry pure puree purr pyorrhea pyre upper weeper weepier whooper whopper wiper yawper

9

9 9

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able ably appall appeal apple apply ball bally ballyhoo bail bale bawl belay belie bell bellow belly below bewail bile bill billow billowy blah blew blow blowy blue boil bola bole boll bowel bowl bull bully byelaw bylaw eyeball haply happily highball hobble hoi polloi hoopla opal paella pail pal pale pall pawl payola peal peel pilau pile pill pillow play playa plea plough plow ploy ply pole polio poll polo poly pool pula pull pulley uphill waybill whoopla wobble wobbly abash apish apogee badge bash batch beach beech beige betcha bewitch bijou bosh botch botchy boyish budge budgie bush bushy butch page pasha patch patchy peach peachy pitch pitchy poach podgy pooch posh pouch pshaw pudgy push pushy putsch aback back backhoe bag baggie baggy bake BBQ beak beck beg big biggie bike bikeway bock bog bogey boggy bogie bogy boogie book bookie buck buckeye bug buggy epic epoch opaque pack PC peak peaky peck peek peg pekoe PG pica pick picky picot pig piggy pike pique pkwy pock poke pokey poky puck pug puke pukka

8

above beef beefy beehive behave behoove bevy biff buff pave payoff pay-off peeve poof pouf puff puffy babe baby bap beep bib bob boob boo-boo booby bop bub bubba bubo bye-bye hip-hop hubbub pap papa papaw papaya pappy pawpaw peep pep peppy pip pipe pooh-pooh poop pop Pope poppa poppy pub pup pupa pupae puppy

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modern mnemonics part three

images

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modern mnemonics part four

narratives

passport number 10 - 72 - 58 - 63 - 9

idea - cone - leaf - jam - soap

An interesting idea (10) would be instead of using ice cream in a cone (72), you used sprinkles of leaf (58) and jam (63) as a topping onto a scoop of soap (63).

sort code 60 - 59 - 97

chess - lippy - peg

Playing a game of chess (60) using lippy (59) and pegs (97) as pieces.

pin number 16 - 52

dish - lawn

Going to a restaurant and ordering a dish (16) of lawn (52) for dinner.

birthday 21 - 06 - 89

knit - sushi - fab

Knit (21) sushi (06) is fab (89).

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