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**· Kinematics of Circular Motion:
**

If an object moves in a circular path with constant speed, its motion is called uniform circular motion. The line perpendicular to plane of motion of the body about which the body rotates is called axis of rotation. The line joining the instantaneous position of the body and centre of the circle is called radius vector. The angle swept by the radius vector in a given interval of time is called angular displacement . S.I unit of is radian. Angular velocity ‘ ’ of an object in circular motion is defined as the time rate of change of its angular displacement = d /dt S.I. unit is rad s-1 It is an avail vector. Angular acceleration of an object in circular motion is defined as the time rate of change of its angular velocity = d /dt SI unit is rad s-2. The acceleration possessed by a body moving in a circular path and directed towards the centre is called centripetal or radial acceleration. a = v 2/r = r 2, (in m/s2 ) where v and body and ‘r’ radius of the circle are the linear velocity, angular velocity of the

CENTRIPETAL FORCE :

The force required to keep the body in circular path is centripetal force.

f

mr

2

mv2 r

The centripetal force changes the direction of the velocity but not the magnitude of the velocity. It acts perpendicular to the direction of motion of the body. Note : The gravitational force of attraction provides the necessary centripetal force for the moon to go round the earth.

CENTRIFUGAL FORCE :

The accelerated frame of reference is the frame of reference which is moving with an acceleration. When a body revolving round in a circular path is in the accelerated frame of reference, it is observed that the body is experiencing a centrifugal force. The magnitude of centrifugal force is equal to the centripetal force. The centrifugal force acts away from the centre.

BANKING OF ROADS AND RAILWAY TRACKS :

7. When the body is moving round with uniform speed i) ii) It has centripetal force of constant magnitude equal to It has tension of constant magnitude mv 2 r mv 2 . = 180º) is T = (mv2/r) – mg and is minimum where ‘V’ is the velocity at highest point 8.e. = 0) is given by T = (mv2/r) + mg and is maximum. is given by v2 rg where ‘v’ is the velocity of the vehicle on rgtan The maximum velocity for a vehicle on a banked road is MOTION IN A VERTICAL CIRCLE : .e.The roads and rail roads are banked to provide the necessary centripetal force from the normal reaction. it moves in a vertical circle of radius ‘r’ When the angular displacement of the particle is ‘ ’. Speed of the particle lowest point 2. Centripetal force mv2/r = T – mg cos 3. when it is at ‘A’. Where V is the velocity at the lowest point. Tangential force = mg sin 5. Tension at the highest point (i. The minimum velocity at the lowest point to just complete the circle is u WHEN A BODY IS ROTATED IN A HORIZONTAL CIRCLE : The body can be rotated with uniform speed or non-uniform speed. Tensions at lowest point (i. r 5gr . Centripetal force = horizontal component of normal reaction = N sin Centripetal force = Resultant of the normal reaction and weight = N2 W2 Tan The angle of banking the road of radius ‘r’. Tangential acceleration = g sin 4. Tension in the string T = mv 2/r + mg Cos v = u 2gr 1 cos where u is the velocity at A. the 6. A particle of mass ‘m’ suspended by a thread is given a horizontal speed ‘u’. ie when the particle is at p 1.

iii) Its KE remains constant. ***** . iv) It has centripetal acceleration of constant magnitude v2 or r r 2 .

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