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CHAPTER

34
PERSPECTIVE ON CYCLIC, IMPACT, AND IMPULSE LOADS
John D. Stevenson and Michael A. Porter
34.1 INTRODUCTION
Appendix to ASME Section III and at the present, it is primarily concerned with cyclic dynamic loads associated with earthquakes and uid owinduced vibration of structures contained within the cross-ow of uids. For completeness, this chapter considers other types of dynamic loads not currently addressed explicitly by Appendix N that the designer of a pressure-retaining nuclear component may need to consider. Another standard that complements ASME Section III, Appendix N guideline is the ASCE Standard 4-98, which is used to dene earthquake motions in the building foundation and the building structure that houses or supports the mechanical system or component [2]. (ASCE refers to the American Society of Civil Engineers.) From this standard can be developed the specic earthquake motion transmitted through a building foundation and the building structure as earthquake loaddesign input to a mechanical or electrical system or component. Both the ASME Section III and the ASCE Standard deal primarily with earthquake cyclictype dynamic loads. Additional guidance for non-nuclear structures is provided by ASCE Standard 7-02, Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures [3]. This ASCE Standard is referenced as the basis for the earthquake load requirements contained in the International Building Code [4]. Other guidelines for dynamic analysis of mechanical systems and components are those associated with dynamic-impulse and impact-type loadings. This guidance is developed as ANS Standard 58.2, 1988 [5] (for impulse) and ANS Standard 58.3, Appendix B [6] (for impact) in addition to Appendix II of the ASME B31.1 Code [7]. (ANS refers to the American Nuclear Society.) Yet another guideline was developed to address impulse and impact loads: this is the report of the ASCE Committee on Impact and Impulse Loads [8]. Finally, ASME OM-S/G, Part 3 contains a standard for determining the effect of vibratory motion from operation that is independent of the cause of vibration [9]. By using the standards and guidelines of refs. [1][9], it is possible to develop a fairly clear understanding of current design or analysis procedures and methods for rst-order (approximatemethods) mechanical systems and components designed to resist dynamic loads. Such procedures and methods are for engineers who possess a background in structural dynamics without recourse to complex, specialized computer codes. For impulse-type loads, any analytical rigor beyond a single simplied rectangular- or triangular-forcing function will require the use of hydrodynamic

In past editions of the handbook, this chapter has primarily addressed issues as they pertained to Section III of the ASME B&PV Code. In particular, it has addressed issues concerning the seismic response of nuclear facilities. Currently, many other facilities covered by the ASME B&PV Code have had to address these same issues, often with little guidance from the appropriate Code section. Modern LNG terminals, for example, have had to undergo extensive seismic reviews. These facilities contain equipment covered by Section VIII and B31.3 of the Code. Neither of these Code section give any guidance to the designer concerning seismic analysis, other than to require that seismic loads be addressed. In this revision of the chapter, some of these issues will be addressed. In addition, a new section discussing the use of computer software for analysis has been included. This section will address some of the issues associated with different computer codes used for different parts of a plant. Dynamic loads applied to the design of mechanical systems and components are of three basic types: cyclic, impulse, and impact. In addition, a fourth potential cyclic type load exists: the vibratory motion category. Although vibratory motion is often not considered in the original design basis, it may be observed during steady-state or transient operation such that remediation may be required. This vibratory effect may be of such magnitude or frequency to cause premature fatigue or ratchet failure of metal components. In such instances, reconguration or modied support of the mechanical system or component may be required to reduce the vibratory effects to within tolerable limits during the operating life of the particular plant, system, or component. As originally dened in the ASME B&PV Code Section III, the operating life of the plant includes any design-basis normal, abnormal, emergency, or faulted conditions dened in the Design Specications. These conditions should not be confused with Service Levels A, B, C, and D that are currently dened in the Code for design purposes. It is possible to have different Service Level design conditions for the same operating condition; depending on the required response of a component. Many standards or guidelines are available to provide criteria for the design of mechanical (metal) systems and components to resist dynamic loads. The primary guidance is found in Appendix N (Dynamic Analysis Methods) [1] of the ASME B&PV Code, Section III. This guideline is dened as a Non-Mandatory

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computer codes that use control volumes to more accurately dene the time dependence and location of multiple forcing functions [15].

34.2.2

Impact Loads

34.2
34.2.1

TYPES OF DYNAMIC LOADS


Cyclic Loads

34.2.1.1 Earthquake or Other Building Filter-Cyclic Loads Cyclic loads are characterized as alternating loads or displacements that are applied to mechanical systems or components. These earthquake-associated loads are caused by the intertial response of a structure, system, or component (SSC) to the earth-quake-induced motion of the SSC supports or the foundations of the supports. The response of a system or component is highly dependent on the damping of the system. In addition, the system or component response depends on the closeness of the time-dependent forcingfunction frequency (which denes the input) to the dominant response frequency of the seismically loaded system or component. If the system or component has a natural frequency close to that of the applied forcing function, resonance can occur, resulting in large amplication of an equivalent static load applicable to the mechanical system or component. Such amplication could theoretically be as high as 100 times the peak cyclic-force level at low-damping and near-resonance (system or component frequency is very near the cyclic-load frequency). For real structures under seismic excitation, the amplication factor rarely exceeds 25. Examples of cyclic loads are earthquake- and operationalvibratory loads. Guidelines or standards that address these phenomena in detail are found in refs. [1], [2], and [9]. 34.2.1.2 Vibratory Loads These loads have not historically been considered in original design. They are observed to occur during steady-state or transient operation of the system. In such instances, the amplitude, frequency, and structural layout of the vibrating component should be monitored. The concern is that the vibratory motion will cause a premature failure of the component (piping system) with respect to its design life. Reference [7] gives recommended procedures and limits for evaluating the need to reduce the amplitude or frequency of vibration so that they will not impact the service life of the component. Different procedures and limits are given as a function of ASME Class piping. Recent improvements in computer codes and available computer hardware have made the prediction of these loads more accessible at the design stage. Computer programs such as PULS [10] and PULSIM [11] have made the prediction of pulsation in uid lines due to pump or compressor excitation relatively easy to do in the design stage. Additionally, the use of Computational Fluid Dynamics computer codes (e.g., Fluent [12] or Star-CD [13]) to assess systems has become a reasonable and cost-effective option at the design stage. 34.2.1.3 Fluter or Vortex-Shedding Loads When a smoothsurface tubular structure is in a uid-ow stream, vortices in the ow become established from the effect of the tube. When the velocity and density of the uid are such that vortices become established (hence the same dominant frequency of the tube), a resonant condition develops that can produce cyclic loads perpendicular to the direction of ow. At resonance, the amplitude and number of cycles can cause failure of the tube. This particular loading phenomenon for pressure-type vessels is covered in Appendix N [1].

Dynamic-impact loads are characterized as an external force or moment applied suddenly to a target SSC relative to the response period of the target. These loads typically have a nite amount of kinetic energy associated with a missile or uid slug of known mass, velocity, area, and duration striking a target structure, mechanical system, or component because of a sudden change in uid-ow conditions. For relatively slow-moving missiles, the kinetic energy or momentum of the missile must be absorbed by the target by potential strain energy, which is dened by strain limits of the material and structural conguration of the target (including its supports). In addition to evaluating the impact energy or momentum transfer, it may be necessary to evaluate the potential for local-penetration or perforation effects on the target. Relatively high-velocity, small-contactarea missile impacts typically absorb the missile-impact energy by local crushing of the missile or target as well as strain energy in the target. In such cases, the force and duration of the missile impact are limited by the crushing strength of the missile and/or target. In the penetration-type analysis, it is common to use localpenetration formulas developed from experiments reported in refs. [7], [8], and [9]. However, with the relatively recent advent of nonlinear, dynamic, nite-element computer codes, it has become possible to compare computed strains in the target directly with allowable strains to determine design adequacy and the potential for penetration of the target. Simple use of acceleration criteria alonewithout any reference to the duration of acceleration as acceptance criteria should be avoided; acceleration alone without duration does not dene the dynamic-input load.

34.2.3

Impulse Loads

Similar to impact loads, impulse loads are external loads applied suddenly to the target; however, they typically are relatively long-lasting compared to the response period of the target. In this category of loads are fluid jets from postulated rupture of pressurized systems and exterior or interior blast waves from an explosion on a target or shield structure. Also included are the effects of the injection of high-energy gases or vapors into a liquid body (i.e., pressure-suppression containment types used to reduce NPP-containment design pressures). This type of loading is associated with relief-valve discharge and fluidhammer (i.e., steam-and waterhammer) phenomena. The fluidhammer phenomena are generally associated with the sudden termination of fluid flow by a stop valve, but they may also be associated with a slug of liquid being accelerated by the differential fluid pressure introduced into a piping system as a transient-load effect. These differential pressures and associated shock waves generally result in pressure and velocity changes varying with time at each change in area or direction in the system or component, thereby generating time-dependent forcing functions at multiple points in the system or component. For first-order design from postulated fluid-impulse load, a single forcing function is typically applied at a discharge nozzle, a postulated break location and orientation, or a postulated liquid-slug location. General guidance for the simplified fluid-impulse design can be found in ref. [5]. Increasingly, computer codes are being employed to address these issues. AFT Impulse [14] is a typical implicit integration computer code used to analyze waterhammer in uid piping systems. CFD Finite Element (FE) codes are now used extensively to model both impulsive loads and their effect on structures.

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34.3

GLOSSARY

Acceptable Damage This is damage resulting from an event (or the appropriate combination of events) in which the safety design requirements for the appropriate category of events are met. Events (and appropriate combinations of events) are categorized by plant conditions. Active Failure This is a malfunction (excluding passive failures) of a component that prevents it from completing its intended safety function on demand. Examples of active failures include the failure of a valve or check valve to move to its desired position, or the failure of a pump, fan, or diesel generator to stop or start. Spurious action of a powered component originating within its actuation or control system shall be regarded as an active failure unless specic design features or operating restrictions preclude such spurious action. An example is the unintended energization of a powered valve to cause it to open or close. Apparent Wave-Propagation Speed This is the propagation speed of seismic waves through a media relative to a xed local coordinate system on the object analyzed. Barrier This is a structure meant to intercept an impulsive or impact loading. Bounding Spectra These are the ground-response spectra for a site for which equipment items are considered seismically qualied by experience. Broadband-Response Spectrum This is a response spectrum that describes motion in which amplied response occurs over a wide (broad) range of frequencies. Coherence The coherence function denes a comparative relationship between two time histories. It provides a statistical estimate of how much two time-history motions are related as a function of frequency. The numerical range is from zero (for unrelated) to one (for perfectly correlated motions). Correlation Coefcient The correlation coefcient function denes a comparative relationship between two time histories. It provides a statistical estimate of how much two motions are related as a function of time delay. The numerical range is from zero (for unrelated) to 1.0 (for related motions). Coupled This is a descriptive term for mathematical models of structures and items of plant equipment that are interconnected by their respective mass, stiffness, and damping properties and, because of their coupling, inuence the dynamic response of each other. Cutoff Frequency This is the frequency in the response spectrum in which the zero period acceleration (ZPA) asymptote essentially begins. This is the frequency beyond which the singledegree-of-freedom (SDOF) oscillators exhibit very little or no amplication of motion. In addition, it indicates the upper limit of the frequency content of the waveform being analyzed. Cycle This is one complete sequence of values of an alternating quantity. Damage States Although not expressly identied by the Code, there are typically four damage states considered in developing the four Service Levels (A, B, C, and D) of the Code. (1) The rst damage state is associated with active system components or support function (i.e., move or change state) during the strong-motion phase of design-basisearthquake or design-basisimpact or impulse loading. This state is roughly comparable to Service Level A as dened by the Code. (2) The second damage state is associated with active-system, -component, or -support function (i.e., move or change

state) after the strong-motion earthquake, impulse, or impact loads have passed. This state is roughly comparable to Service Level B as dened by the Code. (3) The third damage state is associated with passive (maintain leak-tight and structural integrity) or active (may require operator action to reset) systems, components, or supports, (i.e., move or change state). This state is roughly comparable to Service Level C as dened by the Code. (4) The fourth damage state is associated with a passive-system or -component threshold loss of leak-tight or structural integrity. This state is roughly comparable to Service Level D as dened in the Code. Damping This is the generic name ascribed to the energy dissipation mechanisms that reduce the amplication and broaden the vibratory response in the region of resonance. One hundred percent critical damping is dened as the least amount of equivalent viscous damping that causes a SDOF system to return to its original position without oscillation after an initial disturbance. Typically, three types of damping exist that are used in design: material, structural, and impact. Design-Basis Earthquake This is a term for an earthquake time-history or response-spectra motion designated for design purposes. Design-Ground Acceleration This is the value of the acceleration that corresponds to acceleration at zero period in the design groundresponse spectrum. Design GroundResponse Spectrum This is a smoothresponse spectrum of the free-eld input motion typically obtained by analyzing, evaluating, and statistically combining a number of individual response spectra derived from the actual motion records of past earthquakes. Direct-Integration Time-History Method This uses numerical step-by-step integration of the equations of motion of a time history of the input motion. Effective Mass Ratio This is the ratio of the secondary system or component mass to the effective mass of the supporting primary system or structure. Effective Mass This is the mass of the structure or equipment that helps to determine the dynamic response of the structure or equipment. Equipment, Flexible Equipment (including the effects of the equipment supports) in which the lowest natural frequency is less than the frequency value at the start of the ZPA or the cutoff frequency of the applicable response spectrum. Equipment, Rigid Equipment (including the effects of the equipment supports) in which the lowest natural frequency is greater than the frequency value at the start of the ZPA or the cutoff frequency of the applicable response spectrum. Equivalent Static Load This is a term for an equivalent statically applied load or acceleration that is usually based on a function of the peak of the applicable response spectrum. It may be used as an alternative to response spectrum or time history to dene seismic input for design of systems and components. Floor Acceleration This term is for the acceleration of a particular building oor (or equipment mounting) resulting from the motion of a given earthquake time history. Foundation This is the structure that supports or otherwise provides restraint to systems, components, and structures. Fourier Spectrum This is a complex valued function that provides amplitude and phase information as a function of frequency for a time-domain waveform.

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Fragility This is a term for the susceptibility of equipment to malfunction resulting from structural or operational limitations (or both) when the equipment is subjected to dynamic excitation. Fragility Level This is a term for the highest level of excitation parameters that equipment can withstand and still perform the specied functions. (Note: the fragility level may include the interdependence of amplitude, frequency, and time.) Fragility Response Spectrum This is a test response spectrum (TRS) that denes the fragility level of equipment. Ground Acceleration This is a term for the acceleration time history of the ground resulting from the motion of a given earthquake. The maximum amplitude ground acceleration is the ZPA of the ground response spectrum. High-Energy Piping System Any systemor portion of a systemin which the maximum operating pressure exceeds 275 psig (1.87 MPa) or the maximum operating temperature exceeds 200F (93C) during normal plant operating conditions. Piping systems that operate above these limits but for only a relatively short time (i.e., less than approximately 2% of the time) during which they perform their intended function may be classied as moderate energy. Intensity This is a measure of the damage or potential for damage observed at a particular site because of an earthquake. Leak-Tight Integrity This is a condition describing an assembly or grouping of systems or components relative to their ability to leak. Low-Cycle Fatigue This is a progressive fracture or cumulative fatigue damage of the material that may be inicted by less than 1,000 cycles of load because of localized stress concentration at high strains under uctuating loads. Magnitude This is a measure of the size of an earthquake and is related to the energy released by the earthquake. Maximum (Peak) Ground Acceleration For a given site, this is dened as the value of acceleration that corresponds to the zero period in the design-response spectra for that site. At zero period, the design-response spectra acceleration is identical for all damping values and is equal to the maximum (peak) ground acceleration specied for that site. Moderate-Energy Piping System Any systemor portion of a systemin which the maximum operating pressure is 275 psig (1.87 MPa) or less and the maximum operating temperature is 200F (93C) or less during normal plant-operating conditions. All piping systems pressurized above atmospheric conditions and not classied as high energy shall be classied as moderate-energy piping systems. Narrow BandResponse Spectrum This is a response spectrum that describes motion in which the amplied response occurs over a limited (narrow) range of frequencies. Natural Frequency This is a term for the frequency or frequencies at which a body vibrates because of its own physical characteristics (mass and stiffness) when the body is pertubated in a specic direction and then released. Normal Mode Time-history methods may use the normal mode theory and a time history of the input motion. When normal mode theory is used, the maximum response is determined by obtaining the combined response of all individual modes at a particular instant of time. Nuclear SafetyRelated This modier is of importance because it applies to the following: (1) SSCs designed to perform a nuclear safety function. (2) Drawings, specications, procedures, analyses, and other documents used to determine or describe parameters affecting

SSCs that are designed to perform a nuclear safety function. (3) Services to design, purchase, fabricate, handle, ship, store, clean, erect, install, test, operate, maintain, repair, refuel, and modify SSCs that are designed to perform a nuclear safety function. Octave This is the interval between two frequencies that have a frequency ratio of 2. Operating-Basis Earthquake (OBE) This is an earthquake that, considering the regional and local geology and seismology as well as specic characteristics of local subsurface material, could reasonably be expected to affect the plant site during its operating life (100 yr. return period). In new plant design, the OBE is not considered in design if it is dened as having a PGA less than one-third of the safe shutdown earthquake (SSE). Owner This is the organization responsible for the operation, maintenance, safety, and power generation of the nuclear power plant. Passive Failure This is the blockage of a process-ow path, or failure of a component to maintain its structural integrity or stability, so that it cannot provide its intended nuclear safety function upon demand. Pipe Whip This is a term for the rapid motion of a pipe resulting from the forces exerted from a postulated pipe break. Pipe-Whip Restraint This is a device, including its anchorage, used to control pipe whip. Piping Network This is an interconnected system of main or branch runs (or both) used in the analytical model. Piping Run This is a section of piping with at least one terminal end. It may also originate as a branch of another piping section. Postulated Pipe Break This is a term for a postulated circumferential or longitudinal break including orientation in a piping system. Power Spectral Density (PSD) This is the mean squared amplitude per frequency for acceleration waveforms. It is expressed in g2/Hz versus frequency for acceleration waveforms. Proof Test This is a seismic test performed after choosing the appropriate type of test to be performed to demonstrate a seismic motion design requirement to be met. In this case, the seismic motion (required response spectrum [RRS], or g value) is specied and the type of seismic test is chosen to meet that specication. Prototype This is a term for a system built on the basis of an original design for which no previous system test results are available. Required Input Motion (RIM) This is the input motion in terms of acceleration, velocity, or displacement expressed as a function of frequency, for which the equipment or component shall be qualied for its acceptance. Required Response Spectrum (RRS) This is the response spectrum issued by the Owner (or agent) as part of the specication for seismically qualifying equipment. The RRS constitutes a requirement to be met in qualifying equipment. Resonance Frequency The frequency at which the systems natural frequency matches the forcing function frequency. This is a frequency at which peak response occurs in a system subject to forced vibration. Response Spectrum This is a plot of the maximum response, as a function of frequency (or period), of an array of SDOF-damped oscillators subjected to the same time historybase excitation. Rigid This is a descriptive term for structures or components in which the fundamental frequency is equal to or greater than the ZPA frequency.

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Rigid Range This term is used to describe those frequencies of SSCs in which the natural frequencies are greater than some value at which dynamic response acceleration is essentially the same as that of the input acceleration. Rock For the purposes of this chapter, rock is dened as any material with shear-wave velocity of 3,500 ft/sec (1,100 m/sec) or greater. Ruggedness This is the ability of equipment to perform its specied function when subjected to dynamic excitation. Safe Shutdown Earthquake (SSE) This is an earthquake that produces the maximum vibratory ground motion for which SSCs important to safety are designed to remain functional. The basis of determining what constitutes an SSE is an evaluation of the maximum earthquake potential at a plant site that considers regional and local seismology in addition to specic characteristics of local subsurface material. In current new plant design it is associated with a 104/yr. to 105/yr. earthquake exceedence level based on the shape of the response spectra used to represent the SSE. Seismic Category I This is the category of nuclear safety-related SSCs that are required to perform their nuclear safety function during or after an SSE as necessary to accommodate any designbasis event involving an SSE. Service Level A Service Level A Limits are those sets of limits that must be satised for all Service Level A Loadings identied in the Design Specications to which the system, component, or support may be subjected in the performance of its specied service function. Service Level B Service Level B Limits are those sets of limits that must be satised for all Service Level B Loadings identied in the Design Specications for which these Service Limits are designated. The system, component, or support must withstand these loadings without damage requiring repair. Service Level C Service Level C Limits are those sets of limits that must be satised for all Service Level C Loadings identied in the Design Specications for which these Service Limits are designated. These sets of limits permit large deformations in areas of structural discontinuity that may necessitate the removal of the system, component, or support from service for inspection or repair of damage to the component or support. Therefore, the selection of this limit shall be reviewed by the Owner for compatibility with established system safety criteria. Service Level D Service Level D Limits are those sets of limits that must be satised for all Service Level D Loadings identied in the Design Specications for which these Service Limits are designated. These sets of limits permit gross general deformations with some consequent loss of dimensional stability and damage requiring repair. Removal of the component or support from service may be required. Therefore, the selection of this limit shall be reviewed by the Owner for compatibility with established system safety criteria. Sine Beat This is a continuous sinusoid, of one frequency, with its amplitude modulated by a sinusoid of a lower frequency. Spectrum-Consistent Time History This is a time history that is generated articially to essentially envelop a given designresponse spectrum. Steady-State Vibrations These are repetitive vibrations that occur for relatively long time periods during normal plant operation. Structural Integrity This is a condition that describes an assembly or grouping of systems or components relative to their ability to carry applicable loads within the limits of acceptable structural behavior.

Structure This is a term for a combination of physical members that constitutes an itema building or a support, for examplethat is designed to sustain a load. Synthetic Time History This is a time history that is typically developed numerically so that its response-spectrum characteristics match or exceed those of the specied design-response spectrum. System This is a term for an assembly or grouping of equipment or components that performs a specic plant function. Terminal End This is the section of piping originating at a structure or component (such as a vessel or component nozzle or structural piping anchor) that acts as an essentially rigid constraint to the piping thermal expansion. Typically, an anchor assumed for the piping code stress analysis is a terminal end. A branch connection to a main run is one of the terminal ends of a branch run, except for the special case in which the branch pipe is classied as part of a main run (see the denition for branch run). In-line ttings (such as valves) that are not anchored in the piping stress analysis are not considered terminal ends. Test Response Spectrum (TRS) This is the response spectrum developed from the actual time-history motion of the shake table or other dynamic-input test device. Transfer Function This is a complex frequency-response function that denes the dynamic characteristics of a constant parameter linear system. For an ideal system, the transfer function is the ratio of the Fourier transform of the output to that of a given input. The output-input ratio function versus frequency is called a transmissibility function. Transient Vibrations These are vibrations occurring for relatively short time periods and resulting in less than 106 stress cycles. Examples of transient sources of vibration are pump actuation and pump switching, rapid valve opening or closing, and safety-relief valve operation. Uncoupled This is a term for structures and plant equipment that, because of their mass and stiffness properties, do not signicantly inuence the dynamic response of each other and can be considered in separate dynamic analyses. Zero Period Acceleration (ZPA) This is the high-frequency acceleration level of the nonamplied portion of the response spectrum. The acceleration corresponds to the maximum acceleration amplitude of the time history used to derive the spectrum. Zero-Period Acceleration This is the response-spectrum acceleration in the rigid range of the spectrum (typically above 33 Hz). ZPA Frequency This is the lowest frequency at which a response spectrum returns to approximately the zero-period acceleration. In Appendix N [1], this frequency is dened as 33 Hz.

34.4

BASIC EQUATIONS OF MOTION AND TIME-DEPENDENT LOADING FUNCTIONS


Cyclic Loads

34.4.1

The basic equations of motion can be found in ref. [15] or other similar introductory texts on structural dynamics. Those equations involve the following parameters: . cx

m x where m k

kx

f(t)

(34.1)

mass of the system or component stiffness of the system or component

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c f(t) x . x x

damping coefcient, due to energy absorption in the material and system dynamic forcing function displacement of the system or component for a particular degree of freedom velocity of the system or component for a particular degree of freedom, dx/dt acceleration of the system or component for a particular degree of freedom, d2x/dt2

Finally, the inertial force applied to the rth mass in the ith mode becomes fri where ari mr Pi fri Sai inertia acceleration applied to the r mass in the ith mode the rth mass modal participation factor in the ith mode inertia force applied to the rth mass in the ith mode response spectra acceleration in the ith mode (damping is built into this parameter) response spectra are a plot of the maximum response of a series of SDOFs to the earthquake time-history input modal displacement of the rth mass in the ith mode in the direction of the applied earthquake motion all modal displacements of the rth masses in the ith mode mrari mr(PiSai
ri)

(34.6)

The actual formulation and method of solution of the general differential equation of motion depends considerably on the nature and location of the forcing function f(t). For cyclic loads, the system or component is usually represented as a multidegree-of-freedom system with multidirectional input in which the force applied to a given mass point is a function of that mass points inertial properties in response to a base-input motion rather than an external force applied to the system or component. This type of loading lends itself to solution by the modal response spectrum method of analysis [15]. Associated with the solution of the basic equation of motion, ignoring damping and the forcing function, are the following relationships: w = where w And, f = where f natural frequency of the system or component in cycles/ sec or Hz 3.1416 is the natural frequency of the system or component in radians/sec k 1 2p A m k Am (34.2)

ri

ri

The ri are Eigen vectors; the wi2 are the Eigen-values solution of the modal equation of motion.

34.4.2

Impulse Loads

For impulse loads, the time-dependent force is external and is usually applied to a limited number of node points of the target. In rst-order analysis, it is often considered applicable to a single mass point at a discharge point or postulated break location; an equivalent static load is determined by the response of the mass point including its stiffness restraint to the time dependent loading [7], [15]. This equivalent static external load is then applied to nodes of a static model of the target to obtain resultant internal forces and moments. Fe = Df * CT * K c where CT Fe W Ve g Df P P0 A K uid thrust coefcient, 1.26 for saturated steam and 2.0 for subcooled liquid equivalent static reaction force at exit or break plane (lbf; N) mass ow rate (lbm/sec; kg/sec) exit velocity of uid (ft/sec; m/sec) gravitational constant (32.2 lbm ft/lbf sec2; 9.8 kg m/N sec2) dynamic load factor for suddenly applied loads (see Fig. 34.1) static pressure at exit (psia; kPa) ambient pressure (psia; kPa) exit area exit orice coefcient depending on the shape of the nozzle or opening (it can vary between 2.0 and 1.0 and it is usually taken equal to 1.0 for pipe break impulsive loads) W V + (P - Po) d A g e (34.7)

(34.3)

It has been found for cyclic (earthquake and vibratory) design loads in which the dynamic force is the result of inertial response to a base motion loading, the solution is expedited by variable substitution such as a modal equation of motion becomes . A x i + 2wi b i Ai + w 2Ai = Pi s i where Ai . Ai i wi
i

(34.4)

xs Pi

modal displacement (rotation) of mode i relative to the base modal velocity (rotational) of mode i relative to the base modal acceleration (rotational) of mode i relative to the base natural frequency in mode i in radians/sec percent critical damping in the ith mode absolute translational (angular) acceleration of the base modal participation factor of the ith mode Pi = a m r ri>m r
r-1 n 2 ri

(34.5)

The term P0 is often set to zero because it is taken as atmospheric pressure, 14.7 psia (100 kPa) or somewhat higher if it is discharging into a partially enclosed space. A more detailed discussion of the pressure relief valvedischarge loading can be found in ref. [7]. The analysis of a closed discharge system is considerably more complex; as such, it is usually solved by computer programs that

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where P u v F missile crushing-strength at impact interface mass/unit length of the uncrushed missile at impact interface velocity of the uncrushed portion of missile relative to the barrier force applied to the rigid structure

As it acts on the target structure barrier, the force Ft can be determined by integrating the motion of the missile to determine the point of missile in contact with the barrier and its instantaneous velocity. The rst-order evaluation of impact or impulse dynamic loads is usually taken as a rectangular or triangular forcing function applied perpendicular to the plane of the relief-valve discharge or postulated break. The system or component frequency excited by the forcing function represented as an SDOF system is used to determine an equivalent static load.
FIG. 34.1 ELASTICPLASTIC STRUCTURAL RESPONSE DIAGRAM KSY IS DETERMINED SO THAT THE AREA A2 IS EQUAL TO A1 GIVEN, AND THE FORCE F(t ) HAS BEEN SUDDENLY APPLIED TO A SDOF SYSTEM; IN THE LIMIT, K 2.0 IF THE RESPONSE IS REQUIRED TO BE ELASTIC

34.5
34.5.1

EARTHQUAKE LOADS
Introduction

consider transient ow conditions and reected pressure waves in a closed uid system. This process is normally done by hydrodynamic computer codes based on control volumes with different time-dependent boundary conditions, as discussed in ref. [16].

34.4.3

Impact Loads

For relatively hard or nondeformable missile impact, the overall deection of a target structure or barrier during impact is considered negligible when compared to penetration in which the work done by the missile as it penetrates the structure is equal to the initial kinetic energy. Thus Ft = 0.5 where Ft g W y x time-dependent force of impact acceleration of gravity weight of missile initial velocity of missile penetration w 2 v g 0 (34.8)

This type of motion is generally taken as cyclic. Loads associated with this cyclic input can be generally solved by time-step integration of the equations of motion, but more often the simplied method of response spectrum modal analysis is used. Historically for nuclear power plant (NPP) design, three generic earthquake free-eldground-surface time-histories have been used in addition to many site-specic time-histories of motion. Analyses have generally used response-spectra representations of these time-history motions.

34.5.2

Ground-Response Spectra

The assumption that the velocity reduces linearly to 0 is used to determine the time of impulse or duration of the impact force. t = 2x>v (34.9)

The value of F and t therefore dene a rectangular-impulse loading applied to a deformable target structure impacted by a rigid, nondeformable missile. For relatively soft or deformable missile impacts, the forcing function can be determined as follows:

F = P + 1.0uv 2

(34.10)

Four sets of response-spectra-shape-amplication parameters for various damping values are found in Table 34.1 for various damping values and, as shown in Fig. 34.2, for 5% damping. The Housner spectrum a weighted-average spectrum is based on four different earthquake-response time-histories. The Regulatory Guide 1.60 spectrum is a mean-plus-one standard deviation in the amplied region that reduces to a mean acceleration in the highfrequency unamplied region; it is based on 14 recorded earthquake time-histories. Both of these spectra have some degree of conservatism by dening damping at lowerbound values and using weighted-average or mean-plus-one standard deviation spectral shapes. The spectral shape designated as NUREG/CR0098 has recently become popular; it is generally considered a generic free-eldground-surface median spectral shape and employs best-estimate damping values. It has been used excessively for verifying seismic design adequacy of existing plants and is generically recommended for the design of new NPPs, where the use of site-specic spectra has not been specied [17]. For completeness, the spectral shape contained in the International Building Codeapplicable to the United Statesis also given in Fig. 34.2. In general, it can be expected that site-specic spectra can be developed either by deterministic and/or probabilistic means that can be used as earthquake input to a particular site, which will somewhat reduce the energy content of the generic spectra shown in Fig. 34.2. The current (2007) Appendix N, Tables N-1221(a & b)-1, presents inection point values for the construction of response

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spectra based on the percent of critical damping. These values are illustrated in Table 34.2. When these data are plotted on a scale similar to Figure 34.2, a signicant difference in the spectra is evident. The spectra in the current Appendix N uses a straight line interpolation between the spectral values on the log-log chart whereas the previous spectra were developed using a straight line on a chart with the period on a linear scale. This results in an added degree of conservatism in the new spectra. The introduction of floor response spectra (covered in the next section) resulted in higher loads being placed on equipment

in upper stories of structures. The cost implications of these higher design loads have led many owners to call for the development of site-specific time histories and ground response spectra. As stated in ASCE 7-02 [3] A site-specific study shall account for the regional seismicity and geology, the expected recurrence rates and maximum magnitudes of events on known faults and source zones, the location of the site with respect to these near source effects, if any, and the characteristics of subsurface site conditions. Generally, the uses of this site-specific data tend to be less conservative than the generic data that has been discussed.

FIG. 34.2

GENERIC EARTHQUAKE-RESPONSE SPECTRAL SHAPE

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TABLE 34.2 APPENDIX N HORIZONTAL RESPONSE SPECTRA VALUES - IN/SEC

34.5.3

Floor-Response Spectra

Percent Critical Damping Frequency -Hz 0.1 0.25 2.5 9 33 0.5 72.38 180.96 146.36 33.89 1.86 2 56.55 141.37 104.55 24.19 1.86 5 46.37 115.92 104.55 24.19 1.86 7 42.52 106.31 66.91 15.51 1.86 10 38.45 96.13 56.09 12.98 1.86

For an existing NPP site, a 10 3/yr. to 10 5/yr. occurrence or exceedence probability is used for most safety-related SSCs in conjunction with the Regulatory Guide 1.60 shaped spectrum. A 10 4 /yr. probability of exceedence is expected to be used in conjunction with the median NUREG/CR-0098 shaped spectra. The IBC spectrum is associated with a 4 10 4/yr. earthquake occurrence exceedence level; it is sometimes applied to safety-related items associated with radioactive material storage and processing at NPP sites rather than safety-related SSCs associated with nuclear reactor operation. It is anticipated that any new zero period acceleration NPP safety related SSC will use a 10 5/yr. median probability of occurrence or exceedence with median damping and shaped spectra as shown in NUREG/CR-0098 (as noted in Table 34.1). Alternatively, a 10 4/yr. median-plus-one standard deviation as dened in R.G 1.60 or mean zero period ground acceleration with the spectral shape as shown in Fig. 34.2 and the associated damping of R.G 1.61 [37] will be used.

The earthquake motion applicable to mechanical systems or components in the form of a response spectrum or a time-history acceleration are usually affected by the building structures through which they are transmitted. Such building structures tend to vibrate at their own dominant natural frequencies. Consequently, the nearrandom or white-noise earthquake ground motion introduced at the base of the building (primary) structure is made more sinusoidal, which gives a signicantly higher response at a given percent critical damping to systems and components (secondary) near the dominant frequency of the building (primary) structure. Most equipment will have negligible interaction effects on the primary structureas in the case of equipment with relatively small mass and high frequencyand will only need to be included in the mass distribution of the primary system model. However, there are major equipment systems, such as a reactor coolant system or large pressure vessel, in which the stiffness, mass, and resulting frequency range should be considered for representation in the building model to account for possible dynamic-interaction effects. For most architectural, mechanical, and electrical systems and components (secondary), a separate analysis of the secondary system may be performed using output from the building analysis. If buildingequipment interaction is signicant, as dened in refs. [1] and [2], the equipment should be included in an integrated mathematical model of the structure. The representation of the equipment included in the building model should be adequate to consider major interaction effects, but it need not be as detailed as the mathematical model used in a separate analysis of the equipment. When a coupled model is used additional concern, is that some of the stresses in the secondary system will be primary (inertiainduced) and some secondary (building static deformationinduced). Because the allowable stress limits in mechanical systems and components have different allowable stresses for primary and

FIGURE 34.3 HORIZONTAL DESIGN RESPONSE SPECTRA SCALED TO 1 G HORIZONTAL GROUND ACCELERATION (APPENDIX N, FIGURE N-1211(A)-1)

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secondary stresses, it is important that a means be found to distinguish between these primary and secondary stress resultants. One such approach is to reanalyze the coupled model and set the secondary mass to near 0; the resulting stress in mechanical system or component should be secondary in nature. Another method is to record the maximum displacements in each mode and apply them to a model of the secondary systems, thereby determining the stress resultants in each mode. The model stresses, when combined on an SRSS basis, would yield the secondary stress component of the secondary system. Systems and components (secondary) may be analyzed by combining the complete secondary model with the support structure (primary) model and applying the proper excitation to the base of the primary model. In this method, no separate equipment-decoupled support excitations need to be generated, as the equipment will be excited directly through the structure. For equipment that is not analyzed as part of the building structural model, the response may be obtained by a separate analysis using oor-response spectra curves, time-history excitations at the point of the support(s), or other frequency- domain methods. It should be noted that in dynamically coupled system, both stiffness and mass of both systems are represented, not just mass alone when generating primary-structure oor-response spectra applicable to the secondary system. Oftentimes signicant coupling can result in higher loads in the primary system and lower loads in the secondary system than when they are analyzed considering no dynamic coupling. A secondary to primary effective mass ratio of as little as 0.1% can add the effect of 3% more damping [17]. However, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) has not permitted the use of the mass ratio effect in the generation of oor-response spectra, although it is included in the result of a coupled model analysis.

34.5.6

Direction and Time-Phase Considerations

Three orthogonal components of earthquake excitations are normally considered for NPP safetyrelated system and component design. (Rotational ground motion in the three directions, however, may be neglected.) The triaxial-input excitations are characterized by the relative magnitudes of the peak accelerations of the three excitations and the relative values of the response spectra over the frequency range of interest. The articially generated time histories used to represent the generic response spectra may not have time-phase relationships similar to those of past earthquake records. The procedures of refs. [1] or [2] may be used to ensure that time-phasing is acceptable. The peak acceleration of the three orthogonal articially generated time histories generally need not occur at the same time. To stimulate natural earthquake occurrences, the correlation of the synthesized time histories may be evaluated by calculating the cross-correlation coefcients and the coherence functions [1][2]. The articially generated time histories are acceptable if both their cross-correlation coefcients and their coherence functions are approximately equal to the respective functions for past earthquake records. An absolute value of the correlation coefcient less than 0.16 is acceptable. For the correlation function, the numerical values ranging between 0.0 and 0.3 (with an average of approximately 0.2) are acceptable.

34.5.7

Methods of Dynamic-Earthquake Analysis

34.5.4

Time Histories

A series of time-history input motions can be used to represent the earthquakes motions at a site as a function of distance from the earthquake epicenter, stress drop, earthquake magnitude, and local site and foundation conditions. These input motions can be solved for resultant inertial and displacement-induced stresses by numerical methods used to solve the equations of motion, or else by transformation to the solution of modal equations of motion. Alternatively, for each response spectra dened in Section 34.5.2, independent articial time history in each direction can be generated that (when applied with the desired damping) will envelop the specied generic response spectra with similar power spectral content.

34.5.5

Time-History Duration

Generally, the minimum duration of the strong seismic motion required may be taken as 6 sec for ASME systems and components [1]. If this minimum 6 sec strong-motion duration is used, then a buildup duration of about 4 sec is recommended to precede the strong motion. The buildup region may be taken as the time duration from when motion is 0 to the time from when stationary or strong motion begins. For modal analysis, the number of maximum earthquake duration stress cycles can be taken as 10 for any earthquake event. Earthquake strong-motion durations and fullcyclic equivalency are also a function of earthquake magnitude. Values given herein are applicable to Mr equal to or less than about 7.0.

Methods commonly used to determine resultant earthquake stresses in architectural, mechanical, or electrical systems and components can be found in refs. [1] [2] and [3]. It is common practice today to use computer FE codes to compute the response of systems to earthquake loads. This practice is not without problems however. First, it can easily result in answers that have little to do with the actual problem unless the analyst is able to manually follow the load path and bound the expected results. Second, not only are there a multiplicity of FE codes, but there are wholly different avors of FE codes used by different disciplines in the plant design process. Civil/structural engineers tend to use FE codes that specically address the issues associated with building codes. These FE programs such as STAAD [18] and RISA [19] will generate input response spectra for the system based on existing building code data or allow the input of site-specic data. They have a high level of sophistication for seismic analysis and, with an experienced analyst, can be quite accurate. Piping engineers also have highly sophisticated FE codes that specically address piping issues such as the various types of piping supports and snubbers. FE-based codes such as Caesar-II [20] and PIPESTRESS [21] are specically tailored to the needs of piping engineers. As with the civil/structural codes, the seismic capabilities of the piping analysis codes have been rened over a long period of time and have been well vetted. Vessel and equipment engineers have increasingly employed general purpose FE codes such as Algor [22], Ansys [23] and Nastran [24] for stress analysis. These codes normally do not have the nearly automatic response spectra-generating capabilities of the structural and piping codes. Nonetheless, once generated, the response spectra can be entered as input data and the responses computed. While the availability and utility of the various codes is quite good, there remains a signicant problem. In a typical plant, the structure, piping, vessels and other equipment are generally interconnected. One system can impose loads on the other or, under

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circumstances mentioned in 34.5.3, they can provide damping. Since there currently exists no clear way to determine whether one system loads or damps the other by separate analyses, we are left with an unresolved solution that must be covered by conservatism in the analysis. Manually passing data from one type of code to the other to dene the boundary conditions can help remove some of the uncertainty. However, at this time, there is no automatic way to couple the results from the different avors of FE software. Several methods for the analysis have been proposed. An evaluation [25] of the various techniques has been conducted by the USNRC. The results of the evaluation seem to indicate that at least some of the techniques provide acceptable results. At this time, however, no commercially available implementation of the techniques is known to the author. Finally, the bad news must be addressed. While all of the currently available FE codes can accurately compute the displacements and stresses associated with seismic excitation according to the principals established primarily by the nuclear industry, the process itself is inherently awed. The long established practice has been to compute the deection associated with each modes of the response and to then sum the deections using some variant of the SRSS procedure. Unfortunately, when this is done, all directional information is lost and the computed deection sum is always positive. The stresses are then computed based on the resultant deection. Thus, computed stresses are based on a ctitious deected shape and are correspondingly ctitious. It is generally accepted that the

computed stresses represent an upper bound on the actual stress, but the degree of conservatism (if any) is not known. The current process was developed in the 1960s and 1970s when computational resources were miniscule compared to what is available today. Unfortunately, the nuclear industry, which drove the development of the original process, has not exactly prospered during the ensuing time period. Thus, no updates have been made on the process that was developed as an estimate of the actual stresses. A process that computed the stress associated with each mode on an element or nodal basis and then summed the stresses would be computationally reasonable today and would likely provide better stress estimates.

34.5.8

Damping

The phenomenon of energy loss called damping occurs because motions in a structural system will usually dissipate energy from the system. Damping as it relates to the equation of motion may be mathematically represented in many ways, including Coulomb and viscous damping [15]the latter being the one normally used in NPP design, as represented in equation (34.1). Total system or component damping is composed of many energy-absorption mechanismsmaterial damping, for instance, caused by internal friction with the material, as well as geometric damping (caused by the working of joints, connections, and associated small nonlinearities such as cracking in concrete) and impact damping (caused by gaps that open and close, thereby dissipating energy by local impact). Taken together, these various components of damping are structural damping as shown in Table 34.3.

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TABLE 34.4 APPENDIX N DAMPING VALUES - % CRITICAL

Earthquake Magnitude Structure or Component Equipment Piping systems Welded steel structures Bolted steel structures Prestressed concrete structures Reinforced concrete structures OBE 2 5 2 4 2 4 SSE 3 5 4 7 5 7

In the current (2007) version of Appendix N, a more compact table of damping values is presented, as illustrated in Table 34.4. Two values for each component are listed. The smaller damping value is to be used for the OBE. A second, higher value is indicated for the SSE. This reects the fact that a higher load in the SSE will result in higher deections and some associated plastic deformation is permissible. Notably missing from Table 34.4 are any values associated with uid sloshing. All of the existing codes and guidelines suggest a value of 0.5% for sloshing, whether for the OBE or the SSE.

primary and which are secondary. As a practical matter, the secondary stress allowable limits are much higher than the primary stress limit used in design. One procedure to determine which portion of the dynamically analyzed coupled systemsecondary system stresses is secondary is to statically impose on the secondary system the limiting systemsupport displacements. The stresses resulting from this analysis are secondary. A second method to determine secondary stresses is to rerun the combined model with the masses of the secondary system set to near 0. The results are considered to be secondary stresses. Seismic excitation can excite long period sloshing response in liquid storage tanks. The sloshing liquid can, in turn, result in large loads applied to the tank supports. In addition, unless sufcient freeboard exists at the top of the tank, a large uplifting force can be exerted on the top of the tank. These phenomena are not directly addressed by the ASME Code. It is, however, addressed by ASCE Standard 7-02 [3], API Standard 620 [26] and API Standard 650 [27]. The ASCE Standard, in paragraph 9.14.7.3.8.1 states: Welded steel petrochemical and industrial tanks and vessels storing liquids shall be designed in accordance with the seismic requirements of [26] and [27] except that the design input forces for allowable stress design procedures shall be modied as follows: . . . and it then goes on to provide alternate constants for the computation of the overturning moment on the tank. Of the API standards, API 650 is the most applicable to most pressure vessels. In Appendix E-Seismic Design of Storage Tanks, a procedure for computing the sloshing period, the overturning moment and the shell compression is presented. The natural period of the rst sloshing period is calculated using the tank diameter and uid level. The weight and dimensions of the tank, along with the weight and depth of the uid are used to develop effective masses and centroids of seismic forces from a series of charts. This information must then be used to compute the overturning moments using equation 9.14.7.3.8.1-1 or 9.14.7.3.8.1-2 of ASCE 7-02. Then, the overturning moment calculated from ASCE 7-02 can be used to compute the shell and support stresses in API 650. This procedure works reasonably well for vertical cylindrical tanks. Horizontal tanks, however, are not addresses in either the ASCE on the API standards. Sloshing in horizontal tanks, such a liquid propane storage tanks, can be problematic during seismic events. Recently, in a paper by Playrrachos and Karamanos [28], a graphical solution for the sloshing period and the forces was presented. This method breaks the forces into impulsive and convective components consistent with the requirements of API 650 and may thus be used to develop the loads on horizontal storage tanks.

34.5.9

Cutoff-Frequency and Missing-Mass Effects

Generally, the piping response-spectrum analysis is terminated at a frequency called the cutoff frequency. The cutoff frequency is usually specied as the frequency beyond which the spectral acceleration remains constant, which is known as the zero period acceleration (ZPA). Assuming that a piping system is so designed and supported that the rst mode frequency (or another signicant higher frequency) is higher than the cutoff frequency, this piping system does not receive seismic excitation from a mode higher than the cutoff frequency as far as the computer program is concerned. The result of this seismic analysis may be invalid because of the articial constraint on frequency specied by the stress analyst. Most of the computer programs currently used for piping stress analysis have the capability to evaluate the missing-mass effect. These programs usually use the acceleration from the spectrum at the cutoff frequency (ZPA) to calculate the missing-mass effect. However, because the programs do not use the higher frequencymode shapes, the missing-mass correction factor should not be used unless at least 70% of the model effective mass is included in the modes evaluated up to and including the cutoff frequency.

34.5.10

Combinations of Closely Spaced Modes

Normally, the various response modes determined from a modal analysis are considered independent of each other and may be combined on a statistical square rootsum of squares basis. However, in some cases for systems with closely spaced modes (within 10% frequency or in-phase of each other with essentially the same mode shape), the modes tend to move in unison. In such instances, the combination of modal resultants should be on absolute sum basis.

34.6
34.6.1

VIBRATORY LOADS
Introduction

34.5.11

Combination of Primary Inertia Effects with Secondary Seismic Anchor Motions

Vibratory loads in mechanical systems and components are cyclic and usually arise from the operating environment of the system or component. The following operating conditions may lead to vibratory loads: (a) inlet or outlet: (1)response to rotating or reciprocal pumps, (2)uid pulsation, and (3)ow-induced vibration.

When a coupled primary (building) and secondary (piping) system analysis is performed, the result will be time-dependent internal forces and moment: as well as the resultant stresses in the combined system. In general, it is not possible to tell from such a combined dynamic analysis which of the computed stresses are

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34.6.2

Computation of Vibratory Stress

Vibrations in general are very difcult to predict during the design phase of the system or component. The reason is because very small changes in stiffness or mass characteristics of the system can have a major impact on vibratory amplitudes and the number of cycles. In practice, whenever vibratory motions are detected, the vibratory displacement is measured during operation (start-up), and the observed displacement magnitude and cycles are superimposed on a model of the piping system either statically or dynamically. Doing so gives rise to stresses in the piping system. These cyclic vibrational stresses are then considered by using a fatigue or ratchet analysis to determine if the usage factor of 1.0 is exceeded during the operating life of the system or component, for if it is, the vibration may be allowed to continue. It should be understood that vibratory loads can occur during a transient (start-up or shutdown) condition as well as a design-basis accident condition and a steady static-operating condition. In ref. [9], one can nd a detailed discussion of the vibratoryloading phenomena and also simplied but more rigorous procedures for determining the vibratory motions.

34.6.3.3 Flow Induced Vibration Vibration of heat exchanger tube bundles, tall towers and stacks are all examples of ow induced vibration. When the uid ow around an object reaches a critical velocity, it separates from the object. Under the right circumstances, vortices form behind the object and, coupled with the natural mechanical frequency of the object produce vibrations. Over time, these vibrations can result in mechanical failure, whether it be in a tube or a tower. One of the best sources of information on this phenomenon is the book Flow-Induced Vibration by Blevins [31]. Many closed form solutions to the prediction of ow-induced vibration are included in this book. Many common problems can be identied using these techniques. Much of this information and additional information pertaining specically to the vibration of heat exchanger tube banks are presented in Appendix N [1]. For specic problems, the use of CFD techniques has become common. Modeling the ow in a heat exchanger using current CFD tools is now well within the realm of the design process. Where problems are known to exist on existing equipment, the use of CFD can often lead to the most expeditious and economical solution.

34.6.3

Design Considerations

34.6.3.1 Mechanical Vibration The current (2008) state of the art in the computational dynamic analysis of mechanical systems is such that many instances of vibratory excitation and resultant stress can be identied in the design stage. The load imposed on a structure by a rotating or reciprocating component can normally be approximated based on known equipment characteristics. Using FE methods, the supporting structure can be analyzed to determine the lower modal (natural) frequencies. Simply ensuring that the support frequencies do not match (and are ideally higher than) the excitation frequencies can often eliminate potential problems. Where the support frequency cannot be easily separated from the forcing frequency or where the support frequency is lower than the forcing frequency, it is normally possible to compute the resultant stress in the system. While these methods are not exact (there are details in all real structures that cannot be realistically modeled), they can provide signicant guidance in the design process. With todays computational tools, the analysis cost in the design stage can be dwarfed by the remedial cost once the design is cast in concrete and steel. Similarly, the measurement and analysis tools available should relegate most of the trial and error techniques for the solution of vibration problems to the dust bin of history. Accurate, portable, systems for the characterization of vibration in existing systems is readily available. Software that can be used to compare the actual motion of the system to FE models [29] [30] is also readily available. Changes can be evaluated using the software for a fraction of the trial and error costs. In addition, the time saved in arriving at a workable solution can often pay for the analysis costs. 34.6.3.2 Pulsation It has been common practice in the natural gas industry to use computational methods to identify and eliminate problems associated with gas pulsations in piping systems driven by reciprocating compressors. Originally, this was done using analog computers. Currently, this is normally accomplished using digital computation procedures using computational codes such as PULS [10]. These techniques have also proven to be very useful in the solution of problems associated with centrifugal pumps and compressors in both compressible and incompressible uid systems.

34.7
34.7.1

RELIEF-VALVE DISCHARGE LOAD


Introduction

Relief-valve discharge loads belong to the impulse family of loads in that they tend to be applied suddenly and last for a relatively long time period. They are caused primarily by the opening of a pressurized system-relief valve. In general, two types of systems exist that are associated with relief-valve discharges: the open discharge system, in which the back pressure (P0) is very small or zero, and the closed discharge system. Additional guidance is provided in ref. [7].

34.7.2

Computation of Discharge Loads

Fluid-discharge load effects (as rst-order effects) can be computed approximately by applying the equivalent static load equation (34.7) of Section 34.4.2 perpendicular to the plane of the opening. For more rigorous analyses, the hydrodynamic model of the pressurized system is employed by the use of controlled volumes to determine time-dependent changes in pressures and directions throughout the system. Doing so gives rise to many time-dependent forcing functions applied at changes in area and direction through the system.

34.8
34.8.1

FLUIDHAMMER
Introduction

Fluidhammer can occur in any uid linehot or cold. Its effects can be even more pronounced in heterogeneous or biphase systems. Biphase systems carry uids in two states: as a liquid and as a gas or vapor. Such a condition exists in a steam system where condensate coexists with live or ashing steam: in heat exchangers; tracer, steam, and feedwater mains; bypass, let-down, and condensate return lines; and, in some cases, pump discharge lines.

34.8.2

Types of Fluidhammer

Three conditions are identied as having the potential to cause the violent reaction known as uidhammer: hydraulic shock, thermal shock, and differential shock.

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34.8.2.1 Hydraulic Shock When a valve is open, water moves through pipes from the point where it enters the valve housing. When the valve is suddenly shut, a reected shock wave equal to stragnation pressure in the uid is generated. The shock pressure wave is reected back and forth from end to end or from direction changes in the system or component until the energy is dissipated. Similar action can take place in the suction or discharge piping of a pump when the pump starts and stops if check valves are in the line. If the slug of water is slowed before it is stopped, its momentum is reduced gradually, and damaging uidhammer is not produced. The pressure rise in the system caused by uidhammer can be several times the equivalent static design pressure, hence the impulse can cause system deformations or rupture. 34.8.2.2 Thermal Shock In biphase systems, vapor bubbles may become trapped in pools of liquid condensing in a ooded main, branch, or tracer by pass- and let-down line as well as in heat-exchanger tubing and pressurized condensate-return lines. Because temperature is almost always below saturation, the vapor bubble will rapidly collapse. When the steam bubble collapses, water is accelerated into the resulting vacuum from all directions. This happens when a steam trap discharges relatively high-pressure ashing into a pumpdischarge line. It can also happen in water-typepressure suppression NPP containments. Another cause of waterhammer is lack of proper drainage ahead of a steam-control valve. When the valve opens, a slug of conden sate will enter the equipment at a high velocity, producing the liquidhammer when it impinges on obstruction or change in the uid ow direction. In addition, the mixing of the vapor that follows with the relatively cool condensate will produce hammer from thermal shock. Differential shock, like thermal shock, occurs in biphase systems. It can occur whenever vapor and condensate liquid ow in the same line but at different velocities, such as in condensate-return lines. In biphase systems, the velocity of the steam is often many times the velocity of the liquid. If condensate lls a pipe, a seal is formed with the pressure of the vapor behind it. Because the steam cannot ow through the condensate seal, pressure drops on the downstream side, and the condensate seal now becomes a piston accelerated downstream by this pressure differential. As it is driven downstream, it picks up more liquid, which adds to the condensate slug mass. There is a differential force on the slug, so the velocity of the slug increases, creating a high-impulse load when stopped. If this slug of condensate gains sufcient momentum, and if it is then required to change direction (e.g., at a tee, elbow, or valve), resultant reaction forces can be of such magnitude that they cause rupture or leakage. To control differential shock, a condensate seal must be prevented from forming in a biphase system. Steam-con-densate lines must be sized and pitched correctly (including the sag effects) to ensure that condensates do not collect in the pipe.

and/or the addition of expansion chambers can be evaluated at the design stage. Such changes can often be made with little or no signicant effect on the overall system cost. Certainly, such changes are much less expensive that remedial measures, especially when system down-time is considered.

34.9
34.9.1

PIPE BREAK
Introduction

The forcing loads acting on pressurized systems that experience pipe break are essentially the same as those applicable to relief-valve discharge. One important difference exists, however: pipe-break loads are usually of such magnitude and orientation that they cause motion of the broken system. Both suddenly applied load and the resultant kinetic energy picked up by the broken system motion must be accommodated by the supports or restraints on the system.

34.9.2

Computation of Support or Restraint Loads

The equivalent static load to be resisted by a pipe-break restraint or support is

Rm =

KE + kPa mSe

1 1 1 m 2

(34.11)

where Rm KE the equivalent static load on the support or restraint kinetic energy picked up by the pipe system before impacting the restraint allowable ductility Sall /Se allowable total deformation of the restraint deformation at yield of the restraint same as equation (34.7): Fe with Df is equal to 1.0 initial pressure in the system

all e

kPa Pa

Equation (34.11) can be rewritten as follows by equating KE to the work done on the system.

KE = kPa * GAP Then, kPa * GAP 1 + kPa(1>(1 - m) mSe 2

(34.12)

Rm = where GAP

(34.13)

space through which the pipe system is being accelerated

34.8.3

Design Considerations

34.10

FLUID JETS

The use of computation software [14] that employs the Method of Characteristics [32] to predict and model uidhammer has become common in many industries. Whether it is in an NPP or an LNG terminal, the potential for damage to piping and equipment can be eliminated or greatly reduced through analysis of the system in the design stage. Changes to piping lengths, valve closing speeds and sequences, pump shut down and startup characteristics,

Fluid jets, whether they are caused by a relief-valve discharge or rupture of a high-pressure system, need to be considered for both the discharging system and any target system or component affected by the jet. However, the equivalent static load that a jet has on a jet target or shield depends on the dynamic characteristics of the jet target or shield as well as the jet. In ref. [5], one can nd a detailed discussion of jet loads and effects.

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34.11

MISSILES

34.11.1 Types of Missiles


(Note: Ref. [33] contains more detailed information about the missile types listed here.) Gravitational Potential Energy Type This refers to suspended loads from cranes or objects that move above safety-related equipment (cask drop). They shall be evaluated where postulated missiles are identied. Contained Fluid Energy Type This refers to postulated missiles of the contained-energy type that originally are in direct contact with a pressurized system and can be acted on by a force for some distance. They shall be characterized according to either of the two following types of acceleration: piston-type action (e.g., valve stems and control rod drives) or a jet of escaping fluid (e.g., head covers and valve bonnet pipe breaks). Rotational Energy Type This refers to postulated missiles in which a conversion of rotational mechanical energy into translational kinetic energy can occur. They shall be characterized on the basis of evaluation of the structure and failure modes of the rotating machinery postulated to be the source of the missile. For rotating assemblies built up in parts, intact separation of such parts (e.g., turbine blades, ywheels, and generator end-turns) should be evaluated as a function of their probability of occurrence. The postulated missile from a ywheel or similar solidrotating disc shall be one of N symmetrical pieces of the disc, where the value of N depends on a balance between size and shape effects. Stored Strain Energy Type This refers to postulated missiles resulting from parts that stored strain energy. They shall be characterized on the basis of the stored energy and the postulated mechanism failure. Chemical Energy Type This refers to postulated missiles resulting from a violent chemical reaction within a vessel or pipe component. They shall be characterized as developing the most severe missile from the standpoint of effects on targets. Nuclear Excursion Type This refers to postulated missiles resulting from heating and rapid expansion of coolant uid caused by an abnormal nuclear energy transient. They may require evaluation in special cases of coolant-uid energy. Secondary Missiles These can result through energy transfer from a postulated primary missile. They shall be characterized as yielding the most severe missile from the standpoint of effects on critical targets. Natural Phenomena Type This refers to tornado-driven and other postulated wind-driven missiles characterized in a manner that considers the site and type of missiles, as specied in applicable Codes, standards, and guidelines [34]. Transport Missiles Material and personnel vehicles routinely on or near the site (e.g., trucks, automobiles, and aircraft) may be characterized where they are postulated to become missiles [35]. Construction and Maintenance Type In the case of multiple nuclear units or other adjacent construction, postulated missiles caused by proximate construction activity shall be conservatively characterized. Postulated explosions in the plant vicinity resulting from detonations in xed or transportation facilities cause blast waves and potential missiles. (See ref. [36] for additional information.)

(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9)

mass; velocity; shape; size; material properties (e.g., hardness and density); structural characteristics (eg., crushing strength); orientation and trajectory; impact area; and probability and generation.

34.11.3

Missile Effects on Targets

Targets to be considered include safety-related systems, components, and barriers or shields. Of the probable approach congurations of a given missile, two shall be considered: (1) The conguration that is the most damaging to the exposed targets. (2) The conguration that results in the most damaging secondary missiles, including rebound of the primary missile. The missile velocity considered shall be the maximum probable impact velocity. Each secondary missile shall be evaluated as the primary missile. Missile effects are typically divided into two types: local effects and overall effects. Local effects are conned to the immediate area of impact and are essentially independent of the target geometry and boundary conditions, except for target thickness. Examples of local effects are penetration, perforation, and spalling. Overall effects are those associated with the structural response of the target, for which the structural characteristics and boundary conditions of the target are of importance. Examples of overall effects are bending, shear and buckling. Should local effects be sufcient to signicantly inuence the overall response, they must be considered in evaluating such response. 34.11.3.1 Penetration Penetration of a missile into a target is the most signicant local effect. Penetration depends on missile mass, velocity, shape, size, material properties, orientation, and trajectory as well as target thickness and material properties. Penetration depth can be evaluated using empirical formulas or appropriate analytical procedures. For ductile metals, useful references include the penetration equation of the Ballistic Research Laboratory [38]. For concrete, some useful references include the formula of the National Defense Research Committee and the French CEA-EDF formulation [8]. If perforation, spalling or secondary missile generation is a hazard that should be prevented by a proper target or shielding design which usually involves increasing the thickness of the target structure. In evaluating the signicance of the expected penetration, applicable loads on the target and layout or orientation must be considered in conjunction with the expected missile penetration parameters. Where perforation occurs, the velocity of the continuing primary missile should be considered. 34.11.3.2 Secondary Missiles Secondary missiles commonly arise from primary missiles that strike concrete, other masonry, or other relatively brittle material. Spalling can occur on either side of a wall composed of such material, with the fragments absorbing some of the primary missile energy in kinetic form. In general, the secondary missiles created on the impact side of the wall are not of concern; their energy and velocities are much less than that of the impinging primary missile. If the primary missile penetrates beyond a threshold depth, it creates secondary missiles on the opposite side of the wall [8]. Methods to determine whether such secondary

34.11.2 Missile Characteristics


For each postulated missile, the following characteristics should at least be considered:

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sile or impact areas of the target are crushed, the forcing function can be determined from equation (34.10) of Section 34.4.3 and also from ref [8]. 34.11.4.3 Typical Missile Forcing Functions In Table 34.3 can be found the magnitude and duration of typical missile forcing functions for tornado missiles defined by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission [34, 39].

34.12

REFERENCES

1. ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section III, Division 1, Nonmandotary, Appendix N, Dynamic Analysis Methods; The American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 2. ASCE Standard 4-98, Seismic Analysis of Safety-Related Nuclear Structures and Commentary on Standard for Seismic Analysis of SafetyRelated Nuclear Structures; The American Society of Civil Engineers. 3. SEI/ASCE Standard 7-02, Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and other Structures, The American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, Virginia, USA, www.asce.org. 4. International Building Code, International Code Council, Inc., 2006. 5. ANS Standard 58.2, Design Basis for Protection of Light-Water Nuclear Power Plants Against the Effects of Postulated Pipe Rupture; The American Nuclear Society. 6. ANS Standard 58.3, Physical Protection for Nuclear Safety-Related Systems and ComponentsAppendix B; The American Nuclear Society. 7. ASME B31.1, Appendix II, Non-Mandatory Rules of the Design of Safety Valve Installation; The American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 8. Civil Engineering and Nuclear Power Conference, Report of the ASCE Committee on Impactive and Impulsive Loads, Vol. V, The American Society of Civil Engineers, Sept. 1980. 9. ASME O&M Standard, Requirements for Preoperational and Initial Start-Up Vibration Testing of Nuclear Power Plant Piping Systems; The American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 10. Bentley PULS, Bentley Systems, Incorporated, Exton, PA, USA www.bentley.com. 11. PULSIM, TNO Science and industry, Delft, The Netherlands, www.pulsim.com. 12. Fluent, Ansys, Inc., Lebanon, NH, USA, www.uent.com. 13. Star_CD,CD-Adapco. Inc., Melville, NY, USA, www.cd-adapco.com. 14. AFT Impulse, Applied Flow Technology, Woodland Park, CO, USA, www.aft.com. 15. Chopra, A.K., Dynamics of Structures, Prentice Hall, Englewood Hills, H.J., 2001. 16. Nayyar, M. L. (ed.), Piping Handbook, 7th ed., McGraw-Hill, 2000. 17. Newmark, N. M., and Hall, W. J., Development of Criteria for Seismic Review of Selected Nuclear Power Plants, NUREG/CR-0098, The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, May 1978. 18. STAAD. Pro2007, Research Engineers International, Yorba Linda, CA, www.reiusa.com. 19. RISA-3D, RISA Technologies, LLC., Foothills Ranch, CA, USA, www.rasatech.com. 20. CEASAR II, COADE Engineering Software, Houston, TX, USA, www.coade.com.

missiles occur are provided in ref [8]. In general, target or barrier walls should be at least three times the computed penetration depth to assure no opposite wall spalling. Spalling can also occur in ductile metal target structures but only at very high velocity missile impacts.

34.11.4

Forcing Functions Used to Represent Missile Impact

During the process of a missile striking a target or barrier, a force is external at the missile-barrier or target interface. The magnitude of this force is a function of missile velocity, forcedeformation characteristics, angle of attack, impact area, and mass of both missile and barrier and the relative crushability of the target and missile. In computing the forcing function or load the target can be represented by an equivalent mass and a nonlinear spring that can describe the missile and barrier force deformation relationship up to total barrier collapse. Forcing functions representing missile impactwhether of a hard or soft natureare described in Section 34.4.3 and also in ref. [8]. 34.11.4.1 Hard Missile Impact For cases in which missile penetration into the target structure is signicant, relationships can be developed for the forcing function applied to the structure by the missile, based on application of the equation of motion during deacceleration of the missile as determined from equation (34.9) of Section 34.4.3, and also from ref. [8]. It is assumed that the velocity varies linearly from velocity at impact to 0 as a function of time as the missile penetrates the target structure. Implicit in this assumption is a constant deacceleration and, consequently, a constant force of impact or rectangular-shaped forcing function. Because the assumption of hard impact may be too conservative in many cases, it is necessary to determine the forcing function more accurately by considering the impact to be soft whenever possible. 34.11.4.2 Soft Impact As indicated in ref [8], the terminology soft missile impact is used herein to describe the class of missiles characterized by signicant local deformation or crushing of the missile and/or target structure during impact. Tornado-driven objects (such as reinforcing bars and small pipes) and internally generated accident missiles (such as bolts, valve stems, and fragments from rotating equipment) will penetrate into concrete and steel targets upon impact. Missiles such as an aircraft fuselage, automobile body, and wood pole or plank will themselves deform upon striking concrete or steel structures. Cases in which the mis-

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21. PIPESTRESS, SST www.sstusa.com.

Systems,

Inc.,

San

Jose,

CA,

USA,

31. Blevins, R.D., Flow-Induced Vibration, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1990. 32. Wylie, E.B, Streeter, V.L., and Suo, L., Fluid Transients in Systems, Prentice Hall, Englewood Hills, H.J., 1993. 33. Nuclear Piping Design, ORNL-TM-3645, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN, 1972. 34. Standard Review Plan, Section 3.5.1.4, Missiles Generated by Natural Phenomena, The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, July 1981. 35. DOE Standard 3014, Accident Analysis for Aircraft Crash into Hazardous Facilities, The U.S. Department of Energy, May 1996. 36. Regulatory Guide 1.91, Evaluation of Explosions Postulated to Occur on Transportation Routes Near Nuclear Power Plants, Rev. 1, The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Guide, Feb. 1978. 37. Regulatory Guide 1.61, Damping Values for Seismic Design of Nuclear Power Plants, Rev. 1, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Guide, Oct. 1973. 38. Gwaltney, R. C., Missile Generation and Protection in Light-Water Cooled Reactor Plants, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, ORNL NSIC-22, 1968. 39. Stevenson, J. D. and Zhao, Y., Modern Tornado Design of Nuclear and Other Potentially Hazardous Facilities, Nuclear Safety, Vol. 37, No. 1, JanuaryMarch 1996.

22. Algor Professional Designer, Algor, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA, USA, www. algor.com. 23. Ansys Mechanical, Ansys, Inc., Canonsburg, PA, USA, www.ansys.com. 24. NeiNastran, Noran Engineering, Inc., Westminster, CA, USA, www. nenastran.com. 25. Xu, J., and DeGrassi, G., Ed., Benchmark Program for the Evaluation of Methods to Analyze Non-classically Damped Coupled Systems, NUREG/CR-6661, USNRC, 2000. 26. API 620, Design and Construction of Large, Welded, Low-Pressure Storage Tanks, Eleventh Edition, 2008, API, Washington, DC, www. api.org. 27. API 650, Welded Steel Tanks for Oil Storage, Eleventh Edition, 2007, API, Washington, DC., www.api.org. 28. Platyrrachos, M.A., and Karamanos, S.A., Finite Element Analysis of Sloshing in Horizontal-Cylindrical Industrial vessels Under Earthquake Loading, PVP2005-71499, ASME 2005. 29. ARTeMIS, Structural Vibration Solutions, Aalborg East www.svibs.com.

Denmark,

30. MEscope, Vibrant Technology, Inc., Scotts Valley, CA, USA, www.vibtech.com.

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