A NET LAB REPORT ON “3D TELEVISION TECHNOLOGY” Submitted in Partial Fulfillment for the Award of Bachelor of Technology Degree
Of Rajasthan Technical University, KOTA
Submitted To: Mr. Deepak Paliwal Lect., ECE Submitted By: Hitesh Karmani (EC/10/1122) II yr. ECE-C
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING POORNIMA COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING ISI-6, RIICO INSTITUTIONAL AREA SITAPURA, JAIPUR-302022 (RAJASTHAN)
Philips was developing 3D television sets that would be available for the consumer market by about 2011 without the need for special glasses autostereoscopy. The Chinese manufacturer TCL Corporation has developed a 42-inch (110 cm) LCD 3D TV called the TD-42F.4 and a minimum (input and output) refresh rate of 120 Hz. glasses may be sold separately. Toshiba announced plans to bring a range of autosteroscopic TVs to market by the end of the year. but the reality of seeing 3D TV in the average household is probably years away. In August 2010. Several companies have developed viable 3D technology for the home theater environment. These TV sets usually supportHDMI 1. Onida. including a 3D-ready TV and a 3D-capable Blu-ray player. LCD 750. Introduction:What is 3D TV?
3D TV is an emerging technology that allows consumers to enjoy three-dimensional movies. television programs and video games in their homes. which is currently available in China. Samsung. PDP 7000 TV sets and the Bluray 6900
. It is expected that the screens will use a mixture of technologies until there is standardisation across the industry. and Philips intend to increase their 3D TV offering with plans to make 3D TV sales account for over 50% of their respective TV distribution offering by 2012. However it was canceled due to the slow adoption of customers going from 2D to 3D. It currently sells for approximately $20.000. It is not as good as 3D active glasses. Sony. 3D-ready TV sets are those that can operate in 3D mode (in addition to regular 2D mode) using one of several display technologies to recreate a stereoscopic image. That's primarily because the technology requires the purchase of new television equipment. This model uses a lenticular system and does not require any special glasses (autostereoscopy). LG. Samsung offers the LED 7000.
with Robinzon Kruzo being its first full-length 3D movie.D. according to Adolph Zukor in his 1953 autobiography The Public Is Never Wrong: My 50 Years in the Motion Picture Industry. came the 3D movie House of Wax which also featured stereophonic sound. In the 1950s. stereoscopic 3D still cameras for personal use were already fairly common. the stereo animation camera. and a famous picture of Queen Victoria was displayed at The Great Exhibition in 1851. When viewed stereoscopically. but not in 3-D). In red-green anaglyph. which included rural scenes. The stereoscope was improved by Louis Jules Duboscq.. in 1953. One year later. by John Logie Baird in his company's premises at 133 Long Acre. Waddell presented tests to an audience at the Astor Theater in New York City. DuHauron) movie was produced in 1915 and in 1922 the first public 3D movie was displayed. Baird pioneered a variety of 3D television systems using electro-mechanical and cathode-ray tube techniques. Stereoscopic 3D television was demonstrated for the first time on 10 August 1928. in 1946. The first such movie was Bwana Devil from United Artists that could be seen all across the US in 1952. London. when TV became popular in the United States. and a reel of footage of Niagara Falls However. test shots of Marie Doro.
. Edwin S. nothing was produced in this process after these tests. but for the purpose of maximizing profits the movie was released in 2D because not all cinemas were able to display 3D films. The first anaglyph (use of red-and-blue glasses. i. History of 3D TV:In the late 1890s. In 1935 the first 3D color movie was produced. Oriental dancers. a segment of John Mason playing a number of passages from Jim the Penman (a film released by Famous Players-Lasky that year. On 10 June 1915. the audience was presented three reels of tests. In 1855 the Kinematoscope was invented. Alfred Hitchcock produced his film Dial M for Murder in 3D. many 3D movies were produced. it showed that the two images are combined by the brain to produce 3-D depth perception. the British film pioneer William Friese-Greene filed a patent for a 3-D movie process. The Soviet Union also developed 3D films. Porter and William E. By the Second World War.e. invented by L.
revealing an integrated stereoscopic image. and even in print. The visual cortex of the brain fuses this into perception of a three dimensional scene or composition. Blu-ray Discs. Low cost paper frames or plastic-
. Anaglyph 3D images contain two differently filtered colored images. one for each eye. typically red and cyan. Two strategies have been used to accomplish this: have the viewer wear eyeglasses to filter the separately offset images to each eye. Anaglyph images have seen a recent resurgence due to the presentation of images and video on the Internet. Others
Anaglyphic 3D:Anaglyph 3D is the name given to the stereoscopic 3D effect achieved by means of encoding each eye's image using filters of different (usually chromatically opposite) colors. When viewed through the "color coded" "anaglyph glasses". The basic requirement is to display offset images that are filtered separately to the left and right eye. Common 3D display technology for projecting stereoscopic image pairs to the viewer include:
Anaglyphic 3D (with passive red-cyan filters) Polarization 3D (with passive polarized filters) Alternate-frame sequencing (with active shutter filters) Head-mounted display (with a separate display positioned in front of each eye. and lenses used primarily to relax eye focus)
Without lenses: Autostereoscopic displays. each of the two images reaches one eye. sometimes referred to commercially as Auto 3D. or have the light source split the images directionally into the viewer's eyes (no glasses required). Technologies:There are several techniques to produce and display 3D moving pictures. CDs.
with red being used for the left channel. which uses two orbital vehicles to obtain the 3D images of the sun. for science or design. Other applications include geological illustrations by the United
Figure 1-Stereo monochrome image anaglyphed for red and cyan
Figure 2-Anaglyph (3D photograph) of a column head in Persepolis
Video games. make use of all 3 primary colors. with the cyan filter. Examples from NASA include Mars
Rover imaging. theatrical films. where depth perception is useful.framed glasses hold accurate color filters that typically. called STEREO. especially for accurate skin tones. after 2002. Practical images. and DVDs can be shown in the anaglyph 3D process. include the presentation of full scale and microscopic stereographic images. The current norm is red and cyan. The cheaper filter material used in the monochromatic past dictated red and blue for convenience and cost. and the solar investigation. There is a material improvement of full color images.
Better quality. and various online museum objects. not easily achieved with anaglyphs. these side-by-side types offer bright and accurate color rendering.
Viewing:A pair of eyeglasses with two filters of the same colors. that offer a wider image on the new HD video and computer monitors. molded acrylic glasses frequently employ a compensating differential diopter power (a spherical correction) to balance the red filter focus shift relative to the cyan. A recent application is for stereo imaging of the heart using 3D ultra-sound with plastic red/cyan glasses. Low power reading glasses worn along with the paper glasses also sharpen the image noticeably. while the cyan (blue/green) lens over the right eye allows only the blue and green parts of the image through to that eye.
. Portions of the image that are red will appear dark through the cyan filter. cannot compensate for the 250 nanometer difference in the wave lengths of the red-cyan filters. which dominates the eyes' focusing. which reduces the innate softness. once used on the cameras (or now simulated by image processing software manipulations) is worn by the viewer.States Geological Survey.
Red sharpened anaglyph glasses
Simple paper. With simple glasses. uncorrected gel glasses. Recently. cross-view prismatic glasses with adjustable masking have appeared. and diffraction of red filtered light. when viewing a close computer screen or printed image. The (RED) retinal focus differs from the image through the (CYAN) filter. the red lens over the left eye allows only the red part of the anaglyph image through to that eye. Anaglyph images are much easier to view than either parallel (diverging) or crossed-view pairs stereograms. However. In the case above. while portions of colors composed only of green and blue will appear dark through the red filter. the red filtered image is somewhat blurry. Each eye therefore sees only the perspective it is supposed to see.
This assigns two-eyed "redness cues" to objects and details. the diopter "fix" effect is still somewhat controversial. thereby reducing the ghosting that the extra color bandwidth introduces to the images. and parallax. especially the nearsighted. Some. such as lip color and red clothing. and a noticeable improvement of contrast and blackness. but can provide excellent results when the glasses are used with conforming. as one image is a slightly larger magnification than the other. however. which depict the geology and scenic features of the U. "anachrome friendly" images.The correction is only about 1/2 + diopter on the red lens. provide both the diopter "fix" noted above. Anachrome formula lenses work well with black and white. By convention. that are fused in the brain. and a change in the cyan filter.
Figure 3-Paper anaglyph filters
. The US Geological Survey has thousands of these "conforming". Though endorsed by many 3D websites. full-color images. However. some people with corrective glasses are bothered by difference in lens diopters. find it uncomfortable. judging the greater clarity as a significant plus factor
Plastic glasses. Care must be taken. to closely overlay the red areas into near-perfect registration. The American Amblyopia Foundation uses this feature in their plastic glasses for school screening of children's vision. anachrome images try to avoid excess separation of the cameras.S. The formula provides intentional "leakage" of a minimal (2%) percentage of red light with the conventional range of the filter. or "ghosting" can occur. developed in recent years. National Park system. There is about a 400% improvement in acuity with a molded diopter filter.
Polarization is a property of certain types of waves that describes the orientation of their oscillations. telecommunications and radar science. or it may rotate as the wave travels (circular or elliptical polarization). seismology. By convention. so there is no polarization. For longitudinal waves such as sound waves in fluids. in most cases it propagates as a transverse wave—the polarization is perpendicular to the wave's direction of travel. however. The polarization of light can be measured with a polarimeter. For instance in a waveguide such as anoptical fiber. the description of the wave's polarization is more complicated. In general the polarization of an electromagnetic (EM) wave is a complex issue. A polarizer is a device that affects polarization. Such EM waves are either TM or hybrid modes. such as light. In this case.
. In a solid medium. acoustic waves (sound waves) in a gas or liquid do not have polarization because the direction of vibration and direction of propagation are the same. This is important in seismology. and gravitational waves exhibit
polarization. or for radially polarized beams in free space. the electric field may be oriented in a single direction (linear polarization). In the latter cases. the oscillations can rotate either towards the right or towards the left in the direction of travel. When light travels in free space. as the fields can have longitudinal as well as transverse components. Depending on which rotation is present in a given wave it is called the wave's chirality or handedness. such as optics. the polarization is associated with the direction of the shear stress in the plane perpendicular to the propagation direction. Electromagnetic waves. the direction of oscillation is by definition along the direction of travel. Polarization is significant in areas of science and technology dealing with wave propagation. sound waves can be transverse. In this case. the polarization of light is described by specifying the orientation of the wave's electric field at a point in space over one period of the oscillation.
. purple in figure 2): The same evolution would occur when looking at the electric field at a particular time while evolving the point in space. First. along the direction opposite to propagation. where the amplitude of the electric vector varies in a sinusoidal manner in time. with time (the vertical axes). For plane waves Maxwell's equations. specifically Gauss's laws.
The shape traced out in a fixed plane by the electric vector as such a plane wave passes over it (a Lissajous figure) is a description of the polarization state. which is a good approximation of most light waves (a plane wave is a wave with infinitely long and wide wavefronts). this special case is called linear polarization. the electric field vector is described and the magnetic field is ignored since it is perpendicular to the electric field and proportional to it. at a particular point in space. when considering polarization. However. The following figures show some examples of the evolution of the electric field vector (black). the two components may not have the same amplitude. these components have two other defining characteristics that can differ. For a simple harmonic wave. The electric field vector of a plane wave may be arbitrarily divided into two perpendicular components labeled x and y (with z indicating the direction of travel). In this case the ratio of the strengths of the two components is constant. Since the tip of the vector traces out a single line in the plane. the two components may not have the same phase. Second. the two orthogonal (perpendicular) components are in phase. along with its x and y components (red/left and blue/right). the two components have exactly the same frequency. that is they may not reach their maxima and minima at the same time.Theory:Basics: plane waves The simplest manifestation of polarization to visualize is that of a plane wave. so the direction of the electric vector (the vector sum of these two components) is constant. and the path traced by the tip of the vector in the plane (yellow in figure 1&3. In the leftmost figure above. Conventionally. The direction of this line depends on the relative amplitudes of the two components. impose the transversality requirement that the electric and magnetic field be perpendicular to the direction of propagation and to each other.
The picture on the right uses the filter. depending on which way the electric vector rotates and the chosenconvention.
Most sources of electromagnetic radiation contain a large number of atoms or molecules that emit light. partially polarized light can be described as a superposition of a completely unpolarized component.
. If the polarization is consistent across the spectrum of the source. One may then describe the light in terms of the degree of polarization. and the parameters of the polarization ellipse. In this special case the electric vector traces out a circle in the plane. and a completely polarized one. the light is partially polarized. the two orthogonal components have exactly the same amplitude and are exactly ninety degrees out of phase. The orientation of the electric fields produced by these emitters may not be correlated. These cases are called righthand circular polarization and left-hand circular polarization. There are two possible phase relationships that satisfy this requirement: the x component can be ninety degrees ahead of the y component or it can be ninety degrees behind the y component. in which case the light is said to be unpolarized. so this special case is called circular polarization. In this case one component is zero when the other component is at maximum or minimum amplitude. The direction the field rotates in depends on which of the two phase relationships exists.
Figure 4-The effects of a polarizing filter on the sky in a photograph.In the middle figure. If there is partial correlation between the emitters.
Then the images are placed into a single strip of film in alternating order. High frame rates (typically ~100fps) are required to produce seamless graphics. The film is then run at 48 frames-per-second instead of the traditional 24 frames-per-second. there is the first left-eye image. Several short films and one feature-length film were shown by running left-eye and right-eye prints in a pair of interlocked projectors with their shutters operating out of phase. confined its use to this one engagement.
Application in gaming:The same method of alternating frames can be used to render modern 3-D games into true 3-D. Special software or hardware is used generate two channels of images. The glasses also contain special radio receivers. Each seat in the auditorium was equipped with a viewing device containing a rapidly rotating mechanical shutter synchronized with the projector shutters. then the corresponding right-eye image. In 1922. Again. then the next left-eye image. which had to be supported on adjustable stands. The movie is filmed with two cameras like most other 3-D films. although a similar method involving alternate fields has been used to give a 3D illusion on consoles as old as the Sega Master System and Nintendo Famicom. The audience wears very specialized LCD shutter glasses that have lenses that can open and close in rapid succession. In other words. Aside from
. offset from each other to create the stereoscopic effect. The system worked. The glasses switch eyes as the different frames come on the screen. as the perceived frame rate will be half the actual rate (each eye sees only half the total number of frames). the availability of lightweight optoelectronic shutters has led to an updated revival of this display method. Alternate-frame sequencing:Application in Films:The principle made its public debut remarkably early. the Teleview 3-D system was installed in a single theater in New York City. LCD shutter glasses synchronised with the graphics card complete the effect. The projection system has a transmitter that tells the glasses which eye to have open. but the expense of the installation and the unwieldiness of the viewers. In recent decades. followed by the corresponding right-eye image and so on.
Head-mounted display :. Some vendors employ multiple micro-displays to increase total resolution and field of view. most notably Sega's Sub-Roc 3D in 1982.
Figure 6-A professional head-mounted display (HMD).
. Liquid crystal on silicon (LCos). eye-glasses (also known as data glasses) or visor. and Taito's 1987 racer.
Figure 5-A binocular head-mounted display (HMD)
Overview:A typical HMD has either one or two small displays with lenses and semi-transparent mirrors embedded in a helmet.consoles. Namco's Thunder Ceptor II in 1986. alternating frames to render 3-D images was used in some arcade games. The display units are miniaturised and may include CRT. or OLED. LCDs. Continental Circus.
Figure 7-Autostereoscopy is any method of displaying stereoscopic images
. and multiple views so that the display does not need to sense where the viewers' eyes are located. and light field displays. lenticular. electro-holographic. There are two broad approaches currently used to accommodate motion parallax and wider viewing angles: eye-tracking. Examples of autostereoscopic displays include parallax barrier. volumetric. Because headgear is not required. it is also called "glasses-free 3D" or "glassesless 3D". Without Lenses:Autostereoscopy:Autostereoscopy is any method of displaying stereoscopic images (adding binocular perception of 3D depth) without the use of special headgear or glasses on the part of the viewer.
If we imagine projecting an object point in a scene along the line-of-sight for each eye. The binocular shift is positive for the left-eye-view and negative for the right-eye-view. which was used in Doctor Who Dimensions in Time. Besides Hitachi. by a factor of D/(D-x). we may describe the location of this point mathematically using simple algebra. with cameras mounted side by side and separated by the same distance as is between a person's pupils. Such multiple views can be created on the fly using the 2D plus depth format. Multi-view displays either use head tracking to change the view depending on the viewing angle. and the Pulfrich effect. s is the eye separation (about 7 centimeters). volumetric display. Sony is also working on similar technologies. In rectangular coordinates with the screen lying in the Y-Z plane. and x is the true x coordinate of the object point. to a flat background screen. with the viewer centered along the X axis. It involves capturing stereo pairs in a two-view setup. Stereoscopy is the most widely accepted method for capturing and delivering 3D video. in turn.
. in 1993. Hitachi released glasses-free 3D projection systems that use a set of 24 projectors. while binocular shift contributes an additional term (to the Y coordinate only) of s*x/(2*(D-x)). we find that the screen coordinates are simply the sum of two terms. it is obvious that the eyes will be looking along essentially the same line of sight. lenses. where D is the distance from the selected system origin to the viewer (right between the eyes). Various other display techniques have been described. such as holography. Single-view displays project only one stereo pair at a time. Other:In a CEATEC 2011 exhibition. and translucent half mirrors to superimpose 3D images with a horizontal viewing angle of 60 degrees and a vertical viewing angle of 30 degrees. or simultaneous projection of multiple independent views of a scene for multiple viewers (automultiscopic). One accounting for perspective and the other for binocular shift. and by the Discovery Channel's Shark Week in 2000. For very distant object points. with the Z axis upward and the Y axis to the right. Perspective modifies the Z and Y coordinates of the object point. by 3rd Rock From The Sun in 1997.
the Nine Network and Special Broadcasting Service will be bringing the State of Origin (matches on 26 May. Imax. 16 June and 7 July 2010) (Nine) and FIFA World Cup (SBS) in 3D on Channel 40 respectively. Also in Australia. 3D programming is broadcast on Japanese satellite BS11 approximately four times per day. and Sony announced plans to launch a 3D TV channel in the US with a planned launch in early 2011. including MSG's 3D broadcast of a New York Rangers-New York Islanders game. Cablevision launched a 3D version of its MSG channel on 24 March 2010. limited coverage of the 2010 Masters Tournament. Broadcasts:-
As of 2008. and (in cooperation with YES Network) a game between the New York Yankees and Seattle Mariners. In early 2010. a Russian company
. The first Australian program broadcast in high-definition 3D was Fox Sports coverage of the soccer game Australia-New Zealand on 24 May 2010. Discovery Communications. available only to Cablevision subscribers on channel 1300. The channel is dedicated primarily to sports broadcasts. At the same time.
But despite their technology. due to a variety of medical conditions. This nullifies or greatly decreases immersion effects of digital stereo to them.
Health Effects:Some viewers have complained of headaches and visual problems after watching 3D TV and films.
. In Brazil Rede TV! became the first Terrestrial television to transmit 3D signal freely for all 3D enabled audience on 21 May. According to another experiment up to 30% of people have very weak stereoscopic vision preventing them from depth perception based on stereo disparity.Platform HD and its partners – General Satellite and Samsung Electronics – announced about their 3D television project. There have been several warnings. It is believed that approximately 12% of people are unable to properly see 3D images. its programming is still in poor quality. which would be the first similar project in Russia. especially for the elderly.
REFERENCES: http://seminarprojects.wikipedia.com http://en.org