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# RECOMMENDED PRACTICE DNV-RP-C203

**FATIGUE DESIGN OF OFFSHORE STEEL STRUCTURES
**

APRIL 2008

Since issued in print (April 2008), this booklet has been amended, latest in October 2008. See the reference to “Amendments and Corrections” on the next page.

DET NORSKE VERITAS

FOREWORD

DET NORSKE VERITAS (DNV) is an autonomous and independent foundation with the objectives of safeguarding life, property and the environment, at sea and onshore. DNV undertakes classification, certification, and other verification and consultancy services relating to quality of ships, offshore units and installations, and onshore industries worldwide, and carries out research in relation to these functions. DNV Offshore Codes consist of a three level hierarchy of documents: — Offshore Service Specifications. Provide principles and procedures of DNV classification, certification, verification and consultancy services. — Offshore Standards. Provide technical provisions and acceptance criteria for general use by the offshore industry as well as the technical basis for DNV offshore services. — Recommended Practices. Provide proven technology and sound engineering practice as well as guidance for the higher level Offshore Service Specifications and Offshore Standards. DNV Offshore Codes are offered within the following areas: A) Qualification, Quality and Safety Methodology B) Materials Technology C) Structures D) Systems E) Special Facilities F) Pipelines and Risers G) Asset Operation H) Marine Operations J) Wind Turbines O) Subsea Systems

**Amendments and Corrections
**

This document is valid until superseded by a new revision. Minor amendments and corrections will be published in a separate document normally updated twice per year (April and October). For a complete listing of the changes, see the “Amendments and Corrections” document located at: http://webshop.dnv.com/global/, under category “Offshore Codes”. The electronic web-versions of the DNV Offshore Codes will be regularly updated to include these amendments and corrections.

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Amended October 2008 see note on front cover

Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203, April 2008 Changes – Page 3

Main changes April 2008 — The principal stress direction in Figure 2-2 is changed from 60° to equations combining stress normal to the weld and shear stress when fatigue cracking along the weld toe is the most likely failure mode and a function of maximum principal stress when the main stress direction is more parallel to the weld. — Some guidance on how to consider principal stress direction relative to the weld toe with respect to selection of S-N curve is included in the commentary section. — Guidance on derivation of an effective thickness to be used together with the S-N curve for cast joints subjected to some bending moment over the thickness is given. — The δ0 in equations for stress concentration factors for butt welds in pipelines is removed due to rather strict tolerances used in pipeline fabrication and it can not be documented that a large tolerance δ0 is embedded in the S-N data used in design. — A commentary section on stress concentration factors for details in pipelines and cylindrical tanks with stress cycling mainly due to internal pressure is included. This includes circumferential welds and longitudinal welds in pipes. — The section on grouted joints is extended to include joints with the annulus between tubular members filled with grout such as joints in jacket legs with insert piles. — Stress concentration factors at circumferential butt welds in tubulars subjected to axial load are included for thickness transitions on inside and for welds made from outside only. — Some printing errors have been corrected and some of the texts have been revised to improve readability.

DET NORSKE VERITAS

Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203. April 2008 Page 4 – Changes Amended October 2008 see note on front cover DET NORSKE VERITAS .

.......3 Tubular joints and members......... 22 APP........ 11 Fillet welds.............1 1...4.................18 Design chart for fillet and partial penetration welds ...... 23 Tubular joints welded from one side .............7 4.....5 8.. 34 Example of use of design charts. 18 Combined eccentricity for fatigue analysis of seamless pipes.................................................... SIMPLIFIED FATIGUE ANALYSIS .............1 2........3........ 30 Welded connections other than tubular joints ..........3......3 A..............3 3....... 32 Limitations for simple connections ................................................................................................3........... 30 Tubular joints.................18 General.....................................2 5... Bolted connections .......................................3........................................................ 25 Stress concentration factors for tubular butt weld connections ...... 44 2....3.5 t ...... 12 S-N curves in air .................. 10 Plated structures using hot spot stress S-N curves........... 7 Low cycle and high cycle fatigue ....... 40 EXTENDED FATIGUE LIFE.....5 3..18 Bolts ......... 39 Weld profiling by machining and grinding ..........1................10 3...............................4 2...2....3 2........................ 31 5........... 18 Bolts subjected to shear loading .....1...................................... 27 Stress concentration factors for tubulars subjected to axial force ..................................................... 30 4. 41 Requirements to in-service inspection for fatigue cracks....... 7..........................................2 Stress concentration factors for ship details ................................... 4...1 2..............2 2................ 12 Fillet welded bearing supports............... 20 Stress concentration factors for cruciform joints................................. 39 General.... 16 S-N curves for base material of high strength steel.3........... 21 Stress concentration factors for holes with edge reinforcement... 2.............2............. 11 Tubular joints ..........2 3................ 9 Introduction ...... 7 Temperature....6 2...............................2......................................... 16 S-N curves for forged nodes .....................5 2....................1 4.............. April 2008 Page 5 CONTENTS 1.............. 15 S-N curves for cast nodes .......9................5 4.............5 3........................................................3. 29 Stress concentration factors for joints with gusset plates .6 3.......... 31 FE modelling .................................3.. 34 Fatigue design charts ..................................... 7 General ....3....3 Material....................4 3.. 18 Bolts subjected to tension loading ...........................4 1................................3.........................3 General...........9 2..........1 9.....................3 7...... 40 TIG dressing .......9 2...................3............. 24 Grouted tubular joints .............1............ A CLASSIFICATION OF STRUCTURAL DETAILS...................................3 3........ 19 SCFs for pipes with internal pressure......1 5......................................... 19 Pipelines and risers.... 17 S-N curves ........................ 25 Stress concentration factors for stiffened shells ....2 4....Amended October 2008 see note on front cover Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203............ 20 Stress concentration factors for rounded rectangular holes .......................5 2.................. 20 Stress concentration factors for butt welds............. 24 Stiffened tubular joints ..............2 2....3 1. 20 Stress concentration factors for plated structures .................. Continuous welds essentially parallel to the direction of applied stress...8 3................................7 2.............3.............................................4.... 27 Stress concentration factors for conical transitions ............................................. 41 General.............................................2 2............................9.....2 1......................... 16 S-N curves for stainless steel..................................8 Stress field at a welded detail .......1 3..............18 2....................1 2..................... 22 Stress concentration factors for scallops..............................7 Definitions ........ 31 Derivation of hot spot stress ..4 2.................7 Symbols.....3 2.......1 3...........4....1..............................................7 3...................... 18 2......................... 38 FATIGUE ANALYSIS BASED ON FRACTURE MECHANICS............................... 7 1..6 Methods for fatigue analysis............... 13 S-N curves in seawater with cathodic protection ..................................................................................... 16 Qualification of new S-N curves based on fatigue test data ....... 32 Verification of analysis methodology.6 Guidance to when a detailed fatigue analysis can be omitted ...........................3................9 Fatigue damage accumulation..................................................................7 Validity of standard............20 STRESS CONCENTRATION FACTORS ................................5 Non-welded details......3..................................5 2..........................3 4.........2 3................9 3..2 A...... Intermittent welds and welds at cope holes.........4................................................................ welded from both sides ...............................3 6..............3..........................4...............................3.......................................................4....... 23 Superposition of stresses in tubular joints ............................10 2...........3.......3.. 39 Weld toe grinding.... 47 48 49 51 52 3....2 10...........................3............................10 General........ 33 CALCULATION OF HOT SPOT STRESS BY FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS........................8...........................3.........................................................11 2........................... 41 UNCERTAINTIES IN FATIGUE LIFE PREDICTION .....................1 3.....8 FATIGUE ANALYSIS BASED ON S-N DATA ............2 2........1..3...............6 4....8 2................................12 4................................2 7.2 INTRODUCTION ......................... 12 3................................ 5..............1 A.......... 9....... 16 S-N curves for free corrosion ....................6 2.....4 2....................................1 2... 39 IMPROVEMENT OF FATIGUE LIFE BY FABRICATION ................................................................. 7............................................................................5 t and 1........................... 25 Cast nodes......... 16 S-N curves for small diameter umbilicals .... 23 1............................. 40 Hammer peening ...................................... 12 Failure criterion inherent the S-N curves.20 General...........9. 44 REFERENCES..................................4 4.8.....3............................4....4...........1 4........4 3.................4 A....12 Stress concentration factors for simple tubular joints .. 31 Derivation of stress at read out points 0.............3.........................................3.........3 2..................8 2................17 Effect of fabrication tolerances .......................7 3.........1 7..........................................12 2............................... 1....4....8......5 2...........10 Fatigue analysis methodology and calculation of Stresses ..........................3.....3 2..................... 10 Plated structures using nominal stress S-N curves ...... 34 General........................4 7...... 31 Hot spot S-N curve ....... 12 S-N curves and joint classification .....10 3.....13 General.................2 4.............. 3.........11 3.4............................. 47 A................................................4.................1........................................ Transverse butt welds....23 DET NORSKE VERITAS ............. 29 Stress concentration factors for joints with square sections..3 Mean stress influence for non welded structures .7 2............4....................................4.........................3......................2 2.................................................... 30 General.1 1....................... 9........................................................................ 14 S-N curves for tubular joints.....................1 2.. 32 Derivation of effective hot spot stress from FE analysis....

....... B SCF’S FOR TUBULAR JOINTS .. 3.....................9............1 C...... 100 Results ........................... 4.......4....................................5 Comm.... 123 D................... 115 Comm.......................2 C. 1.........7 Transverse butt welds............ 2....2....12 Comm.. C SCF’S FOR PENETRATIONS WITH REINFORCEMENTS .....8 Verification of analysis methodology for FE hot spot stress analysis... 3.................9 Comm...3 Stress concentration factors .3 APP..8 Comm......3..................10 Comm.............. 78 SCF’s at man-hole penetrations .... A................. A...... 119 D.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203......... 68 APP.... 129 D.......................2 D.......................3 S-N curves................................ 115 Comm............ 55 56 60 63 66 APP.............................3 SCFs for pipes with internal pressure ... Welded attachments on the surface or the edge of a stressed member ....... 1.......................7 Comm............................. 2........................... 101 DET NORSKE VERITAS ..8 Welded joints with load carrying welds .6 A... 117 D.3 Low cycle and high cycle fatigue.................................... 4............ 121 D..1 Stress concentration factors for simple tubular joints and overlap joints ......................................... 115 D................... 2...... welded from one side .......... 2... 5 Simplified fatigue analysis......2 Plated structures using nominal stress S-N curves........9 Hollow sections ....11 Comm..... 116 D...3........ 2. D COMMENTARY ..2 Combination of fatigue damages from two dynamic processes ...........3 Tubular joints welded from one side 121 D.......9 S-N curves and efficiency of corrosion protection . April 2008 Page 6 Amended October 2008 see note on front cover A.................................................. A.......3..............3 SCF’s for small circular penetrations with reinforcement.4 Comm... 119 D...........................10 Details relating to tubular members ...........................1 D..........4.........3 Methods for fatigue analysis ............. 121 D. 115 Comm..... 78 C.....6 Comm.................1 The application of the effective notch stress method for fatigue assessment of structural details ........... 68 B.........

1. should be performed. and which appear in the tables of this Recommended Practice. April 2008 Page 7 1. The part of the stress range history contributing most significantly to the fatigue damage should be most carefully evaluated. 1. For effect of the shape parameter on fatigue damage see also design charts in Figure 5-1 and Figure 5-2. Eccentricity: Misalignment of plates at welded connections measured transverse to the plates.2. Crack propagation threshold: Limiting value of stress intensity factor range below which the stress cycles are considered to be non-damaging. a more accurate investigation considering a larger portion of the structure.2.10. 1. should be carried out for each individual member. ASTM A490 or equivalent. every welded joint and attachment or other form of stress concentration. Hot spot: A point in structure where a fatigue crack may initiate due to the combined effect of structural stress fluctuation and the weld geometry or a similar notch. Local nominal stress: Nominal stress including macro-geometric effects.372 ⋅ 10 −6 T 2 (1. See also Appendix D. See also Appendix D. which contribute to fatigue damage. Introduction 1. A practical application of this is to establish a long term stress range history that is on the safe side. Fatigue limit: Fatigue strength under constant amplitude loading corresponding to a high number of cycles large enough to be considered as infinite by a design code. should be considered. For steel materials in seawater with cathodic protection or steel with free corrosion the Recommended Practice is valid up to 550 MPa. supported where appropriate by a detailed fatigue analysis.2. Fatigue deterioration of a component caused by crack initiation and/or by the growth of cracks. concentrated load effects and misalignments. establishing the stress history. Fatigue damage ratio: Ratio of fatigue damage at considered number of cycles and the corresponding fatigue life at constant amplitude loading. is potentially a source of fatigue cracking and should be individually considered. or a fracture mechanics analysis. Dynamic effects shall be duly accounted for when DET NORSKE VERITAS . The reduced resistance in the S-N curves can be derived by a modification of the log as: Log a RT = Log a + m Log RT (1. which can be defined as expected number of cycles at each stress range level during the predicted life span. it should be documented that there is a sufficient time interval between time of crack detection during in-service inspection and the time of unstable fracture. a shape parameter to the safe side should be used. It should be noted that the shape parameter h in the Weibull distribution has a significant impact on calculated fatigue damage.2. If the fatigue life estimate based on S-N data is short for a component where a failure may lead to severe consequences.239 ⋅ 10 −3 T − 1.2 Temperature This Recommended Practice is valid for material temperatures of up to 100°C. Calculated fatigue lives also form the basis for efficient inspection programmes during fabrication and the operational life of the structure.2) 1. see also ref. Fracture mechanics: A branch of mechanics dealing with the behaviour and strength of components containing cracks. determined by fatigue testing of the considered welded detail. This Recommended Practice may be used for stainless steel.3 Low cycle and high cycle fatigue This Recommended Practice has been produced with the purpose of assessing fatigue damage in the high cycle region.2. 1. disregarding the stress raising effects of the welded joint itself. Commentary. and the linear damage hypothesis. which is subjected to fatigue loading. The aim of fatigue design is to ensure that the structure has an adequate fatigue life.1 General This Recommended Practice presents recommendations in relation to fatigue analyses based on fatigue tests and fracture mechanics. For calculations based on fracture mechanics. All significant stress ranges. This Recommended Practice is also valid for bolts in air environment or with protection corresponding to that condition of grades up to 10. Commentary. Crack propagation rate: Amount of crack propagation during one stress cycle.1 Material This Recommended Practice is valid for steel materials in air with yield strength less than 960 MPa.Amended October 2008 see note on front cover Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203. Also referred to as standard structural detail.4 Definitions Classified structural detail: A structural detail containing a structural discontinuity including a weld or welds. Thus. Constant amplitude loading: A type of loading causing a regular stress fluctuation with constant magnitudes of stress maxima and minima. Fatigue action: Load effect causing fatigue. /1/. Fatigue strength: Magnitude of stress range leading to particular fatigue life.0376 − 0.1) where T is given in °C (Derived from figure in IIW document XII-1965-03/XV-1127-03). for which the nominal stress approach is applicable. When appropriate. a fatigue assessment. Design Fatigue Factor: Factor on fatigue life to be used for design. Fatigue resistance: Structural detail’s resistance against fatigue actions in terms of S-N curve or crack propagation properties. See also section 2. The long term distribution of stress ranges may be found by deterministic or spectral analysis. Effective notch stress: Notch stress calculated for a notch with a certain effective notch radius.3 Methods for fatigue analysis The fatigue analysis should be based on S-N data. Conditions for the validity of the Recommended Practice are given in section 1. Fatigue resistance is understood to mean strength capacity. A fatigue analysis may be based on an expected stress history.2. for guidance. Hot spot stress: The value of structural stress on the surface at the hot spot (also known as geometric stress or structural stress). For higher temperatures the fatigue resistance data may be modified with a reduction factor given as: R T = 1.2 Validity of standard 1. the fatigue analysis may alternatively be based on fracture mechanics. Geometric stress: See “hot spot stress”. when the fatigue damage is calculated based on closed form solutions with an assumption of a Weibull long term stress range distribution. To ensure that the structure will fulfil its intended function.9. Fatigue life: Number of stress cycles at a particular magnitude required to cause fatigue failure of the component. It should be noted that any element or member of the structure.

reduction factor on fatigue life SCF stress concentration factor SCFAS stress concentration factor at the saddle for axial load SCFAC stress concentration factor at the crown for axial load SCFMIP stress concentration factor for in plane moment SCFMOP stress concentration factor for out of plane moment Ra surface roughness RT reduction factor on fatigue resistance T thickness of chord Te equivalent thickness of chord Td design life in seconds Q probability for exceedance of the stress range Δσ A crack depth ai half crack depth for internal cracks intercept of the design S-N curve with the log N a axis -α e exp(-α) g gap = a/D. Membrane stress: Average normal stress across the thickness of a plate or shell. Structural stress: A stress in a component. Paris’ law: An experimentally determined relation between crack growth rate and stress intensity factor range. In this RP the shorter notation: “Stress concentration factor” (SCF) is used. Thus the notch stress consists of the sum of structural stress and non-linear stress peak. diameter of chord Design Fatigue Factor cylinder diameter at junction Young’s modulus fatigue life moment of inertia of tubulars maximum and minimum stress intensity factors respectively stress concentration factor due to weld geometry Kmax . a bend in flange not supported by diaphragms or stiffeners. Stress range block: A part of a total spectrum of stress ranges which is discretized in a certain number of blocks. eccentricity in lap joints. weld size k number of stress blocks. Miner sum: Summation of individual fatigue damage ratios caused by each stress cycle or stress range block according to Palmgren-Miner rule. Stress intensity factor: Factor used in fracture mechanics to characterise the stress at the vicinity of a crack tip. Notch stress: Total stress at the root of a notch taking into account the stress concentration caused by the local notch. Stress range: The difference between stress maximum and stress minimum in a stress cycle. Variable amplitude loading: A type of loading causing irregular stress fluctuation with stress ranges (and amplitudes) of variable magnitude. 1. usually found in tables of classified structural details.5 Symbols C D DFF Dj E F I Kmax Kmin Kw ΔK L N Ni material parameter accumulated fatigue damage. Misalignment: Axial and angular misalignments caused either by detail design or by fabrication. Macro-geometric effect: A stress raising effect due to macrogeometry in the vicinity of the welded joint. resolved taking into account the effects of a structural discontinuity. The effects of a structural discontinuity are (i) concentration of the membrane stress and (ii) formation of secondary bending stress. using general theories such as beam theory.Kmin length of chord. Stress ratio: Ratio of minimum to maximum value of the stress in a cycle. Palmgren-Miner rule: Fatigue failure is expected when the Miner sum reaches unity. Structural stress concentration factor: The ratio of hot spot (structural) stress to local nominal stress. a curved part in a beam. Structural discontinuity: A geometric discontinuity due to the type of welded joint. Rainflow counting: A standardised procedure for stress range counting. the effect of which is usually not taken into account in the collection of standard structural details.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203. Nonlinear stress peak: The stress component of a notch stress which exceeds the linearly distributed structural stress at a local notch. April 2008 Page 8 Amended October 2008 see note on front cover Local notch: A notch such as the local geometry of the weld toe. including the toe radius and the angle between the base plate surface and weld reinforcement. Reference is also made to Chapter 9 on uncertainties). S-N curve: Graphical presentation of the dependence of fatigue life (N) on fatigue strength (S). but not due to the welded joint itself. e. Here frequency is the number of occurrences. linearly distributed across the thickness as assumed in the theory of shells. crack growth parameter ni number of stress cycles in stress block i no is the number of cycles over the time period for which the stress range level Δσo is defined tref reference thickness DET NORSKE VERITAS . Macro-geometric discontinuity: A global discontinuity. The local notch does not alter the structural stress but generates non-linear stress peaks. and consisting of membrane and shell bending stress components. h Weibull shape parameter. discontinuities in pressure containing shells. Stress cycle: A part of a stress history containing a stress maximum and a stress minimum. Shell bending stress: Bending stress in a shell or plate like part of a component. Stress range exceedances: A tabular or graphical presentation of the cumulative frequency of stress range exceedances. resolved. length of thickness transition number of cycles to failure number of cycles to failure at constant stress range Δσ i N axial force in tubular R outer radius of considered chord. Nominal stress: A stress in a component. the number of ranges exceeding a particular magnitude of stress range in stress history. i. such as large opening. Notch stress concentration factor: The ratio of notch stress to structural stress. exponent on thickness l segment lengths of the tubular m negative inverse slope of the S-N curve. factor depending on the geometry of the member and the crack. Also referred to as geometric stress or hot spot stress.

The following fatigue cracking failure modes are considered in this document (see also Figure 2-1): — Fatigue crack growth from the weld toe into the base material. Additional stresses resulting from fabrication tolerances for butt welds and cruciform joints should be considered when the fabrication tolerances exceed that inherent the S-N data. However. The fatigue crack is initiated at small defects or undercuts at the weld toe where the stress is highest due to the weld notch geometry. The basis for the design charts is that long term stress ranges can be described by a two parameter Weibull distribution. in some welded connections use of fillet welds can hardly be avoided and it is also efficient for fabrication. For design of simple tubular joints it is standard practice to use parametric equations for derivation of stress concentration factors to obtain hot spot stress for the actual geometry. thickness of brace member cone thickness plate thickness Weibull scale parameter gamma function usage factor the slope angle of the cone. The specified design procedure in this document is considered to provide reliable connections also with respect to this failure mode. Then this hot spot stress is entered a relevant hot spot stress S-N curve for tubular joints. Reference is made to sections 3.Amended October 2008 see note on front cover Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203. Results from performed fatigue analyses are presented in section 5 in terms of design charts that present allowable stresses as function of the Weibull shape parameter. A large amount of the content in this RP is made with the purpose of achieving a reliable design with respect to this failure mode. a) Fatigue crack growth from the weld toe into the base material b) Fatigue crack growth from the weld root through the fillet weld DET NORSKE VERITAS . This can be performed using a full penetration weld along some distance of the stiffener nose. Use of fillet welds should be sought avoided in connections where the failure consequences are large due to less reliable NDE of this type of connection compared with a full penetration weld. — Fatigue crack growth from a surface irregularity or notch into the base material. different Design Fatigue Factors and different plate thickness. The calculated hot spot stress is then entered a hot spot S-N curve for derivation of cycles to failure. In welded structures fatigue cracking from weld toes into the base material is a frequent failure mode. The number of cycles to failure for this failure mode is of a similar magnitude as fatigue cracking from the weld toe in as welded condition.1 and 3. Fatigue cracking in the base material is a failure mode that is of concern in components with high stress cycles.3. shear stress 2. The specified design procedure in this document is considered to provide reliable connections also for fillet welds. Fatigue cracking from root of fillet welds with a crack growth through the weld is a failure mode that can lead to significant consequences. Fatigue crack growth from the weld root into the section under the weld is observed during service life of structures in laboratory fatigue testing. α = L/D d/D eccentricity eccentricity inherent in the S-N curve R/T average zero-up-crossing frequency Poisson’s ratio local stress nominal stress hot spot stress or geometric stress maximum nominal stresses due to axial force maximum nominal stresses due to bending about the y-axis and the z-axis stress range stress range exceeded once out of n0 cycles t/T. When performing finite element analysis for design of plated structures it is often found more convenient to extract hot spot stress from the analysis than that of a nominal stress. There is no methodology that can be recommended used to avoid this failure mode except from using alternative types of welds locally.3. The procedure can be used for different design lives. Also here additional stresses resulting from fabrication tolerances for butt welds and cruciform joints should be considered. Then the fatigue cracks often initiate from notches or grooves in the components or from small surface defects/irregularities. April 2008 Page 9 T tc tp Q Γ η α β δ δ0 γ νo ν σlocal σnominal σhot spot σx σmy σmz Δσ Δσ 0 τ plate thickness. — Fatigue crack growth from the weld root through the fillet weld. Fatigue Analysis Based on S-N Data 2.1 Introduction The main principles for fatigue analysis based on fatigue tests are described in this section. This means that if fatigue life improvement of the weld toe is required the connection will become more highly utilised and it is also required to make improvement for the root. — Fatigue crack growth from the weld root into the section under the weld. Guidance on finite element modelling and hot spot stress derivation is presented in section 4. The fatigue analysis may be based on nominal S-N curves for plated structures when appropriate.

σnominal. this must be taken into account. Derivation of stresses to be used together with the different SN curves are described in more detail in the following section. April 2008 Page 10 Amended October 2008 see note on front cover method as the position of the integration points may have a significant influence on the calculated fatigue life dependent on integration method.1) where D = accumulated fatigue damage a = intercept of the design S-N curve with the log N axis m = negative inverse slope of the S-N curve k = number of stress blocks ni = number of stress cycles in stress block i Ni = number of cycles to failure at constant stress range Δσi η = usage factor = 1 / Design Fatigue Factor from OS-C101 Section 6 Fatigue Limit States. for the weld shown in Figure 2-2 a). adjacent to the weld under consideration.3. the number of stress blocks.3. An example of fatigue design using this procedure is shown in the commentary section (Example with fatigue analysis of a drum). consisting of a convenient number of constant stress range blocks Δσi each with a number of stress repetitions ni the fatigue criterion reads: D=∑ m ni 1 k = ∑ ni ⋅ (Δσ i ) ≤ η i =1 N i a i =1 k Nominal stress is understood to be a stress in a component that can be derived by classical theory such as beam theory. This approach is foreseen used only in special cases where it is found difficult to reliably assess the fatigue life using other methods). giving the relevant local stress equal to SCF σnominal. where SCF is the stress concentration factor due to the hole. the stress concentration factor for the global geometry must in addition be accounted for.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203. Reference is made to commentary section for derivation of fatigue damage calculated from different processes. For the weld shown in Figure 2-2 b). — Notch stress S-N curve that is not used in the main part of this RP. As an example. k. (The notch stress due to the local weld geometry is excluded from the stress calculation as it is assumed to be accounted for in the corresponding hot spot S-N curve. Due consideration should be given to selection of integration DET NORSKE VERITAS . Hot spot stress is understood to be the geometric stress created by the considered detail. the relevant local stress for fatigue design would be the tensile stress. should be large enough to ensure reasonable numerical accuracy. and should not be less than 20. However. See also section 5 for calculation of fatigue damage using design charts. 2. When the long-term stress range distribution is expressed by a stress histogram. 2. Thus the local (2. if the joint is situated in a region of stress concentration resulting from the gross shape of the structure. The notch stress is defined as the total stress resulting from the geometry of the detail and the non-linear stress field due to the notch at the weld toe).3 for plated structures and in section 2. (A notch stress S-N curve is listed in the commentary that can be used together with finite element analysis where the local notch is modelled by an equivalent radius.1 General Fatigue analysis may be based on different methodologies depending on what is found most efficient for the considered structural detail.3. d) Fatigue crack growth from a surface irregularity or notch into the base material Figure 2-1 Explanation of different fatigue failure modes c) Fatigue crack growth from the weld root into the section under the weld 2. The design stress can therefore be regarded as the nominal stress. In a simple plate specimen with an attachment as shown in Figure 4-1 the nominal stress is simply the membrane stress that is used for plotting of the S-N data from the fatigue testing.2.4 for tubular joints. e. The procedure for the fatigue analysis is based on the assumption that it is only necessary to consider the ranges of cyclic stresses in determining the fatigue endurance (i.3. It is thus important that the stresses are calculated in agreement with the definition of the stresses to be used together with a particular S-N curve. Three different concepts of S-N curves are defined: — Nominal stress S-N curve that is described in section 2.2.3 Fatigue analysis methodology and calculation of Stresses 2. Applying a histogram to express the stress distribution. mean stresses are neglected for fatigue assessment of welded connections).2 Plated structures using nominal stress S-N curves The joint classification and corresponding S-N curves takes into account the local stress concentrations created by the joints themselves and by the weld profile.2 Fatigue damage accumulation The fatigue life may be calculated based on the S-N fatigue approach under the assumption of linear cumulative damage (Palmgren-Miner rule). Different concepts of S-N curves are developed and referred to in the literature and in this RP.3. — Hot spot stress S-N curve that is described in section 2.

3.2 Plated structures using nominal stress S-N curves. ϕ.4 Tubular joints For a tubular joint. i. 2. A relation between nominal where SCF is structural stress concentration factor normally denoted as stress concentration factor. see section 4. The effect of stress direction relative to the weld toe as shown in Figures 2-3 and 2-4 when using finite element analysis and hot spot stress S-N curve is presented in section 4. The maximum principal stress is considered to be a significant parameter for analysis of fatigue crack growth.1) σ local = SCF σ nominal σ hot spot = SCF σ nominal (2. When the principal stress direction is different from that of the normal to the weld toe.3. This means that the notch at the weld toe does no longer significantly influence the fatigue capacity and a higher S-N curve applies for this stress direction.2) σlocal shall be used together with the relevant S-N curves D through G.3. April 2008 Page 11 stress is derived as stress and hot spot stress may be defined as (2. More guidance on this for use of nominal S-N curves is presented in commentary D. brace to chord connection.4. 2. Figure 2-2 Explanation of local stresses DET NORSKE VERITAS . the stress to be used for design purpose is the range of idealised hot spot stress defined by: the greatest value of the extrapolation of the maximum principal stress distribution immediately outside the region effected by the geometry of the weld. dependent on joint classification. but may initiate in the weld and grow normal to the principal stress direction as shown in Figure 2-4.3) SCF = stress concentration factor as given in section 3. The hot spot stress to be used in combination with the T-curve is calculated as σ hot where spot = SCF σ nominal (2.3 for further guidance. As the angle between the principal stress direction and the normal to the weld. it becomes conservative to use the principle stress range together with a classification of the connection for stress range normal to the weld toe as shown in Figure 2-3.3.Amended October 2008 see note on front cover Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203. e.3.3. fatigue cracking may no longer initiate along the weld toe.3.3. is increased further.4 Comm.3 Plated structures using hot spot stress S-N curves For detailed finite element analysis of welded plate connections other than tubular joints it may also be convenient to use the alternative hot spot stress for fatigue life assessment. 2.

For practical purpose one defines these failures as being crack growth through the thickness.6% probability of survival. including tube to plate.4 S-N curves Section Figure 2-3 Fatigue cracking along weld toe 2. For simple test specimens the testing is performed until the specimens have failed. Other types of joint. g. at the weld ends. this failure criterion for S-N curves for tubular corresponds approximately to the thickness at the hot spot (chord or brace as relevant). this means that this failure criterion corresponds to a crack size that is somewhat less than the plate thickness.3. The design S-N curves which follows are based on the mean-minus-two-standard-deviation curves for relevant experimental data. If it is assumed that compressive loading is transferred through contact. As these tests are not very different from that of the actual behaviour in a structure. maximum compression and maximum tension) should be considered to be transmitted through the welds for fatigue assessments.4. and in the weld Δτ // Δσ ⊥ Δσ // ϕ Principal stress direction Weld toe Fatigue crack Section Figure 2-4 Fatigue cracking when principal stress direction is more parallel with weld toe 2.2 Δτ 2 // (2. it should be verified that the contact will not be lost during the welding. each with a corresponding design S-N curve. the total stress fluctuation should be considered to be transmitted through the welds for fatigue assessment.6 Fillet welded bearing supports Where support plating below bearings are designed with fillet welded connection. For details with the same calculated damage.3 S-N curves and joint classification For practical fatigue design. it should be verified that fatigue cracking of the weld will not occur. the initiation period of a fatigue crack takes longer time for a notch in base material than at a weld toe or weld root. 2. Table 2-2 and Table 2-3. welded joints are divided into several classes. 2. It should be noted that. 2. When this failure criterion is transferred into a crack size in a real structure where some redistribution of stress is more likely. which are obtained from fatigue tests.3. depending upon: — the geometrical arrangement of the detail — the direction of the fluctuating stress relative to the detail — the method of fabrication and inspection of the detail.1 General The fatigue design is based on use of S-N curves. Thus a crack can grow through the thickness and also along a part of the joint before a fracture occur during the testing. These joints also show larger possibility for redistribution of stresses as a crack is growing. where possible. be placed in its relevant joint class in accordance with criteria given in Appendix A. The total stress fluctuation (i.4. All tubular joints are assumed to be class T.3. Even though the joint may be required to carry wholly compressive stresses and the plate surfaces may be machined to fit. This also means that with a higher fatigue resistance of the base material as compared with welded details. The actual installation condition including maximum construction tolerances should be accounted for.5 Fillet welds The relevant stress range for potential cracks in the weld throat of load-carrying fillet-welded joints and partial penetration welded joints may be calculated as: 2 2 Δσ w = Δσ ⊥ + Δτ ⊥ + 0. The S-N curves are thus associated with a 97. In these specimens there is no possibility for redistribution of stresses during crack growth. Each construction detail at which fatigue cracks may potentially develop should.4. in any welded joint.2 Failure criterion inherent the S-N curves Most of the S-N data are derived by fatigue testing of small specimens in test laboratories. The number of cycles at a crack size through the thickness is used when the S-N curves are derived.4) where the stress components are explained in Figure 2-5.e. may fall in one of the 14 classes specified in Table 2-1. at the weld toe in each of the parts joined. April 2008 Page 12 Amended October 2008 see note on front cover Δτ // Δσ ⊥ Δσ // ϕ Principal stress direction Weld toe Fatigue crack 2. The tests with tubular joints are normally of a larger size. the crack growth will be faster in base material when fatigue cracks are growing. there are several locations at which fatigue cracks may develop. This means that most of the fatigue life is associated with growth of a small crack that grows faster as the crack size increases until fracture.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203. e. σ Throat section τ τ Figure 2-5 Explanation of stresses on the throat section of a fillet weld DET NORSKE VERITAS .

Then the size effect should be carefully considered using probabilistic theory to achieve a reliable design. Reference is made to Appendix D.78 41. The fatigue strength of welded joints is to some extent dependent on plate thickness. However. Each location should be classified separately. 2.43 1.606 Fatigue limit at 10 7 cycles *) 106.30 for SCF >10.606 15.592 12. Table 2-2 and Table 2-3.845 13.3) where m = negative inverse slope of the S .2) = thickness through which a crack will most likely grow.0 4.59 73.0 17.576 14. To some extent it also accounts for size of weld and attachment.146 16.4.97 93. For bolts tref = 25 mm Table 2-1 S-N curves in air S-N curve N ≤ 10 7 cycles m1 B1 B2 C C1 C2 D E F F1 F3 G W1 W2 W3 T 4. In the low cycle region the maximum stress range is that of the B1 curve as shown in Figure 2-6. = 0.2.27 1. g. This effect is due to the local geometry of the weld toe in relation to thickness of the adjoining plates.0 3.856 16.75 29.164 12.00 *) see also section 2.25 0.0 3.05 52.61 1.261 11.0 log a1 N > 10 7 cycles log a 2 m2 = 5.0 3.32 23. Commentary.48 52.0 3. April 2008 Page 13 itself.25 0.10 65. Commentary. for offshore structures subjected to typical wave and wind loading the main contribution to fatigue damage is in the region N > 106 cycles and the bilinear S-N curves defined in Table 2-1 can be used.0 3. See also effect of profiling on thickness effect in section 7. The thickness exponent is considered to account for different size of plate through which a crack will most likely grow.350 15.0 3. it does not account for weld length or length of component different from that tested such as e.855 11.52 36. It is also dependent on the stress gradient over the thickness.15 0.0 3.00 1.63 Thickness exponent k Structural stress concentration embedded in the detail (S-N class). The thickness effect is accounted for by a modification on stress such that the design S-N curve for thickness larger than the reference thickness reads: ⎛ ⎛ t log N = log a − m log⎜ Δσ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ t ref ⎝ ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ k In general the thickness exponent is included in the design equation to account for a situation that the actual size of the structural component considered is different in geometry from that the S-N data are based on.0 0.091 14.885 12.546 11.0 3.25 0.010 11.50 1.25 0.50 58.63 46. The basic design S-N curve is given as log N = log a − m log Δσ t (2.970 12.39 21.4.3. t = tref is used for thickness less than tref = thickness exponent on fatigue strength as given in Table 2-1.107 10.00 2.081 15. ref.0 3.101 13.24 26.25 2.15 0.80 2.4.449 12.835 15.15 0.4.0 3. also equation (2.0 3.20 0.25 for SCF ≤ 10. see Appendix D.25 for threaded bolts subjected to stress variation in the axial direction.0 3.N curve log a = intercept of log N axis tref = reference thickness equal 25 mm for welded connections other than tubular joints.2) 15.Amended October 2008 see note on front cover Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203. loga = log a − 2 s where a s = = constant relating to mean S-N curve standard deviation of log N.25 0.25 0.164 0 0 0.0 1.398 11.832 14.4 S-N curves in air S-N curves for air environment are given in Table 2-1 and Figure 2-6.699 11. However. ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (2.13 1. design of mooring systems with a significant larger number of chain links in the actual mooring line than what the test data are based on.10 for tubular butt welds made from one side = 0.320 16.617 15.0 3.10 DET NORSKE VERITAS .117 14. The T curve is shown in Figure 2-8.330 14.84 32.1) k k k N Δσ m = = = = loga predicted number of cycles to failure for stress range Δσ stress range negative inverse slope of S-N curve intercept of log N-axis by S-N curve (2.25 0.301 12. For tubular joints the reference thickness is 32 mm.20 0.

25 0.764 11.845 13.707 10.10 4.0 3.4.5 S-N curves in seawater with cathodic protection S-N curves for seawater environment with cathodic protection are given in Table 2-2 and Figure 2-7.78 41.63 46.15 0.617 15.0 14.146 16.917 14.39 21.330 14.606 15.146 10.455 11.61 1.00E+05 1.00E+06 Number of cycles 1.30 for SCF >10.75 29.299 11.80 2.25 for SCF ≤ 10.576 14.0 3.685 12.0 3.081 15.63 Thickness exponent k Stress concentration in the SN detail as derived by the hot spot method 0 0 0.0 B1 B2 C C1 C2 D E F F1 F3 G W1 W2 W3 T *) see also 2. April 2008 Page 14 Amended October 2008 see note on front cover 1000 B1 Stress range (MPa) B2 C C1 100 C2 D E F F1 F3 G W1 W2 W3 10 1.43 1.10 65.00E+04 1.0 4.24 26.84 32.320 16.15 0.049 11.350 15.59 73.4.13 1.25 2.27 1.00 1.0 3.764 17.0 3.25 0.52 36.192 12.0 3.00 2.25 0.25 0.50 1.0 0. The T curve is shown in Figure 2-8.97 93.835 15.606 106.20 0. For shape of S-N curves see also comment in 2.4.50 58.25 0.570 11.15 0.05 52.0 3.0 3.901 11. Table 2-2 S-N curves in seawater with cathodic protection S-N curve N ≤ 10 6 cycles N > 10 6 cycles Fatigue limit at 10 7 cycles*) loga2 m1 loga1 m2= 5.091 14.0 3.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.0 3.25 0.00E+08 Figure 2-6 S-N curves in air 2.0 1.832 14.0 3.20 0.861 10.48 52.998 10.101 13.00E+07 1.25 0.856 16.610 11.32 23.0 3.00 DET NORSKE VERITAS .0 3.

00E+05 1.00E+04 1. Table 2-2 and Table 2-3.00E+07 1.00E+08 1. 1000 In air 100 Stress range (MPa) Seawater with cathodic protection 10 1 1.00E+08 Figure 2-7 S-N curves in seawater with cathodic protection 2.Amended October 2008 see note on front cover Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.00E+06 1.4.00E+05 1.00E+07 1. April 2008 Page 15 1000 Stress range (MPa) B1 B2 100 C C1 C2 D E F F1 F3 G W1 W2 W3 10 1.00E+09 Number of cycles Figure 2-8 S-N curves for tubular joints in air and in seawater with cathodic protection DET NORSKE VERITAS .00E+04 1.6 S-N curves for tubular joints S-N curves for tubular joints in air environment and in seawater with cathodic protection are given in Table 2-1.00E+06 Number of cycles 1.

1 and Figure 9-3 which indicates fatigue failure probability as function of Design Fatigue Factor.262 0 C 12. under the hot spot tactual = thickness of cast piece at considered hot spot measured normal to the surface te = effective thickness.4.2 or better the following design S-N curve can be used for fatigue assessment of the base material Log N = 17.115 0. Reference is made to section 9. For cast nodes with a stress gradient over the thickness a reduced effective thickness may be used for assessment of thickness effect.0 to 10 mm the following S-N curve can be used for fatigue assessment For N ≤ 10 7 : ⎧ ⎪ Log N = 14.4.4.436 0 B2 12.4. Table 2-3 S-N curves in seawater for free corrosion log a S-N curve Thickness exponent k For all cycles m = 3. The thickness exponent k = 0 for this S-N curve.70 LogS).4.8 S-N curves for forged nodes For forged nodes the B1 curve may be used for nodes designed with a Design Fatigue Factor equal to 10. The effective thickness to be used in equation (2.15 2.4.378 0.4.068 0.25 for SCF ≤ 10.0 Air 100 Seawater with cathodic protection 10 10000 100000 1000000 10000000 100000000 Number of cycles Figure 2-9 S-N curve for high strength steel (HS – curve) 2.15 C1 11. However.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203. i. For cast nodes a reference thickness tref = 38 mm may be used provided that any possible repair welds have been ground to a smooth surface.533 0.5) ⎛S t e = t actual ⎜ i ⎜S ⎝ 0 Where ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 1/ k In air a fatigue limit at 2·106 cycles at a stress range equal 235 MPa can be used.25 G 10.25 W3 10. See also Commentary section for consideration of corrosion protection of connections in the splash zone and inside tanks in FPSOs.e.4.15 C2 11.0 mm DET NORSKE VERITAS .4.11 S-N curves for stainless steel For Duplex and for Super Duplex steel one may use the same classification as for C-Mn steels. k = thickness exponent = 0.222 0. are given in Table 2-3. April 2008 Page 16 Amended October 2008 see note on front cover 2. Tests may give a more optimistic curve. te shall not be less than 38 mm.25 W1 10.3) can be calculated as: For high strength steel with yield strength above 500 MPa and a surface roughness equal Ra = 3.20 F 11.10.4.6) 0.5 and 2.12 S-N curves for small diameter umbilicals For fatigue design of small diameter pipe umbilicals (outer diameter in the range 10 -100 mm) made of super duplex steel with a yield strength larger than 500 MPa with thicknesses in the range 1. 2.9 S-N curves for free corrosion S-N curves for free corrosion.70 LogS (2.30 for SCF >10.4.4. (The mean S-N curve is given by Log N = 17.4) Stress range (MPa) S0 = hot spot stress on surface Si = stress 38 mm below the surface.25 ⎫ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎭ ⎫ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎭ (2.25 F1 11. surface finish and corrosion protection are not met the S-N curves presented in sections 2.824 0.9 should be used.972 0. without corrosion protection. Reference is also made to section 2. For variable amplitude loading with one stress range larger than this fatigue limit a constant slope S-N curve should be used.5 * Log ⎨S ⎪ ⎩ 7 and for N > 10 ⎧ ⎪ Log N = 17. 2.687 0.10 S-N curves for base material of high strength steel The fatigue capacity of the base material is depending on the surface finish of the material and the yield strength.25 W2 10.25 T 11.4.100 − 3. 1000 (2. For seawater with cathodic protection a constant slope S-N curve should be used.7 S-N curves for cast nodes It is recommended to use the C curve for cast nodes.0 B1 12. If requirements to yield strength.20 E 11.446 − 4.784 0. the C curve is recommended in order to allow for weld repairs after possible casting defects and possible fatigue cracks after some service life. Also for austenitic steel one may use the same classification as for C-Mn steels.687 0. (The same as for air to the left of 2·106 cycles.921 0. where t = actual thickness of the umbilical tref = 1.25 F3 11.15 D 11. For designs with DFF less than 10 it is recommended to use the C-curve to allow for weld repair if fatigue cracks should occur during service life.493 0.770 – 4.4.0 0.25 2.630 0. The probability of a repair during service life depends on accumulated fatigue damage. 2. see Figure 2-9).143 − 5.0 * Log ⎨S ⎪ ⎩ ⎛ t ⎜ ⎜t ⎝ ref ⎛ t ⎜ ⎜t ⎝ ref ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 0.

Reference is made to IIW document no IIW-XIII-WG1-11403 for statistical analysis of the fatigue test data. The sensitivity to defects may also be assessed by fracture mechanics. σ t + 0. Thus this S-N curve applies also when number of cycles under reeling is less than 10 and strain range during reeling is less than 2%. However. For multipass welds the acceptance criteria shall be according to ASME B31. 10 10000 100000 1000000 10000000 100000000 1000000000 Num b e r o f cycle s This reduction may e. It is well known that good details where fatigue initiation contribute significantly to the fatigue life show a more horizontal S-N curve than for less good details where the fatigue life consists mainly of crack growth. A detailed NDE inspection for each connection is assumed. The reduction factor can be derived from the following equation fm = Figure 2-10 S-N curves for small diameter pipe for umbilicals 2. app. no indications are acceptable. Normally fatigue test data are derived for number of cycles less than 107. This is an issue that should be kept in mind if less conservative S-N curves than given in this RP are aimed for by qualifying a new S-N curve. Thus how to extrapolate the fatigue test data into this high cycle region is important in order to achieve a reliable assessment procedure.13 Qualification of new S-N curves based on fatigue test data For qualification of new S-N data to be used in a project it is important that the test specimens are representative for the actual fabrication and construction. At least three different stress ranges should be selected in the relevant S-N region such that a representative slope of the S-N curve can be determined. are found by X-ray.4. The defects that normally can be detected by an acceptable probability are normally larger than that inherent in the test specimens that are produced to establish test data for a new S-N curve.1) where σt = maximum tension stress σc = maximum compression stress Figure 2-11 Stress range reduction factor to be used with the S-N curve for base material DET NORSKE VERITAS . The given S-N curve is established from test specimens that are not prestrained from reeling. This includes possibility for relevant production defects as well as fabrication tolerances. the stress range may be reduced if part of the stress cycle is in compression. be carried out for cut-outs in the base material.5 Mean stress influence for non welded structures For fatigue analysis of regions in the base material not significantly affected by residual stresses due to welding. It should be noted that for offshore structures significant fatigue damage occurs for N ≥ 107 cycles.5.Amended October 2008 see note on front cover Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203. Dye penetrant shall be used as a surface test in addition to visual inspection when relevant indications.g. Reference is also made to S-N curves with different slopes shown in this chapter. In addition to statistical analysis one should use engineering judgement based on experience for derivation of the S-N data in this region.4. 1000 It is recommended to perform fatigue testing of at least 15 specimens in order to establish a new S-N curve. The welds on the inside and outside of the pipes should show a smooth transition from the weld to the base material without notches and/or undercuts. For single pass welds.3. chapter IX high pressure service girth groove.6σ c σt + σc (2. April 2008 Page 17 A normal good fabrication of the umbilicals is assumed as basis for this design S-N curve. 1. based on a few test data with prestrained specimens it is considered acceptable to use the S-N curve also for umbilicals that have been reeled. The S-N curve is based on fatigue testing of specimens subjected to a mean stress up to 450 MPa. Stres s range (M P 100 2. The calculated stress range obtained may be multiplied by the reduction factor fm as obtained from Figure 2-11 before entering the S-N curve. The NDE methods are visual inspection and X-ray. as defined by ASME VIII div. Also the probability of detecting defects during a production should be kept in mind in this respect. It should also be remembered that for N ≥ 107 cycles there is additional uncertainty due to variable amplitude loading.

ref. also Table 2-4. Provided that the same acceptance criteria are used for pipelines with larger wall thickness as for that used as reference thickness (25 mm).2 tp = 12 mm tp = 6mm 0 0 0. additional stresses resulting from normal fabrication tolerances should be included in the fatigue design. The membrane stress in the considered section should be used for calculation of local bending stress over the thickness together with stress concentration factor from equation (2. “Maskindeler 2”. For S-N classification see Table A-2 of Appendix A.1) 0.2 Bolts subjected to tension loading Connections where the pretensioned bolts are subjected to dynamic axial forces should be designed with respect to fatigue taking into account the stress range in the bolts resulting from tension and compression range.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203. Stress concentration factors for butt welds are given in section 3.8.301-5. The methodology may be used for fitted bolts or for normal bolts without load reversal. /26/. 2.7 Design chart for fillet and partial penetration welds Design should be performed such that fatigue cracking from the root is less likely than from the toe region.1) 2.7 0.1.8 0. The reason for this is that a fatigue crack at the toe can be found by in-service inspection while a fatigue crack starting at the root can not be discovered before the crack has grown through the weld. ref. The shear stress to be calculated based on the shank area of the bolt.15 for the weld toe. The tolerances are rather strict compared with other structural elements with eccentricity less than 0. April 2008 Page 18 Amended October 2008 see note on front cover 2.3 Bolts subjected to shear loading For bolts subject to shear loading the following methodology may be used for fatigue assessment.7. Table 2-4. This stress concentration factor can be assessed based on the following analytical expression: Figure 2-12 Welded connection with partial penetration weld 1. Then number of cycles to failure can be derived from logN = 16. Figure 2-13 can be used for evaluation of required penetration.4 0.g.2 0. a thickness exponent k = 0 may be used for hot spot at the root and k = 0. Table 2-4.5 2ai/tp 0. (2. ref. The stress range in the bolts may be assessed based on e. The nominal stress on the outside of the pipe should be used for fatigue assessment of the outside and the nominal stress on the inside of the pipe should be used for fatigue assessment of the inside.3. The pretension should be high enough to avoid slipping after relevant loss of pretension during service life. or “Systematic Calculation of High Duty Bolted Joints”.8.4 tp = 50 mm tp = 25 mm 0. It should be added that it is difficult to detect internal defects by NDE in fillet/partial penetration welds.2 and at tubular circumferential welds in section 3.1 0. ref. The threads of the bolts should not be in the shear plane.6 SCF = 1 + Weld root failure 3δm − e t h/tp t/D (2.8 0. Therefore.1 t or maximum 3 mm (t = wall thickness).8. the detail at the root side may be classified as F1 with SCF = 1. Fabrication and Testing of Offshore Structures.9 1 Figure 2-13 Weld geometry with probability of root failure equal toe failure where notations are shown in Figure 3-9.9. 2. DET NORSKE VERITAS . Thus the design of the weld geometry should be performed such that the fatigue life for cracks starting at the root is longer than the fatigue life of the toe.6 Effect of fabrication tolerances Normally larger fabrication tolerances are allowed in real structures than that accounted for in the test specimens used to derive S-N data. The fabrication of pipelines also implies a systematic and standardised NDE of the root area where defects are most critical. ref.6 0. Provided that these requirements are fulfilled. The F-curve and SCF = 1.1 General Welds in pipelines are normally made with a symmetric weld groove with welding from the outside only.9.9. Reference is made to Table 2-4 for other tolerances and welding from both sides. This stress concentration factor can also be used for fatigue assessments of the weld toes.1 General A bolted joint connection subjected to dynamic loading should be designed with pretensioned bolts.2 1 Weld toe failure 0.0.8 Bolts 2. ref.0log Δσ where Δσ = shear stress based on shaft area of bolt.3 0.0 may be used for welding on temporary backing. DNV OS-C401. / 23/. For weld grooves that are not symmetrical in shape a stress concentration for the weld root due to maximum allowable eccentricity should be included. The notation used is explained by Figure 2-12. 2. Such connections should therefore not be used in structural connections of significant importance for the integrity.9 Pipelines and risers 2.1). 2. Special attention should be given to the fabrication tolerances for simple butt welds in plates and tubulars as these give the most significant increase in additional stress.8.

1) with (δm = δTot) can be obtained as: 2 2 δ Tot = δ Thickness + δ Ovality 2. 3 mm) Single side δ > min (0.Amended October 2008 see note on front cover Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203. A resulting tolerance to be used for calculation of stress concentration factor using equation (2.9.Dmin if the pipes are supported such that δOvality δOvality = = flush outside at one point is achieved (no pipe centralising) (Dmax .tmin)/2 δOvality = Dmax .Dmin)/4 if the pipes are centralised during construction and rotated until a good fit around the circumference is achieved Reference is made to DNV-OS-F101 Section 6 Clause E1200 for measurements of tolerances.Dmin)/2 if the pipes are centralised during construction (Dmax .9.3 SCFs for pipes with internal pressure Reference is made to commentary for stress concentration factors for other details in pipelines and cylindrical tanks with stress cycling mainly due to internal pressure.1t. For seamless pipes it is realised that the thickness tolerance contributes by a similar magnitude to the resulting eccentricity.0 Hot spot Hot spot Single side D 0. (2.00 1.1) Hot spot DET NORSKE VERITAS . 3 mm) F3 0.2) where δThickness = (tmax .2 Combined eccentricity for fatigue analysis of seamless pipes For welded pipes it is ovality that normally will govern the resulting eccentricity.0 Hot spot δ ≤ min (0.9.15t.00 SCF 1. (2.0 δ > min (0.1) Double side D 0.15t. Table 2-4 Classification of welds in pipelines Description Welding Geometry and hot spot Tolerance requirement S-N curve F1 Thickness exponent k 0.0 δ ≤ min (0.1t. 2 mm) F1 0. Thus the effect of tolerances can simply be added linearly.00 1.9. 2 mm) Single side on backing F 0.9.00 1. (2.15 Eq.9. April 2008 Page 19 2.15 Eq.

3 ti is misalignment embedded in S-N data for cruci- 3. δ0 = 0. For Design Fatigue Factors larger than 1 the allowable fatigue limit should also here be reduced by a factor (DFF) -0.1.5 ⎤ t ⎢1 + 1. April 2008 Page 20 Amended October 2008 see note on front cover 2. This means that a further fatigue assessment is required. Requirements to detailed fatigue analysis may also be assessed based on the fatigue assessment charts in Figure 5-1 and Figure 5-2.1. S where δm is eccentricity (misalignment) and t is plate thickness. N 3.1 t is misalignment inherent in the S-N data for butt welds.5 ⎥ t ⎦ ⎣ (3. This also means that the fatigue damage from the stress cycles Δσ2 has to be included in the fatigue assessment.1. in the example in Figure 2-15 there is one stress cycle Δσ1 above the fatigue limit. See DNV-OS-C401 for fabrication tolerances.10 Guidance to when a detailed fatigue analysis can be omitted A detailed fatigue analysis can be omitted if the largest local stress range for actual details defined in eq.3. ti = thickness of the considered plate (i = 1. The following formula applies for a butt weld in an unstiffened plate or for a pipe butt weld with a large radius: l3 t2 t3 t1 δ l4 l2 Figure 3-1 Cruciform joint t4 3 (δ m − δ 0 ) SCF = 1 + t l1 (3. δ0 = 0. 2) The other symbols are defined in Figure 3-1. (2. Stress Concentration Factors 3.1 General A stress concentration factor may be defined as the ratio of hot spot stress range over nominal stress range.1 Stress concentration factors for plated structures 3. A detailed fatigue assessment can be omitted if the largest stress cycle is below the fatigue limit.1 t is misalignment inherent in the S-N data for butt Stress cycling Δσ1 Fatigue limit T t welds. = thickness of thicker plate = thickness of thinner plate See also Figure 3-8.1. Note: This applies also at transitions sloped as 1:4. 2) li = length of considered plate (i = 1. The stress concentration for the weld between plates with different thickness in a stiffened plate field may be derived from the following formula: SCF = 1 + 6 (δ m + δ t − δ 0 ) ⎡ T 1. see Figure 3-9.3 Stress concentration factors for cruciform joints The stress concentration factor for cruciform joint at plate thickness ti may be derived from following formula: Figure 2-14 Stress cycling where further fatigue assessment can be omitted SCF = 1 + S Δσ1 Δσ2 Fatigue limit Stress cycling 6 t i (δ − δ 0 ) ⎛ t3 t3 t3 t3 ⎞ li ⎜ 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 ⎟ ⎜l ⎟ ⎝ 1 l 2 l3 l4 ⎠ (3. The use of the fatigue limit is illustrated in Figure 2-14. /28/. For definition of DFF see OS-C101 ref.33.1.1. δ = (δm + δt) is the total eccentricity δ0 = 0. See DNV-OS-C401 for fabrication tolerances.2) where δm = maximum misalignment δt = ½ (T− t) eccentricity due to change in thickness. 3.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.2 Stress concentration factors for butt welds The eccentricity between welded plates may be accounted for in the calculation of stress concentration factor.3) 2 where N Figure 2-15 Stress cycling where a detailed fatigue assessment is required form joints. See DNV-OS-C401 for fabrication tolerances. However.1) DET NORSKE VERITAS .1) is less than the fatigue limit at 107 cycles in Table 2-1 for air and Table 22 for seawater with cathodic protection.

00 2. 5 4 b/a=2.20 3.40 1.00 2.60 1.80 4.4 Stress concentration factors for rounded rectangular holes Stress concentration factors for rounded rectangular holes are given in Figure 3-2.40 1.1 0. /15/).6 Figure 3-2 Stress concentration factors for rounded rectangular holes 3.80 2. Then the increase in stress at the considered detail due to the hole can be evaluated from Figure 3-3.00 1.3 r/b 0.80 1.20 2.40 3.60 2.00 0.40 2.1. the interaction of stress 6 between these should be considered. An example of this is a welded connection in a vicinity of a hole.00 3. Where there is one stress raiser close to another detail being evaluated with respect to fatigue.40 0.60 0.20 1.80 0.Amended October 2008 see note on front cover Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.20 1.0 b/a=1.4 0.60 2.20 2.5 0.80 3.5 2 b/a=0.80 2.00 1.2 0.0 b/a=0. April 2008 Page 21 3.25 r b a 1 0 0 0.20 0.60 3.60 1. Some guidelines on effect of interaction of different holes can be found in Peterson's “Stress Concentration Factors”.5 SCF 3 b/a=1.40 2.00 r r Stress direction Line for calculation Line of stress for calculation of stress x x/r Relative stress 1.00 Relative distance from centre of hole x/r Figure 3-3 Stress distribution at a hole DET NORSKE VERITAS .

The basic stress in the plate as shown in Figure 3-4 is derived from Appendix C. The stress concentration factors are applicable to stiffeners subject to axial loads. Fatigue crack initiating from the weld toe. Equation (3.2Δτ // p 2a (3. and shear stress in the plate parallel with the weld τ//p see Figure 3-4c. Potential fatigue cracking transverse to the weld toe For stresses parallel with the weld the local stress to be used together with the C curve is obtained with SCF from Appendix C (σhot spot in Figure 3-4a). Then the fillet weld is designed for a combined stress obtained as Δσ w = where t 2 2 Δσ n + 0.5 Stress concentration factors for holes with edge reinforcement Stress concentration factors for holes with reinforcement are given in Appendix C.1. maximum compression and maximum tension) should be considered to be transmitted through the welds for fatigue assessments. The principal stress σ1 is the crack driving stress. Fatigue cracking around a circumferential weld may occur at several locations at reinforced rings in plates depending on geometry of ring and weld size. April 2008 Page 22 Amended October 2008 see note on front cover 3. Potential fatigue cracking from the weld root At some locations of the welds there are stresses in the plate transverse to the fillet weld.1. 3. For fillet welds all these positions should be assessed with respect to fatigue.3.1. For significant dynamic pressure loads on the plate these details are susceptible to fatigue cracking and other design solutions should be considered to achieve a proper fatigue life. Fillet weld σp b) σn σ1 α 45° Insert Tubular c) τ p σn Figure 3-4 Potential fatigue crack locations at welded penetrations 45° DET NORSKE VERITAS . For full penetration welds the first two points should be assessed. 1) Fatigue cracking transverse to the weld toe in a region with a large stress concentration giving large stress parallel to the weld (Flexible reinforcement).1. Then σhot spot = σp 2) Fatigue cracking parallel to the weld toe (Stiff reinforcement with large weld size). For stresses to be used together with the different S-N curves see section 2.e.4) can be outlined from equation (2. See Figure 3-4a. a) All these potential regions for fatigue cracking should be assessed in a design with use of appropriate stress concentration factors for holes with reinforcement. Reference is also made to Appendix C for an example.4) and the resulting stress range is to be used together with the W3 curve. See Figure 3-4c.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.4) t = plate thickness a = throat thickness for a double sided fillet weld The total stress range (i. σn.3. See Figure 3-4b. Then σhot spot = σ1 Also the region at crown position to be checked.6 Stress concentration factors for scallops Reference is made to Figure 3-5 for stress concentration factors for scallops. Potential fatigue cracking parallel with the weld toe For stresses normal to the weld the resulting hot spot stress to be used together with the D curve is obtained with SCF from Appendix C (σhot spot in Figure 3-4b). Then σhot spot = σn 3) Fatigue cracking from the weld root (Stiff reinforcement with small fillet weld size).

7 is used to determine the local stress (Excluding the notch stress concentration factor due to the weld geometry. S-N curve D from this RP may be used if the procedure of CN 30. the SCF at point B will be governing for the design. SCFAS is the stress concentration factor at the saddle for axial load and the SCFAC is the stress concentration factor at the crown.1) σ8 = Here σx.2 Superposition of stresses in tubular joints The stresses are calculated at the crown and the saddle points. April 2008 Page 23 150 A 35 B B A SCF = 2. DET NORSKE VERITAS . Figure 3-5 Stress concentration factors for scallops 3.27 at point B For scallops without transverse welds. from the analysis. The hot spot stress at these points is derived by a linear interpolation of the stress due to the axial action at the crown and saddle and a sinusoidal variation of the bending 1 1 1 (SCFAC + SCFAS ) σ x − 2 SCFMIP σ my − 2 SCFMOP σ mz 2 2 2 σ 5 = SCFAC σ x − SCFMIP σ my σ6 = 1 1 1 (SCFAC + SCFAS ) σ x − 2 SCFMIP σ my + 2 SCFMOP σ mz 2 2 2 σ 7 = SCFAS σ x + SCFMOP σ mz 1 1 1 (SCFAC + SCFAS ) σ x + 2 SCFMIP σ my + 2 SCFMOP σ mz 2 2 2 (3.27 at point B SCF = 1.27 at point A (misalignment not included) SCF = 1. SN curve C from this Recommended Practice may be used if the procedure of CN 30.4 at point A (misalignment not included) SCF = 1. 3. Figure 3-7.17 at point A (misalignment not included) SCF = 1. /1/. σ1 = SCFAC σ x + SCFMIP σ my σ2 = 1 1 1 (SCFAC + SCFAS ) σ x + 2 SCFMIP σ my − 2 SCFMOP σ mz 2 2 2 σ 3 = SCFAS σ x − SCFMOP σ mz σ4 = 3.3. see Figure 3-6.3 Tubular joints and members 3.27 at point B SCF = 1.Amended October 2008 see note on front cover Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.1 Stress concentration factors for simple tubular joints Stress concentration factors for simple tubular joints are given in Appendix B.27 at point B 120 120 35 B 35 B A 10 A SCF = 1.2 Stress concentration factors for ship details Stress concentration factors for ship details may be found in “Fatigue Assessment of Ship Structures” (CN 30.7). ref.3. ref. SCFMIP is the stress concentration factor for in plane moment and SCFMOP is the stress concentration factor for out of plane moment. The hot spot stress may be higher for the intermediate points between the saddle and the crown. stress resulting from in-plane and out of plane bending.3. Thus the hot spot stress should be evaluated at 8 spots around the circumference of the intersection.17 at point A (misalignment not included) SCF = 1. as this factor is accounted for in the Dcurve).7 is used to determine the hot spot and Kw stress. Then the hot spot stress at these points is derived by summation of the single stress components from axial. σmy and σmz are the maximum nominal stresses due to axial load and bending in-plane and out-of-plane respectively. Kw. in-plane and out of plane action.

although the degree of scatter and proposed design factors are given.8. Some guidance on such an assessment can be found in Appendix D.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203. — The following points can be made about the use of ring stiffeners in general: Influence functions may be used as an alternative to the procedure given here to calculate hot spot stress. It may even increase the SCF. Based on experience it is not likely that fatigue cracking from the inside will occur earlier than from the outside for simple T and Y joints and K type tubular joints. ref. “Combined Hot-Spot Stress Procedures for Tubular Joints”. It should be remembered that surface improvement does not increase the fatigue life at the root. /2/. The same consideration may be made for X-joints with diameter ratio β ≤ 0. Reference is also made to Appendix D. See e.90. special attention should be given to joints other than simple joints. such that welding from the backside can be performed.3. In such cases. the effect of stiffening is uncertain. both in laboratory tests and in service. For other joints and for simple tubular X-joints with β > 0.4 Stiffened tubular joints Equations for joints for ring stiffened joints are given in “Stress Concentration Factors for Ring-Stiffened Tubular Joints”. it is recommended that stubs are provided for tubular joints where high fatigue strength is required.3 Tubular joints welded from one side The root area of single-sided welded tubular joints may be more critical with respect to fatigue cracks than the outside region connecting the brace to the chord. Failure from the root has been observed at the saddle position of tubular joints where the brace diameter is equal the chord DET NORSKE VERITAS . Commentary 3.90 it is recommended that a fatigue assessment of the root area is performed. /3/. It is likely that fatigue cracking from the root might occur for rather low stress concentrations. — For joints with diameter ratio β ≥ 0. Due to limited accessibility for in service inspection a higher design fatigue factor should be used for the weld root than for the outside weld toe hot spot. /24/ and “Development of SCF Formulae and Generalised Influence Functions for use in Fatigue Analysis” ref. April 2008 Page 24 Amended October 2008 see note on front cover Figure 3-6 Geometrical definitions for tubular joints z 8 1 2 7 3 6 5 4 x y N M IP M OP Axial load In-plane Out-of-plane bending moment bending moment Figure 3-7 Superposition of stresses diameter.g. 3. Thus. The following points should be noted regarding the equations: — The derived SCF ratios for the brace/chord intersection and the SCF's for the ring edge are mean values. — The maximum of the saddle and crown stress concentration factor values should be applied around the whole brace/chord intersection.3. — Short chord effects shall be taken into account where relevant. Commentary. such as ring-stiffened joints and joints where weld profiling or grinding on the surface is required to achieve sufficient fatigue life. ref.

— Ring stiffeners have a marked effect on the circumferential stress in the chord. On the inside it is then conservative to use SCF = 1. The eccentricity due to out of roundness normally gives the largest contribution to the resulting eccentricity δ. The bounds can be broken by a significant tension load. provided that T/t ≤ 2: SCF = 1 + 6(δ t + δ m − δ 0 ) t 1 ⎛T⎞ 1+ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝t⎠ β e -α (3. ref.3.2) where D and T are chord diameter and thickness respectively. If the transition in thickness is on the inside of the tubular and the weld is made from the outside only. differences in thickness of joined tubulars.5.Amended October 2008 see note on front cover Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203. The dimensions are to be given in mm. the grouted joints shall be treated as simple joints. Due to the grout the tensile and compressive SCF may be different.3. and will probably only be detected after through thickness cracking.5) for the outside weld toe. To achieve a fatigue design that is on the safe side it is recommended to use SCF's derived from tests where the bounds are broken and where the joint is subjected to tensile loading.α (3.4) applies for the outside tubular side shown in Figure 3. except that the chord thickness in the γ term for saddle SCF calculation for brace and chord shall be substituted with an equivalent chord wall thickness given by Te = (5D + 134T)/144 3.4) where α= 1.3. the following formulae DET NORSKE VERITAS .+ ---------------------------D Log ⎛ --. The finite element model should use volume elements at the critical areas and properly model the shape of the joint. This load may be determined during the testing by an evaluation of the force displacement relationship. the SCF for the transition applies to the outside. but have little or no effect on the longitudinal stress.3.5 Grouted tubular joints 3. The SCF is less if the bond between the chord and the grout is unbroken. The brace to casting circumferential butt weld (which is designed to an appropriate S-N curve for such connections) may be the most critical location for fatigue.7 Stress concentration factors for tubular butt weld connections Due to less severe S-N curve for the outside weld toe than the inside weld root.5) If the transition in thickness is on the inside of the tubular and the weld is made from both sides.5 – -------------------.4) may be applied for the inside weld toe and equation (3. Thickness transitions are normally to be fabricated with slope 1:4. except that the chord thickness in SCF calculation for brace and chord shall be substituted with an equivalent chord wall thickness given by Te = T + 0. The effect of the diameter in relation to thickness may be included by use of the following formula. out of roundness and centre eccentricity.⎞ ⎝ t⎠ D 2 Log ⎛ --. — Ring stiffeners outside the brace footprint have little effect on the SCF. It is conservative to use the formula for plate eccentricities for calculation of SCF at tubular butt welds. For model testing of grouted joints the bond should be broken prior to SCF measurements.0 3.6 Cast nodes It is recommended that finite element analysis should be used to determine the magnitude and location of the maximum stress range in castings sensitive to fatigue.3. These areas should therefore be considered as non-inspectable unless more sophisticated inspection methods are used.3.0. at which the majority of the fatigue life will have been expired.2 Chord filled with grout The grouted joints shall be treated as simple joints.3. The benefits of grouting should be neglected for joints with β > 0. equation (3. — Failures in the ring inner edge or brace ring interface occur internally.3.⎞ ⎝ t⎠ (3. The SCF of a grouted joint depends on load history and loading direction. it is strongly recommended that tubular butt weld connections subjected to axial loading are designed such that any thickness transitions are placed on the outside (see Figure 3-8). It is noted that for small L and large D the last formula provides stress concentration factors that are close to but lower than that of the simpler formula for plates.0 unless documented otherwise. If welding is performed in a horizontal position it can be classified as D.82L Dt ⋅ 1 ⎛T⎞ 1+ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝t⎠ β 1. 3. Figure 3-9 and Figure 3-8. Consideration should be given to the inside of the castings. Joints with high β or low γ ratios have little effect of grouting. 3.5.0 β = 1. The stress concentration is reduced as L is increased and or D is reduced. April 2008 Page 25 — Thin shell FE analysis should be avoided for calculating the SCF if the maximum stress is expected to be near the bracering crossing point in the fatigue analysis. see Figure 3-10 and Figure 3-11.1 General Grouted joints have either the chord completely filled with grout (single skin grouted joints) or the annulus between the chord and an inner member filled with grout (double skin grouted joints).3. For the inside the following formula may be used: (3. These may be classified as concentricity (difference in tubular diameters). For this geometry.8.5.3. Equation (3.3. (When incrementing the loading into a non-linear behaviour).3. SCF = 1 − 6(δ t − δ m ) t 1 ⎛T⎞ 1+ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝t⎠ β e. An alternative is to use a three-dimensional solid element analysis model.3) where T is chord thickness and Tp is thickness of insert pile. The transition of the weld to base material on the outside of the tubular can normally be classified to S-N curve E. 3. This means that the pipe would have to be rotated during welding. 3.3 Annulus between tubular members filled with grout For joints where the annulus between tubular members are filled with grout such as joints in legs with insert piles.9 or γ ≤ 12. but may be of help for the static strength.1 t is misalignment inherent in the S-N data This formula also takes into account the length over which the eccentricity is distributed: L. The resulting eccentricity may be conservatively evaluated by a direct summation of the contribution from the different sources.45Tp δ0 = 0. Stress concentrations at tubular butt weld connections are due to eccentricities resulting from different sources.3.

April 2008 Page 26 Amended October 2008 see note on front cover may be used for the inside weld root: SCF = 1 + 6δ t t 1 ⎛T⎞ 1+ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝t⎠ β e.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203. if a fabrication method is used where lack of penetration is to be expected.5) may be applied for the outside weld toe. It may be difficult to document a full penetration weld in most cases due to limitations in the non-destructive examination technique to detect defects in the root area. This requires good workmanship during construction. the design S-N curves should be adjusted to account for this by use of fracture mechanics. For global moments over the tubular section it is the nominal stress derived at the outside that should be used together with an SCF from equation (3.3. Outside 4 1 T δt Neutral axis L σ nominal t Inside Figure 3-8 Preferred transition in thickness is on outside of tubular butt weld L δm t D Figure 3-9 Section through weld In tubulars. the root side of welds made from one side is normally classified as F3. The F3 curve can be considered to account for some lack of penetration. The nominal stress on the inside should be used for assessment of fatigue cracks initiating from the inside.6) And equation (3. DET NORSKE VERITAS .4) for calculation of hot spot stress for fatigue assessment of the outside weld toe. in order to ensure full penetration welds.α (3. Therefore. This may be evaluated by fracture mechanics such as described in BS 7910 “Guidance on Methods for Assessing the Acceptability of Flaws in Fusion Welded Structures”. and that work is checked by non-destructive examination.3.3. ref /7/. but it should be noted that a major part of the fatigue life is associated with the initial crack growth while the defects are small.

0 if continuous longitudinal stiffeners are used.8 Stress concentration factors for stiffened shells The stress concentration at a ring stiffener can be calculated as t δm A A t 0.56t rt α =1+ Ar SCF = 1 + (3.8) SCF = 1 + tanα for the cone side (3.6 t D j (t + t c ) 2 tc tanα for the tubular side (3.9) where Figure 3-11 Geometric sources of local stress concentrations in tubular butt welds d) Center eccentricity Section A-A Dj t tc α = = = = cylinder diameter at junction (Ds.3.3.Amended October 2008 see note on front cover Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203. Ar is taken as rt b where tb is the thickness of the bulkhead.3.3. as compared with the outside. if the shell comprises longitudinal stiffeners that are ended.54 for the outside of the shell α 0. The SCF = 1. tL) cone thickness the slope angle of the cone (see Figure 3-13) DET NORSKE VERITAS .3. (1 − ν ) A A t δt = ½ (T-t) b) Thickness Section A-A Figure 3-10 Geometric sources of local stress concentrations in tubular butt welds δm t δm A δm A t Figure 3-12 Ring stiffened shell c) Out of roundness Section A-A t δm A A t δm 3. In the case of a bulkhead instead of a ring. In addition.54 SCF = 1 − for the inside of the shell α 1. April 2008 Page 27 3. it is recommended to end the longitudinal stiffeners against ring stiffeners for the inside.7) where a) Concentricity Section A-A T Ar = area of ring stiffener without effective shell r = radius of shell measured from centre to mean shell thickness t = thickness of shell plating Due to less stress on the inside it is more efficient to place ring stiffeners on the inside of shell. The corresponding combination on the outside gives a considerably larger stress concentration. DL) tubular member wall thickness (ts.6 t D j (t + t c ) t2 0.9 Stress concentration factors for conical transitions The stress concentration at each side of unstiffened tubularcone junction can be estimated by the following equations (the SCF shall be used together with the stress in the tubular at the junction for both the tubular and the cone side of the weld): SCF = 1 + 0.

91D j t ⎛ ⎞1 SCF = 1 − ⎜ 0. and where y= where h 2 t r + (h + ) b (t c + t ) 2 2 h t r + (t c + t ) b t (3.14) If a ring stiffener with a flange is used the effect of the flange should be included when calculating the moment of inertia about the neutral axis x-x shown in Figure 3-14.91D j t ⎛ ⎞1 SCF = 1 + ⎜ 0.54 + tanα ⎟ ⎜ ⎟β Ar ⎝ ⎠ at the inside smaller diameter junction 0.3.10) b = 0.11) shall be multiplied together with the relevant stress concentration factor from equation (3.10t D j t Ar where Ar = area of ring stiffener without effective shell Ds ts tC A ring stiffener may be placed centric at the cone junction. April 2008 Page 28 Amended October 2008 see note on front cover The stress concentration at a junction with ring stiffener can be calculated as 0.91D j t ⎞1 ⎛ SCF = 1 − ⎜ 0.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203. . The stress concentration factor from equation (3. DL) t = tubular member wall thickness (ts. β =1+ 1. If a ring stiffener is placed a distance δe away from the intersection lines. If improvement methods are used for the weld toe the requirement of a full penetration weld will be enhanced.10).3.78 D j (t c + t ) + δ e (3. an additional stress concentration should be included to account for this eccentricity: SCF = 1 + 3 δ e tan α t 1 68 I α tL 1+ (3.3.54 − tanα ⎟ ⎟β ⎜ Ar ⎠ ⎝ at the outside larger diameter junction 0.3.3.3.3.54 − tanα ⎟ ⎟β ⎜ Ar ⎠ ⎝ at the inside larger diameter junction.13) h = height of ring stiffener tr = thickness of ringstiffener b = effective flange width calculated as (3. Then the butt weld should be grinded and NDE examined before the ring stiffener is welded.12) Figure 3-13 Cone geometry DL DET NORSKE VERITAS . A full penetration weld connecting the ring stiffener to the tubular is often preferred as potential fatigue cracks from the root of fillet weld into the cylinder can hardly be detected during in service inspection.11) 5 DL D (t + t c ) 3 j where Dj = cylinder diameter at junction (Ds.54 + tanα ⎟ ⎜ ⎟β Ar ⎝ ⎠ at the outside smaller diameter junction 0. tL) tc = cone thickness α = the slope angle of the cone (see Figure 3-13) I = moment of inertia about the X-X axis in Figure 3-14 calculated as Ds ts tc δe α tL t3 t + 0.5 b (h + − y ) 2 (t c + t s ) + 12 2 2 h h tr h ( + ( − y) 2 ) 12 2 I =b (3.91D j t ⎞1 ⎛ SCF = 1 + ⎜ 0.

Amended October 2008 see note on front cover

Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203, April 2008 Page 29

b tc α x tr

Figure 3-14 Notations for calculation of moment of inertia

added quadratically.

t x

y

h

3.3.10 Stress concentration factors for tubulars subjected to axial force This section applies to tubular sections welded together to long strings and subjected to axial tension. Tethers and risers of a TLP are examples of such structures. The co-linearity with small angle deviation between consecutive fabricated tubular segments results in increased stress due to a resulting global bending moment, see Figure 3-16. The eccentricity due to co-linearity is a function of axial tension in the tubular and is significantly reduced as the axial force is increased by tension. Assuming that the moment M results from an eccentricity δN where pretension is accounted for in the analysis, the following derivation of a stress concentration factor is performed:

N SCF σ= π(D − t ) t

Figure 3-15 Colinearity or angle deviation in pipe segment fabrication, I = Systematic deviation, II = random deviation

N

δN

(3.3.15)

**where the stress concentration factor is:
**

SCF = 1 + 4δ N D−t

(3.3.16)

where δN is eccentricity as function of the axial force N and D is outer diameter. The eccentricity for two elements is indicated in Figure 3-16. With zero tension the eccentricity is δ. With an axial tension force N the eccentricity becomes:

N

Figure 3-16 Eccentricity due to co-linearity

δN = δ

where k l N I E = = = = =

tanh kl kl

(3.3.17)

3.3.11 Stress concentration factors for joints with square sections Stress concentration factors for T- and X- square to square joints may be found in “Proposed Revisions for Fatigue Design of Planar Welded Connections made of Hollow Structural Sections”, ref. /27/. Stress concentration factors for Y- and K square to square joints may be found from “IIW Fatigue Rules for Tubular Joints”. These stress concentration factors may be used together with the D-curve. The following stress concentration factors may be used for d/ Dw = 1.0, where d = depth and width of brace; Dw = depth and width of chord, in lieu of a more detailed analysis for calculation of hot spot stress: — Axial: 1.90 — In-plane bending: 4.00 — Out-of plane bending:1.35 These stress concentration factors should be used together with the F-curve.

N EI

segment lengths of the tubulars axial force in tubulars moment of inertia of tubulars Young’s modulus

The formula for reduction in eccentricity due to increased axial force can be deduced from differential equation for the deflected shape of the model shown in Figure 3-16. Thus the non-linearity in terms of geometry is included in the formula for the stress concentration factor. Judgement should be used to evaluate the number of elements to be considered, and whether deviation from a straight line is systematic or random, ref. Figure 3-15. In the first case, the errors must be added linearly, in the second case it may be

DET NORSKE VERITAS

Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203, April 2008 Page 30

Amended October 2008 see note on front cover

3.3.12 Stress concentration factors for joints with gusset plates Insert gusset plates are sometimes used in joints in topside structures to connect RHS and tubular members. Reference is made to Figure 3-17. When such connections are subjected to dynamic loading a full penetration weld between the member and the gusset plate is preferred. Otherwise it is considered difficult to document the fatigue capacity for fatigue cracking starting from the weld root. In dynamic loaded structures it is recommended to shape the gusset plate in such a way that a smooth transfer of stress flow from the member into the gusset plate is achieved; ref. Figure 3-17a. Where a reliable fatigue life is to be documented it is recommended to perform finite element analysis if the geometry is significantly different from that shown in Figure 3-17b. The stress concentration factors in Table 3-1 are derived from finite element analysis using shell elements. Then the hot spot stress can be combined with the D-Curve. The stress concentration factor for tubular member is simply derived by scaling the results from that of RHS by π/4 for the same thickness. Using shell elements for such analysis provides conservative stress concentration factors as compared with use of three-dimensional elements with modelling also of the fillet weld. (It is here assumed that a fillet weld also can be used on the outside on a full or partial penetration weld). In a relevant example the resulting SCF using a model with three-dimensional elements was only 0.70 of that from analysis using a shell model. Thus the SCFs in Table 3-1 might be further reduced if necessary.

Table 3-1 Stress concentration factors for joints with gusset plate Geometry SCF RHS 250x16 with favourable geometry of gusset plate 2.9 RHS 250x16 with simple shape of gusset plate 3.8 Ø250x16 with favourable geometry of gusset plate 2.3 Ø250x16 with simple shape of gusset plate 3.0

**4. Calculation of hot spot stress by finite element analysis
**

4.1 General

From detailed finite element analysis of structures it may be difficult to evaluate what is “nominal stress” to be used together with the S-N curves, as some of the local stress due to a detail is accounted for in the S-N curve. In many cases it may therefore be more convenient to use an alternative approach for calculation of fatigue damage when local stresses are obtained from finite element analysis. It is realised that it is difficult to calculate the notch stress at a weld due to a significant scatter in local weld geometry and different types of imperfections. This scatter is normally more efficiently accounted for by use of an appropriate S-N curve. In this respect it should also be mentioned that the weld toe region has to be modelled with a radius in order to obtain reliable results for the notch stress. If a corner detail with zero radius is modelled the calculated stress will approach infinity as the element size is decreased to zero. The modelling of a relevant radius requires a very fine element mesh, increasing the size of the computer model. The notch stress concept may be used in special cases where other methods are not found appropriate, see Appendix D, Commentary. Hence, for design analysis a simplified numerical procedure is used in order to reduce the demand for large fine mesh models for the calculation of SCF factors: — The stress concentration or the notch factor due to the weld itself is included in the S-N curve to be used, the D-curve. — The stress concentration due to the geometry effect of the actual detail is calculated by means of a fine mesh model using shell elements (or solid elements), resulting in a geometric SCF factor. This procedure is denoted the hot spot method. It is important to have a continuous and not too steep, change in the density of the element mesh in the areas where the hot spot stresses are to be analysed. The geometry of the elements should be evaluated carefully in order to avoid errors due to deformed elements (for example corner angles between 60° and 120° and length/breadth ratio less than 5 are recommended). The size of the model should be so large that the calculated results are not significantly affected by assumptions made for boundary conditions and application of loads.

1 TY 0 P.

a)

It should be noted that the hot spot concept cannot be used for fatigue checks of cracks starting from the weld root of fillet/ partial penetration welds. A fillet weld should be checked separately considering the stresses in the weld itself, ref. section 2.3.5.

4 TY 0 P.

4.2 Tubular joints

The stress range at the hot spot of tubular joints should be combined with the T-curve. Analysis based on thick shell elements may be used. In this case, the weld is not included in the model. The hot spot stress may be determined as for welded connections. More reliable results are obtained by including the weld in the model. This implies use of three-dimensional elements. Here the Gaussian points, where stresses are calculated, may be placed 0 .1 r t from the weld toe (r = radius of considered tubular and t = thickness). The stress at this point may be used directly in the fatigue assessment. DET NORSKE VERITAS

Figure 3-17 Joints with gusset plates a) Favourable geometry b) Simple geometry

b)

Amended October 2008 see note on front cover

Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203, April 2008 Page 31

**4.3 Welded connections other than tubular joints
**

4.3.1 Stress field at a welded detail Due to the nature of the stress field at a hot spot region there are questions on how to establish the hot spot stress, see Figure 4-1. The notch effect due to the weld is included in the S-N curve and the hot spot stress is derived by extrapolation of the structural stress to the weld toe as indicated in Figure 4-1. It is observed that the stress used as basis for such an extrapolation should be outside that affected by the weld notch, but close enough to pick up the hot spot stress. 4.3.2 FE modelling The following guidance is made to the computation of hot spot stresses with potential fatigue cracking from the weld toe with local models using the finite element method. Hot spot stresses are calculated assuming linear material behaviour and using an idealized structural model with no fabrication-related misalignment. The extent of the local model has to be chosen such that effects due to the boundaries on the structural detail considered are sufficiently small and reasonable boundary conditions can be formulated. In plate structures, three types of hot spots at weld toes can be identified as exemplified in Figure 4-3: a) at the weld toe on the plate surface at an ending attachment b) at the weld toe around the plate edge of an ending attachment c) along the weld of an attached plate (weld toes on both the plate and attachment surface). Models with thin plate or shell elements or alternatively with solid elements are normally used. It should be noted that on the one hand the arrangement and type of elements have to allow for steep stress gradients as well as for the formation of plate bending, and on the other hand, only the linear stress distribution in the plate thickness direction needs to be evaluated with respect to the definition of hot spot stress. The following methods of modelling are recommended. The simplest way of modelling is offered by thin plate and shell elements which have to be arranged in the mid-plane of the structural components, see also Figure 4-4. 8-noded elements are recommended particularly in case of steep stress gradients. Care should be given to possible stress underestimation especially at weld toes of type b) in Figure 43. Use of 4-noded elements with improved in-plane bending modes is a good alternative. The welds are usually not modelled except for special cases where the results are affected by high local bending, e. g. due to an offset between plates or due to a small free plate length between adjacent welds such as at lug (or collar) plates. Here, the weld may be included by transverse plate elements having appropriate stiffness or by introducing constrained equations for coupled node displacements. A thickness equal 2 times the thickness of the plates may be used for modelling of the welds by transverse plates. For 4-node shell elements with additional internal degrees of freedom for improved in plane behaviour and for 8-node shell elements a mesh size from t x t up to 2 t x 2 t may be used. Larger mesh sizes at the hot spot region may provide non-conservative results. (For efficient read out of element stresses and hot spot stress derivation a mesh txt is in general preferred at the hot spot region). An alternative particularly for complex cases is offered by solid elements which need to have a displacement function allowing steep stress gradients as well as plate bending with linear stress distribution in the plate thickness direction. This is offered, e. g., by isoparametric 20-node elements (with mid-

side nodes at the edges) which mean that only one element in plate thickness direction is required. An easy evaluation of the membrane and bending stress components is then possible if a reduced integration order with only two integration points in the thickness direction is chosen. A finer mesh sub-division is necessary particularly if 8-noded solid elements are selected. Here, at least four elements are recommended in thickness direction. Modelling of the welds is generally recommended and easily possible as shown in Figure 4-5. For modelling with three dimensional elements the dimensions of the first two or three elements in front of the weld toe should be chosen as follows. The element length may be selected to correspond to the plate thickness. In the transverse direction, the plate thickness may be chosen again for the breadth of the plate elements. However, the breadth should not exceed the “attachment width”, i. e. the thickness of the attached plate plus 2 x the weld leg length (in case of type c: the thickness of the web plate behind plus 2 x weld leg length). The length of the elements should be limited to 2 t. In cases where three-dimensional elements are used for the FE modelling it is recommended that also the fillet weld is modelled to achieve proper local stiffness and geometry. In order to capture the properties of bulb sections with respect to St Venant torsion it is recommended to use several threedimensional elements for modelling of a bulb section. If in addition the weld from stiffeners in the transverse frames is modelled the requirements with respect to element shape will likely govern the FE model at the hot spot region. 4.3.3 Derivation of stress at read out points 0.5 t and 1.5 t The stress components on the plate surface should be evaluated along the paths shown in Figure 4-4 and Figure 4-5 and extrapolated to the hot spot. The average stress components between adjacent elements are used for the extrapolation. Recommended stress evaluation points are located at distances 0.5 t and 1.5 t away from the hot spot, where t is the plate thickness at the weld toe. These locations are also denoted as stress read out points. If the element size at a hot spot region of size txt is used, the stresses may be evaluated as follows: — In case of plate or shell elements the surface stress may be evaluated at the corresponding mid-side points. Thus the stresses at mid side nodes along line A-B in Figure 4-2 may be used directly as stress at read out points 0.5 t and 1.5 t. — In case of solid elements the stress may first be extrapolated from the Gaussian points to the surface. Then these stresses can be interpolated linearly to the surface centre or extrapolated to the edge of the elements if this is the line for hot spot stress derivation. For meshes with 4-node shell elements larger than t x t it is recommended to fit a second order polynomial to the element stresses in the three first elements and derive stresses for extrapolation from the 0.5 t and 1.5 t points. An example of this is shown schematically in Figure 4-6. This procedure may be used to establish stress values at the 0.5 t and 1.5 t points. For 8-node elements a second order polynomial may be fitted to the stress results at the mid-side nodes of the three first elements and the stress at the read out points 0.5 t and 1.5 t can be derived. 4.3.4 Derivation of hot spot stress Two alternative methods can be used for hot spot stress derivation: method A and method B. Method A For modelling with shell elements without any weld included in the model a linear extrapolation of the stresses to the intersection line from the read out points at 0.5t and 1.5t from the

DET NORSKE VERITAS

The first principal stress is calculated as Δσ 1 = Δσ ⊥ + Δσ // 1 + 2 2 Δσ ⊥ + Δσ // 1 − 2 2 2 (Δσ ⊥ − Δσ // )2 + 4 Δτ // and Δσ 2 = 2 (Δσ ⊥ − Δσ // )2 + 4 Δτ // The equation for effective stress is made to account for the situation with fatigue cracking along a weld toe as shown in Figure 2-3 and fatigue cracking when the principal stress direction is more parallel with the weld toe as shown in Figure 2-4. The notations for stress components are shown in Figures 2-3 and 2-4. However. the ring will not attract stress normal to its plane. However. Analyzing such connections with for example shell elements would result in a hot spot stress equal the nominal stress. This has to be restricted to cases with a pronounced stress concentration (where the stress distribution under fatigue crack development is more similar to a displacement controlled situation than that of a load controlled development). Table A-3. For stresses in the direction normal to the shell (direction I) there will be no stress flow into the transverse shell plating as it is represented only by one plane in the shell model. It should also be noted that it is for these joints (butt welds and cruciform joints) that fabrication tolerances are most important and need to be considered in a fatigue assessment.hot spot = bending stress The reduction factor on the bending stress can be explained by redistribution of loads to other areas during crack growth while the crack tip is growing into a region with reduced stress.81 Δτ // where α.5 Hot spot S-N curve It is recommended to link the derived hot spot stress to the Dcurve. the difference in fatigue life between axial loading and pure bending is much smaller.12 α Δσ 1 ⎪1.5t and 1. Thus. the nominal stress approach is recommended used for direction I at position “c” as also the nominal stress can be easily derived for analysis of these connections. The equation for effective stress is made to account for the situation with fatigue cracking along a weld toe as shown in Figure 2-3 and fatigue cracking when the principal stress direction is more parallel with the weld toe as shown in Figure 2-4. in a case where the stress variation along the weld is small.3. The reader should also be made aware of another case that is linked to the same problem.1 implies that the described hot spot stress methodology is not recommended for simple cruciform joints. also fatigue analysis of the drum in Appendix D. When analysing a brace with a simple ring stiffener the hot spot stress will include the effect of decreased stress on the inside and increased stress on the outside due to the circumferential stiffness of the ring. = 0. As the nominal stress S-N curve for direction I is lower than that of the D-curve.5t from the weld toe can be performed to derive hot spot stress. simple T-joints in plated structures or simple butt joints that are welded from one side only.60Δσb. Therefore.3.5t away from the intersection line.3. Table A-3. Δσ1 and Δσ2 are explained under method A.hot spot where Δσa. Figure 3.3. This is important at an outside ring stiffener in order to include the bending stress in the shell due to its deformed shape.hot spot = Δσa.90 if the detail is classified as C2 with stress parallel to the weld at the hot spot. which occurs for example at a hopper corner. (4.80 if the detail is classified as C1 with stress parallel to the weld at the hot spot. The effective hot spot stress is derived as σ Eff ⎧1.1) σ Eff ⎧ Δσ 2 + 0. The described hot spot concept linked to the D-curve is giving acceptable results as soon as there is a bracket behind the transverse plate as shown in Figure 4-3 acting with its stiffness in the direction of I (Figure 4-7).3. Commentary. it attracts stresses for inplane (direction II) shown in Figure 4-7. April 2008 Page 32 Amended October 2008 see note on front cover intersection line can be performed to derive hot spot stress. The effective hot spot stress to be used together with the hot spot S-N curve is derived as 4.7 Limitations for simple connections It should be noted that the definition of the stress field through the plate thickness in section 4.72 if the detail is classified as C with stress parallel to the weld at the hot spot. it would be non-conservative to use the hot spot concept for this connection for direction I while it would be acceptable for direction II at position “a”. Therefore it should be noted that it is not correct to generally reduce the bending part of the stress to 60 percent. In a case that a longitudinal stiffener is ended at a circumferential ring stiffener the described procedure using S-N curve D will again be working. Method B For modelling with shell elements without any weld included in the model the hot spot stress is taken as the stress at the read out point 0. For modelling with three-dimensional elements with the weld included in the model a linear extrapolation of the stresses to the weld toe from the read out points at 0.hot spot + 0. For modelling with three-dimensional elements with the weld included in the model the hot spot stress is taken as the stress at the read out point 0.hot spot = membrane stress Δσb. From a finite element analysis using shell elements the largest stress at the node at the ring stiffener should be used as nominal stress.3. 4. ref.6 Derivation of effective hot spot stress from FE analysis At hot spots with significant plate bending one might derive an effective hot spot stress for fatigue assessment based on the following equation: Δσe. ref. Table A-3. 4. DET NORSKE VERITAS . ref. ref. The effect is limited to areas with a localised stress concentration.81 Δτ 2 ⊥ // ⎪ ⎪ = max ⎨α Δσ 1 ⎪α Δσ 2 ⎪ ⎩ where α α α = 0.12 Δσ ⊥ ⎪ ⎪ = max ⎨1. Ref.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203. However.5t away from the weld toe.12 α Δσ 2 ⎪ ⎩ ( ) 2 2 + 0. This is illustrated by the shell model shown in Figure 4-7. = 0. a lower S-N curve than D has to be used. see Tables of SN classification.

Amended October 2008 see note on front cover

Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203, April 2008 Page 33

4.3.8 Verification of analysis methodology The analysis methodology may be verified based on analysis of details with derived target hot spot stress. Such details with target hot spot stress are shown in Appendix D, Commentary.

Stress Notch stress Hot spot stress Surface stress

c b c

Attachment plate

t/2

3t/2 Hot spot stress Notch stress

a

Fillet weld

t

Membrane stress Stress evaluation plane

Figure 4-3 Different hot spot positions

Nominal stress

Fillet weld Attachment plate

A

A

Figure 4-1 Schematic stress distribution at a hot spot

Figure 4-4 Stress extrapolation in a three-dimensional FE model to the weld toe

Extrapolated hot spot stress

Intersection line

A 0.5 t Hot spot 1 4 3 4 1.5 t 3

B

2

1

2

Gaussian integration point

Figure 4-2 Example of derivation of hot spot stress

Figure 4-5 Stress extrapolation in a three-dimensional FE model to the weld toe

DET NORSKE VERITAS

Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203, April 2008 Page 34

Amended October 2008 see note on front cover

where

Hot spot stress 0.5 t 1.5 t Second order polynomial Results from FE analysis

q=

Q h q

= = =

probability for exceedance of the stress range Δσ Weibull shape parameter Weibull scale parameter is defined from the stress range level, Δσ 0, as: (5.1.2)

Δσ 0 (ln n 0 )1/h

0

t

2t

3t

4t

5t

6t

Δσ 0 is the largest stress range out of n0 cycles. When the long-term stress range distribution is defined applying Weibull distributions for the different load conditions, and a one-slope S-N curve is used, the fatigue damage is given by

D= ν 0 Td m m q Γ(1 + ) ≤ η a h

Distance from hot spot Figure 4-6 Derivation of hot spot stress for element size larger than t x t

(5.1.3)

where Td h q = = = = design life in seconds Weibull stress range shape distribution parameter Weibull stress range scale distribution parameter average zero-crossing frequency

ν0

Γ(1 +

a c

m gamma function. Values of the gamma function ) = are listed in Table 5-1. h

II

I

Use of one slope S-N curves leads to results on the safe side for calculated fatigue lives (with slope of curve at N < 106 - 107 cycles). For other expressions for fatigue damage see Appendix D, Commentary.

Table 5-1 Numerical values for Γ (1+ m/h) h m = 3.0 h m = 3.0 0.60 120.000 0.77 20.548 0.61 104.403 0.78 19.087 0.62 91.350 0.79 17.772 0,63 80.358 0.80 16.586 0.64 71.048 0.81 15.514 0.65 63.119 0.82 14.542 0.66 56.331 0.83 13.658 0.67 50.491 0.84 12.853 0.68 45.442 0.85 12.118 0.69 41.058 0.86 11.446 0.70 37.234 0.87 10.829 0.71 33.886 0.88 10.263 0.72 30.942 0.89 9.741 0.73 28.344 0.90 9.261 0,74 26.044 0.91 8.816 0.75 24.000 0.92 8.405 0.76 22.178 0.93 8.024 h 0.94 0.95 0.96 0.97 0.98 0.99 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 m = 3.0 7.671 7.342 7.035 6.750 6.483 6.234 6.000 5.781 5.575 5.382 5.200 5.029 4.868 4.715 4.571 4.435 4.306

Figure 4-7 Illustration of difference to attract stresses normal to and in plane of a shell element model

**5.2 Fatigue design charts
**

Design charts for steel components in air and in seawater with cathodic protection are shown in Figure 5-1 and Figure 5-2 respectively. These charts have been derived based on the two slopes S-N curves given in this RP. The corresponding numerical values are given in Table 5-2 and Table 5-3. These design charts have been derived based on an assumption of an allowable fatigue damage η = 1.0 during 108 cycles (20 years service life which corresponds to an average period of 6.3 sec). For design with other allowable fatigue damages, η, the allowable stress from the design charts should be reduced by factors derived from Table 5-4 and Table 5-5 for conditions in air and Table 5-6 and Table 5-7 for conditions in seawater with cathodic protection. The fatigue utilisation factor η as a function of design life and

**5. Simplified fatigue analysis
**

5.1 General

The long term stress range distribution may be presented as a two-parameter Weibull distribution

⎡ ⎛ Δσ ⎞ h ⎤ ⎟ ⎥ Q(Δσ ) = exp⎢− ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ ⎢ ⎝ q ⎠ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦

(5.1.1)

DET NORSKE VERITAS

Amended October 2008 see note on front cover

Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203, April 2008 Page 35

design fatigue factor (DFF) is given in Table 5-8. The stresses derived here correspond to the reference thickness. For thickness larger than the reference thickness, an allowable extreme stress range during 108 cycles may be obtained as

where k = thickness exponent, see section 2.4 and Table 2-1, Table 2-2 and Table 2-3 σ0,tref = allowable stress as derived from Table 5-2 and Table 5-3

⎛t ⎞ σ 0, t = σ 0, tref ⎜ ref ⎟ ⎝ t ⎠

k

(5.2.1)

800

E D C2 C1 C B2 B1

700 Allowable stress range in MPa 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 0.5

F F1 F3 G W1 W2 W3

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1

1.1

1.2

**Weibull shape parameter h
**

Figure 5-1 Allowable extreme stress range during 108 cycles for components in air Table 5-2 Allowable extreme stress range in MPa during 108 cycles for components in air S-N curves Weibull shape parameter h 0.50 0.60 0.70 0.80 0.90 B1 1449.3 1092.2 861.2 704.7 594.1 B2 C C1 C2 D and T E F F1 F3 G W1 W2 W3 1268.1 1319.3 1182.0 1055.3 949.9 843.9 749.2 664.8 591.1 527.6 475.0 422.1 379.9 955.7 919.6 824.0 735.6 662.1 588.3 522.3 463.4 412.0 367.8 331.0 294.1 264.8 753.6 688.1 616.5 550.3 495.4 440.2 390.8 346.7 308.3 275.2 247.8 220.1 198.2 616.6 542.8 486.2 434.1 390.7 347.2 308.2 273.5 243.2 217.1 195.4 173.6 156.0 519.7 445.5 399.2 356.3 320.8 284.9 253.0 224.5 199.6 178.2 160.4 142.5 128.2

1.00 512.9 448.7 377.2 337.8 301.6 271.5 241.2 214.1 190.0 169.0 150.8 135.8 120.6 108.6

1.10 451.4 394.9 326.9 292.9 261.5 235.4 209.2 185.6 164.7 146.5 130.8 117.7 104.6 94.2

1.20 403.6 353.1 289.0 258.9 231.1 208.1 184.9 164.1 145.6 129.4 115.6 104.0 92.5 83.2

DET NORSKE VERITAS

5 0.7 476.8 523.0 325.4 206.9 170.1 118.3 430.9 95.3 415.3 465.2 Weibull shape parameter h Figure 5-2 Allowable extreme stress range during 108 cycles for components in seawater with cathodic protection Table 5-3 Allowable extreme stress range in MPa during 108 cycles for components in seawater with cathodic protection S-N curves Weibull shape parameter h 0.3 415.20 B1 1309.1 168.2 557.7 249.5 133.6 B2 C C1 C2 D and T E F F1 F3 G W1 W2 W3 1146.1 148.9 458.2 107.7 301.9 85.2 573.7 389.5 668.50 0.90 1.6 155.9 423.3 221.6 297.3 191.10 1.0 266.4 487.5 745.3 536.7 693.0 257.3 311.7 167.1 1.3 134.80 0.3 76.7 280.6 150.8 664. April 2008 Page 36 Amended October 2008 see note on front cover 800 C2 700 C1 C B2 B1 D E F 600 Allowable stress range in Mpa 500 F1 F3 400 G W1 W2 W3 300 200 100 0 0.4 215.5 830.3 124.0 185.4 196.8 106.3 119.6 233.6 149.7 747.9 140.6 121.3 373.2 424.9 208.3 106.6 213.00 1.6 133.0 1038.5 269.5 238.0 655.9 376.8 349.9 573.5 930.3 464.7 0.6 339.7 336.70 0.0 229.7 96.8 996.9 134.7 213.7 334.4 174.6 95.4 214.8 371.5 151.3 589.3 299.0 596.4 485.7 112.1 191.2 242.60 0.6 0.1 266.3 334.3 238.4 375.5 165.0 298.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.9 332.2 268.6 183.0 793.1 237.1 169.0 263.8 289.0 367.2 297.7 DET NORSKE VERITAS .7 413.6 513.0 85.5 387.8 0.9 190.1 871.9 1 1.

30 0.948 1.602 0.850 0.27 0.33 0.875 0.770 0.60 0.805 0.703 0.856 0.30 0.860 0.803 0.581 0.950 1.000 0.731 0.906 0.575 0.908 0.767 0.638 0.808 0.947 1.751 0.80 1.894 0.690 0.868 0.765 0.831 0.894 0.620 0.Amended October 2008 see note on front cover Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.897 0.949 1.738 0.944 1.000 0.627 0.60 0.80 0.725 0.848 0.40 0.60 0.776 0.511 0.677 0.000 1.00 1.785 0.854 0.845 0.648 0.846 0.878 0.884 0.000 0.708 0.609 0.790 0.603 0.10 0. April 2008 Page 37 Table 5-4 Reduction factor on stress to correspond with utilisation factor η for B1 and B2 curves in air environment Fatigue damage Weibull shape parameter h utilisation η 0.916 0.719 0.852 0.717 0.000 0.80 0.843 0.891 0.692 0.685 0.946 1.695 0.697 0.750 0.000 0.742 0.760 0.715 0.810 0.33 0.905 0.582 0.10 0.759 0.886 0.690 0.10 0.891 0.907 0.758 0.821 0.748 0.526 0.00 0.864 0.000 0.741 0.000 0.706 0.725 0.20 0.728 0.897 0.747 0.50 0.674 0.50 0.40 0.67 0.835 0.938 1.694 0.10 0.587 0.888 0.890 0.652 0.659 0.697 0.688 0.810 0.711 0.50 0.709 0.715 0.748 0.50 0.909 0.762 0.733 0.592 0.60 0.900 0.00 0.816 0.661 0.908 0.682 0.497 0.573 0.920 0.885 0.947 1.661 0.642 0.764 0.911 0.676 0.80 1.725 0.712 0.743 0.773 0.735 0.754 0.570 0.20 0.756 0.839 0.852 0.939 1.913 0.686 0.941 1.744 0.795 0.942 1.597 0.781 0.00 1.693 0.000 0.902 0.000 0.772 0.917 0.22 0.917 0.745 0.949 1.20 0.922 0.70 0.800 0.762 0.737 0.632 0.686 0.887 0.912 0.730 0.000 DET NORSKE VERITAS .70 0.000 1.701 0.000 0.902 0.67 0.779 0.677 0.882 0.W3 curves in air environment Fatigue damage Weibull shape parameter h utilisation η 0.000 0.70 0.70 0.900 0.540 0.950 1.90 1.934 1.910 0.815 0.723 0.90 1.888 0.778 0.912 0.856 0.882 0.805 0.698 0.812 0.936 1.826 0.765 0.20 0.000 0.921 0.798 0.670 0.910 0.932 1.705 0.000 Table 5-5 Reduction factor on stress to correspond with utilisation factor η for C .668 0.920 0.919 0.871 0.22 0.678 0.883 0.753 0.552 0.701 0.563 0.27 0.

000 0.762 0.602 0.757 0.000 0.10 25 0.699 0.929 0.740 0.694 0.917 0.889 0.613 0.903 0.853 0.22 0.913 0.715 0.67 0.90 1.745 0.954 1.725 0.790 0.780 0.20 0.796 0.000 0.879 0.90 and 1.000 0.684 0.605 0.711 0.915 0.714 0.625 0.805 0.705 0.766 0.949 1.0 mm.80 1.97 is determined.676 0.558 0.900 0.610 0.885 0.758 0.896 0.732 0.720 0.00 1.593 0.913 0. Then by a linear interpolation of stress ranges for h-values 0.922 0.941 1.593 0.40 0.911 0.831 0.795 0.721 0. Then from Table 5-8 an utilisation factor η equal 0.903 0. The maximum thickness of the steel plates is 35.20 0.785 0. The design life of the FPSO is 25 years and the operator would like to use a Design Fatigue Factor equal 2.758 0.955 1.3 Example of use of design charts The allowable stress range in the deck structure of a FPSO is to be determined.953 1.926 0.0 1.896 0.950 1.713 0.780 0.912 0.736 0.97 .577 0.699 0.751 0.000 0.20 0.727 0.50 3 1.924 0.33 5 0.792 0.864 0.000 0.6 .885 0.764 0.924 0.769 0.954 1.20 0.864 0.00 2 2.848 0.785 0.888 0.60 0.710 0.27 0.0.760 0.814 0.825 0.779 0.725 0.947 1.921 0.864 0.752 0.789 0.714 0.(199.00 1.779 0.822 0.000 0.919 0.30 0.818 0.40.785 0.657 0.20 10 0.731 0.20 0.80 1.40 0.822 0.13 0.917 0.763 0.920 0.899 0.747 0.770 0.774 0.952 1.7 a Weibull shape parameter equal 0.04 5.617 0.67 0.00 0.0 1.769 0.775 0.768 0.0 0. This corresponds to an allowable stress for 20 years design life and a DFF equal 1.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.0 in Table 5-2 for S-N curve F3 is obtained: 199.27 0.000 0. The following reduction factor is obtained: DET NORSKE VERITAS .67 0.706 0.891 0.951 1.733 0.60 0.08 0.000 Table 5-7 Reduction factor on stress to correspond with utilisation factor η for C .20 0.720 0.000 0.40 is obtained for 25 years service life and a DFF equal 2.809 0.825 0.08 30 0.917 0.926 0.000 0.0) ((0.743 0.70 0.535 0.921 0.33 1.50 0.892 0.717 0.707 0.918 0.10 0.858 0.0 .897 0.866 0.10 1.955 1.729 0.777 0. It is assumed that details with a classification F3 is going to be welded to the deck structure.949 1.000 0.829 0.927 0.60 0.80 0.50 0.773 0.938 1.818 0.920 0.50 0.10 0.13 0.40 0.867 0.80 0.861 0.70 0.675 0.583 0.898 0.699 0. April 2008 Page 38 Amended October 2008 see note on front cover Table 5-6 Reduction factor on stress to correspond with utilisation factor η for B1 and B2 curves in seawater with cathodic protection Fatigue damage Weibull shape parameter h utilisation η 0.0 for η = 0.754 0.40 0.16 0.729 0.6 .735 0.90)/(1.847 0. The detail is in air environment.90 and 1.908 0.621 0.794 0.862 0.821 0.898 0.000 0.W3 curves in seawater with cathodic protection Fatigue damage Weibull shape parameter h utilisation η 0.80 0.70 0.953 1.27 0.0.30 0.855 0.40 0.840 0.33 0.70 0.80 0.691 0.872 0.22 0.90)) = 178.746 0.760 0.927 0.908 0.627 0.67 0.752 0. 30.22 0.763 0.732 0.18 MPa.619 0.33 0.90 1.44 0.948 1.713 0.33 0.0.00 0.10 1.858 0.50 0.928 0.000 Table 5-8 Utilisation factors η as function of design life and design fatigue factor DFF Design life in years 5 10 15 20 1 4.000 0.792 0.718 0.33 0.919 0.67 0.691 0.169.851 0.13 0.623 0.60 0.772 0.812 0.659 0.893 0.000 0.703 0. Then from Table 5-5 a reduction factor is obtained by linear interpolation between the factors for h-values 0.689 0.782 0.27 0.915 0.945 1.07 50 0.893 0.804 0.827 0.0 2.640 0. From DNV Classification Note No.40 0.909 0.

due to undercuts and microcracks at bottom of the undercuts) may be assumed if other documented information about crack depth is not available.Kmin Number of cycles to failure crack depth. for welded connections containing residual stresses. Where weld profiling is used.5 mm (e.1 General It should be noted that improvement of the toe will not improve the fatigue life if fatigue cracking from the root is the most likely failure mode.25 (T / R)0. /7/ The stress intensity factor K may be expressed as: K = σg πa (6. which might occur during service life.2.785-0.5 (7.17 (tanϕ )0.779) ((0. Improvement of Fatigue Life by Fabrication 7. In design calculations. evaluation of acceptance criteria for fabrication and for planning in-service inspection.55·(25/35) 0.783 = 139. When weld profiling is performed. The purpose of such analysis is to document.2.15 provided that the weld is profiled by either machining or grinding to a radius of approximately half the plate thickness.2. The thickness exponent for a F3 detail is k = 0.90)) = 0. Except for weld profiling (section 7.2. A reduced local stress due to weld profiling can be obtained as follows. In a case that the results from fracture mechanics analyses cannot directly be compared with S-N data it might be recommended to perform a comparison for a detail where S-N data are available. Fracture mechanics is recommended for use in assessment of acceptable defects.4) σMembrane = membrane stress σBending = bending stress DET NORSKE VERITAS . shorter fatigue life is normally derived from fracture mechanics than by S-N data.90)/(1.97 . a reduced hot spot stress can be calculated as σ Local reduced = σ Membrane α + σ Bending β (7.3) (6. Fatigue analysis based on fracture mechanics Fracture mechanics may be used for fatigue analyses as supplement to S-N data. that fatigue cracks.1) where α and β are derived from equations (7. a crack depth of 0. Reference is made to IIW Recommendations.25 (T / R)0.60 + 0. Then the allowable stress range for the 35 mm thick plate is obtained as: 139.779 + (0.25 from Table 2-1. Only stress components normal to the propagation plane need to be considered.2.29 MPa. The membrane part and the bending part of the stress have to be separated from the local stress as where ΔK N a = = = Kmax . April 2008 Page 39 0. However. ref. As crack initiation is not included in the fracture mechanics approach. in order to verify the assumptions made for the fracture mechanics analyses. the whole stress range should be applied.1.2) and (7.1. will not exceed the crack size corresponding to unstable fracture. For surface cracks starting from transitions between weld/base material.0 . Thus the allowable stress range for a 25 mm thick plate is obtained as 178.g. 7. taking account of experienced imperfection or defect sizes for various weldments.2.2) (7.3) respectively. assumed that compressive stresses do not contribute to crack propagation. see BS 7910. for further guidelines related to fatigue assessment based on fracture mechanics. The initial crack size to be used in the calculation should be considered in each case. The considerations made in the following are for conditions where the root is not considered to be a critical initiation point. by means of calculations. This can be achieved by performing the analysis according to the following procedure: — crack growth parameter C determined as mean plus 2 standard deviation — a careful evaluation of initial defects that might be present in the structure when taking into account the actual NDE inspection method used to detect cracks during fabrication — use of geometry functions that are on the safe side — use of utilisation factors similar to those used when the fatigue analysis is based on S-N data. The Paris’ equation may be used to predict the crack propagation or the fatigue life: da m = C(ΔK ) dN g = factor depending on the geometry of the member and the crack See BS 7910. geometries. The calculations should be performed such that the structural reliability by use of fracture mechanics will not be less than that achieved by use of S-N data. m = material parameters. 7.13(tanϕ )0. α = 0.2 Weld profiling by machining and grinding By weld profiling in this section is understood profiling by machining or grinding as profiling by welding only is not considered to be an efficient mean to improve fatigue lives.5 β = 0.0. ref.1) For description of geometric parameters see Figure 7-1. access and reliability of the inspection method.18·0. on post weld improvement with respect to execution of the improvement. (T/2 with stress direction as shown in Figure 7-2 B).55.2) where σ = nominal stress in the member normal to the crack 6.783. the fatigue life can be increased taking account of a reduced local stress concentration factor. C. /7/. It is normally.0.2) the effect from different improvement methods as given in the following can not be added. the thickness effect may be reduced to an exponent 0.Amended October 2008 see note on front cover Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.47 + 0.25 = 128. It is here assumed that the crack depth/ length ratio is low (less than 1:5) σ Local = σ Membrane + σ Bending where (7.

Due to grinding a larger fraction of the fatigue life is spent during the initiation of fatigue cracks.5mm below bottom of any visible undercut. Due to uncertainties regarding quality assurance of the welding process. OSC101 Design of Steel Structures. In addition the fatigue life can be increased taking account of local toe grinding. — It is recommended to grind a steering groove by means of a rotary burr of a diameter suitable for the hammer head to be used for the peening. Table 7-1 Improvement on fatigue life by different methods Improvement Minimum specified Increase in fatigue life method yield strength (factor on life) 1) Less than 350 MPa 0. — Overload in compression must be avoided. as at A. For simple tubular joints it may be assumed that the hot spot stress in the chord is due to bending only. The peening tip must be small enough to reach weld toe. dangerous for the integrity of the structure. 7. Reference is made to Figure 7-2. It should also be noted that if grinding is required to achieve a specified fatigue life. Section 6. and the crack grows faster after initiation. see also DNV-OS-C101 Design of Steel Structures. will produce only little improvement in fatigue strength.2. For grinding of weld toes it is recommended to use a rotary ball shaped burr with typical diameter of 12 mm. The treatment should produce a smooth concave profile at the weld toe with the depth of the depression penetrating into the plate surface to at least 0. the hot spot stress is rather high. T σ A B Depth of grinding should be 0.0 1) The maximum S-N class that can be claimed by weld improvement is C1 or C depending on NDE and quality assurance for execution see Table A-5 in Appendix A. ref. (It is assumed that R/T = 0. April 2008 Page 40 Amended October 2008 see note on front cover If a finite element analysis of the considered connection has been performed. experience indicates that it may be a good design practice to exclude this factor at the design stage.5 Less than 350 MPa 0. Grinding a weld toe tangentially to the plate surface.5 Hammer peening Figure 7-1 Weld profiling of cruciform joint The fatigue life may be improved by means of hammer peening by a factor given in Table 7-1.1) is to be used together with the same S-N curves as the detail is classified for without weld profiling. Grinding also improves the reliability of inspection after fabrication and during service life. because the residual stress set up by hammer peening will be destroyed. In general grinding has been used as an efficient method for reliable fatigue life improvement after fabrication. Therefore. the results from this can be used directly to derive membrane stress and bending stress. it is recommended to perform fatigue testing of relevant detail (with and without hammer peening) before a factor on improvement is decided. this method may not be recommendable for general use at the design stage.1 without weld profiling for a plate thickness T = 25 mm).20. 7. In addition the thickness effect may be reduced to an exponent k = 0. the maximum improvement factor from grinding only should then be limited to a factor 2 on fatigue life. whichever is smaller. σ Figure 7-2 Grinding of welds T R ϕ Weld Profiling 7. the following limitations apply: — Hammer peening should only be used on members where failure will be without substantial consequences. DET NORSKE VERITAS . The grinding depth should not exceed 2 mm or 7% of the plate thickness. if the fabricator is without experience with respect to hammer peening. or to reduce the stress range through design and keep the possibility of fatigue life improvement as a reserve to allow for possible increase in fatigue loading during the design and fabrication process.01fy Grinding Higher than 350 MPa 3. Grinding is normally carried out by a rotary burr. The designer is advised to improve the details locally by other means. Due to uncertainties regarding workmanship and quality assurance of the process. in order to remove toe defects. For cruciform joints and heavy stiffened tubular joints it may be assumed that the hot spot stress is mainly due to membrane stress.5 mm below the bottom of any visible undercut (see Figure 7-2). However. However.5 Less than 350 MPa 0.011fy Hammer peening 3) Higher than 350 MPa 4.3 Weld toe grinding Where local grinding of the weld toes below any visible undercuts is performed the fatigue life may be increased by a factor given in Table 7-1. The reduced local stress in equation (7. section 6. This implies use of shorter inspection intervals during service life in order to detect the cracks before they become However. 2) fy = characteristic yield strength for the actual material.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203. grinding should extend below the plate surface. as at B. 3) The improvement effect is dependent on tool used and workmanship.3. reference is made to Section 7.01fy TIG dressing Higher than 350 MPa 3. To be efficient. this method may not be recommended for general use at the design stage.4 TIG dressing The fatigue life may be improved by TIG dressing by a factor given in Table 7-1.

The left part of this figure corresponding to the first 20 years service life is shown in Figure 9-4. At an early design stage it is considered more cost efficient to prepare for minor geometric modifications than to rely on methods for fatigue improvement under fabrication and construction. (The loading including all analyses of stress is assumed normal distributed with CoV = 25%. the effect of this on increased stress should be included when a new fatigue life is assessed. Calculated fatigue life forms the basis for assessment of probability of fatigue cracking during service life. This depends on type of joint. a further grinding should be performed to remove any indication of this crack. also this fatigue damage may be reassessed taking into account: — the correlation with a ground neighbour hot spot region that has not cracked — an updated reliability taking the reliability of performed in-service inspections into account as discussed above.Amended October 2008 see note on front cover Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203. crack length/depth as function of time/number of cycles (this depends on type of joint. also section 9.3 % due to the safety in the S-N curve if uncertainties in other parameters are neglected. For welded connections that are ground and inspected for fatigue cracks the following procedure may be used for calculation of an elongated fatigue life. A Design Fatigue Factor equal 1. and possibility for redistribution of stress).0 is shown in Figure 9-3. ref. April 2008 Page 41 8. From Figure 9-1 it might be concluded that a design modifica- DET NORSKE VERITAS .0 and CoV equal 0. Extended fatigue life An extended fatigue life is considered to be acceptable and within normal design criteria if the calculated fatigue life is longer than the total design life times the Fatigue Design Factor.0. One may achieve results for other values of DFFs by multiplication of the time scale on the abscissa axis by the actual DFF that is considered used.20 in log N scale. Standard deviation = 0. Reference is made to Figure 9-3 which shows accumulated probability of a fatigue failure as function of years in service for different assumptions of uncertainty in the input parameters.3).0 and CoV = 0. This figure is derived by probabilistic analysis where the uncertainty in loading is included in addition to uncertainties in S-N data and the Palmgren-Miner damage accumulation rule. The fatigue damage at this region is the same as earlier. It is recommended to use Eddy Current or Magnetic Particle Inspection for inspection of surface cracks starting at hot spots. ref. the fatigue life of such regions can not be improved by grinding of the surface. Other uncertainties are load and response assumed as normal distributed with CoV 15-20% and hot spot stress derivation also assumed as normal distributed with CoV equal 5-10%. For details showing a short fatigue life at an early design stage. This figure shows the results for DFF = 1.20 in S-N data that is assumed normal distributed in logarithmic scale and the Palmgren-Miner is assumed log normal distributed with median 1.0 mm is performed and that fatigue cracks are not found by a detailed Magnetic Particle Inspection of the considered hot spot region at the weld toe. In some cases as much as 30% of the plate thickness may be removed by grinding before a weld repair is resorted to. It should also be remembered that if renewal of one hot spot area is performed by local grinding. The uncertainty in Miner summation is described as log normal with median 1.2. A normal distribution in logarithmic scale is assumed. /17/. Uncertainties on the most important parameters in the fatigue design procedure are accounted for when probability of fatigue failure is calculated. The effect of using Design Fatigue Factors (DFF) larger than 1. Reliability methods may be used to illustrate the effect of uncertainties on probability of a fatigue failure. This figure shows the probability of a fatigue failure the last year in service when a structure is designed for 20 years design life. Elapsed time from last inspection performed.30. Provided that grinding below the surface to a depth of approximately 1. The effect of scatter in S-N data may be illustrated by Figure 9-2 where the difference between calculated life is shown for mean S-N data and design S-N data (which is determined as mean minus 2 standard deviations). An example of this is shown in Figure 9-1 based on mean expected uncertainties for a jacket design from ”Reliability of Calculated Fatigue Lives of Offshore Structures”. Thus. the fatigue damage at this hot spot may be considered to start again at zero.1 General Large uncertainties are normally associated with fatigue life assessments. If more than 10% of the thickness is removed by grinding. i. It should be noted that fatigue cracks growing from the weld root of fillet welds can hardly be detected by NDE. Also. 9. e. The same figure also shows the accumulated probability of failure the service life as function of DFF. An expected long term stress range is aimed for in the design response analysis. However.0 implies a probability of a fatigue crack during service life equal 2. type of loading. Design Fatigue Factors for different areas should be defined in Company specifications to be used as a contract document for construction. Crack growth characteristics. there are likely other areas close to the considered hot spot region that are not ground and that also experience a significant dynamic loading. loading condition and accessibility for a repair. If a fatigue crack is found. it is recommended that the considered details are evaluated in terms of improvement of local geometry to reduce its stress concentration. The accumulated probability of failure is independent of design life (and need not be linked to 20 years service life. such as grinding and hammer peening. Such an evaluation should be based on: 1) Calculated crack growth. 2) Reliability of inspection method used. Figure 9-4 and Figure 9-5 shows accumulated probability of fatigue failure for uncertainty in S-N data corresponding to a standard deviation of 0. it implicitly forms the basis for requirement to in-service inspection. tion to achieve a longer calculated fatigue life is an efficient mean to reduce probability of a fatigue failure. Otherwise an extended life may be based on results from performed inspections throughout the prior service life. Uncertainties in Fatigue Life Prediction 9.

Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.00001 0.2 0.0001 0.8 1 1.01 Probability of fatigue failure 0.2 C alcu lated fatigue dam age Figure 9-1 Calculated probability of fatigue failure as function of calculated damage 200 Calculated fatigue life in years 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 200 250 300 350 400 Ma x imum a llow a ble stre ss ra nge in MPa Figure 9-2 Effect of scatter in S-N data on calculated fatigue life Design S. April 2008 Page 42 Amended October 2008 see note on front cover 1 0.N dat a ( mean minus 2 st andar d dev iat ions) Mean S.1 0.0000001 0.4 0.001 0.6 0.N dat a DET NORSKE VERITAS .000001 0.000000001 0 0.00000001 0.

CoVnom = 0.20 0.01 0. CoVhs = 0. CoVnom = 0.10 150 200 DET NORSKE VERITAS .15.05 Uncertainty in S-N.Amended October 2008 see note on front cover Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.001 0.20. CoVnom = 0.00001 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Design Fatigue Factor 8 9 10 Figure 9-3 Fatigue failure probability as function of design fatigue factor 1.00 0 50 100 Time in service (years) Figure 9-4 Accumulated probability of fatigue crack as function of service life for 20 years design life Uncertainty in S-N-Curve only Uncertainty in S-N.80 0.0001 0.1 Accumulated Probability Annual Probability Failure probability 0.20.15.05 Uncertainty in S-N.40 0. CoVhs = 0. Miner.90 Accumulated probability of fatigue failure 0.50 0.30 0. April 2008 Page 43 0. CoVhs = 0.00 0. CoVnom = 0.70 0. Miner.10 0.10 Uncertainty in S-N. Miner. CoVhs = 0. Miner.60 0.

J.00001 0. Paper No 55. on Performance of Dynamic Loaded Welded Structrues.05 Uncertainty in S-N. A. BSI. 239-250.: Stress Concentration Factors for Ring-Stiffened Tubular Joints. Volume 17.15. P. OTC paper no 4407. and Fischer.: Effect of Plate Thickness in Fatigue Design of Welded Structures. conf. Stress: CoVnom = 0. For other calculated fatigue lives (Lcalc) the numbers on the abscissa axis can be scaled by a factor f = Lcalc/20 for estimate of time to first required inspection. May 1976. London. Y. Part 1-1: General rules and rules for buildings. T. and Valsgård. K. I. Figure 9-5 is derived for a calculated fatigue life equal 20 years. M.: An Analytical study of Stress Concentration Effects in Multibrace Joints under Combined Loading. Int. Miner.01 0. Van Wingerde.: IIW Fatigue Rules for Tubular Joints. Lotsberg. San Francisco. Smedley. the Welding Institute Research Bulletin. Miner. If the consequence of a fatigue crack is substantial the accumulated probability of a fatigue failure should be less than 10-4 and from Figure 9-5 an inspection would be required after 2 years. Gulati. Miner. October 1988.05 Uncertainty in S-N.15. Gurney. July 1977. Guidance on Design.000001 0. Løseth. G. OTJ’88.0001 0. and Wardenier. Berge. BOSS’97. Delft 1991. CoVhs = 0. Houston. K. S. CoVhs = 0.T.R.. After a first inspection the time interval to the next inspection can be estimated based on fracture mechanics and probabilistic analysis taking the uncertainty in the inspection method into account. Figure 9-5 may be used for a first estimate of time to a first inspection based on the lower graph in this figure if normal uncertainties are associated with the fatigue life calculation. February 1993. Eurocode : Design of steel structures. Miner. R. K. and Kan. R. Recent Developments in Tubular Joint Technology.10 Uncertainty in S-N. Stress: CoVnom = 0. S.: Fatigue Assessment of Floating Production Vessels. (Normally a calculated fatigue life significantly longer than 20 years would be required for a large consequence connection during design).. May 1982. DET NORSKE VERITAS .0000001 Accumulated probability of fatigue failure 0. J.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203. /7/ /8/ /3/ /4/ /5/ /6/ /9/ /10/ /11/ /12/ BS7910:1999. A. April 2008 Page 44 Amended October 2008 see note on front cover 0. J. Efthymiou.2 Requirements to in-service inspection for fatigue cracks Uncertainties associated with fatigue life calculation normally imply that some in-service inspection for fatigue cracks will be required during service life depending on consequence of a fatigue failure and calculated fatigue life. number 5.00000001 Uncertainty in S-N curve only 0. Stress: CoVnom = 0. Cramer. Gurney. 10.. July 1997.20. OTC Paper no 4829. W.Stress: CoVnom = 0. Parker.: The Basis for the Revised Fatigue Design Rules in the Department of Energy Offshore Guidance Notes. References /1/ /2/ Classification Note No 30. CoVhs = 0. Guide on Methods for Assessing the Acceptability of Flaws in Fusion Welded Structures. CoVhs = 0.20. M. Symp. E. on Tubular Structures. Construction and Certification. Wang. C.001 0. S. February 1995.: Fatigue Design Rules for welded Steel Joints. Fourth Int.. If a fatigue crack is without substantial consequences an accumulated probability of 10-2 may be considered acceptable and from Figure 9-5 it is not required inspection the first 6 years. HSE.: Development of SCF Formulae and Generalised Influence Functions for use in Fatigue Analysis.7 Fatigue Assessment of Ship Structures.. Holtsmark. Houston. Olaisen. May 1984. Det Norske Veritas 2003. pp.10 Figure 9-5 Accumulated probability of through wall fatigue crack as function of service life for 20 years calculated fatigue life (Left part from Figure 9-4) 9.1 1 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 Time in service (years) Uncertainty in S-N.

W. I. Int. Houston.. and Kahlish. Steel in Marine Structures. S. Int. Razmjoo. and Lotsberg. Conf. “Stress Analysis of Cut-outs with and without Reinforcement”. of Offshore and Polar Engineering. VDI 2230 Part 1: Systematic Calculation of High Duty Bolted Joints.. May 1993.S. Houston. Y.. Houston 2004. –H. P. Kim. Sun. Lotsberg. (1986) Methods of Structural Safety. “Fatigue Capacity of Side Longitudinals in Floating Structures”.: IIW Recommendations on Post Weld Improvement of Steel and Aluminium Structures. Houston 2004.: Stress Concentration Factors at Circumferential Welds in Tubulars. “Hot Spot S-N Curve for Fatigue Analysis of Plated Structures”. and Maddox.. NJ. OMAE-FPSO'04-0013. G.. Houston 2004. OMAE-FPSO'04-0017. Second Edition. J. Pilkey. 1997 OMAE. Houston 2004. I. Int. (2004). J. Conf. Conf. E. Proc. Prentice-Hall. J. J. Gunleiksrud. O. M. K. P. J. Wardenier. I. Landet. and Larsen. Int. Conf. Kim. 29-51. John Wiley & Sons. Hobbacher Abington Publishing. S. J. I and Landet. Paper 65 in "Tubular Structures V. May 1984. W. Conf. Conf.: Special Task Committee VI. Houston. 1997 OMAE. and Marshall. Urm.. Vol. /32/ /33/ /34/ /35/ /36/ /37/ /38/ /39/ /40/ /41/ /42/ /43/ /44/ /45/ /46/ /47/ /48/ /49/ /50/ Lotsberg.. I. M. Astrup. Maddox. I. OMAEFPSO'04-0014. Fricke. 1. “Fatigue Test Data for Welded Connections in Ship Shaped Structures” OMAE-FPSO'04-0018. OMAE-FPSO'04-0028. Yoo. Å. Ninth Int. XIII-1815-00..S. D. “Calculated and Measured Stress at Welded Connections between Side Longitudinals and Transverse Frames in Ship Shaped Structures”. Dutta. Houston. Berge. S. Doerk. “Convergence Analysis for Welded Details in Ship Shaped Structures”. 2004. and Landet. Houston. T... R. S-N. and Zettlemoyer. G. Fatigue Design of Welded Joints and Components. Landet. Haagensen. Maherault. Tapir.G. O. January 1999. H. Also Int. W. S. June 2001. 2004. I. OMAE-FPSO'04-0013. On Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering. OMAE Rio de Janeiro. Vol 17/ 1 pp. 1987. P. Int. “Inspection Planning of a Critical Block Weld in an FPSO”.. I. O. V. Stavanger. IIW. PRADS 2004. March 2002. (2001). R. Bucharest. . (2001).: ”Fatigue Design Criteria for Small Super Duplex Steel Pipes”. Inc. Landet. I.. I. G. J. N. 3-7 September 1984. N. Lotsberg. S. OMAE-FPSO'04-0032.: “Low Cycle Fatigue Strength Assessment for Ship Structures”. J. OTC Paper No. S. Bergan. 2004.: Advances in Fatigue Assessment of FPSOs. W. E. L. H. Kristofferesen. N. Lotsberg. Houston.: Fatigue of Welded Joints Peened Underwater. OMAE-FPSO'04-0012. and Sigurdsson. Proc. Stacey." Ed. S. OS-C101 Design of Steel Structures Lotsberg. 2nd Int.Amended October 2008 see note on front cover Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203. J. S. P. Conf.:Effect of Plate Thickness in Fatigue of Welded Joints in Air ans in Sea Water. No.: Peterson’s Stress Concentration Factors. 2003. –H and Tomita. C. E. Int. and Ørjasæter. 2003. S. Storsul. 1996. OMAE-FPSO'04-0016. Wästberg. Int. Marine Structures. Verein Deutsche Ingenieure. OTC Paper no 7155. pp. S. A. 11th ISOPE. H. “Recommended Hot Spot Analysis Procedure for Structural Details of FPSOs and Ships Based on Round-Robin FE Analyses”. Recommendations of IIW Joint Working Group XIII-1539-96/XV-845-96.: Design Guidance on Fatigue of Welded Stainless Steel Joints. 1993 E & FN spon. and Zahidul Hasan.V. “Fatigue Strength Investigation and Assessment of Fillet-Welds around Toes of Stiffeners and Brackets. Davies. Houston. IIW Document no XIII-2000-03 (XV-1146-03). P.. I. Waløen. Houston 2004. W. Palm. August 1988.: Maskindeler 2... 12. Portewin Lecture IIW Int. “Key Development in the Fatigue Design of Welded Constructions”. P.. and Haagensen. I.A. E. Int. Conf.. Paetzold. Conf.Slind. Sigurdsson... S. R. Coutie and G. I. DNV Offshore Standard. Proceedings OMAE Vancouver.. Int. Packer. Conf. Noorhook and J.. Berge. C. D. Houston 2004. A. and Lian. Birmingham. . Eide. Stavanger. S. H. J. “Fatigue Capacity of Fillet Welded Connections subjected to Axial and Shear Loading”. Conf.: ”Reliability of Calculated Fatigue Lives of Offshore Structures”. “Fatigue Design of Welded Pipe Penetrations in Plated Structures”. H. 15th ISSC.. Conf.. Choo.: Proposed Revisions for Fatigue Design of Planar Welded Connections made of Hollow Structural Sections.. deBack Elsevier Science Publishers B. Sharp.: Combined Hot-Spot Stress Procedures for Tubular Joints.: Scale Effects in Fatigue Design Data for Welded and Unwelded Components. Fines.2 Fatigue Strength Assessment. San Diego.. I. Buitrago. and Gruenitz. Lotsberg.. Y. Å.. Kihl. I. 1997. Conf. February 1990. OMAE 1995. Shin. ASME. and Lotsberg. P. Zettlemoyer. Nielsen. Journal of Marine Structures. ASME 1997. L. Edited by A. and Foss. Revision 5 July 2004. C. I.. Lotsberg. and Lind. Lotsberg. J. Haagensen. NTNU (In Norwegian). W. C. J. OMAEFPSO'04-0015. (2004). Madsen. Mikkola. on Fatigue and Fatigue Thresholds. G. Fatigue 84. N. T. and Lotsberg. Conf.M. ASME 2000.OMAE.: Developments in Fatigue Design Standards for Offshore Structures. 799-810. Lotsberg. April 2008 Page 45 /13/ /14/ /15/ /16/ /17/ /18/ /19/ /20/ /21/ /22/ /23/ /24/ /25/ /26/ /27/ /28/ /29/ /30/ /31/ Buitrago. Heo. DET NORSKE VERITAS . and Lotsberg.. and Size-Profile Effects... and Lotsberg. “Recommended Methodology for Analysis of Structural Stress for Fatigue Assessment of Plated Structures”.. Storsul. S... D. O. H. Int. “Hot Spot Stress Evaluation for Selected Connection Details”..: API Provisions for SCF. Doc. O. E. (2004).. J. “Recommended Methodology for Analysis of Structural Stress for Fatigue Assessment of Plated Structures”. Houston 2004. Lotsberg. S. The International Institute of Welding. J. Ø. Chen. I. W. Van Wingerde.: Fatigue Performance of Single-sided Circumferential and Closure Welds in Offshore Jacket Structures. edited by C. Fricke. B.. P. I. L.: Stress Concenteration Factors for Butt Welds in Stiffened Plates.. Int. Amsterdam. Lotsberg. ISOPE. OMAEFPSO'04-0010. and Nichols. Krenk.. Marshall. Lotsberg. and Rove. 4775. P.

Lotsberg.: Double Skin Grout Reinforced Joints. and Maddox.: Fatigue Design Criteria as Function of the Principal Stress Direction Relative to the Weld Toe. Lotsberg. 2005. Marine Structures NTNU 2002. G. OMAE2007-29399. H.4. June 2005.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203. I. J. Lotsberg. IIW-XIII-WG1-114-03. T. "Fatigue Capacity of Fillet Welded Connections subjected to Axial and Shear Loading". OMAE 2008-57249.9 June 2006. I. Doc. I. July 2004. Bøe.. OMAE paper no 2006 . 2007 Vol. A. Also IIW document no XIII-2159-07.: Stress Concentration Factors at Welds in Tubular Sections and Pipelines. DNV-OS-401 Fabrication and Testing of Offshore Structures.: (2006): Fatigue Assessment of Welded Joints by Local Approaches. San Diego.. I. 49-68. DET NORSKE VERITAS . DNV-OS-F101 Submarine Pipeline Systems. ASME B. Lotsberg. Halkidiki. "Fatigue Capacity of Side Longitudinals in Floating Structures"..: “Finite Element Analysis of SCF in Stiffener to Plate Connections”. Salama. Int. Also in Journal of Offshore and Arctic Engineering. A. Lauersen.: Stress Concentration Factors at Welds in Pipelines and Tanks subjected to Internal Pressure. Chapter IX. A. D. P.: Fatigue Design of Web Stiffened Cruciform Connections.. T. I. Pre-Project Thesis. Ranestad Kaase. Collberg. H. R. Conf. Lotsberg. 45-54. Background for Revision of DNV-RPC203 Fatigue Analysis of Offshore Steel Structures. 2001. M. Presented at PRADS 2007. : “Best Practice Guide on Statistical Analysis of Fatigue Data". Sele. Journal of Ships and Offshore Structures.31.92086. OMAE 2005-67549. Hobbacher. DNV-Report No 83-0119. Part Project One and Two. Fatigue Tests on Grouted Joints.. June 2007. Lotsberg. and Lindemark. Rundhaug. Woodhead Publishing in Materials. Lotsberg. Sonsino. Greece. 1 pp.: Fatigue Design of Plated Structures using Finite Element Analysis. Å.: IIW document XII-1965-03/XV-112703 Recommendations for Fatigue Design of Welded joints and Components. Presented at OMAE 2007. April 2005. Portugal. I and Landet. 25-42. and Holth. April 2008 Page 46 Amended October 2008 see note on front cover /51/ /52/ /53/ /54/ /55/ /56/ /57/ /58/ /59/ /60/ /61/ /62/ /63/ /64/ /65/ /66/ /67/ /68/ /69/ Radaj. "Recent Advances on Fatigue Limit State Design for FPSOs"... Schneider. Lotsberg. 1 No 1 pp. Lotsberg. 4 .. C. 2 No. OMAE paper no 2007-29571. Marine Structures. W. DNV-OS-F201 Dynamic Risers. C. California. 2006 Vol. O. Thorkildsen. Fatigue Testing and Analysis of Full Scale Girth weld Tubulars. To be presented at OMAE 2008 Estoril. and Fricke. Code for Pressure Piping. Journal of Ships and Offshore Structures. A. S.. A. 26th International Conference on Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering. Vol 18. I. pp. I. L. I. Wästberg. Presented at OMAE in Hamburg.. In Journal of Marine Engineering 2008. M. S. E.

— low and regular draglines. — Re-entrant corners (slope <1:4) or aperture should be improved by grinding for any visible defects. curve C is required. In steel with boltholes or other stress concentrations arising from the shape of the member. Rolled or extruded plates and flats — Sharp edges. Subsequently dressed to remove all edge discontinuities No repair by weld refill. 4. Manually gas cut material or material with machine gas cut edges with shal. 3. April 2008 Page 47 APPENDIX A CLASSIFICATION OF STRUCTURAL DETAILS A. — At apertures the design stress area should be taken as the net cross-section area. Machine gas cut or sheared material with no drag lines 3. — For members that can acquire stress concentrations due to rust pitting etc. usually either at surface irregularities or at corners of the cross-section.1 Non-welded details Table A-1 Non-welded details Notes on potential modes of failure In plain steel. flaws to be improved by grindRolled sections ing. — No repair by weld refill. Reference is made to section 2.2 or better. — — DET NORSKE VERITAS . surface and rolling 2. 1.10 for non-welded components made of high strength steel with a surface finish Ra = 3. fatigue failure will rarely occur in a region of plain material since the fatigue strength of the welded joints will usually be much lower. 1. In welded construction.Amended October 2008 see note on front cover Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203. to 2. 2. fatigue cracks will initiate at the surface. Re-entrant corners (slope <1:4) or aperture should be improved by grinding for any visible defects. B2 3. Detail Constructional details Description Requirement category B1 1. C 4. 4. — At apertures the design stress area should be taken as the net cross-section area.4. failure will usually initiate at the stress concentration. — All visible signs of edge discontinuities should be removed. The applied stress range shall include applicable stress concentration factors arising from the shape of the member.

3. “Maskindeler 2”. and 2. F1 W3 See Section 2. — For preloaded bolts.2 Bolted connections Table A-2 Bolted connections Detail Constructional details category C1 1. Thread not in shear plane. plates. ref. Description Requirement 1. 1. — Tensile stresses to be calculated using the tensile stress area of the bolt. without load reversal. effects of eccentricities shall be taken into account when calculat. nection and only the members Beam splices or bolted cover need to be checked for fatigue.— Bolts subjected to reversal forces in shear shall be ing stresses.8. Bolts in single or double shear. Bolts and threaded rods in tension.3 Cold rolled threads with no following heat treatment like hot galvanising Cut threads 4. The shear stress to be calculated on Fitted bolts and normal bolts the shank area of the bolt. 2. 3. see e. DET NORSKE VERITAS . 3. /23/. designed as a slip resistant con2. the stressrange in the bolt depends upon the level of preload and the geometry of the connection. Unsupported one-sided connec— Stresses to be calculated in the tions shall be avoided or else gross section.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.g. April 2008 Page 48 Amended October 2008 see note on front cover A.

unless subsequently ground out or covered by a continuous weld. it is equally important to ensure that no accidental undercutting occurs on the unwelded corners of.3 Continuous welds essentially parallel to the direction of applied stress Table A-3 Continuous welds essentially parallel to the direction of applied stress Detail Constructional details Description Requirement category Notes on potential modes of failure. for example cover plates or box girder flanges. April 2008 Page 49 A. With the excess weld material dressed flush. cution of the repair. and 2. 1.— No start-stop position is permitted except when the tion demonstrates that longitudirepair is performed by a spenal welds are free from significant cialist and inspection carried flaws. for example. out to verify the proper exe2. fatigue cracks would be expected to initiate at weld defect locations. If they are attached by welding. such welds must also comply with the relevant joint classification requirements (note particularly that tack welds. In the as welded condition. If undercutting occurs it should subsequently be ground smooth. If a specialist inspec. Automatic fillet welds. or accidental overweave in manual fillet welding (see also notes in Table A-7). Although an edge distance can be specified only for the “width” direction of an element. they must be continuous. b) C DET NORSKE VERITAS . Cover plate ends shall be verified using detail 5. cracks may initiate at start-stop positions or. General comments a) Backing strips If backing strips are used in these joints.Amended October 2008 see note on front cover Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203. Automatic welds carried out from both sides. if these are not present. 1. of undercut. at weld surface ripples. weld spatter. category B2 may be used. would reduce the joint to class F) Edge distance An edge distance criterion exists to limit the possibility of local stress concentrations occurring at unwelded edges as a result. 1. in Table A-8 2.

— When the detail contains but without start-stop positions. Automatic butt welds made from one side only. Manual fillet or butt welds. 3. 4. — A very good fit between the flange and web plates is essential. 7. C2 5.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203. Prepare the web edge such that the root face is adequate for the achievement of regular root penetration with out brake-out. Automatic fillet or butt welds carried out from both sides but containing stop-start positions. DET NORSKE VERITAS . C2 7. 4. start-stop positions use category C2 4. Manual or automatic butt welds carried out from one side only. 6. Repaired automatic or manual fil— Improvement methods that let or butt welds are adequately verified may restore the original category. April 2008 Page 50 Amended October 2008 see note on front cover Table A-3 Continuous welds essentially parallel to the direction of applied stress (Continued) Detail Constructional details Description Requirement category C1 3. particularly for box girders 6. with a backing bar.

— The SCFs from 3. 3. Ends of continuous welds at cope holes.4 Intermittent welds and welds at cope holes Table A-4 Intermittent welds and welds at cope holes Detail Constructional details category E 1.1.5. 2. 1.6. with cope hole advice on fatigue assessment may be found in 3. 3. Description Requirement 1. 2.Amended October 2008 see note on front cover Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203. Cope hole and transverse butt — For butt weld in material weld. 3.— Intermittent fillet weld with gap ratio g/h ≤ 2. April 2008 Page 51 A. tinuous weld F 2. DET NORSKE VERITAS . — Cope hole not to be filled with weld material. Stitch or tack welds not subsequently covered by a con.6 may be used together with the D-curve.1.

April 2008 Page 52 Amended October 2008 see note on front cover A. 4 1 1 4 DET NORSKE VERITAS . 2.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203. Transverse splices in plates flats — Details 1. flanges of a beam that are supported by the web. so that the fatigue strength depends largely upon the shape of the weld overfill. 1. 3. — Weld run-off pieces to be used and subsequently removed. plate edges to be ground flush in direction of stress. C1 1.3). 2. welded from both sides Table A-5 Transverse butt welds. the stresses must include the effect of any eccentricity (see section 3. and failure is then associated with weld defects. and 2.. 1. and 2. Design stresses In the design of butt welds that are not symmetric about the root and are not aligned. achieved and the weld is 3. and 3. may be and rolled sections increased to Category C 2. — All welds ground flush to plate surface parallel to direction of the arrow. when high quality welding is Flange splices in plate girders. fatigue cracks in the as-welded condition normally initiate at the weld toe. eccentricity may be neglected. proved free from significant Transverse splices in plates or defects by non-destructive flats tapered in width or in thickexamination (it is assumed ness where the slope is not greater that this is fulfilled by than 1:4.1 and 3. the stress concentration caused by it is removed. If the overfill is dressed flush. 1.g. welded from both sides Detail Constructional details Description Requirement category Notes on potential modes of failure With the weld ends machined flush with the plate edges. e. With connections that are supported laterally.5 Transverse butt welds. — All welds welded in horizontal position in shop. inspection category I).

plate edges to be ground flush in direction of stress. and 6.Amended October 2008 see note on front cover Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203. 5 Requirement 4. Transverse splices in plates or flats tapered in width or in thickness where the slope is not greater than 1:4. — The height of the weld convexity not to be greater than 10% of the weld width. 6. welded from both sides (Continued) Detail Constructional details Description category D 4.. 5. with smooth transitions to the plate surface. — Welds made in flat position in shop. 4. 4 1 1 4 DET NORSKE VERITAS . April 2008 Page 53 Table A-5 Transverse butt welds. 5. — Weld run-off pieces to be used and subsequently removed. Transverse splices in plates and flats. Transverse splices in rolled sections or welded plate girders 6.

and 6 and 100 % MPI of the weld is performed.) Requirement 7.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203. — The height of the weld convexity not to be greater than 20% of the weld width.11 h DET NORSKE VERITAS . with the weld ends ground to a radius. — The width ratio H/h should be less than 2. 7. 5. (Detail category D may be used for welds made in flat position at site meeting the requirements under 4. April 2008 Page 54 Amended October 2008 see note on front cover Table A-5 Transverse butt welds..: — The stress concentration has been accounted for in the joint classification. 4 1 1 4 8. Transverse splices in plates. plate edges to be ground flush in direction of stress. 8.16 h F3 r ≥ 0. rolled sections or plate girders made at site. 8. F1 r ≥ 0. — Weld run-off pieces to be used and subsequently removed. flats. Transverse splice between plates of unequal width. welded from both sides (Continued) Detail Constructional details Description category E 7.

April 2008 Page 55 A.6 Transverse butt welds. The analysis should then be based on a relevant defect size. so that the fatigue strength depends largely upon the shape of the weld overfill. fatigue cracks in the as-welded condition normally initiate at the weld toe. In welds made on permanent backing strip. Design stresses In the design of butt welds that are not symmetric about the root and are not aligned. Table A-5.larger than 1-2 mm (in the thickness direcing strip. 1. tion) by non-destructive testing. 1. e. 3. and failure is then associated with weld defects. Transverse butt weld on a temporary or a permanent backing strip without fillet welds.g. 2.1 and 3. Butt weld made from one With the root proved free from defects side only and without back. ref. the stress concentration caused by it is removed. welded from one side Notes on potential modes of failure With the weld ends machined flush with the plate edges. If the overfill is dressed flush. welded from one side Table A-6 Transverse butt welds. Transverse butt weld on a backing strip fillet welded to the plate. With connections that are supported laterally. F 2. the stresses must include the effect of any eccentricity (see section 3. fatigue cracks most likely initiate at the weld metal/strip junction. DET NORSKE VERITAS . If it is likely that larger defects may be present after the inspection the detail may be downgraded from F3 based on fatigue life calculation using fracture mechanics. detail 1 may be categorised to F3 (it is assumed that this is fulfilled by inspection category I). Detail Constructional details Description Requirement category W3 1.Amended October 2008 see note on front cover Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.3). G 3. By grinding of the root after welding this side of the welded connection can be categorised to C1 or C. eccentricity may be neglected. flanges of a beam that are supported by the web.

cracks usually initiate at the weld toe. 1. Doubling plate welded to a plate. 2. The detail category is Welded longitudinal attachment given for: — Edge distance ≥ 10mm — For edge distance < 10 mm the detail category shall be downgraded with one S-Ncurve 2. and 2. When the weld is transverse to direction of stressing. Longitudinal attachment welded to transverse stiffener. The cracks then propagate into the stressed member. 3. for attachments involving a single. as opposed to a double.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203. 1. l E F F1 l ≤120 mm 120 < l ≤ 300 mm l > 300 mm DET NORSKE VERITAS . April 2008 Page 56 Amended October 2008 see note on front cover A. 1. fatigue cracks normally initiate at the weld ends. weld cracks may also initiate at the weld root.7 Welded attachments on the surface or the edge of a stressed member Table A-7 Welded attachments on the surface or the edge of a stressed member Detail Constructional details Description Requirement category Notes on potential modes of failure When the weld is parallel to the direction of the applied stress. When the welds are on or adjacent to the edge of the stressed member the stress concentration is increased and the fatigue strength is reduced. this is the reason for specifying an “edge distance” in some of this joints (see also note on edge distance in Table A-3). l E F F1 F3 l ≤ 50 mm 50 < l ≤ 120 mm 120 < l ≤ 300 mm l > 300 mm 3.

r r Requirement 4. E 1 r ≤ . end of fillet weld reinforcement (full penetration). 5. 5. 5. April 2008 Page 57 Table A-7 Welded attachments on the surface or the edge of a stressed member (Continued) Detail Constructional details Description category E 4. r ≥ 150mm 3 W 1 r 1 ≤ < 6 W 3 F F1 1 r 1 ≤ < 10 W 6 F3 1 r 1 ≤ < 16 W 10 1 r 1 ≤ < 25 W 16 G DET NORSKE VERITAS . 4. Smooth transition radius r formed by initially machining or gas cutting the gusset plate before welding. r > 150 mm Longitudinal fillet welded gusset with radius transition to plate or tube. length of reinforcement weld > r.Amended October 2008 see note on front cover Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203. Gusset plate with a radius welded The specified radius to be to the edge of a plate or beam achieved by grinding. then subsequently grinding the weld area parallel to the direction of the arrow so that the transverse weld toe is fully removed. flange.

For main stress in the other beam the distance L will govern detail category. Flange welded to another flange at crossing joints. 6. Gusset plate welded to the edge of a plate or beam flange. Requirement 6. April 2008 Page 58 Amended October 2008 see note on front cover Table A-7 Welded attachments on the surface or the edge of a stressed member (Continued) Detail Constructional details Description category 6. 7. 7. l G W1 W2 l ≤ 150 mm 150 < l ≤ 300 mm l > 300 mm DET NORSKE VERITAS . and 7: The distance l is governing detail category for the stress direction shown in sketch.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.

and 10. E G Edge distance ≥ 10 mm Edge distance < 10 mm DET NORSKE VERITAS . April 2008 Page 59 Table A-7 Welded attachments on the surface or the edge of a stressed member (Continued) Detail Constructional details Description Requirement category 8. 10. E F t ≤ 25 mm t > 25 mm 11. Transverse attachments with edge distance ≥ 10 mm t 9. stresses if the stiffener termiDiaphragms of box girders nates in the web. 9. 9. welded to the flange or web 8. Welded shear connector to base material.Amended October 2008 see note on front cover Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203. 11. calculated using principal 10. Vertical stiffener welded to a — The stress range should be beam or a plate girder. The detail category is given for: — Edge distance ≥ 10 mm — For edge distance < 10 mm the detail category shall be downgraded with one SNcurve 9.. 8.

In this case. — Shear cracking in the weld should be verified using detail 7.8 Welded joints with load carrying welds Table A-8 Welded joints with load carrying welds Detail Constructional details Description Requirement category Notes on potential modes of failure Failure in cruciform or T joints with full penetration welds will normally initiate at the weld toe. cracking may initiate either at the weld toe and propagate into the plate. if the weld end is located on or adjacent to the edge of a stressed member rather than on its surface. In joints made with load-carrying fillet or partial penetration butt welds.: cruciform joint — Inspected and found free from significant defects. 2 1 Stressed area of main plate DET NORSKE VERITAS . In welds parallel to the direction of the applied stress. Crack in main plate. t < 20 mm 2. which are not aligned the stresses. Fillet welded overlap joint. cracks normally initiate at the weld end and propagate into the plate perpendicular to the direction of applied stress. See also section 2. The detail category is given for: — Edge distance ≥ 10mm — For edge distance < 10mm the detail category shall be downgraded with one SN-curve W3 2. Secondly.— Two fatigue assessments are required.3. and the fatigue strength is therefore reduced. The stress concentration is increased. The design stress may be obtained as the nominal stress multiplied by the stress concentration factor due to the eccentricity.7 that toe cracking is the most likely failure mode is fulfilled and the edge distance ≥ 10mm.7. toe cracking is evaluated by determining the stress range in the load-carrying plates and use Category G. Firstly.: joint or fillet welded joint and effective full penetration in tee.Full penetration butt welded 1. 1.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203. F 1. — Weld termination more than 10 mm from plate edge. must include the effect of any eccentricity. however. F1 3. — If the requirement in section 2. weld failure is uncommon. or at the weld root and propagate through the weld. root cracking is butt joint. 3. >1 0m m 3. Design stresses In the design of cruciform joints. Category F1 may be used for partial penetration welds and F3 for fillet welds. σw is defined in section 2.5. evaluated taking Category W3 for σw.Partial penetration tee-butt 2. The maximum value of the eccentricity may normally be taken from the fabrication tolerances. April 2008 Page 60 Amended October 2008 see note on front cover A. — Stress in the main plate to be calculated on the basis of area shown in the sketch.

and 7. Fillet welded overlap joint. 6. Continuous fillet welds transmitting a shear flow. End zones of single or multiple — When the cover plate is wider than welded cover plates in beams the flange. 7. such as web to flange welds in plate girders. April 2008 Page 61 Table A-8 Welded joints with load carrying welds (Continued) Detail Constructional details Description category W1 4.Amended October 2008 see note on front cover Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203. 6. is necwith or without frontal weld. G W3 E t and tc ≤ 20 mm t and tc > 20 mm 6. Fillet welded lap joint. tc t tc t 5. 5. — Shear cracking in the weld should be verified using detail 7. DET NORSKE VERITAS . 4. carefully and plate girders. essary. For continuous full penetration butt weld in shear use Category C2. — Stress range to be calculated from the weld throat area considering the total length of the weld. Crack in overlapping plate. — Weld terminations more than 10 mm from the plate edge. Cover plates ground to remove undercut. 7. Requirement 4. — Stress range to be calculated from the weld throat area. 5. — Stress to be calculated in the overlapping plate elements — Weld termination more than 10 mm from plate edge. a frontal weld.

April 2008 Page 62 Amended October 2008 see note on front cover Table A-8 Welded joints with load carrying welds (Continued) Detail Constructional details Description category E 8. Trapezoidal stiffener welded to — For a full penetration butt weld. 9. the stiffener. — For a fillet weld or a partial penetration butt weld. the bending stress range shall be calculated on the basis of the throat thickness of the weld.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203. 8. 9. or the thickness of the stiffener if smaller. Stud connectors (failure in the weld or heat affected zone). the deck plate with fillet weld or bending stress range shall be calcufull or partial penetration butt lated on the basis of the thickness of weld. — The shear stress to be calculated on the nominal cross section of the stud. Requirement 8. F G DET NORSKE VERITAS . 9.

A machining of the surfaces will reduce the thickness. ref. ref.7. The weld should be proved free from defects by non-destructive examination (It is assumed that this is fulfilled by Inspection category I). — The weld root proved free from defects larger than 1-2 mm. and 6.7. 5. section 3. 8.3. 3.3.. 6. — The applied stress must include the stress concentration factor to allow for any thickness change and for fabrication tolerances. Circumferential butt weld made from both sides dressed flush. Table A-5. Specially on the root side material will have to be removed. 2.. Category C may be achieved. Circumferential butt weld made from one side without a backing bar. section 3. 7. see — No stop /start positions. and free from defects outside the tolerances of OS-C401 Table A-3) Fabrication and Testing of Offshore Structures. — Sharp edges and surface flaws to be improved by grinding B2 2. ref. C1 8. Description 1.9 Hollow sections Table A-9 Hollow sections Detail Constructional details category B1 1. — The requirements to the corresponding detail category in Table A-5 apply. A reduced thickness should be used for calculation of stress.Amended October 2008 see note on front cover Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203. Circumferential butt weld made from both sides. 2. 7. April 2008 Page 63 A. Non-welded sections Requirement 1. Automatic longitudinal seam welds (for all other cases. — The applied stress should include the stress concentration factor to allow for any thickness change and for fabrication tolerances. 3. Circumferential butt weld made from both sides made at site. C1 D E F F3 7. Circumferential butt welds made from one side that are machined flush to remove defects and weld overfill. Circumferential butt weld made from one side on a backing bar. 4. DET NORSKE VERITAS . 4. 5.

. Circumferential butt welds between tubular and conical sections. — The requirements to the corresponding detail category in Table A-5 apply. 9. — Section width parallel to stress direction ≤ 100 mm. 10 and 11. — The applied stress must also include the stress concentration factor due to the overall form of the joint. 9. 12. 14. fillet welded to another section. For the outside weld toe see 8-11). Circumferential butt welds between tubular and conical sections.3. F 14.. weld made from both sides. F3 13. 14. weld made from both sides dressed flush. 10.. D E F F3 12. Requirement 8. April 2008 Page 64 Amended October 2008 see note on front cover Table A-9 Hollow sections (Continued) Detail Constructional details category C1 8. — Non load carrying welds. ref. — The applied stress must also include the stress concentration factor due to the overall form of the joint — The weld root proved free from defects larger than 1-2 mm. see Table A-7 DET NORSKE VERITAS .9. Circular or rectangular hollow section. weld made from one side on a backing bar.. 9. Circumferential butt welds between tubular and conical sections.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203. 13. — All other cases.. 13. section 3. 11. Butt welded end to end connection of rectangular hollow — With the weld root proved free from defects larger than 1-2 mm sections. 10. (This classification is for the root. weld made from one side without a backing bar. and 11. Description 8. Circumferential butt welds between tubular and conical sections. 12. Circumferential butt welds between tubular and conical sections. weld made from both sides made at site.

16.Amended October 2008 see note on front cover Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203. W1 16. — Load carrying welds. Requirement 15. Rectangular hollow section butt welded end to end with an intermediate plate. April 2008 Page 65 Table A-9 Hollow sections (Continued) Detail Constructional details category G 15. 16. DET NORSKE VERITAS . Circular hollow section butt welded end to end with an intermediate plate. Description 15. — Load carrying welds. — Welds inspected and found free from defects outside the tolerances of DNVOS-C401 Fabrication and testing of Offshore Structures — Details with wall thickness greater than 8mm may be classified Category F3. — Welds inspected and found free from defects outside the tolerances of DNVOS-C401 Fabrication and Testing of Offshore Structures — Details with wall thickness greater than 8 mm may be classified as Category G.

weld attaching a diaphragm to a tubular member. April 2008 Page 66 Amended October 2008 see note on front cover A. Gusseted connections made with fillet welds.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203. F 5.3. F1 2. — The design stress must include the stress concentration factor due to the overall form of the joint. 5. Welded rungs. Parent material adjacent to the toes of full penetration welded tubular joints. — The design should be based on the hot spot stress. D 3. 4. and 4. 3.8. E F t ≤ 25 mm t > 25 mm DET NORSKE VERITAS . The nominal design stress for the inside Parent material at the toe of a may be determined from section 3. 4. 3. 2. — The design stress must include the stress concentration factor due to the overall form of the joint.10 Details relating to tubular members Table A-10 Details relating to tubular members Detail Constructional details category T Description 1. Requirement 1. Gusseted connections made with full penetration welds.

Without start and stop at hot spot region. C 7.1.Amended October 2008 see note on front cover Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203. Reference is also made to Appendix C. See also section 3. 7. At fillet weld toe in parent metal around a penetration in a plate. 8. 8. See also section 3. 9.1. The stress in the weld should include an appropriate stress concentration factor to allow for the overall joint geometry.5. D 8. 6. — The stress in the plate should include the stress concentration factor due to the overall geometry of the detail. Parent material to.5. Parent material (of the stressed member) adjacent to the toes of — a bevel butt or fillet welded attachments in region of stress concentration. C C-C DET NORSKE VERITAS . See also section 3.5. Weld metal in partial penetra— tion or fillet welded joints around a penetration through the wall of a member (on a plane essentially parallel to the plane of stress). or weld metal in welds around a penetration through a wall of a member (on a plane essentially perpendicular to the direction of stress) 7. April 2008 Page 67 Table A-10 Details relating to tubular members (Continued) Detail Constructional details category E to G. In this situation the relevant stress must include the stress concentration factor due to the overall geometry of the detail. W3 C 9. see Table A-7 Description Requirement 6. Class depends on attachment length (see Table A-7) but stress must include the stress concentration factor due to the overall shape of adjoining structure.1. 6.

DET NORSKE VERITAS . the axial force in the brace is reacted as beam shear in the chord.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203. brace planes within ±15° of each other may be considered as being in a common plane. e) and h) shows joints with a combination of classifications. For purposes of this provision. for joint types X in Table B-2. A classification of joints can be based on a deterministic analysis using a wave height corresponding to that with the largest contribution to fatigue damage. The classification can be a mixture between the above three joint types. A conservative classification may be used keeping in mind that: SCFX > SCFY > SCFK. the axial force in the brace is carried through the chord to braces on the opposite side. Figure B-1 c). Each brace in the plane can have a unique classification that could vary with action condition. the axial force in the brace should be balanced to within 10% by forces in other braces in the same plane and on the same side of the joint. For X-joint classification. Definitions of geometrical parameters can be found in Figure B-2. X and Y components of actions corresponding to the three joint types for which stress concentration equations exists. In e) 33% of the incoming diagonal force is balanced with a force in the horizontal in a Kjoint with gap 1 and 67% of the incoming diagonal force is balanced with a force in the other diagonal in a K-joint with gap 2. For Y-joint classification. April 2008 Page 68 Amended October 2008 see note on front cover APPENDIX B SCF’S FOR TUBULAR JOINTS B.1 Stress concentration factors for simple tubular joints and overlap joints Stress concentration factors for tubular joints for joint types T/ Y are given in Table B-1. Stress concentration factors are based on “Development of SCF Formulae and Generalised Influence Functions for use in Fatigue Analysis". For a brace to be considered as K-joint classification. In h) 50% of the diagonal force is balanced with a force in the horizontal on the same side of the chord in a K-joint and 50% of the diagonal force is balanced with a force in the horizontal on the opposite side of the chord in a X-joint. for joint types K in Table B-3 and Table B-4 and for joint types KT in Table B-5. ref. Joint classification is the process whereby the axial force in a given brace is subdivided into K. Such subdivision normally considers all of the members in one plane at a joint. In c) 50% of the diagonal force is balanced with a force in the horizontal in a Kjoint and 50% of the diagonal force is balanced with a beam shear force in the chord in a Y-joint. Figure B-1 provides some simple examples of joint classification. /2/.

April 2008 Page 69 Figure B-1 Classification of simple joints DET NORSKE VERITAS .Amended October 2008 see note on front cover Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.

Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203. April 2008 Page 70 Amended October 2008 see note on front cover d d t t T T D crown Θ D Θ crown saddle L β= d D dA α= 2L D γ= D 2T τ= t T dA D βB = dB D βA = BRACE A tA tB BRACE B dB τA = tA T τB = tB T T ΘA g ΘB D γ= D 2T ζ= g D dB dA A tA tB B C tC dC βA = dA D βB = dB D βC = dC D τA = tA T τB = tB T τC = tC T T ΘA ΘB ΘC D γ= g AB g BC D 2T ζ AB = g AB D ζ BC = g BC D Figure B-2 Definition of geometrical parameters. DET NORSKE VERITAS .

12exp (− 4β ) + 0.2 8 4 20° − 0. April 2008 Page 71 The validity range for the equations in Table B-1 to Table B-5 is as follows: 0.1 α − 1.10)) ( ) (11) F3 DET NORSKE VERITAS .0 32 40 90° 1. (3)) Brace crown: ( ) (6) None F2 3 + γ1.8 α − 6 ) τ β 2 1 − β 2 Chord crown: ( ) 0.01α ) Brace crown: ( ) (3) F1 3 + γ 1.16 ) Out-of-plane bending Chord saddle: (9) None γ τ β 1. No.68β ) (sin θ )0.2 ) Axial loadGeneral fixity conditions Chord saddle: ( ) (4) None (Eqn.99 − 0.1 1.45β τ 0.2 0.2 0.2 τ 2.65)2 + τ β (0.7 − 1.65 + 5 (β − 0.65 + 5 (β − 0.52α 0.3 + γ τ0.7 Brace crown: (8) None 1 + 0.12 exp (− 4 β) + 0.11 − 3 (β − 0.05β 3 (sin θ )1.52) Chord crown: ( 2 ) (sin θ) 1.(1)) + C1 ( 0.25 α − 3) sin θ Brace saddle: ( ) (2) None 1.045 + β τ ( C3 α − 1.2 if actual geometry is outside validity range.09 − 0.25β1.05 0.4 γ (1.5 (sin2θ )2 (5) F2 γ 0.06γ -1.0 1.011β 2 − 0.54 γ −0.7 -0.08 β 4 ⋅ ( Eqn.2) In-plane bending Chord crown: ( ) (7) None 1.65β τ 0.1 0.2 0.187 − 1.1 (β − 0.47 β + 0.65)2 + τ β ( C 2 α − 3) sinθ Brace saddle: (Eqn.6 β sinθ Reference is made to Section 4.0 Table B-1 Stress Concentration Factors for Simple Tubular T/Y Joints Load type and fixity condi.Amended October 2008 see note on front cover Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.6 Brace saddle: ( ) (10) F3 τ −0.045 + β τ(0. Short chord correction γ τ1.85 γ (1 − 0.77β ) (sin θ )(0.011β2 − 0.2 τ 2.6 (1) F1 γ 0.96 ) (sin θ )(2. ≤ ≤ ≤ ≤ ≤ ≤ β τ γ α θ ζ ≤ ≤ ≤ ≤ ≤ ≤ 1.SCF equations tions Axial loadChord ends fixed Chord saddle: Eqn.

0.0. (12) Table B-2 Stress Concentration Factors for Simple X Tubular Joints Load type and fixity SCF equation conditions Axial load (balanced) Chord saddle: P 3.99 − 0.0.9 1. no.6 Brace saddle: ( ) (16) τ −0.(16)) In joints with short chords (α < 12) eqns.0.09 − β 1.23exp .0.38 α 2.89 α 1.08 β 4 ⋅ (Eqn.71 γ -1.7 P ( ) (sin θ ) 2.8 γ 0.16α 2.1.0.8 ( ) DET NORSKE VERITAS .56 β 2 − 0.02 γ 0.43 β .Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.54 γ −0.0.8 ) Eqn.65 )2 − 3 τ β sin θ Brace saddle: ( ) (13) 1 + 1.55 β 1.83 β .5 F1 = 1 .56 β − 0.0. April 2008 Page 72 Amended October 2008 see note on front cover Table B-1 Stress Concentration Factors for Simple Tubular T/Y Joints (Continued) Chord-end fixity parameter Short chord correction factors (α < 12) C1 = 2(C-0.97 β 2 − 0.16 exp .02 γ exp . (16) and (17) can be reduced by the factor F3 where: ( ) (17) M F3 = 1 .89 α 1.5 ( ) ( ) ) F2 = 1 .2 τ 2.55 β 1.0.71 γ -1.1.8 Chord crown: ( ) (sin θ ) 1.5 ≤ C ≤ 1.05 0.87 γ τ β 1.16 2.0.12exp ( − 4β ) + 0.21 γ α C3 = C/5 C = chord end fixity parameter 0.2 ( 0.0.16 exp where exp(x) = ex ( .011 β 2 − 0.7 γ 0.10 − β 1.23 -1.7 ( ) ( ) F2 = 1 .0.5 In plane bending Chord crown: (Eqn.97 β 2 − 0.49 γ -0.5 (14) Brace crown: 3 + γ 1.5 β 0.21 γ -1.0.49 γ -0.03 γ 0.5 ( ) ( ) F3 = 1 .56 − 1.9 γ τ 0.0.045 ) (15) In joints with short cords (α < 12) the saddle SCF can be reduced by the factor F1 (fixed chord ends) or F2 (pinned chord ends) where F1 = 1 .03 γ 0.04 exp .8 γ 0.65 + 5 (β − 0.47 β + 0. Typically C = 0.0.38 α 2.34β 4 (sin θ )1.04 exp .5) C2 = C/2 2 0. (8)) Brace crown: (Eqn. (9)) ( ) ( Out of plane bending (balanced) M Chord saddle: γ τ β 1.83 β .43 β .

0.Amended October 2008 see note on front cover Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.03 Out-of-plane bending on one brace Chord saddle: only: (Eqn.5 ( ) In joints with short chords (α < 12) eqns.8 ( ) DET NORSKE VERITAS .38 α 2. (7)) In joints with short chords (α < 12) the saddle SCFs can be reduced by the factor F1 (fixed chord ends) or F2 (pinned chord ends) where: F1 = 1 .83 β .5 ( ) F2 = 1 .04 exp .97 β 2 − 0.89 α 1.6)) Brace saddle: (1 − 0.8 γ 0.56 β 2 − 0. (10)) Brace saddle: (Eqn.0.0.0. (5)) 3 (18) Chord crown: (Eqn.0. April 2008 Page 73 Table B-2 Stress Concentration Factors for Simple X Tubular Joints (Continued) Axial load in one brace only Chord saddle: (1 − 0.23 exp .21 γ -1.0. (10)and (11) can be reduced by the factor F3 where: F3 = 1 .43 β .1.49 γ -0.26 β ) ⋅ (Eqn.16 exp .16 α 2.02 ( )γ 0.0.71 γ -1. (3)) 3 (19) Brace crown: (Eqn.55 β 1. (11)) ( )γ 0.26 β ) ⋅ (Eqn.

8 x ) + (Eqn.64 + 0.05 β 0.1. (23)) ( ) (24) F4 F4 = 1 .0.3 x )) max (23) F4 x = 1+ ζ sinθ A βA Brace A saddle SCF τ − 0.9 γ 0. (8))) (21) None ( ) Unbalanced in plane bending Gap joint brace crown: (Eqn. Short chord correction ⎛ sinθ max τ 0.0.131 − 0.88 exp .084 ATAN ( 14 ζ + 4.16 γ -1.5 exp (.4 ( ) (Eqn.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.47 β + 0.08 β 4 ⋅ (Eqn.14 (sin θ )0. DET NORSKE VERITAS .08 (β B γ )0.22 Where: C = 0 for gap joints C = 1 for the through brace C = 0.4b) (22) Unbalanced out-of-plane bending Chord saddle SCF adjacent to brace A: (Eqn.0.8 (θ max + θ min ) ⋅ (0. (10).54 γ − 0. April 2008 Page 74 Amended October 2008 see note on front cover Table B-3 Stress Concentration Factors for Simple Tubular K Joints and Overlap K Joints Load type and fixity conditions SCF equation Balanced axial load Chord: Eqn.1. (8)) (for overlaps exceeding 30% of contact length use 1. (9)) Overlap joint brace crown: (Eqn.30 ⋅ (20) None ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 0.57 β 0.25 τ −0. (9)) · (0.5 exp (. (20)) + sin 1.05 0.2 · (Eqn.08 (β where Aγ )0.07 β 1.5 exp(.38 ATAN ( 8 ζ ) ) 1 + 1.7 ⋅ (Eqn. (10))A ⋅ 1 − 0.30 ( 1. no.9 + 0.8 x )) ( 2. θ and the nominal stress relate to the brace under consideration ATAN is arctangent evaluated in radians Chord crown: (Eqn.97 − 1.2 β )) ⋅ C β 1.5 γ 0.5 τ −1. (10))A is the chord SCF adjacent to brace A as estimated from Eqn.99 − 0. It is nominated by the user.16 β sinθ ⎜ ⎜ sinθ min ⎝ ⎛ β max ⎜ ⎜β ⎝ min Brace: ( ) ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 0.67 − β 2 + 1. β.5 for the overlapping brace Note that τ.29 β − 0. (10))B ( ) (1 − 0.5 0. Note that the designation of braces A and B is not geometry dependent.06 α 2.

0.21 γ -1. In-plane-bending on one brace only Chord crown: (Eqn.08 β 4 ⋅ (Eqn. (8)) Brace crown: (Eqn.23 exp . (25)) ( ) (26) F3 Short chord correction factors: F1 = 1 .0.0.56 β 2 − 0.89 α 1.5 F3 = 1 .16 exp .49 γ -0.0.55 β 1.8 γ 0. Short chord correction F1 F1 - (Eqn. (7)) Note that all geometric parameters and the resulting SCF’s relate to the loaded brace. (6)) Brace saddle: (Eqn.02 γ 0.16 α 2.47 β + 0.5 exp (. April 2008 Page 75 Table B-4 Stress Concentration Factors for Simple Tubular K Joints and Overlap K Joints Load type and fixity conditions Axial load on one brace only SCF equations Chord saddle: (Eqn. (5)) Chord crown: (Eqn.0. (9)) Note that all geometric parameters and the resulting SCF’s relate to the loaded brace.(3)) Brace crown: (Eqn.83 β . Out-of-plane bending on one brace only Chord saddle: Eqn.05 0. (10))A ⋅ 1 − 0.8 ( ) ( ) ( ) DET NORSKE VERITAS .54 γ −0.0.99 − 0. No.Amended October 2008 see note on front cover Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.8 x ) where ( ) (25) F3 ζ sinθ A x = 1+ βA Brace saddle: τ −0.08 (β B γ )0.

54 γ −0.0.05 β ) 0.5 max exp (.1.08 β 4 ⋅ SCFchord where SCFchord = (Eqn.0. (21)) For the diagonal braces A & C use ζ = ζAB + ζBC + βB For the central brace.5 exp (.5 exp ( . (20)) Brace: (Eqn. (9)) Chord saddle SCF adjacent to diagonal brace A: (Eqn.5 max exp (.5 exp ( .5 max exp (.08 (β B γ )0.8 x AC ) + (Eqn(10))B ⋅ 1 − 0.0.8x AC )( ))(2.8 x AB ) 1 − 0.8 x AB ) 2.8 x BC )) P2 + )0.1. (10)) B ⋅ 1 − 0.5 exp(.08 (β )0.5 exp(. no. April 2008 Page 76 Amended October 2008 see note on front cover Table B-5 Stress Concentration Factors for Simple KT Tubular Joints and Overlap KT Joints Load type SCF equation Balanced axial load Chord: (Eqn. (10)) A ⋅ 1 − 0.05 β ))(2. use ζ = maximum of ζAB.08 (β A γ )0.0.08 (β Aγ )0.0.1. In-plane bending Unbalanced out-of-plane bending Chord crown: (Eqn.3x AB ))+ (27) 0.3x AC )) x AB = 1 + ζ AB sin θ A βA x AC = 1 + (ζ AB + ζ BC + β B ) sin θ A βA Chord saddle SCF adjacent to central brace B: (Eqn.5 exp (.0.05 β ) 0.8 x AB ) ( ) P1 ⋅ (1 − 0.99 − 0.1. ζBC Eqn.8x AB ( (Eqn(10))C where ( ⋅ (1 − 0.05 0.3 x BC )) (28) x AB = 1 + x BC = 1 + ζ AB sin θ B βB ζ BC sin θ B βB 2 ⎛β P1 = ⎜ A ⎜β ⎝ B ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ ⎛β ⎞ P2 = ⎜ C ⎟ ⎜β ⎟ ⎝ B⎠ Out-of-plane bending brace SCFs 2 Out-of-plane bending brace SCFs are obtained directly from the adjacent chord SCFs using: τ −0.08 (β A γ )0.0.3 x AB ) + max (Eqn. 27)) or (Eqn.5 exp (. (28)) ( ) (29) DET NORSKE VERITAS .Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.05 β 0.5 exp(.08 (β where Cγ (Eqn. (10))C Bγ ( ⋅ (1 − 0.8 x BC )( ))( 2.08 (β B γ )0.0. (10)) A ⋅ 1 − 0.5 exp( .47 β + 0. (8)) Brace crown: (Eqn.08 (β C γ )0. B.

08 (β A γ )0.54 γ −0.0. (3)) Brace crown: (Eqn. (10)) A ⋅ 1 − 0.5 exp(.08(β B γ )0.08 (β x AB = 1 + Cγ )0.0. (6)) Brace saddle: (Eqn.47 β + 0. (5)) Chord crown: (Eqn.08(β C γ )0.99 − 0.8 x AB ) ( ) P1 ⋅ where (1− 0.0.0.Amended October 2008 see note on front cover Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.8 x AC ) ( )( ) (30) where x AB = 1 + ζ AB sin θ A βA x AC = 1 + (ζ AB + ζ BC + β B ) sin θ A βA Chord SCF adjacent to central brace B: (Eqn.8 x AB ) 1 − 0.8 x BC )) P2 ζ AB sin θ B βB (31) x BC ζ sin θ B = 1 + BC βB ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 2 ⎛β P1 = ⎜ A ⎜β ⎝ B ⎛β P2 = ⎜ C ⎜β ⎝ B Out-of-plane brace SCFs 2 Out-of-plane brace SCFs are obtained directly from the adjacent chord SCFs using: τ −0.5 exp(.5 exp (. April 2008 Page 77 Table B-5 Stress Concentration Factors for Simple KT Tubular Joints and Overlap KT Joints (Continued) Axial load on one brace only Chord saddle: (Eqn. (10)) B ⋅ 1 − 0. (7)) Out-of-plane bending on one Chord SCF adjacent to diagonal brace A: brace only (Eqn.08 β 4 ⋅ SCFchord ( ) (32) DET NORSKE VERITAS .05 0.5 exp (.

6 x 2.46 = 91.1 General Stress concentration factors at holes in plates with inserted tubulars are given in Figure C-1 . Δσn. The total stress range.82)2 From this equation a required throat thickness is a = 4. Figure C-12 SCF = -0. Stress concentration factors at holes in plates with double ring reinforcement given in Figure C-20 . in equation 3.90 and that the deck has been designed such that S-N class F3 details can be welded to the deck plate and still achieves a fatigue life of 20 years. Table 5-2. The tubular will be welded to the deck plate by a double sided fillet weld.4) is then used together with the W3 curve to evaluate number of cycles until failure. Then from considerations of equilibrium in direction normal to the weld toe: Δσ n = σ no min al SCF = 199. ref.2 MPa for a W3 detail (Weibull shape parameter = 0.8 MPa for a D detail.75 applies to position Figure 3-4 b and τ // p = σ nominal SCF = 199. A negative SCF value in some of the figures means that the resulting stress is negative at the hot spot for a positive stress in the plate. Figure C-10 SCF = 0. Thus the fatigue life of weld toe is acceptable.07 applies to position Figure 3-4 b and weld toe.94 From considerations of equilibrium in direction parallel with the weld toe: 1) Is the fatigue life of the penetration acceptable with respect to fatigue cracking from the weld toe? 2) How large fillet weld is required to avoid fatigue cracking from the weld root? The following assessment is made: r/tp = 20. Δσw.4): 128.6 x 1.17 = 433. From Table 5-2 a maximum stress range of 199.94)2 + 0. Figure C-6 SCF = 0.3.6 MPa during 108 cycles is derived for the F3 detail. Questions asked: weld toe.82 Then from equation (3. It is assumed that H/tr = 5. Stresses in the plate normal to the weld . and stresses parallel to the weld. Figure C-8 SCF = 1.Figure C-23. DET NORSKE VERITAS .4 (or from equation 2.Figure C-19.6 ⋅ 0.15 = 29.1 SCF’s for small circular penetrations with reinforcement C. Δτ//.0 mm for both sides of the plate.46 applies to position Figure 3-4 b and weld root.1.1. The W3-curve applies to weld root of Figure 3-4 c. The SCFs in these figures may also be used for fatigue assessments of the welds.2 = 20 2a (29.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203. ref. from equation 3.5 MPa for a C detail. From Table 5-2 a maximum stress range of 128.1. Check of fatigue cracking at the Figure 3-4 a position: Δσ = Δσ0 x SCF = 199. Thus for fatigue assessment the absolute value should be used.4 may be derived from the stresses in the plate.Figure C-14. Table 5-2. C. The required throat thickness is calculated as follows. tr/tp = 0. Assume Weibull parameter h = 0.6⋅ 0.07 = 213.1. Check of fatigue cracking at the Figure 3-4 a b position: Δσ = Δσ0 x SCF = 199.75.57 MPa which is well within the acceptable value of 320. The C-curve applies to position Figure 3-4 a.1. This is a required weld size that is well below the minimum required weld size specified in ship classification rules.2 (91.15 applies to position Figure 3-4 c and weld root. Then from: Figure C-4 SCF = 2.2 Example of fatigue analysis of a welded penetration in plate A tubular Φ 800 x 15 is used as a sleeve through a deck plate of thickness 20 mm. April 2008 Page 78 Amended October 2008 see note on front cover APPENDIX C SCF’S FOR PENETRATIONS WITH REINFORCEMENTS C.17 applies to position Figure 3-4 a. Stress concentration factors at holes in plates with ring reinforcement are given in Figure C-16 .13 MPa which is just within the acceptable value of 445. The D-curve applies to weld toes of Figure 3-4 b.90).

5 0.0 tr/tp Figure C-1 SCF at hole with inserted tubular.0 10 0.1. H/tr = 2 DET NORSKE VERITAS .5 2. parallel with weld. Stress at outer surface of tubular.Amended October 2008 see note on front cover Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203. April 2008 Page 79 C.5 100 SCF 2.0 50 1.5 3.5 20 1.0 r/tp 2.0 0.5 1.3 SCF’s for small circular penetrations with reinforcements tr tr r A A tp H A A 3.0 1.

0 DET NORSKE VERITAS .0 r/tp 2.5 100 SCF 2. H/tr = 5 1.0 50 1.5 20 1. Stress at outer surface of tubular.5 0.5 3.0 tr/tp Figure C-2 SCF at hole with inserted tubular.5 1. parallel with weld.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.0 0. April 2008 Page 80 Amended October 2008 see note on front cover tr tr r A A tp H A A 3.0 10 0.5 2.

0 DET NORSKE VERITAS .5 SCF r/tp 100 2. H/tr = 2 1.0 50 1. parallel with weld.5 20 10 1.Amended October 2008 see note on front cover Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.5 3. Stress in plate.0 0.0 tr/tp Figure C-3 SCF at hole with inserted tubular.5 1. April 2008 Page 81 tr tr r A A tp H A A 3.0 2.0 0.5 2.

0 2.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.0 tr/tp 1. parallel with weld.5 1.5 2. Stress in plate.0 Figure C-4 SCF at hole with inserted tubular.0 100 50 20 10 0.0 0. H/tr = 5 DET NORSKE VERITAS .0 1.5 1. April 2008 Page 82 Amended October 2008 see note on front cover tr tr r A A tp H A A 3.5 3.5 SCF r/tp 2.

1 100 0.0 DET NORSKE VERITAS .3 SCF 20 0. Stress in plate.2 1.0 0.2 0.0 tr/tp Figure C-5 SCF at hole with inserted tubular.5 r/tp 0. H/tr = 2 1.0 0.4 1.2 50 0. April 2008 Page 83 tr tr r A A tp H A A 0.6 1.8 2.Amended October 2008 see note on front cover Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.4 0.4 10 0.8 1. normal to weld.6 0.

8 1.2 1.0 tr/tp Figure C-6 SCF at hole with inserted tubular.8 2.0 DET NORSKE VERITAS .3 SCF 20 50 0.4 10 0.0 0.2 0.2 100 0.6 1.1 0.0 0.4 0. April 2008 Page 84 Amended October 2008 see note on front cover tr tr r A A tp H A A 0.5 r/tp 0. H/tr = 5 1. normal to weld.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.4 1. Stress in plate.6 0.

4 1.2 0.2 SCF 1. H/tr = 2 tr/tp 0.0 100 0. Principal stress in plate.5 2.8 1.0 1.0 tr/tp Figure C-7 SCF at hole with inserted tubular.6 0.3 20 1.0 0.1 50 1.2 1. H/tr = 2 1.0 0.5 1.0 DET NORSKE VERITAS .0 r/tp = 10 90 72 56 50 46 r/tp = 20 90 80 63 54 50 r/tp = 50 90 86 75 64 57 r/tp = 100 90 88 82 73 66 1.4 0.8 2.6 1.9 0.4 r/tp 10 1. April 2008 Page 85 For θ see Table 1 σ1 θ tr r tr A A H tp A A Table C-1 θ = angle to principal stress.Amended October 2008 see note on front cover Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.

4 1.0 0.1 100 1. Principal stress in plate.3 20 1.2 SCF 50 1.9 0. H/tr = 5 1.2 0.6 0.5 2.0 1.6 1.2 1.8 1. April 2008 Page 86 Amended October 2008 see note on front cover For θ see Table 2 σ1 θ tr r tr A A H tp A A Table C-2 θ = angle to principal stress.5 1.0 0.4 0.4 r/tp 10 1. H/tr = 5 tr/tp 0.0 tr/tp Figure C-8 SCF at hole with inserted tubular.0 0.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.0 r/tp = 10 90 66 54 49 46 r/tp = 20 90 72 58 52 48 r/tp = 50 90 80 65 56 52 r/tp = 100 90 85 72 62 56 1.0 DET NORSKE VERITAS .8 2.

8 0.6 0.2 0.2 0.0 tr/tp 1.7 0.3 0.4 1. H/tr = 2 DET NORSKE VERITAS .5 50 0.4 0.6 SCF 0.4 0.Amended October 2008 see note on front cover Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.6 1.8 2.0 0. April 2008 Page 87 tr tr r A A tp H A A 1.0 0.0 0.8 1.2 1.1 0.0 r/tp 10 20 100 Figure C-9 SCF at hole with inserted tubular.9 0. Shear stress in plate.

0 0.3 0.0 0.7 50 0.8 2.0 tr/tp 1.1 0. H/tr = 5 DET NORSKE VERITAS .0 100 Figure C-10 SCF at hole with inserted tubular. April 2008 Page 88 Amended October 2008 see note on front cover tr tr r A A tp H A A 1. Shear stress in plate.2 1.4 1.8 r/tp 10 20 0.9 0.2 0.0 0.2 0.6 SCF 0.4 0.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.6 0.5 0.6 1.8 1.4 0.

5 20 100 50 2.05 20 10 -0.0 tr/tp 1.15 0.Amended October 2008 see note on front cover Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.0 0. Stress in plate. April 2008 Page 89 tr tr r A A tp H A A 0.00 100 50 -0.0 Figure C-11 SCF at hole with inserted tubular.5 1.10 r/tp 0. normal to weld. H/tr = 2 DET NORSKE VERITAS .05 SCF 10 r/tp 0.10 0.

0 tr/tp Figure C-12 SCF at hole with inserted tubular. normal to weld.0 1.10 SCF 0. Stress in plate.5 2.05 50 100 -0.10 0.05 0.5 1.20 10 0. H/tr = 5 DET NORSKE VERITAS .15 0.00 20 -0.25 r/tp 0.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203. April 2008 Page 90 Amended October 2008 see note on front cover tr tr r A A tp H A A 0.0 0.

Max stress concentration DET NORSKE VERITAS .0 0. April 2008 Page 91 B R A tR A Kg A A tp 3.33 0.2 1.5 3.0 0.0 Figure C-13 SCF at hole with ring reinforcement.3 1.5 SCF 3.5 The following relation applies (a = throat-thickness): a/tR tR/tp 0.4 B/R 0.2 0.71 1.40 1.5 0.0 Kg 3.1 3.3 0.1 0.4 tR/tp 0.6 0.7 0.5 0.8 3.Amended October 2008 see note on front cover Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.5 0.

5 1.8 Figure C-14 SCF at hole with ring reinforcement.6 0. Stress at inner edge of ring DET NORSKE VERITAS .0 The following relation applies: throat-thickness tR/tp 0.5 0.5 SCF 1.2 0.0 1.3 0.7 0. April 2008 Page 92 Amended October 2008 see note on front cover B R A A Kg tR tp A A 3.5 0.0 1.4 B/R 0.5 2.1 0.5 5.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.0 4.0 1.5 0.0 tR/tp 2.5 3.0 0.

0 1.5 tR/tp 0.6 0.5 2. April 2008 Page 93 B R A tR A tp A A 3.0 0. parallel with weld DET NORSKE VERITAS .0 SCF 1.5 0.0 1.0 1.8 Figure C-15 SCF at hole with ring reinforcement.5 1.0 4.4 B/R 0.5 3.Amended October 2008 see note on front cover Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.5 5.2 0. Stress in plate.0 0.0 The following relation applies: throat-thickness tR/tp 0.5 1.0 2.5 0.

Shear stress in weld DET NORSKE VERITAS .Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.5 5.8 0.5 0.0 1. April 2008 Page 94 Amended October 2008 see note on front cover B R A tR A tp A A 1.4 0.1 0.2 0.9 0.5 3.6 0.0 0.7 0.7 0.0 1.2 0.0 Figure C-16 SCF at hole with ring reinforcement.6 SCF tR/tp 0.5 1.5 0.0 0.5 0.1 0.3 0.0 4.3 0.8 The following relation applies: throat-thickness tR/tp 0.0 0.5 1.4 B/R 0.

2 0.0 1.3 1.2 1.1 1.5 3.1 0.0 4.2 0.5 0.5 5. April 2008 Page 95 B R A tR A tp A A 1.4 B/R 0.0 0.6 0.0 0.9 0.5 1.Amended October 2008 see note on front cover Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.8 The following relation applies: throat-thickness tR/tp 0.5 1.8 SCF 0.6 0. normal to weld DET NORSKE VERITAS .5 tR/tp 1.0 Figure C-17 SCF at hole with ring reinforcement.0 0.3 0.0 0.4 0. Stress in plate.7 0.

0 0.2 0.5 2.5 tR/tp SCF 0.5 0. Stress at inner edge of ring 0.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.0 1.5 5.0 The following relation applies: throat-thickness tR/tp 0.5 3.5 1.5 1.6 0.0 4. April 2008 Page 96 Amended October 2008 see note on front cover tR B R A A A A tp 3.0 2.7 0.1 0.5 0.0 1.8 DET NORSKE VERITAS .3 0.4 B/R Figure C-18 SCF at hole with double ring reinforcement.0 1.

April 2008 Page 97 tR B R A A A A tp 3.0 1.0 0.0 tR/tp 0.5 1.5 3.4 B/R 0.0 0.5 1.0 2.6 0.0 0.3 0.Amended October 2008 see note on front cover Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.5 5.5 1. parallel with weld DET NORSKE VERITAS .7 0.0 SCF 1.5 2.8 Figure C-19 SCF at hole with double ring reinforcement.5 1.5 0.0 The following relation applies: throat-thickness tR/tp 0.0 4.5 0.1 0. Stress in plate.2 0.

Shear stress in weld 0.0 1.1 0. April 2008 Page 98 Amended October 2008 see note on front cover tR B R A A A A tp 1.2 0.4 B/R Figure C-20 SCF at hole with double ring reinforcement.5 0.0 0.5 5.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.5 1.6 0.0 1.0 0.7 0.5 SCF 0.8 0.3 0.8 DET NORSKE VERITAS .5 1.0 0.6 0.2 0.0 4.5 3.2 tR/tp 1.4 The following relation applies: throat-thickness tR/tp 0.0 0.

Amended October 2008 see note on front cover Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.9 0.5 1.3 0.2 0. normal to weld DET NORSKE VERITAS .8 Figure C-21 SCF at hole with double ring reinforcement.0 0.4 B/R 0.5 3.3 0.0 0.7 0.6 SCF 0.6 0.5 0.0 4.1 0.0 1.0 The following relation applies: throat-thickness tR/tp 0.5 0.1 0.0 1.5 0.2 0.5 1.4 0. Stress in plate.5 5.7 0.8 0. April 2008 Page 99 tR B R A A A A tp 1.0 tR/tp 0.

1 Geometry The following hole geometries are considered see also Figure C-22: 1) Circular cut-out with diameter = 600 mm 2) Rectangular cut-out 600 x 800 mm with rounded corner R = 300 mm 3) Rectangular cut-out 600 x 1200 mm with rounded corner R = 300 mm 1) Cut-out Ø600 Figure C-22 Cut-out geometry 2) Cut-out Ø600x800 3) Cut-out Ø600x1200 For the three cut-out geometry six different edge reinforcements are applied. (A) (C) (E) (B) (D) (F) Figure C-23 Cut-out. 300 mm wide) around the edge (Figure C-23 (B)) Cut-out with double side reinforcement 50 mm away from the edge (Figure C-23 (C)) (D) (E) (F) Cut-out with single side reinforcement 50 mm away from the edge (Figure C-23 (D)) Cut-out with double side reinforcement 100 mm away from the edge (Figure C-23 (E)) Cut-out with single side reinforcement 100 mm away from the edge (Figure C-23 (F)) Stress concentrations factors are presented for the hot-spots marked in Figure C-23. April 2008 Page 100 Amended October 2008 see note on front cover C. The reinforcement details are described below. the maximum stresses of the bottom or the top surface in the 20 mm plate at the cut-out edge are given in the plots. DET NORSKE VERITAS . For the other geometry the stresses are symmetrical about the mid-plane of the plate. see Figure C-23.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203. reinforcement and hot-spot positions For geometry (D) and (F).2.2 SCF’s at man-hole penetrations C. see also Figure C-23: (A) (B) (C) Cut-out alone (no reinforcement) (Figure C-23 (A)) Cut-out with inserted plate (15 mm thick.

the maximum principal stress is normal to the weld toe. σy — shear stress. C. τ The stresses in the longitudinal and the transverse directions are applied separately but are combined with shear stress.2. The stress concentration factor (Kg) is then: K g . DET NORSKE VERITAS .Amended October 2008 see note on front cover Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.(C) and (E)). April 2008 Page 101 C.3 Results In general. (not the nominal principal stress). The shear stress is varied between zero and up to the value of the normal stress.x( y) = max σ 1 .2 Applied stresses The following stresses has been considered: — longitudinal stress. The maximum principal stress in the hot-spot is selected as the maximum of |σ1| and |σ2|. σx — transverse stress.2. The following should be noted: — Maximum principal stresses are parallel to the weld toe (hot-spots 2 to 5) with only one exception: for double reinforcement and point 2 (see Figure C-23.3 Stress Concentration Factor Definition The definition of the stress concentration factors presented for cut-outs are the maximum principal stress divided by the nominal normal stress. σx or σy. σ 2 ( ) σ x( y ) C. stress concentration factors are given at 5 points (see Figure C-23) except for the cases shown in Figure C-23 (A) and (B).

3 0.8 0. ref.00 0 0.7 0. σx and τ 7.50 4.2 0.00 2.50 6.00 2.3.9 1 1.1 0.4 0. Figure C-23 6.7 0.1 A1 B1 C1 D1 E1 F1 τ/ σx Figure C-25 Rectangular Cut-out with Rounded Corners: 600 x 800 mm.5 0.00 K g= σ 1max /σ x 4.50 6.50 3.6 0.2 0.1 A1 B1 C1 D1 E1 F1 τ/ σx Figure C-24 Circular Cut-out Ø = 600 mm.8 0.50 3.00 6.50 4.4 0.9 1 1.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.00 3. σx and τ DET NORSKE VERITAS .50 5.50 2.5 0. April 2008 Page 102 Amended October 2008 see note on front cover C.1 SCFs for Point 1.50 2.00 5.00 0 0.00 4.6 0.50 K g = σ 1max /σ x 5.1 0.00 3.3 0.00 5.

Amended October 2008 see note on front cover Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.9 1 1.5 0.1 0.50 5.2 0.5 0.00 6.50 6.6 0.7 0.00 2.3 0.50 3.50 0 0.6 0.7 0.50 6.1 0.50 1.2 0.50 4.50 E1 F1 2.50 K g = σ 1max /σ y A1 4.8 0.50 0 0.00 3.8 0.4 0. April 2008 Page 103 7.50 7.4 0.00 4.00 K g = σ 1max /σ x 5.50 B1 C1 D1 3.9 1 1.1 B1 C1 D1 E1 F1 τ/ σx Figure C-26 Rectangular Cut-out with Rounded Corners: 600 x 1200 mm. σx and τ 7.1 τ/σy Figure C-27 Rectangular Cut-out with Rounded Corners: 600 x 800 mm.50 A1 5.3 0. σy and τ DET NORSKE VERITAS .

Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203. σx and τ stresses for C and E are normal to the weld DET NORSKE VERITAS .00 3.50 3.50 K g = σ 1max / σ x 4.2 SCFs for Point 2.3 0. σy and τ C.50 4.00 2.50 2. April 2008 Page 104 Amended October 2008 see note on front cover 7.9 1 1.6 0.00 E2 F2 2.00 5.3.00 6.4 0.1 0. Figure C-23 5.8 0.1 τ/ σx Figure C-29 Circular Cut-out Ø = 600 mm.50 6.50 0 0.50 0 0.50 5. ref.00 1.00 1.50 2.3 0.50 5.2 0.50 C2 D2 3.00 4.5 0.7 0.4 0.00 B2 3.1 A1 B1 C1 D1 E1 F1 τ/ σy Figure C-28 Rectangular Cut-out with Rounded Corners: 600 x 1200 mm.00 K g = σ 1max /σ y 4.9 1 1.2 0.1 0.8 0.6 0.5 0.7 0.

00 K g = σ 1max / σ x 4.1 B2 C2 D2 E2 F2 τ/ σx Figure C-31 Rectangular Cut-out with Rounded Corners: 600 x 1200 mm.1 B2 C2 D2 E2 F2 τ/ σx Figure C-30 Rectangular Cut-out with Rounded Corners: 600 x 800 mm.00 3.3 0.9 1 1.50 0 0.50 3.50 2.2 0.00 4.00 5.50 5.00 1.50 2.5 0.8 0.9 1 1.00 3.50 0 0.1 0.1 0.50 3.50 K g = σ 1max /σ x 4.5 0. April 2008 Page 105 6.50 6.7 0.00 2.6 0.2 0.7 0.50 5.6 0.4 0.00 5.00 2.4 0. σx and τ 6.8 0.Amended October 2008 see note on front cover Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.00 1.3 0.50 4. σx and τ DET NORSKE VERITAS .

00 5.3 0.9 1 1.9 1 1.3 0.2 0.50 1.00 3.00 5.5 0.00 6.7 0.1 0.00 4.50 2. σx and τ DET NORSKE VERITAS .50 2.50 3.50 5.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.8 0.7 0. σx and τ 7.50 5.5 0.4 0.2 0.50 3.8 0.00 B2 C2 D2 E2 F2 3.00 2.00 1. April 2008 Page 106 Amended October 2008 see note on front cover 6.6 0.1 τ/ σy Figure C-32 Rectangular Cut-out with Rounded Corners: 600 x 800 mm.50 B2 4.00 0 0.6 0.4 0.00 K g = σ 1max /σ y 4.00 2.1 0.50 6.00 1.50 K g = σ 1max /σ y 4.1 C2 D2 E2 F2 τ/ σ y Figure C-33 Rectangular Cut-out with Rounded Corners: 600 x 1200 mm.50 0 0.

00 4.1 0.50 2.50 5.8 0.6 0.3 0.Amended October 2008 see note on front cover Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.3 0.00 K g = σ 1max /σ B3 3.7 0.1 τ/ σ x Figure C-35 Rectangular Cut-out with Rounded Corners: 600 x 800 mm.8 0.3.9 1 1.5 0.5 0.00 4.00 E3 F3 2.9 1 1.2 0. ref.1 0.00 1. σx and τ 5.50 C3 D3 3.7 0.00 K g = σ 1max / σ 3.50 B3 C3 D3 E3 F3 3.4 0. Figure C-23 5.50 0 0.4 0.00 1.50 4.00 2.50 4. April 2008 Page 107 C.6 0.3 SCFs for Point 3.50 2.2 0.50 0 0.1 τ/ σx Figure C-34 Circular Cut-out Ø = 600 mm. σx and τ DET NORSKE VERITAS .

2 0.1 0.1 C3 D3 E3 F3 τ/ σ x Figure C-36 Rectangular Cut-out with Rounded Corners: 600 x 1200 mm.3 0.00 3. σx and τ 6.1 0.5 0.9 1 1.7 0.00 3.8 0.50 3.00 2.6 0.50 B3 4.4 0.50 2.9 1 1.00 1.8 0. April 2008 Page 108 Amended October 2008 see note on front cover 6.00 5.50 5.2 0.4 0.00 4.3 0.00 K g = σ 1max /σ x 4.50 3.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.50 0 0. σy and τ DET NORSKE VERITAS .00 2.50 K g = σ 1max /σ y 4.00 1.6 0.5 0.50 6.7 0.50 2.00 5.1 B3 C3 D3 E3 F3 τ/ σ Figure C-37 Rectangular Cut-out with Rounded Corners: 600 x 800 mm.50 5.50 0 0.

00 4.20 2.60 2.9 1 1.9 1 1.00 1.50 3.50 1.20 1.2 0.00 2. April 2008 Page 109 7.60 1.3 0.50 2.40 K g = σ 1max / σ x 2.20 3.7 0.80 2.8 0.00 1.3 0.4 0.40 1.1 0.6 0.Amended October 2008 see note on front cover Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.1 0.2 0.50 4.6 0.50 6.00 0 0.00 6.1 B3 C3 D3 E3 F3 τ/ σ y Figure C-38 Rectangular Cut-out with Rounded Corners: 600 x 1200 mm.00 0 0.00 5.8 0. σy and τ C.4 SCFs for Point 4.5 0.3.50 7. σx and τ DET NORSKE VERITAS . Figure C-23 3.50 K g = σ 1max /σ y 5.4 0.00 3.5 0.7 0.00 2. ref.80 1.1 C4 D4 E4 F4 τ/ σx Figure C-39 Circular Cut-out Ø = 600 mm.

1 0.70 1.2 0.7 0.00 C4 2.6 0.50 2.30 3.4 0.5 0.50 0 0. April 2008 Page 110 Amended October 2008 see note on front cover 3.2 0.10 1.6 0.3 0.4 0.1 0. σx and τ 4.90 2.10 2.70 2. σx and τ DET NORSKE VERITAS .50 D4 E4 F4 2.50 0 0.00 3.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.30 2.5 0.50 K g = σ 1max / σ x 3.00 1.8 0.7 0.8 0.1 τ/ σ x Figure C-41 Rectangular Cut-out with Rounded Corners: 600 x 1200 mm.3 0.50 3.9 1 1.1 C4 D4 E4 F4 K g = σ 1max /σ x τ/ σx Figure C-40 Rectangular Cut-out with Rounded Corners: 600 x 800 mm.90 1.9 1 1.

5 0.00 K g = σ 1max /σ y 2.4 0.50 3.50 C4 D4 E4 2.2 0.50 C4 2.1 0.50 1.00 3.8 0. σy and τ DET NORSKE VERITAS .00 K g = σ 1max /σ y 2.7 0. April 2008 Page 111 3.5 0.00 0 0.Amended October 2008 see note on front cover Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.1 0.3 0.9 1 1.50 1.00 0 0.50 3.6 0.7 0.00 F4 1.1 τ/ σy Figure C-42 Rectangular Cut-out with Rounded Corners: 600 x 800 mm.6 0.8 0.4 0.9 1 1.00 D4 E4 F4 1.2 0.1 τ/ σy Figure C-43 Rectangular Cut-out with Rounded Corners: 600 x 1200 mm. σy and τ 4.3 0.

9 1 1.00 2.6 0.1 τ/ σx Figure C-45 Rectangular Cut-out with Rounded Corners: 600 x 800 mm.6 0.8 0. σx and τ 4.00 1.00 C5 D5 2.40 3.1 0.80 1.60 1.4 0.3 0.3.5 0.20 2.5 0.00 3.1 0.9 1 1.7 0. σx and τ DET NORSKE VERITAS .80 K g = σ 1max / σ x 2.3 0.7 0. Figure C-23 3.50 0 0.50 K g = σ 1max / σ x 3.20 3.1 C5 D5 E5 F5 τ/ σx Figure C-44 Circular Cut-out Ø = 600 mm.2 0.2 0. ref. April 2008 Page 112 Amended October 2008 see note on front cover C.60 2.00 1.40 0 0.8 0.5 SCFs for point 5.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.4 0.40 2.50 E5 F5 2.

60 3.00 3.80 3.1 D5 E5 F5 τ/ σx Figure C-46 Rectangular Cut-out with Rounded Corners: 600 x 1200 mm.7 0.60 3.9 1 1.5 0.40 2.80 2.20 2.4 0. April 2008 Page 113 4.20 2.60 1.40 3.7 0.60 2.80 0 0.80 K g = σ 1max / σ y 2. σy and τ DET NORSKE VERITAS .3 0.3 0.40 2.40 3.8 0.20 K g = σ 1max / σ x 3.5 0.40 0 0.2 0.6 0.60 2.9 1 1.4 0. σx and τ 3.00 1.20 3.1 0.2 0.6 0.00 1.1 0.Amended October 2008 see note on front cover Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.80 1.00 C5 2.1 C5 D5 E5 F5 τ/ σy Figure C-47 Rectangular Cut-out with Rounded Corners: 600 x 800 mm.8 0.00 2.

50 1.00 F5 1.4 0.1 0.2 0. σy and τ DET NORSKE VERITAS .50 3.00 3.00 0 0.00 K g = σ 1max /σ y 2.5 0. April 2008 Page 114 Amended October 2008 see note on front cover 4.6 0.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.9 1 1.8 0.1 τ/ σy Figure C-48 Rectangular Cut-out with Rounded Corners: 600 x 1200 mm.7 0.50 C5 D5 E5 2.3 0.

The specified S-N curves are shown in the graphs above 104 cycles. 1. It is non-conservative to simply add the two fatigue damages together. Then a load and material coefficient is used in design to achieve sufficient safety. It is noted that the most important part of the long-term stress range is for actions having a probability of exceedance in the range 10-3 to 10-1. Therefore calculated strain is often used as a parameter to account for non-linear material behaviour when low cycle fatigue is considered. Ref. However.1 0. The reason for this is that ship structures in general show a much higher utilisation in ULS than offshore structures. This methodology is based on information of mean zero up-crossing frequency in addition to the calculated fatigue damages for each of the processes. for example DNV-OS-E301 Position Mooring. a proposed design methodology for low cycle fatigue can be found in the paper: “Low Cycle Fatigue Strength Assessment for Ship Structures” ref.0 and D = 0. High cycle loading is normally understood to be cycles of more than 10 000.0 (in the range that is typical for a semisubmersible and an S-N curve with slope m = 3. A fatigue assessment of response that is associated with number of cycles less than 10 000 is denoted low cycle fatigue.0 Relative damage h = 1.16 0. In many cases it is practical to calculate the fatigue damage for each of these processes separately as the design may belong to different engineering contracts.14 Relative damage h = 1.5 0.3 Methods for fatigue analysis Important part of action history The contribution to fatigue damage for different regions of a Weibull distribution is shown in Figure D-1 for fatigue damage equal 1. April 2008 Page 115 APPENDIX D COMMENTARY D. For example stress response from wave action shows typically 5 · 106 cycles a year.08 0. The calculation is based on a Weibull long term stress range distribution with shape parameter h = 1. Low cycle fatigue is associated with load reversals that imply significant yielding at the hot spot.2.06 0.1 Comm. This corresponds to log n = 5-7 in Figure D-1. High cycle fatigue analysis is based on calculation of elastic stresses that are used in the assessment. it should be mentioned that low cycle fatigue is found to be of concern in some local areas in ship structures due to loading and unloading. the S-N curves can be linearly extrapolated to fewer cycles for practical use in a fatigue assessment.12 Relative fatigue damage 0. When a detailed stochastic analysis of the complete structural system is performed for each of the dynamic processes a more accurate combined stress response can be calculated before the S-N curve is entered and the fatigue damage is calculated.2 Comm. Thus for design of offshore structures in the North Sea it has not been practice to analyse the structures specifically for low cycle fatigue. An example of such a design situation is swell response of an FPSO that also is subjected to wave response. Even if stresses due to local notches are not accounted for in an ULS design the assessment of ULS imply that the actual strain ranges during an ULS loading is limited and that a further assessment of low cycle fatigue is not required. Combined fatigue damage for the responses shown in Figure D-2 can be obtained as ⎧⎛ D ⎞ ν ⎪ D = D1 (1 − 2 ) + ν 2 ⎨⎜ 1 ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ν1 ⎪⎝ ν 1 ⎠ ⎩ 1/ m ⎛D ⎞ +⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎜ν ⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ 1/ m ⎫ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎭ m (1) DET NORSKE VERITAS . 1. However. /43/. therefore low cycle fatigue may be an issue to consider for these structures depending on procedure used for loading and unloading.Amended October 2008 see note on front cover Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.3 Low cycle and high cycle fatigue Fatigue strength assessment of offshore structures is normally understood to be the capacity due to high cycle fatigue loading. June 2001. Then another fatigue damage for the same hot spot is calculated for another dynamic process. Combined fatigue damage for one slope S-N curve D. Typical S-N test data are derived for number of cycles between 104 and 5 · 106 cycles.02 0 0 1 2 3 4 log n 5 6 7 8 9 Figure D-1 Relative fatigue damage in Weibull distribution of stress ranges D. FPSOs are rather similar structures with similar loading and unloading as tankers. This Recommended Practice has been produced with the purpose of assessing fatigue damage in the high cycle region.04 0. 0. In the following a simple method for derivation of resulting fatigue damage from two processes is presented. 2.3 Comm.2 Combination of fatigue damages from two dynamic processes Background In some design cases one fatigue damage is calculated for one dynamic process.0 for N > 107 cycles (Typical S-N curve for air condition). Offshore structures are normally designed for other limit states such as the Ultimate Limit State (ULS). Another example may be wave response of a floating platform that also may be subjected to wind response on a flare tower that are giving stress cycling at the same hot spot in the structure.0 for N < 107 and m = 5.0 and D = 1. If required.0 (and 0. Then the question arises on how to calculate the resulting fatigue damage for the considered hot spot.5) for a 20-year period.

2.0.90 C2* C2* C2* * A higher S-N curve may be used in special cases.4 Comm. Thus. Then equation (1) can be used with D1 calculated from a two-slope S-N curve and with m = 3.45 E D C2 45 . The selection of E or F curve for ϕ = 0° depends on thickness of attachment as presented in Table A-7 in Appendix A.3.0 in equation (1) if the fatigue damages for the two processes have been calculated based on this two-slope S-N curve. DET NORSKE VERITAS . 20 years service life. The S-N curves in air have a transition in slope from m = 3. Figure D-2 Sketch showing high and low frequency response and combined response Combined fatigue damage for two-slope S-N curves For two-sloped S-N curves it is questioned if equation (1) can be used for calculation of resulting fatigue damage.0.30 F E D 30 .0.0.0.0.60 D C2 C2 60 . and a fatigue damage equal 1.0 to m = 5. Table D-1 Classification of details and selection of S-N curve Angle ϕ in Detail classified Detail classified S-N curve when Figure D-3 as F for stress as E for stress using the hot direction nordirection norspot stress mal to the weld mal to the weld methodology 0 .0 the major contribution to fatigue damage occurs around 107 cycles. the main contribution to fatigue damage will be at the S-N line with slope m = 5. In general the stress range in both the two principal directions shall be assessed with respect to fatigue. See Table A-3 for further information.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203. Approximately half the damage occurs at number of cycles below 107 cycles and the other half above 107 cycles. in order to have a methodology that is safe one should use a slope m = 5. D. The following guidance is based on assessment of fatigue test data. An alternative to this is to calculate the fatigue damage for process no 2 with a straight S-N curve with slope m = 3. For a long term stress range distribution with Weibull shape parameter h = 1. The combined fatigue damage is based on the assumption that each of the fatigue damages D1 and D2 are derived based on a one slope S-N curve. For other ϕ values see Table D-1.75 C2 C2 C2* 75 . For lower fatigue damage than 1.0 at 107 cycles. The equation is derived based on analogy with Rainflow stress range counting. April 2008 Page 116 Amended October 2008 see note on front cover where D1 = calculated fatigue damage for the high frequency response D2 = calculated fatigue damage for the low frequency response ν1 = mean zero up crossing frequency for the high frequency response ν 2 = mean zero up crossing frequency for the low frequency response m = inverse slope of the S-N curve = 3. Figure D-3 c) can be used together with the hot spot stress methodology in general. which is the case in order to have acceptable resulting fatigue damage when considering two processes.2 Plated structures using nominal stress S-N curves The fatigue capacities of welded connections are dependent on the principal stress range direction relative to the weld toe. Figure D-3 a) and b) are intended used for nominal stress analyses.

The system effect for the S-N curves in this RP has been investigated using reliability methods.4. The correspondence in S-N data depends on the stress distribution at the hot spot region. g. a specimen having a long weld region is expected to have a shorter fatigue life than a short weld.Amended October 2008 see note on front cover Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203. Test specimens used for fatigue testing are normally smaller than actual structural components used in structures. This can be accounted for in an actual design by probabilistic analysis of a series system.3 S-N curves Size effect The size effect may be explained by a number of different parameters: The design S-N curve with thickness effect included is given by: Curve part (1). ref. the thickness exponent is assumed to cover the first item in the list above and partly the second. For traditional tubular joints there is one local hot spot region. the larger is the probability of a larger defect. The thickness exponent may be less for rolled threads. g. /21/. /19/ and /18/ for more background and explanation of the thickness effect. Crack growth is normally initiated from small defects at the transition zone from weld to base material. Reference may also be made to /12/.25 which can be assumed to include size effects both due to the notch itself. April 2008 Page 117 φ E F F Principal stress direction D C2 E D C2 Weld toe ment than a short — volume effect – which for surface defects can be explained by increased weld length and therefore increased possibility for imperfections that can be initiated into fatigue cracks. 2. while at e. e. the stress concentration at the root of the threads increases with increasing diameter. The length of weld and number of similar connections subjected to the same stress range should be assessed based on engineering judgement. Then only the regions with the most severe stress ranges need to be included for weld length and number of connections. S-N curve with thickness effect Section a) Detail classified as F for stress direction normal to the weld (See Table D-1 for ϕ) f D C2 E E Principal stress direction D C2 Weld toe Section b) Detail classified as E for stress direction normal to the weld (See Table D-1 for ϕ) φ D C2 D C2 Principal stress direction Weld toe Section c) S-N curve when using the hot spot stress methodology (See Table D-1 for ϕ) Figure D-3 Classification of details and selection of S-N curve D. The longer the weld. and due to increased length of notch around circumference with increased diameter. Based on fatigue tests. Weld length in a tether system is one example where such analysis should be considered to achieve a reliable fatigue design. Thus for purpose made bolts with large diameters. The results are expressed analytically below.5 Comm. If a tether system is subjected to a dynamic axial force without significant bending the assessment becomes simple as all welds will be subjected to the same stress range. it is recommended to use k = 0. Examples of the third effect and how it can be accounted for in an actual design is explained in more detail in the following. although also an increased attachment length reduces the S-N class as shown in Appendix 1 of this Recommended Practice. A mooring line consisting of chains is another example where reliability methods may be used to properly account for the size effect or system effect. “Methods of Structural Safety” ref. For threaded bolts. it may be recommendable to perform testing of some bolts to verify a fatigue capacity to be used for design. Thus. In this Recommended Practice. circumferential welds of TLP tethers there is a length significantly longer than in the test specimens having the similar order of stress range. It might be added that some authors group all these 3 effects into one group of “thickness effect” or size effect. see Figure D-4 — thickness of plate – which is explained by a more severe notch with increasing plate thickness at the region where the fatigue cracks are normally initiated — attachment length – which is explained by a more severe notch stress due to more flow of stress into a long attach- ⎛ t log N = log a 1 − m1 k log ⎜ ⎜t ⎝ ref ⎞ ⎟ − m1 log ⎟ ⎠ (2) DET NORSKE VERITAS . It should be remembered that the design S-N data is obtained as mean minus 2 standard deviation in a log S-log N diagram. As soon as there is some bending over the diameter of the tether there will likely be some hot spots at some connections that are subjected to a larger stress range than the other connections.

00E+05 1.00E+08 Figure D-4 Typical S-N curve with thickness effect included DET NORSKE VERITAS . (6) 1000 Stress range (MPa) 1 100 2 10 1. 2-2 and 2-3. Part (2) of the S-N curve can also be written on a standard form Part (2) of the curve is established assuming continuity at N1=106 or 107 cycles depending on the S-N curve is given for seawater with cathodic protection or in air is given by ⎛ t log N = log a 2 − m 2 k log ⎜ ⎜t ⎝ ref where ⎞ ⎟ − m 2 log Δ σ ⎟ ⎠ (4) ⎛ t log N = log a 2 − m 2 k log ⎜ ⎜t ⎝ ref with ⎞ ⎟ − m 2 log Δ σ ⎟ ⎠ (7) log a 2 = ⎛ m ⎞ m2 log a1 + ⎜1 − 2 ⎟ log N1 ⎜ m ⎟ m1 1 ⎠ ⎝ (5) log a 2 = m2 m1 ⎛ ⎛ ⎞⎞ ⎜ log a − 0.00E+07 1. 2-2 and 2-3.00E+04 1. see Figure D-4 ⎛l ⎞ ⎛ t log N = log a 1 − 0. log a 1 is given in Table 2-1. = 100 mm may be used.1 log⎜ l weld n ⎟ ⎟ + ⎛1 − m2 ⎜ 1 s ⎟ ⎜l ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ m1 ⎝ ref ⎠⎠ ⎝ ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ log N 1 (8) ⎟ ⎠ S-N curve with system effect and thickness effect The design S-N curve with system effect and thickness effect included is given by: Curve part (1). April 2008 Page 118 Amended October 2008 see note on front cover Part (2) of the curve is established assuming continuity at N1=106 or 107 cycles depending on the S-N curve is given for seawater with cathodic protection or in air is given by ⎛ m m2 log a 1 + ⎜1 − 2 ⎜ m1 m1 ⎝ ⎛ t ⎞ ⎟ log N 1 − m2 k log⎜ ⎟ ⎜t ⎠ ⎝ ref ⎞ ⎟ − m2 log Δσ (3) ⎟ ⎠ where lweld = length of weld subjected to the same stress range lref = reference length corresponding to typical length of weld in tested specimen used for derivation of S-N curve. log a 1 is given in Table 2-1. ns = number of similar connections subjected to the same stress range log N = where a 1 is for S-N curve without thickness effect included.1 log ⎜ weld n s ⎟ − m1 k log ⎜ ⎜ l ⎟ ⎜t ⎝ ref ⎠ ⎝ ref ⎞ ⎟ − m1 log Δ σ ⎟ ⎠ where a 1 is for S-N curve without thickness effect included.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.00E+06 Number of cycles 1.

Quite a lot of the fatigue life is associated with initiation of a fatigue crack and growth of small cracks. Increasing the DFF implies that the probability of a fatigue cracking becomes reduced. The time with efficient coating depends on type and quality of the coating used. 30. p t2 t1 D.7 it is assumed that the coating is efficient for some years and then the condition is that of free corrosion. In tanks without anodes the efficiency of the coating should be SCF = 1 + 2 −ν γ 3 1 −ν 2 ⎛ t1 ⎜1 − ⎜ t 2 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (12) DET NORSKE VERITAS .9 S-N curves and efficiency of corrosion protection S-N curve for joints in the splash zone In Norway it has been the practice to use seawater S-N curve with cathodic protection for joints in the splash zone and a larger Design Fatigue Factor (DFF) in the splash zone than in other areas in jacket structures.6 Comm. S-N curve for details in tanks in FPSOs 4 1 Figure D-5 Tapered thickness transition in pipe or cylinder Thickness transitions with step in thickness A transition with a step in thickness from t1 to t2 in a pipe or cylinder as shown in Figure D-6 is considered.7 for more details. This recommendation is linked to use of a high DFF and a good coating. for air environment is given in Table D-1. Nominal stress in the pipe wall due to global bending moment can be calculated based on section modulus at the mid wall pipe section. Table D-2 DNV notation in relation to Eurocode 3 DNV notation IIW and Eurocode 3 notation B1 160 B2 140 C 125 C1 112 C2 100 D 90 E 80 F 71 F1 63 F3 56 G 50 W1 45 W2 40 W3 36 T D.3 SCFs for pipes with internal pressure The following sections can be used for fatigue assessment of pipelines or cylinders used for transportation of gas subjected to high pressure where low cycle fatigue from loading and unloading are considered.Amended October 2008 see note on front cover Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.3. For example a DFF = 10 implies that the probability of a fatigue crack during the lifetime becomes very small (accumulated probability less than 10-4 and annual less than 10-5 the last year in service). 30. It is assumed that the radius of the pipe or cylinder r » t1. A high DFF is used because it is considered to be difficult to perform inspection and repair in this area. This means that at thickness transitions the stress concentration factors presented in section 3. The coating becomes more brittle with time and it is most likely to crack at hot spot regions with large strain cycles. /3/. Then the seawater curve with cathodic protection can be used in lack of documented S-N curves in seawater in free corrosion for coated joints (in the high cycle region above 106 cycles). April 2008 Page 119 Link to S-N curves in other design codes specially considered. Tapered thickness transitions For tapered thickness transitions in pipes and cylinders as shown in Figure D-5 the bending stress over the wall thickness at the weld is mainly due to the axial stress in the pipe wall. Based on this it is considered acceptable to calculate fatigue damage with an S-N curve that is somewhat reduced compared with that of air. As long as the coating is not broken the condition corresponds to that of air.9. ref. Also the coating is not so durable. 2. 2. The relationship between S-N curves in this document and those given by IIW. It should be noted that the correspondence between S-N curves in this document and IIW relates only to number of cycles less than 5·106 in Eurocode 3.4. A similar procedure may be used for design of tanks in FPSOs. Eurocode 3.7 Comm. ref. The cracks have to grow to some size before the coating is broken. Reference is made to DNV Classification Note No. /30/. In DNV Classification Note No. Then the probability of presence of an open fatigue crack subjected to free corrosion becomes small in the major part of the service life of the platform life as explained above. The stress due to the end cap pressure is calculated as: σa = pr 2t1 (9) The total stress at the inner side and the outer side is calculated as: σt = σa ± σb This equation can also be written as: (10) σ t = σ a ⎜1 ± ⎜ ⎝ ⎛ σb σa ⎞ ⎟ = σ a SCF ⎟ ⎠ (11) where the stress concentration factor for the inner side is: Tanks in FPSOs are not designed with the same high DFF as used for splash zone joints in jackets.7 can be used directly together with the nominal stress in the pipe wall for calculation of hot spot stress at the weld. It is assumed that the joints also have a good coating. The probability of having a fatigue crack that is so large that the coating is broken is considered to be low within the major part of the design life using a DFF = 10.

see Figure D-9. As the stress is lesser on the outside than at the inside it is thus recommended to place ring stiffeners on the outside of a shell structure subjected to internal pressure. 2 t 2.5 δ OOR tanh (λ l ) tλl (20) SCF = 1 + 3. This stress concentration includes effect from internal pressure and end cap pressure. It is assumed that the out-of-roundness results in an eccentricity δ0 without any hoop tension force from internal pressure.dmin. l = πd/8 and λ which is a function of the membrane hoop stress σm is defined as follows: and the stress concentration factor for the outer side becomes: λ= 12 σ m Et2 (21) SCF = 1 − 3.087 β (18) where the out of roundness is defined as δOOR = dmax.5 ⎞ ⎛t ⎟+⎜ 1 ⎟ ⎜ t2 ⎠ ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ −1 ⎟ ⎠ 2 (14) p t2 t1 Figure D-7 Ring stiffener on cylinder with internal pressure Figure D-6 Thickness transition in pipe or cylinder Ring stiffeners at supports in storage tanks and at flange connections in risers A ring stiffener in a cylinder as shown in Figure D-7 is considered. April 2008 Page 120 Amended October 2008 see note on front cover and the stress concentration factor for the outer side of the pipe is: SCF = 1 − 2 −ν γ 3 1 −ν 2 ⎛ t1 ⎜1 − ⎜ t 2 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (13) The γ is defined as: Due to the notch of the weld itself the fatigue strength of the weld at the ring stiffener itself becomes less than for the other shell side. Figure D-8 where the most critical hot spot is found at point B. ref.3 for steel the expression for β becomes: β = 1+ 1.5 ⎛ ⎛ t γ = 2.52 2 ⎜1 + ⎜ 1 t 2 − t 2 t1 ⎜ ⎜ t 2 ⎝ ⎝ ( ) ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 1. In terms of out of roundness the equation for stress concentration factor can be derived as: With ν = 0. Thus the bending stress over the wall thickness is a non-linear function of the internal pressure. This eccentricity is reduced as the internal pressure is increased and the hoop tension is increased. The eccentricity due to out-of-roundness is a function of tension in the hoop direction of the pipe.56 t r t Ar (17) SCF = 1 + and the stress concentration factor for the inner side becomes: 1.51 0.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203. It is to be used together with the nominal stress acting in the axial direction of the pipe wall due to end cap pressure. ref.087 β (19) Tolerance requirements for pipelines are given in DNV-OSF101 (2001). β is defined as: Longitudinal welds with bending stress over the pipe wall resulting from out-of-roundness of fabricated pipes β = 1+ 2 t rt Ar 4 3(1 −ν 2 ) (16) The out-of-roundness of fabricated pipe elements results in increased stress due to a bending moment over the wall thickness. This is a different conclusion from that of ring stiffeners in tubular members subjected to pure external axial force. /25/.5 + t 2. The stress concentration at a ring stiffener is obtained as: B p Figure D-8 Section through bolted flange connection SCF = 1 ± 3 (2 −ν ) 1 1 −ν 2 β (15) where the plus sign applies to the inner side and minus to the outer side. This applies also to a bolted flange connection that is frequently used in risers for oil and gas production. DET NORSKE VERITAS .

Amended October 2008 see note on front cover

Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203, April 2008 Page 121

The following simplified approach for fatigue life assessment of the weld root may be performed as an alternative procedure:

Inflection point

l = p d/8

d

Maximum bending moment

— As noted above an additional factor on fatigue life should be considered for crack growth from the root. — Normally the stress on the outside of the brace at the hot spot is larger than at the root area. Hence it is considered to be conservative to use the brace SCF for evaluation of fatigue life at the root. As an approximation the SCF for the inside can be calculated as SCFinside = SCFbrace − 2.0 (24)

Figure D-9 Section through pipe showing out-of-roundness and analysis model

— The fatigue life for the root may now be calculated using the W3 curve. This procedure is applicable for simple tubular joints only.

**D.8 Comm. 3.3 Stress concentration factors
**

Reference is made to “An Analytical study of Stress Concentration Effects in Multibrace Joints under Combined Loading”, ref. /9/, for further background on this procedure of calculating a resulting hot spot stress from superposition of stress components. The formula for SCF at a tubular butt weld can be outlined based on theory for thin walled structures, ref. /25/.

**D.10 Comm. 4.1 The application of the effective notch stress method for fatigue assessment of structural details
**

General Effective notch stress is the total stress at the root of a notch, obtained assuming linear-elastic material behaviour. To take account of statistical nature and scatter of weld shape parameters, as well as of non-linear material behaviour at the notch root, the real weld is replaced by an effective one, ref. Figure D-10. For structural steels an effective notch root radius of r = 1.0 mm has been verified to give consistent results. For fatigue assessment, the effective notch stress is compared with a common fatigue resistance curve. The method is restricted to welded joints which are expected to fail from the weld toe or weld root. Other causes of fatigue failure, e.g. from surface roughness or embedded defects, are not covered. Also it is not applicable where considerable stress components parallel to the weld or parallel to the root gap exist. The method is well suited to the comparison of alternative geometries. Unless otherwise specified, flank angles of 30o for butt welds and 45° for fillet welds are suggested. The method is limited to thicknesses t ≥ 5 mm. For smaller wall thicknesses, the method has not been verified. In cases where a mean geometrical notch root radius can be defined, e.g. after certain post weld improvement procedures such as grinding, the actual geometrical radius may be used in the effective notch stress analysis. Then the calculated notch stress should be entered into a relevant S-N curve. Reference is made to Table A-5 in Appendix A for potential fatigue crack growth from ground areas at welded regions.

Radius=1mm

**D.9 Comm. 3.3.3 Tubular joints welded from one side
**

The fatigue design of the root area of tubular joints welded from one side may be considered as follows: — Lack of penetration is hard to control by non-destructive examination and it is considered more difficult to detect possible defects at a root area of a tubular joint welded from one side, than for a butt weld welded from one side. — For butt welds welded from one side the joint may be classified as F3. The defect size inherent in this curve is less than 1-2 mm (This defect size may be evaluated by fracture mechanics calculations and the calculated value will depend on plate thickness. A long defect should be considered here with the defect size measured in the thickness direction of the tubular). Defect sizes up to 5 mm may be present without being detected even with a detailed examination of the root of a tubular joint. A factor for reduction of fatigue life due to a possible large root defect in a tubular joint compared to a butt weld may be evaluated based on fracture mechanics analysis. — The stress field at the root may be derived from a finite element analysis. The crack growth may be assumed to be normal to the direction of the maximum principal stress. The fatigue life is first calculated for an initial defect size corresponding to that of the F3 curve: F(Life ai = 1 mm). Then the fatigue life is calculated for an initial defect size corresponding to that of a tubular joint welded from one side: F(Life ai = 5 mm). The fatigue life reduction factor, R, is obtained from equation (22). — A modified S-N curve below F3 is calculated from equation (23). An S-N curve corresponding to this log a value (or below) may now be used for fatigue life analysis based on nominal stress at the root as calculated by a detailed finite element analysis. — Fatigue cracking from the root is harder to discover by in service inspection than crack growth from the toe. Therefore, an additional factor on fatigue life should be considered for crack growth from the root.

R=

F(Life a i = 5 mm) F(Life a i = 1 mm)

Figure D-10 Analysis of effective notch stress

(22) (23)

Calculation of Effective Notch Stress Effective notch stresses or notch stress concentration factors

log a = 11.546 + log (R)

DET NORSKE VERITAS

Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203, April 2008 Page 122

Amended October 2008 see note on front cover

can be calculated by parametric formulae, taken from diagrams or calculated from finite element analysis. The effective notch radius is introduced such that the tip of the radius touches the root of the real notch, e.g. the end of an un-welded root gap. Calculation of effective notch stress by the finite element method requires that a fine element mesh is used around the notch region. The effective notch stress to be used together with the recommended S-N curve is the maximum calculated surface stress in the notch. This maximum surface stress may be obtained directly from the nodal stress calculated at the surface or from extrapolation of element stresses to the surface. In some finite element programs it may also be efficient to add bar elements with a small area (negligible area) along the notch surface. Then the surface stress is finally derived as force in the bar divided by area. The requirement to mesh size is depending on elements used. If elements with quadratic displacement functions are used, a minimum of 4 elements should be used along a quarter of the circle circumference. If simpler elements are used the mesh refinement should be improved correspondingly. The mesh should be made with regular elements without transition to reduced refinement within the first three element layers from the notch surface. An element shape that is close to “quadratic” is preferred. In case of uncertainty about elements ability to provide reliable surface stress it is recommended to perform a validation of the methodology against a well known case. Notch Stress S-N Curves The calculated notch stress should be linked to a notch stress S-N curve for fatigue design as described in Table D-3. The SN curves are presented as mean minus two standard deviations in logarithmic S-N format. The thickness effect is assumed accounted for in the calculated notch stress. Thus a further reduction of fatigue capacity for larger thicknesses is not required. The S-N curve is presented on the standard form

LogN = Loga − mLogS

Validation of Analysis Methodology The notch stress concept using finite element analysis can be validated against a well tested detail that also can be assessed based on nominal stress approach. A cruciform joint may be selected for analysis as shown in Figure D-11 and Figure D-12. The F curve may be used for fatigue assessment of the weld toe using the nominal stress approach. Then a target notch stress at the weld root is obtained as 3.17 times the nominal stress in the plate. A fillet welded cruciform joint may be selected for analysis as shown in Figure D-13 and Figure D-14. Then the W3 curve may be used for fatigue assessment of the weld root using the nominal stress approach. The nominal stress in the weld is derived as:

σ w = σ Nominal t / 2 a

(26)

where t a = thickness of member = throat thickness

Then a target notch stress in the weld root is obtained as 6.25 times the nominal stress in the fillet weld. If the calculated stress from validation analyses is far from the target values, it is recommended to consider the accuracy of the methodology used such as type of element in relation to mesh refinement and read out of notch surface stress. The toe of the same detail would be classified as F3. This result in a target notch stresses 3.57 times the nominal stress.

σ Nominal

t/2

45 °

(25)

where

a

m

= negative inverse slope of the S-N curve

Table D-3 Notch stress S-N curves Environment Log a Air N ≤ 107 cycles N > 107 cycles m1 = 3.0 m2 = 5.0 13.358 17.596 Seawater with cathodic N ≤ 106 cycles N > 106 cycles protection m1 = 3.0 m2 = 5.0 12.958 17.596 Seawater with free For all N log a = 12.880 and m1 = 3.0 corrosion

t

Figure D-11 Geometry for validation of analysis procedure for the weld toe

DET NORSKE VERITAS

t

= intercept of the design S-N curve with the log N axis

Amended October 2008 see note on front cover

Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203, April 2008 Page 123

1m r=

m

Figure D-14 Notch to be included in FE model for the weld root Figure D-12 Geometry of the transition from weld to base material to be used in the analysis

**D.11 Comm. 4.3.8 Verification of analysis methodology for FE hot spot stress analysis
**

Specimens for verification of analysis methodology are shown in Figure D-15 - Figure D-20.

σ Nominal

t = 16 mm a = 8 mm

The hot spot stress analysis methodology may be verified based on analysis of these details with derived target hot spot stress. Loading on the specimens for calculation of hot spot stress is shown in Table D-4. The target hot spot stresses for the specified load cases are listed in Table D-5. A correction factor to be applied to the analyses may be established if the calculated hot spot stress in general is different from the target hot spot stress. This correction factor is obtained as

a

t

f =

**σ Hot spot Target σ Hot spot Calculated
**

Nominal stress 1.00 MPa

(27)

t

Figure D-13 Detail selected for validation of procedure for root of fillet welds

Table D-4 Loading on the specimens Specimen Position of loading 1 Stress in the axial direction over end area equal 0.667 MPa (= 900 mm2) 2 Stress in the axial direction over end area equal 0.667 MPa (= 900 mm2) 3 Stress in the axial direction over end area equal 0.700 MPa (= 1000 mm2) 4 Point load 119 N above bracket in cantilever at a distance 625 mm from the support plate in test rig 5 Point load 123 N above bracket in cantilever at a distance 435 mm from the support plate in test rig

1.00 MPa 1.00 MPa Nominal stress at weld toe to be calculated as bending moment calculated in this section divided by the elastic section modulus in this section. The specified point load is made to provide a nominal stress at this position equal 1.00 MPa. 1.00 MPa

6

Stress in the axial direction of plate equal 1.00 MPa

DET NORSKE VERITAS

86 .1.96 3 1.69 6 3.1.84 5 1.13 Figure D-15 Specimen 1 DET NORSKE VERITAS .32 2 1.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.64 .33 4 1. April 2008 Page 124 Amended October 2008 see note on front cover Table D-5 Target hot spot stress values/stress concentrations linked to the D curve Specimen Hot spot target values 1 1.

Amended October 2008 see note on front cover Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203. April 2008 Page 125 Figure D-16 Specimen 2 Figure D-17 Specimen 3 DET NORSKE VERITAS .

Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203. April 2008 Page 126 Amended October 2008 see note on front cover Figure D-18 a) Specimen 4 DET NORSKE VERITAS .

April 2008 Page 127 Figure D-18 b) Specimen 4 DET NORSKE VERITAS .Amended October 2008 see note on front cover Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203.

Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203. April 2008 Page 128 Amended October 2008 see note on front cover Figure D-19 Specimen 5 DET NORSKE VERITAS .

⎜ 1 ⎟ ⎟⎥ ≤ η (28) ⎜ h ⎜ q ⎟ ⎟⎥ ⎝ ⎠ ⎠⎦ ⎝ S-N curves for air condition are assumed here such that the crossing point of S-N curves is here at 107 cycles. h) = h ⎛ ⎛ ⎞ ⎞ Sh −1 S ⎟ ⎟ exp⎜ − ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ q(Δσ 0 . 5 Simplified fatigue analysis Weibull distributed Stress Range and Bi-linear S-N curves When a bi-linear or two-slope S-N curve is used. h) dS (29) N 1 (S) is equal to 1. Δσ 0 . h) dS + N 2 (S) Δσ 0 S1 ∫ v 0 Td f (S.12 Comm. m2 γ( ) Γ( ) D= ν 0 Td m all headings Γ(1 + ) ⋅ ∑ rij (2 2m 0ij ) m ≤ η a 2 i =1.33 for m = 3.5 and 5. Δσ 0 . m1 The left part of S-N curve is described by notation 1.4. the fatigue criterion reads. to be found in standard tables = Complementary Incomplete Gamma function. where the density Weibull function is given by f(S. j=1 all seastates (33) where rij For definitions and symbols see also sections 1. h) = h q(Δσ 0 . h) h ⎠ ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ Δσ 0 (30) (31) (ln(n 0 )) 1/h DET NORSKE VERITAS .Amended October 2008 see note on front cover Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203. ⎜ 1 ⎟ ⎟ + ⎜ h ⎜ q ⎟ ⎟ a2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎠ ⎝ ⎛ m ⎛ S ⎞h ⎞⎤ γ⎜1 + 2 . the fatigue damage expression is given by ⎡qm1 D = ν0Td ⎢ ⎢ a1 ⎣ ⎛ m ⎛ S ⎞h ⎞ qm2 Γ⎜1 + 1 . D. and a one-slope SN curve is used. while the right part is described by notation 2. to be found in standard tables a 1 .1.0. April 2008 Page 129 To be welded to test machine Plate 500x725 Full penetration weld 1500 50 Plate 500x500 Partial penetration 500 500 Figure D-20 Specimen 6 Thickness all plates t = 50 mm. Alternatively the damage may be calculated by a direct integration of damage below each part of the bilinear S-N curves: S1 = the relative number of stress cycles in short-term condition i. Δσ 0 . Short term Rayleigh distribution and linear S-N curve When the long term stress range distribution is defined through a short term Rayleigh distribution within each short term period for the different loading conditions. Γ(1+ 2 ) m D= ∫ 0 v 0 Td f (S. h) ⎟ ⎟ q(Δσ 0 . The stress range corresponding to this number of cycles is ⎛ a ⎞ m1 S1 = ⎜ 17 ⎟ ⎝ 10 ⎠ 1 (32) where S1 = Stress range for which change of slope of S-N curve occur = S-N fatigue parameters for N < 107 cycles (air condition) = S-N fatigue parameters for N > 107 cycles (air condition) = Incomplete Gamma function. j νo = long-term average zero-up-crossing-frequency (Hz) moij = zero spectral moment of stress response process The Gamma function. a2 . 1.

Then the allowable stress range is obtained from Table 2-1 for an E -detail and from section 2. April 2008 Page 130 Amended October 2008 see note on front cover Short term Rayleigh distribution and bi linear S-N curve When a bi-linear or two-slope S-N curve is applied. Then the reaction force at each support becomes equal P/2 and the maximum bending moment at the highest stressed ring stiffener is Pa/2. Reference is made to Figure D-21. Reference is made to “Fatigue of Welded Joints Peened Underwater”. S-N. The maximum allowable tension force in the wire on the drum is to be determined. The detail classification is found from Table D-7 detail 8: The classification is E. For the outside of the drum a stress concentration factor is calculated from section 3. the fatigue damage expression is given as. The highest bending stress in the drum occurs when the wire is at the centre of the drum. for effect of weld profiling on thickness effect. and Size-Profile Effects”. Reference is also made to “API Provisions for SCF. separated by external ring stiffeners 200 × 20 mm.0 2 Then the maximum tension force is derived as Δ M = Pa The section modulus for the drum is calculated as (34) P= Δσ allowable W 37.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C203. ⎜ 2 ⎜ 2 2m 0ij ⎜ ⎝ ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 2 ⎞ (2 2m ) m 2 ⎟ 0ij ⎟+ a2 ⎟ ⎠ ⎛ ⎜ m ⎛ S0 γ ⎜1 + 2 .0 = 37.34 1. 7 Improvement of fatigue life by fabrication Reference is made to “Recommendations on Post weld Improvement of Steel And Aluminium Structures”. Then W = 5114·103 mm3. for effect of weld improvements on fatigue life. Comm. There are three different spaces for wire on the drum. ⎜ 2 ⎜ 2 2m 0ij ⎜ ⎝ ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 2 ⎞⎤ ⎟⎥ ⎟⎥ ⎟ ⎠⎥ ⎦ Example Fatigue analysis of a drum A drum used for transportation of equipment is assessed with respect to fatigue.34 (40) W = (D 32 π 4 − ( D − 2t ) 2 1 )D (35) A A P t D a where D = diameter = 600 mm and t = thickness = 20 mm. A Design Fatigue Factor of 2 is specified: DFF = 2. ref.13 ⋅ 5114 ⋅ 103 = = 118. The ring stiffeners are welded to the drum by double sided fillet welds. When the drum is rotated 180 degrees the bending moment at the same position is reversed and the range in bending moment is derived as The number of rotations of the drum is not specified and is considered to be uncertain.54 α 0. D = ν 0 Td all seastates all headings i =1.10 as Δσ allowable t = 25 mm = Δσ at 10 7 cycles 46.54 = 1+ = 1. Therefore a stress range below the constant amplitude fatigue limit is aimed for.56 ⋅ 20 300 ⋅ 20 = 1.1 kN a SCF 1200 ⋅1. /22/.13 MPa (39) DFF 1 / 3.56t rt 1. DET NORSKE VERITAS .60 M = Pa/2 (37) Figure D-21 Drum for transportation The nominal stress at the outside of the drum at the considered ring stiffener is obtained as: Δσ = ΔM Pa SCF SCF ≅ W W (38) The distance from the drum support to the considered ring stiffener a = 1200 mm.3.60 = 1+ Ar 200 ⋅ 20 (36) SCF = 1 + 0. for fatigue of welded joints peened underwater.78 = 1 / 3.8 A-A α = 1+ 1. /16/. /13/. ref. j=1 ∑ ⎡ m1 ⎢ (2 2m 0ij ) rij ⎢ a1 ⎢ ⎣ ⎛ ⎜ m ⎛ S0 Γ⎜ 1 + 1 . ref.