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When we write English, the boundaries between words are symbolized by leaving a space between them When we speak English, grammatical boundaries are indicated by the features of the sound system itself

In written English ni@trate$ and night@ rate$ have identical stresses. A supra-segmental phoneme is present in the utterance /nayt@ ret$/ which is not present in the utterance / na@ytre$t/ This phoneme is called juncture and is represented by / + / It occurs between /nayt+ret/

Perceived Space
The phoneme represented by /+/ is called plus juncture The phonemes of juncture serve to mark grammatical boundaries The boundaries between night and rate is indicated by the phoneme /+/ / nayt+ret/

The term pre-junctural means immediately preceding or contiguous to, a following open juncture. In pre or post junctural position, all segmental phonemes(consonants and vowels) exhibit special allophones In night rate the first t is in pre-junctural position

Minimal Pair
The first t in night rate is unreleased /=/ [nayt= + ret] The first t of nitrate is aspirated /naytHret / [nayt@=+ret$] contrasts with [na@ytH$r$et/ Close Transition nitrate refers to no perceived space between the sounds Open transition night rate refers to a perceived space or break

In pre junctural position all stops are normally released

night rate /nayt= + ret/

In pre-junctural position all vowels and glides are lengthened

Nye trait ( a trait of the Nye family) /nay: tret/ vowels, glides and diphthongs are lengthened.

Pre and post junctural phonemes

/DQ$t + sa@d/ /DQ$ts+ sa@d / /sI@n + tQ$ks / /sIn@tQks$/

Th$at s@od Thats so@d si@n ta$x sy@nt$ax

Minimal pair
The /n/ of sin tax is in pre-junctural position. The /n/ of sin tax /sIn tQks/ is longer than the /n/ of syntax /sIntQks/ All nasals in pre-junctural position are lengthened

Minimal Pair
/DQt$ + st! / represents that stuff /D$Qts t@/ represents thats tough $ In the utterance that stuff, the final /t/ of that is unreleased [t=] In the utterance thats tough, the /t/ of thats is aspirated and the final /s/ is lengthened

Post Junctural Allophones

Like the phonemes in prejunctural position, the phonemes in post junctural position have special allophones In the utterance /DQts + t / the /t/ is in post -junctural position Like all initial voiced stop consonants, the post junctural /t/ is aspirated [tH]

In pre-junctural position, stop consonants are generally unreleased. In post -junctural position, voiceless consonants are aspirated In pre-junctural position, fricatives are lengthened In pre-junctural position, nasals , vowels and diphthongs are lengthened

Close and Open Juncture

The smooth unbroken transition between segmental phonemes is called close juncture. Close juncture is not marked, but internal open juncture is marked by /+/

External Open Juncture

The type of juncture which marks the end of an utterance is called external open juncture. Since it marks the end of an utterance, external open juncture often appears before silence

We can define utterance as any segment of speech bounded at the beginning and end by silence. /+/ does not represent silence

Terminal Juncture
External open juncture, often called terminal juncture, involves a change of voice pitch. For example, in the utterance Are you going home? the voice rises sharply at the end of the final syllable. This rising terminal juncture is characteristic of a question.

Special Allophones
Continuant segmental phonemes which occur before external open juncture are generally lengthened. As was the case before internal open juncture, stop consonants followed by external open juncture are generally unreleased

Terminal Juncture
The type of juncture which occurs at the end of the utterance Are you going home? is represented by / / / / is characteristic of a question. /ar yu goiN hom / illustrates the rising juncture pattern.

Terminal Falling Juncture

The type of terminal juncture which occurs at the end of a statement is represented by / / The statement I am going home would end in // / / is characterized by a fall in voice pitch. The phoneme /m/ in /hom/ is lengthened.

Minimal Pair
/j &a^nz + g$oi&N+ ho@m / /ja^nz + g$oi(@N + ho@m / In the first utterance, the pitch of the voice rises, while it falls in the second utterance / / fall -- statement / / rise --- question /+/ does not occur at end of utterance

/ / and / / signal an end of an utterance Grammatical boundaries within an utterance are signalled by the presence of /+/ /+/ does not involve a change in pitch of voice

Sustained Juncture
The third variety of terminal juncture consists of neither a rise or a fall in voice pitch, but of sustained pitch Sustained juncture is represented by /-- / Unlike the other terminal junctures /-- / may occur both within and at the end of an utterance

/ dZan wEnt hom -- mQri wEnt tu skul

/ -- / represents sustained juncture / / represents falling juncture

Like / / and / / , /-- / may be followed by a pause or silence. When it does, it gives the impression of an unfinished utterance. /his goiN tu bay a kar / / . /his goiN tu bay a kar /-- / , /his goiN tu bay a kar / /

Sustain Juncture
When /-- / occurs within an utterance, it is at least twice as long as /+/ /hi + hQz + rEd-- ord/ /hi + hQz + rEd + ord / The juncture between red and Ford in the first utterance is longer than the juncture between red and Ford in the second utterance.