COMPUTER FUNDAMENTALS

Data: File: Dir: Information: Command: Program: Software: Hardware: Key Board: Any alphabetic, numeric and symbol may be called data. Collection of data is called file. Collection of files is called directory. Processed form of data is called information. Set of instruction is called command. Group of command is called program. It means a set of programs which supply instructions to a computer. Physical parts or components of computer system are called hardware. Key Board is an input device of the computer. Program and data are entered by the Key Board. A key board is like a type writer. Mouse: Mouse is a hand operated input device used to move the pointer of cursor on the screen or to select options. Scanner: Scanner is an input device. It is just like photocopy machine. It scans to image or text and copy the scanned image or text in the computer. Monitor: Monitor is an important out put device of the computer. It is also called VDU. It is used to display data information on the screen. Printer: A printer is an output device which gives the result in printed form. Speaker: Speaker is an output device. It is just like the mouth of the computer. It gives the result in the form of sound when we can hear. Digital Cameras: Digital Cameras takes pictures, which get stored in digital format in a memory device as floppy disk. Microphone: Today microphone is an integral part of most computer systems. It converts spoken words in digital format. Computer: It is an electronic device that accepts the data, process the data and give the result in the required form. Analog Computer: - The analog computer accepts processes and generates continuous data. Digital Computer: - The digital computer accepts processes and generates discrete data. Hybrid computer: - Hybrid computer is complex of both computers. CPU: All the actions performed by the computer system are initiated, performed and controlled by the CPU. It is the brain of the computer. Operating System: - An operating system is a set of programs used to manage the operations of the computer system. Compilers: Compilers translates a source program that is written in a high level language in to machine language called object program. Interpreters: It translates each source program statement in to a sequence of machine instructions and then executes these machine instructions before translating the next source language statement. Assembler: An assembler is a program used to convert the program written in assembly language in to machine language.

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DEFINITION OF COMPUTER
“Computer is an electronic device that accept the data, process the data and gives the result in the required form”. “Computer is an electronic device which can receive inputs (data) as raw material and process it according to the program instruction to produce the output in a useful form”. “The word” Computer” comes from the word “compute” which means to calculate. So a computer is normally considered to be a calculating device that can perform arithmetic and logical operation at an enormous speed but accurately”.

CHARACTERISTICS OF COMPUTERS
Speed: - Computer is a very fast device that can process of instructions within seconds for which human being may take several days or month. Its speed is measured in terms of Milliseconds (1/103 of a second), Microseconds (1/106 of a second), Nanoseconds (1/109 of a second) and Picoseconds (1/1012 of a second). Accuracy: - Computer maintains high degree of accuracy, errors can occur in computerized system also but most of them occur due to human mistakes. Storage: - Computer can store very large amount of information in the secondary storage devices. This information stays with the computer for further use. Consistency: - A computer can work for hours without lack of concentration, tiredness or emotional feelings. Reliability:-Computers are highly reliable, very accurate and do not make mistakes in arithmetic calculations. Versatility: - Computer can perform various types of jobs at the same time. Diligence: -Computer is a very constant, earnest and Carefulness.

Computer Vs Human Being
Computer Element Input Main storage Secondary storage Arithmetic & Logical Unit Control Unit Output

Computer
Input to the system in machinereadable form. Hold input data and instruction temporarily before it is processed.

Human Being

Input to the system is through ears, eyes, mouth or nose. Data and instructions are stored in brain and can be recalled whenever needed. It is as extension to main storage Use pocket-diaries, notebooks etc. and the contents storage in it to store contents for permanent are retained permanently. use. It performs arithmetic and Brain performs comparisons and logical calculations and makes calculations in order to make comparisons. logical judgments. It coordinates and controls the Brain controls mental actions on operations of a computer the basis of calculations and system. comparisons. Output the results via VDU, Output is either in writing or a printer, plotter etc. speech using mouth.

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HISTORY OF COMPUTER
ABACUS:First of all Chinese introduced the Abacus, It is a manual calculating device and is still used as a calculator in chine. PASCAL’S CALCULATOR:Blasé Pascal, a French Mathematician invented an adding machine around 1641. It was capable of performing addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. BABBAGE’S Difference and Analytical Engine:“Charles Babbage” (1792-1871), a 19th century professor at Cambridge University. He is known as the father of the modern digital computer. The difference engine made by him in 1822 used the idea of constant difference. Babbage worked on the difference Engine and designed a larger and improved calculating machine in 1834 known as the analytical engine. The Mark I Computer:In 1944 Harvard University Professor, Howard G. Aiken, in collaboration with IBM (International Business Machine) built the Harvard Mark I Computer. It was capable of performing arithmetic and logical operations. The machine was extremely reliable but very bulky being 50 feet long and 8 feet wide.

GENERATION OF COMPUTERS
First Generation Computer (1946-1959)
The main components in use were the vacuum tubes (likes those in the old radios, which warmed up after a minute or show, and glowed red).The vacuum tubes were also called as valves. The first computer used 18000 vacuum tubes weighted 30 tons and occupied on area (9 meter X 15 meter) of a big hall. Vacuum tubes took ages to warm up and consumed massive amounts of electricity. Some of the computers of this generation are ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator), UNIVAC-1 (Universal Automatic Computer) and IBM 650. Main Features:  Vacuum Tubes Technology.  Speed in Milliseconds.  Machine and assembly language were used for programming.  Punched card for input.  Magnetic tape and magnetic drum for external storage.  It is used for scientific computation, pay roll processing and business applications. Drawbacks:  Very large size.  Consumed lot of power.  Poor reliability.

Second Generation Computer (1959-1965)

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The real breakthrough in computers started with the discovery of the transistors. Transistor is a tiny semi-conductor device; the size is about 1/50th of a vacuum tube, which can perform the same function as that of a large vacuum tube in computers. Some of the computers of this generation are IBM 1620, and IBM 1401. Main Features:  Transistor based Technology.  Speed in Microseconds.  High-level language FORTRAN and COBOL were used for programming.  Magnetic disks were used for external storage.  Wider commercial used.

Third Generation Computer (1965-1971)
As the next step functions of a number of transistors were put together on a single chip of silicon. These chips are called integrated circuit (IC) chips. A small chip, the size of a fingernail could have the equivalent of 200 to 2000 transistors. Some of the computers of this generation are IBM 360, IBM 370. Main Features:  Integrated Circuit based Technology.  Speed in nanoseconds.  High-level language Pascal was used for programming.  Smaller, faster and more reliable than second generation computers.  Low power consumption, low heat generation and more reliable due to the use of ICs.

Fourth Generation Computer (1971-1980)
From 1970 onwards web are in the era of fourth generation computers, in which the electronic component was further miniaturized through Large Scale Integration (LSI) of circuits on the silicon chip. Now the advancement of chip technology has come to be known as Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI), where millions transistors are packed in a single chip. The size of the chip is shrinking and computer is reducing. What used to be a room size computer at one time is now available as Desktop computer or Laptop computer with much more computational power. Along with the reduction in size there is significant reduction is price too. Main Features:  Large scale integration Technology.  Speed in nanoseconds.  Developed for microprocessor based technology.  Very small in size and very reliable.  Negligible heat generation.

Fifth Generation Computer
From 1982 research is going on a fifth generation computer that will have the thinking power just like that of the human brain. Those computers, which are based on Artificial Intelligence (AI), are designed to be “Thinking” computers capable of storing large amount of data to be retrieved as and when required to solve a problem. Possibilities of these computers:  Ability to communicate with spoken words.  Capability of human sense organs of speech sight and sound. 4

 Ability to find solution of problems using database and information already stored in computer memory.  Speed is expected to be measured in picoseconds.

CLASSIFICATION OF COMPUTERS
ANALOG COMPUTER The analog computer accepts processes and generates continuous data. It is a specific type of computer that handles or process information which is of a physical nature such as voltage, temperature, pressure etc., so analog computer used in laboratory only. DIGITAL COMPUTER The digital computer accepts processes and generates discrete (discontinuous) data. It process information which essentiality in a binary form. Digital computers fall in to range called Micro Computer, Mini Computer, Mainframes, Workstation and Super computers. HYBRID COMPUTER Hybrid computer is basically made from specific characteristic of analog and digital computer i.e. hybrid computer is complex of both computers.

CLASSIFICATION OF DIGITAL COMPUTERS
Computer may be classified in usage wise and size wise.

1. Usage wise classification
Special Purpose computer: - These computers can be designed for a specific class of applications. Their instruction set is permanently stored in computer chips. It lacks versatility but performs the assigned task quickly and efficiently. General purpose Computer: -These computers can be used for a large variety of applications and have versatility in use.

2. Size wise classification
Size wise digital computers may be classified in to the following categories.  Micro Computer (Personal Computer)  Mini Computer  Main-frame Computer  Workstation  Super Computer Micro Computer (Personal Computer): Personal computers are designed for personal use of individuals and meant for small business units and office automation systems. It is small in size have a wide range of applications and low cost. Main Features:  Small in size.  Have a wide range of applications.  Low cost.  8 to 32 bits word length. These computers are mostly used for a variety of application like: 5

 Computer literacy.  Database Management.  Desk Top Publications.  Computer Aided Design.  Multimedia and advertising applications. These Computers are divided in the three categories on the basis of physical structure:  Desk Top PCs  Lap Top PCs  Note Book PCs Examples are:  Pentium Processor.  Duel Core Processor. Mini Computers: Mini Computers have multiple processing units in a single CPU out of witch each processing unit can do a separate kind of work. Its processing needs multiple users. It is an improved version of micro Computer. Main Features:  Time sharing system.  32 bits or more word length.  Faster and more powerful than microcomputers.  Used in colleges, universities, research organizations and industries for multiple user and interactive applications. Examples are:  VAX  CDC 6600 Mainframe Computers: These are huge machine with high capacity of processing using parallel processing capabilities. The data transfer rate is 8 Million byte/second. It can be used in Centralized Train Reservation System, Airline Reservation System etc. Main Features:  Faster and more powerful than minicomputers.  32 bits or more word length.  Can support more than 100 users in timesharing mode.  Used in universities, bank and large industries. Examples are:  IBM 3090  VAX 8842 Workstations: Workstations are desktop machine which have more powerful processors – speeds of about 10 times of PCs. Example of workstations are:  Silicon Graphics Workstation of SUN Systems. Super Computers: Super computers are used for solving multivariable mathematical problems witch require repetitive floating point arithmetic operations on a large array of numbers, known as vector

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super computer. These computers are mostly used in the field of atomic and nuclear physics etc. Some famous super computers are:  CRAY-1  CRAY-11  PARAM 5000  PARAM 10000

INPUT DEVICES AND OUTPUT DEVICES
INPUT DEVICES:     KEY BOARD MOUSE SCANNER DIGITAL CAMERA MICROPHONE

KEY BOARD:Key Board is one of the most important input devices of the computer. Program and data are entered by the Key Board. A key board is like a type writer. It contains about 100-125 keys. Keys of a key board can be classified into five categories:  Alphabets Keys - Used to enter alphabets.  Numeric Keys – Used to enter numbers.  Special keys – Perform specific function.  Function Keys – Used to perform a set of operations. These are F1 to F12.  Arrow keys – used to move cursor in four directions Right, Left, Up and Down.

Some Other Keys Describes Briefly
Combination Keys: - The keys, which are always use with other keys are called combination keys. There are 3 combination keys in our keyboard. Alt, Ctrl, and Shift. Caps Lock: - If the caps lock is on capital letter will be written and if the caps lock is off small letter will be written. Enter Key: - This key mainly used to apply any command. Delete Key: - This is used to remove or delete the letter on which lies after the cursor. Backspace: - This is used to remove or delete the letter, which lies before the cursor. Esc: - This key is used to escape from any mistake or cancel the command which we don’t want to apply. Space Bar: - This key is used to give the space between two words or letters during writing the text. Tab: - This key is also used to give space between 2 words or letters but when we want to give more space then we use this key. This key left the space of 5 letters. Cursor Keys: - Move to cursor left, right, up and down.

MOUSE:Mouse is a hand operated input device used to move the pointer of cursor on the screen or to select options. Mouse actions: I. Clicking II. Double Clicking

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III. Dragging Types of Mouse: Mechanical Mouse Optical mouse

SCANNER:Scanner is an input device. It is just like photocopy machine. It scans to image or text and copy the scanned image or text in the computer. Types of Scanners: Flat Bad Scanner Hand Held Scanner

Joysticks: Children can play with computers in a simple way by the use of Joystick, while playing video games.

Digital Cameras: Digital Cameras takes pictures, which get stored in digital format in a memory device as floppy disk.

Microphone: Today microphone is an integral part of most computer systems. It converts spoken words in digital format.

OUTPUT DEVICES: MONITOR  PRINTER  SPEAKERS

MONITOR
Monitor is an important out put device of the computer. It is also called VDU (Visual Display Unit) a monitor is a T.V. like device used to display data information on the screen.

Classification of monitors:
Digital Monitor:A digital monitor accepts digitals signals. The term digital therefore refer only to the type of input received from video adapter. Digital monitors are fast and produce clear images. Analog Monitor: This is the traditional type of color display screen that has been used years in TVs. In reality, all monitors based on CRT technology (except flat panel display) are analog. Some monitors are called digital monitor because they accept digital signals from the video adapter.

PRINTER
A printer is also an output device which gives the result in printed form. Types of Printers: 1. DOT METRIX PRINTER  Cheapest, widely used  Speed of the printer is slow and quality of printing is not good. 2. INK-JET PRINTER  It produces qualitative printing.  They are expensive. 8

3. LASER PRINTER  It produce high quality printing  It is very expensive.

SPEAKERS
Speaker is an output device. It is just like the mouth of the computer. It gives the result in the form of sound when we can hear.

C.P.U. (CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT)
The Central processing Unit (CPU) is the brain of the computer system. All the actions performed by the computer system are initiated, performed and controlled by the CPU. The CPU works with the binary signals only. Every instruction that is executed first gets stored in the memory unit, and then it gets processed by the CPU. Input Unit:  It accepts the data from outside using keyboard, mouse, CDs or other sources.  It converts the data in to binary electronic signals which can be understood by the CPU.  It supplies the converted instructions or data to the computer for further processing.  Input data may be graphical, audio, visual, mechanical etc.  Some of the input units are Keyboard, Mouse, Magnetic Tapes and Disks etc. Memory Unit:  Memory is used to store binary codes of instructions you want the CPU to execute.  Each and every instruction to be executed by the CPU is first brought in the main memory.  It cannot be executed while it is stored on the secondary storage devices like disk, tape etc.  The memory stores all the data currently being processed as well as the program that controls the processing.  A memory can be considered to be consisting of four groups of memories. I. Internal Processor Memories II. Primary Memory III. Secondary Memory IV. Cache memory Control Unit:  It is the most critical part of the CPU so it is called the brain of the computer.  It controls activities of the other units such as input, output units and ALU etc.  It obtains instructions from the memory, interrupts them decide the action to be taken and directs other units to execute them. Arithmetic and Logic Unit:  The arithmetic unit performs a number of calculations and computations.  The logic unit is used to apply logic; i. e. used for comparisons, for certain types of test and takes decisions. All such types of logical operations are done in this unit.

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Output Unit:  Output unit functions are the opposite of the input unit.  It is an interface for communication between machine and human.  The output that comes from the CPU is in the form of binary signals which get converted in to human understandable form, i.e. graphic, audio, and visual, language form, etc.  Some of the popular output devices are Visual Display Unit (VDU), Printer, Magnetic Disks, and Magnetic Tapes etc.

MEMORY
Memory is an essential component of every computer. It is used for storing programs as well as data for the purpose of data processing.

CHARACTERISTICS OF MEMORY
Location: What is the location of the memory? It may be either internal or external.  Internal memory includes main memory, CPU’s registers etc.  External memory includes peripheral storage devices like disk, tape etc. Capacity:How much data memory can store refers to its capacity. It is measured as follows. 1 Bit=the smallest unit of information understand by the computer. It is represented ad either 8 Bit = 1Byte (one character (space) i.e. a, 6 etc. 1024 Bytes =1 Kilo Bytes (Half page of text) 1024 Kilo Bytes =1 Mega Byte (five hundred pages of text) 1024 Mega Bytes =1 Giga Byte 1024 Giga Bytes =1 Tera Byte 1024 Tera Bytes =1 Peta Byte 1024 Peta Bytes =1 Exa Byte 1024 Exa Bytes =1 Zeta Byte 1024 Zeta Byte =1 Yeta Byte Access Method: Sequential Access: - in this method information in the file is processed in order, one record after the other.  Direct or Random Access: -Random access file organization provides, accessing the records directly.  Indexed Sequential file access: - This method combines the advantages of sequential and direct file access. Performance: Access Time: -It is the time taken read or write from or in to a desired location on the disk.  Memory Cycle Time: -It consists of the access time plus any additional time required before starting an access.

TYPES OF MEMORY
At present three types of memory are commonly used in modern computers. 10

1. CPU registers. 2. Primary Memory or Main Memory 3. Secondary Memory or Static Memory

CPU registers: The CPU registers are a part of the CPU. Therefore its speed is as fast that of processor itself.

Primary Memory: It is the main or principal internal memory. CPU communicates directly with the main memory. It is used for storing program as well as data currently needed by the CPU. It is very large memory as than CPU registers but smaller than the secondary memory. The speed of the main memory must match the fast speed of the CPU so semiconductor (Chip) technology is used in the main memory. There are two types of primary memory Magnetic Core Memory: It was introduced in 1955. It consisted of tiny rings or core of magnetized material. A ring magnetized clockwise-represented 0 bit and in counter clockwise direction represents 1 bit. Each core store 1 binary bit and 7 or 8 cores. Semi Conductor Memory:  It was introduced in 1971 by IBM.  It is faster and cheaper than magnetized core memory.  These memories use electronic circuit of silicon chip.  The electronic circuit is called a flip-flop. Circuit can store either 1 or 0.  It is volatile as it losses its contents as soon as the power is cut off.  It can store million of bytes on a single chip.      This memory is of two types. 1. RAM (Random Access Memory) The RAM is volatile in nature because it can store information as long as the power supply is on if power supply is switched off, it may lose its contents. It has two types Dynamic and Static RAM. 2. ROM (Read Only Memory) Information contained on ROM can be read but cannot be changed. The information is stored permanently during manufacture. The data cannot be erased when computer is switched off. Types of ROM  PROM (Programmable Read Only Memory)  EPROM (Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory)  EEPROM (Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory)

Secondary Memory:  The Secondary memory used for storage of programs, data and other information.  The secondary storage it stores the information permanently.  Magnetic memories like hard disk and floppy disk are used as secondary memories. The secondary storage devices are: FLOPPY DISK DRIVE 11

A floppy disk is used to store the data and transfer data from one computer to another. The square-shaped floppy disks are two types Micro Floppy is of 3.1/2” of 1.44 MB Macro Floppy is of 5.1/4” of 1.2 MB HARD DISK DRIVE: In a hard disk information is stored permanently. It is completely sealed and built inside the CPU and capacity to store data in a hard disk is more than the floppy or CD-ROM. CD-ROM: It is also used to store or transfer data. IT is circular shaped disk, which can store data more than a floppy but less than HD

HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE
Hardware: Computer hardware represents all the physical components of a computer system. It includes input unit, central processing unit and output unit. Input Unit: This unit provides man to machine communication. Input of any form is converted in to binary electronic signals which can be understood by the CPU. This process is called digitizing. Input data may be graphical, audio, visual, mechanical etc. Some of the input units are Keyboard, Mouse, Joystick, Light Pan, Voice Data Entry (VDE), Magnetic Tapes and Disks etc. Central Processing Unit: The Central processing Unit (CPU) is the brain of the computer system. All the actions performed by the computer system are initiated, performed and controlled by the CPU. The CPU works with the binary signals only. Every instruction that is executed first gets stored in the memory unit, and then it gets processed by the CPU. Output Unit: This unit provides machine to man communication. The output that comes from the CPU is in the form of binary signals which get converted in to human understandable form, i.e. graphic, audio, and visual, language form, etc. Some of the popular output devices are Visual Display Unit (VDU), Printer, Magnetic Disks, and Magnetic Tapes etc.

Software: Software means a set of computer programs that are designed and developed to perform specific task, which supply instructions to a computer. It is further classified into 2 categories: -

System Software: It is a collection of programs designed to operate and control the processing of computer system. It includes operating and Language Translator. Operating System: - An operating system is a set of programs used to manage the operations of the computer system. Language Translator:  Compilers: - Compilers translates a source program that is written in a high level language in to machine language called object program.  Interpreters: - It translates each source program statement in to a sequence of machine instructions and then executes these machine instructions before translating the next source language statement.

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 Assembler: - An assembler is a program used to convert the program written in assembly language in to machine language.

Application Software: Software that is designed to handle a specific application is called application software. Example: - Package, Tally, MS-Office etc. General Purpose Application Package  Word Processor Package  Electronic Spread Sheet Package Specific Purpose Application Package  Accounting Packages  Airline or Railway Reservation Package.

OPERATING SYSTEM
The operating system acts as an “INTERFACE” between the user and the computer. An operating system (OS) is a set of routine programs used to manage the operations of the computer. A simple example: -A Policeman who directs traffic at a busy intersection. Functions of OS:  To control input/output operations.

 To control the movement of data in the primary storage.
 To locate and load programs from secondary storage.  To save files in the secondary storage. Types of Operating System: 1. Single User Operating System 2. Multi User Operating System  Single User OS: - Single user operating system organizes a computer to be operated by one person at a time. MS-Dos is a single user operating system.  Multi User OS: - Multi user operating system enables one computer to be share between several users. UNIX and Windows are the good example of Multi user operating system.

SYSTEM FILES
Files with system attributes are known as system files. These files contains DOS’s Core program. These system files are:  IO.SYS  MS DOS.SYS  COMMAND.COM IO.SYS & MS DOS.SYS These files are needed for basic input/output task. Basically these files are hidden files of the system and stored in the root directory. When they are loaded in the memory, these two programs take over the running of the system. 13

COMMAND.COM This file acts like command interpreter. DOS expects Command.com file in the root directory of boot drive. AUTOEXEC.BAT It Stands for Auto executable batch file. As the name suggests, it is automatically executed whenever system start. Various setting like date, time, path, etc., can be batch programmed in it. CONFIG.SYS It is an optional file and one needs to crate it if he/she wants to redefine the working environment of one’s system. For example, if you want to add a new device to your PC or your software needs to open more than default, then you have to configure your system for it.

Applications of Computers
Computers in Education: Most educational application package and programs are used to increase our reading skill, thinking and other special skills. Computers are broadly used in following.  Problem Solving  Discovery Learning  Computer Aided Testing Computer Aided Design & Manufacturing: Computers are used in the area of design and manufacturing for the following two main reasons:  To increase productivity.  To reduce costs. Computer in Research:Computer is used to help man in research, in business organization and almost every walk of life. It makes different designs realistic and easy to analyze.  Scientific Research  Language Research  Weather Research Computer in Military: Computers are extensively useful in military for computerized control.  Missile Control  Communication  Planning Computers in Marketing: Computers are widely used in marketing operations where they create from letter generate and analyze markets surveys, prepare invoices, produces mail order, and verify status orders.  Advertising  At-home shopping  Telemarketing

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Computer in the art: Computer is widely used for creating effective works in painting, music and dance.  Art  Dance  Music Computers in Communications: Computer is most popular in the area of communications. Computers are very effective in sending and receiving information.  E-Mail.  Air Traffic control.  On line reservation.  Video Conferencing.  Electronic Banking Service.

NUMBER SYSTEM
Number System is a way to represent the data using the permitted symbols defined in that number system. There are two types of number systems: Types of positional number system: 1. Binary Number System: - This system has only two symbols 0 or 1 so 2 is a base of counting system. 2. Decimal Number System: - This system has 10 symbols 0 or 9 so 10 is a base of counting system. 3. Octal Number System: - This system has 8 symbols 0 or 7 so 8 is a base of counting system. 4. Hexadecimal Number System: - This system has 16 symbols 0 or 9 and capital letters A, B, C, D, E, and F. the alphabets A to F represent the quantities 10 to 15 so 16 is a base of counting system.

BINARY NUMBER SYSTEM
This system has only two symbols 0 or 1 so 2 is a base of counting system. The binary symbols 0 or 1 are called “Binary Digits” or “Bits”. Example 111.11 is a binary number and 101.11 =1 x 22 + 0 x 21 + 1 x 20 + 1 x 2-1 + 0 x 2-2 =4 + 0 +1 + ½ + ¼ =5.75 NEED OF BINARY NUMBER SYSTEM: Binary number system is needed due to the following reasons:  Computers are made up of digital electronic circuits. These circuits are essentially binary in nature i.e. they have to handle 2 states ‘on’ i.e. 1 and ‘off’ i.e. 0.  All electronic components operate in binary form.  Floppies, hard disks, taps, CDs etc. store data in bits i.e. binary digits 0 & 1.

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Microsoft Word
Microsoft Word
Microsoft Word is a word processor used for creating text based documents such as letters, faxes, memos etc. Microsoft word is word processing software which allows you to write, edit them and print them after formatting it according to your needs. It has all the possible options of a word processor in the form of font style and size; indents; line spacing; margin; spelling checking and grammar checking etc.

Basic concept of Microsoft Word
Application Window: The major blank area is the major blank area on the screen is the called the application window or the editing area, where the user can type and edit text. Document Window: The whole window except the editing area is called the document window. It includes the title bar, menu bar, standard toolbar, formatting toolbar and other toolbars. Title Bar: The bar on the top of the screen is the title bar that displays the information about the application one is working on. The title bar also has the buttons for minimizing, maximizing and closing the application placed at the top of the right corner of the title bar. Menu Bar: The menu bar has the list of options provided by the software to make functioning easier and convenient to the user. Toolbars: The toolbars are nothing but easy shortcuts to various menu commands provided by the application. Template: A template is the basic framework for creating a final document. The template provides the basic style and contents for the document to be created. Scroll Bar: - Bar that enables the mouse to scroll the screen. Status Bar: - A bar at the button of the screen show that word is prepared to do next.

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Microsoft Excel
Microsoft Excel
This spreadsheet program allows you to manipulate and present your data almost any way you choose. It allows you to work on a tabular pad consisting of columns and rows where you can perform all your mathematic, financial and statistical calculations. MS-Excel is spreadsheet software developed by Microsoft Company. Excel allows you to create spreadsheet that can perform automatic calculations

Spreadsheet
It is defined as a large sheet containing a matrix of rows and columns it provide the facility to organize the data into rows and columns. In worksheets different operation can be performed ie, entering data, moving, copying, editing, printing data moving rows and columns etc. Four types of data can be entered in ms-excel1. Text: - Text in a cell can include any combination of letters, numbers and special characters -A cell can contain 32000 characters, but the default width of cell is 10 characters. 2. Numbers: - No. Include digit from 0 to 9 and some special characters like $, %, +, -, ( ), date and time are stored as numbers it can be 2 forms. Unformatted- Automatically displayed in scientific notation. Formatted- Replaced by number signs (#, #, #). 3. Logical Values: - Logical entries, TRUE and FALSE (uppercase only) can be entered in the cells. 4. Formulas: - A formula in excel is an entry that perform a calculation or other operation. A formula must begin with an equal sign (=). There are many advantages of a spreadsheet.  Tabular storage of data.  Data can be calculated easily.  Date formatting and modification can be done easily.  Data can be validated.  Data can be stored in either ascending or descending order.

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 Data can be presented graphically in the form of pie chart, bar chart, line chart etc.

Worksheets and Workbooks
Worksheet: - A worksheet in Excel is the place where you enter data values. A worksheet is made up of rows and columns. There are a maximum of 256 columns in a worksheet. These columns are named A, B, C………..Z, AA, AB………IV. There are a maximum of 65536 rows in a worksheet in Excel. Rows are numbered from 1 to 65,536. Workbook: - The set of worksheets is called workbook. Each excel file has workbook. By default there are 3 worksheets in a workbook but we can insert more sheets and also delete.

Cells
The intersection of rows and columns is called a cell. Cells can contain text, number or mathematical formulas. Each cell has cell address. Cell Address: - The name of columns and number of row is cell the cell address of active cell.

Microsoft PowerPoint
Definition
Microsoft PowerPoint is an ideal program for making a presentation. It also allows you to add chart, tables and pictures for making the presentation. PowerPoint is a complete presentation graphics package. It gives everything one needs to profile a professional looking presentation. PowerPoint offers word processing, outlining, drawing graphing and presentation management tools- all designed to be easy to se and learn.

Advantages
 A presentation is easier to understand as highlights the important points.  A presentation can be built with effective use of text, graphics and charts.  A presentation can be supplemented with handouts, outlines and speaker notes.

Use of Power Point
PowerPoint use to create electronic slide shows that can liven up even the most apathetic crowd. It you don’t want to give your presentation electrically, you can create vivid overhead transparences and valuable audience hangouts that will rival the most polished presenters. With PowerPoint you can create presentations that run automatically. Automated presentations are often used as kiosks at trade shows, and such presentations are seeing increased use on the internet.

Power Point Slide
Each PowerPoint file consists of slides that contain information you desire to present to your audience. Each slide may have a different layout depending on information types. Basic Elements: A slide contain text, pictures, charts, tables, etc.. there are some elements which make an effective slide. These are: Title: It is a descriptive heading, which identified a slide. Sub-Title: – It is a brief description of data. Footnote: – A footnote indicates the source of data. Border: – It is a frame for the slide.

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X-axis Title: – Scale: – Y-axis Title: – Series: Series Label: –

A title that displays along the X-axis. Range of number of value that is equal to one unit. Describing value on Y-axis. A set of numerical data. A label identifying a group of series.

Creating Presentation
Every PowerPoint presentation consists of a serious of slides: text or object displayed on a graphics background. You create your presentation by adding text and objects to slides. You will go through a series of steps for every presentation you create in PowerPoint: 1. Create the presentation, entering and editing text, and rearranging slides. 2. Apply a presentation design. Modify the design if necessary. 3. Format individual slides if you wish. 4. Add object to the presentation 5. Apply and modify transitions, animation effects, and links for electronic presentation. 6. Create audience material and speaker notes.

Presentation Views
The presentation in PowerPoint can be displayed in five-views. These are as follows:  Slide view: The current view of your presentation is the slide view. This view allows you to work in individual slides.  Outline view: In this view, your presentation appears like an outline. This view is helpful when you are in the process of organizing your thoughts.  Slide sorter view: - Use this view to see a miniature view of each slide in presentation. Slide sorter view provides an easy way to view the over all affect of your presentation.  Notes-Page view: - This view is helpful to create speaker notes. These notes remind the speaker what to say when the slide appears.  Slide Show view: - Use the slide show view to display your presentation on screen. It is important that before you start your presentation in this mode, position on first slide. So that the presentation starts from the beginning.

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Microsoft Access
Microsoft Access:
Microsoft Access is database management software where the information is stored. It includes tables, queries, forms, reports and other components, all of which allow us to manipulate and view the database information in a variety of ways.

Steps for Creating Database:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Identify the information to be stored. Identify and create tables to hold the information. Define a primary key for each table. Join the tables using a common field. Create forms, if required for data entry. Create queries (Optional) for quickly searching information. Create reports, if required.

Table: Table is the most basic components of a database. This is a collection of information stored in records (rows) and fields (columns). Almost every table has a primary key for the purpose of identifies the records in the table and helps in creating relationships. This primary key is defined for joined the common fields among the tables.

Query:
A query is the fastest way to get information from a database. You use queries to view, change, and analyze data in different ways. You can use them as the source of records for forms and reports.

Input Masks:
Input mask is a series of special characters that establish the pattern for the field entries. They save the trouble of entering certain characters like hyphens etc. The input mask is used to ensure that data is entered in the right format. For Example you use the mask AB00000, the letters AB will appear on the screen and the user must entered 5 digits. 20

Validation Rule:
Validating rules can be put to specify requirements for data entered in a record or a field.

Primary Key:
Primary key is used to maintain the order of records. They are used to uniquely identify the records.

HTML
The internet, a network of networks, provides a lot of services related to exchange of information like World Wide Web. The World Wide Web is fast emerging as the prime resource for exchange of information across the globe. HTML has been able to make its contribution. Hyper Text Markup Language is a method where ordinary text can be converted in to hypertext. It is a set of special codes included to control the layout and appearance of the text. Technically, HTML is not a programming language. It combines instructions within data to tell a display program called browser, how to render the data that the document contains.  HTML is the character based method for describing and expressing the content. The content is pictures, text, sound and video clips.  It delivers the contents to multiple platforms.  It links document components or documents together to compose compound documents.

HISTORY OF HTML
Tim Berners-Lee developed HTML in early 1990 at CERN, the European Particle Physics Laboratory in Geneva, Switzerland. HTML is a public domain and not owned by anybody. The World Wide Web (www.w3.org) is the body, which control the HTML standards. HTML was developed by the Tim Berners-Lee and popularized by Mosaic Browser. HTML 2.0 specifications was developed under the protection of the Internet Engineering Task Force to codify common practice in 1994. HTML 3.0 is much richer version of HTML. HTML 4.0 extends HTML with mechanisms for style sheets, scripting, frames, embedding object improved support for right to left and mixed direction text, richer tables and enhancements to forms.

SIGNIFICANCE OF HTML

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HTML’s popularity is mainly due to hypertext technology – the technology that enables one to search for information non-sequentially instead of linearly. Nowadays, with the click of a mouse one can send and receive e-mails, access huge amount of information and online submission of forms. Using HTML one can create page and sites that can be published on the internet. This page contains tables, images, forms, frames, multimedia and JavaScript and brings pages to life with dynamic HTML.

HTML TOOLS
HTML has two basic tools:  HTML Editor: - It is the program which is used to create and save HTML
documents. E.g. Notepad.  A Web Browser: -It is the program which is used to view and test the HTML documents. E.g. Microsoft Internet Explorer.

CREATING LIST
ORDERED LIST: -It is used to indicate sequential form of information. In TYPE
attribute values are 1 (For Arabic numbers), A (For Uppercase Alphabets), a (For Lowercase Alphabets), I (For Uppercase Roman Numbers), I ((For Lowercase Roman Numbers). Syntax: <OL Type=”1 or A or a or I or i”> <LI>Any Text</LI> <LI>Any Text</LI> </OL> UNORDERED LIST: -In this type of list numbers are not displayed. Instead of number Bullets are displayed. In TYPE attribute values are Disc, Circle and Square. Syntax: <UL type=”Disc, Circle, Square”> <LI>a</LI> <LI>b</LI> </UL> DEFINITION LIST: -The DL (definition list) tag allows you to DT (define the terms) and DD (define the definitions). Syntax:<DL> <DT>WORD</DT> <DD>Definition of the above word</DD> </DL> HORIZONTAL ROW TAGS: It is used to add a Horizontal Row. <hr size="10" color="blue" width="80%" align="center"> FONT TAGS: It is used to set the font color, size (1 to 7), face. <Font color=”blue” size=”7” face=”Arial”> BODY TAGS: 22

It is used to set the background color, text color and link color etc. <body bgcolor="aqua" text="red" link=”green” vlink="blue" alink="red">  BGCOLOR sets the background color.  TEXT sets the text color.  LINK sets the color of Hypertext Link.  VLINK sets the color of visited link.  ALINK sets the color the activated links. <BODY background=”Path of Image”>: -It is used to add the Background Image HYPERLINKS: It is used to create link with the specific file. <A href=”Path of the file”> File Name</A> <a href="#LOCPG">Link Name</a> <a name="LOCPG">Linked Name</a> ADDING IMAGE: It is used to add an image or moving pictures in the page. <IMG SRC or DYNSRC=”path of Image” alt=”Alternative Text” height="200" width="300" border="5" hspace="10" vspace="10" align=”left”>

TAGS USED FOR FORMATTING TEXT
TAGS
<B>, <STRONG> <I>,<EM> <U> <BR> <P> <S>,<DEL>, <STRIKE> <SUB> <SUP> <PRE> <Address> <BLOCKQUOTE> <div style="border=5px solid blue"> <span style="background color: pink">

DESCRIPTION
For Bold the Text For Italic the Text For Underline the Text For Break the Line For writing in a new paragraph For Strikethrough the Text For Subscript For Superscript For displays the text exactly as you type script. It is used to write address. For display the text in paragraph style. For specify the border color for the text. For specify the background color for the text.

ATTRIBUTES USED IN MARQUEE TAGS
Attributes Bgcolor Direction Height Width Hspace Vspace Loop Scrollamount Scrolldelay Behavior Values Color Name Left, Right, Up and Down Percentage or no. of pixels Percentage or no. of pixels Percentage or no. of pixels Percentage or no. of pixels Any positive number. Number of pixels Number in millisecond Alternate, Scroll or Slide Description For Background Color of the marquee Specifies the direction of marquee scrolling. Specifies the vertical dimension of the marquee Specifies the horizontal dimension of marquee Specifies the left and right margin of marquee Specify the top and bottom margin of marquee Controls the number of appearance of marquee. Specifies the shift of marquee text Specifies how often the marquee text redraws Specifies the marquee motion type

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CREATING TABLE
Html table are made up of rows and columns. The table may contain either text or images. Its tags are as follows: <table border=”5” bgcolor=”aqua” bordercolor=”pink” width=”50%” cellspacing=”10” cellpadding=”10”> Attributes Table Border Bordercolor Bgcolor Width Height Cellspacing Cellpadding Rowspan Colspan Values Any valid no. of pixels Any Color Name Any Color Name Percentage or no. of pixels Percentage or no. of pixels Any valid no. of pixels Any valid no. of pixels Any valid no. of pixels Any valid no. of pixels Description For Background Color of the marquee For Border Color of the Table For Background Color of the Table Specifies the horizontal dimension of the table Specifies the vertical dimension of the table Specifies the space between the cells. Specifies the cells height. Specify no of rows in which cell will span. Specify no of columns in which cell will span.

FORMS
HTML form is a section of a web document into which the user can enter information. This information passed back to a web server where it might be recovered in a database for future use of perhaps used to control what information is returned to the user. FORMS TAGS: It has mainly two attributes auction and method. The syntax is: <form action=”URL” method=”get or post”> INPUT TAGS: The input tag defines an input area within a form. It can accept text, radio, checkbox etc as an attributes. <input type=”text” name=”text-id” value=”default-text” size=”10” maxlength=”10” readonly> PASSWORDS TAGS: Password field is exactly similar to text field, except it display ***** (asterisks) instead of the actual input. <input type=”password” name=”password-id” value=”default-text” size=”8” maxlength=”8” readonly> RADIO BUTTONS TAGS: Radio buttons allow the user to choose one of the several options. If one option is selected then other option will automatically turn off. <input type=”radio” name=”radio-id” value=”choice-id” checked”> CHECKBOX TAGS: Checkbox offers the user an ‘on’ and ‘off’ switch. It is similar to a radio button, but any number of checkbox may be switched on. <input type=”checkbox” name=”box-id” value=”choice-id” checked> PULL DOWN LIST TAGS: Pull down list used <select> instead of <input>. It has option value under the <option> tags. <select name=”text-id” size=”20” multiple> <option value=”choice-id” selected>Text Label </option> </select> 24

FILES TAGS: It is used to upload the file on a web page. <input type=”file” name=”field-id" size="10" accept="file-type"> TEXTAREA TAGS: It sets and area within a form in which the user can type a larger section of text. <textarea name=”text-id” rows=”2” cols=”20” wrap=”virtual or physical or off readonly”> SUBMIT TAGS: It provides a button that submits the information in the completed form to the URL, given as the action attribute of the form tag. <input type=”submit” value=”button label text”> RESET TAGS: The reset value of the type attribute clears all form entries to the default one (or leaves them blank if no defaults are specified). <input type=”reset” value=”button label text”> FIELDSET AND LEGEND TAGS: FILEDSET tag creates a box around the matter and legend tag provides a label to the fieldset. <Fieldset><Legend>Group Label Text</legend>matter </fieldset>

FRAMESET
The frameset element allows defining a multiple frame web page, where each frame displays its own HTML documents. Frames can be scrolled and resized by the user, unless scrolling and resizing is turned off. <frameset rows or cols=”50%, 50 %”> <frame name="frame name" src="URL" marginheight ="pixel" marginwidth="pixel" scrolling=”yes, no, auto” noresize>  Frame Name specify the name of frame like master frame, top frame, bottom frame, left frame, right frame.  SRC specifies the frame documents address of URL.  Margin height and Margin width sets the left, right, top, bottom margin spaces.  No Resize stops the manually resizing of a frame.  Scrolling determines how scrollbars are treated in a frame. Example: <FRAMESET ROWS="30%, 70 %"> <FRAME NAME="MAST BAR" SRC="URL OF A FILE" MARGINHEIGHT="3" MARGINWIDTH="3"> <FRAMESET COLS="50%, 50 %"> <FRAME NAME="LEFT BAR" SRC="URL OF A FILE" MARGINHEIGHT="3" MARGINWIDTH="3"> <FRAME NAME="RIGHT BAR" SRC="URL OF A FILE" MARGINHEIGHT="3" MARGINWIDTH="3"> </FRAMESET>

SPACIAL CHARACTERS
Special characters are used to define the special symbols. Attributes Less than Greater than &lt; &gt; 25 Special Character A<B A>B Output

Ampersand Quotation mark Soft hyphen Copyright sign Trademark Registered trademark

&amp; &quot; &shy; &copy; &#8482 &reg;

A&B “A” A-B © ™ ®

Microsoft Fox Pro
1. Create (File Name): Create a table. 2. List: Show the all records in the table. 3. List (Filed Name): Show the particular records in all records. 4. Append: Add any records in the table. 5. Edit: Edit the records in the table. 6. Disp Reco (No): Show the particular column records. 7. Disp All: Show all the records in the table. 8. Dele Reco (No): Temporarily deletion for any record. 9. Recall Reco (No): Recall the temporarily delete record. 10. Pack: Permanently delete the temporarily deleted records. 11. Zap: Delete the file. 12. Use: Close the table. 13. Use (File Name): Open the existing file. 14. Dir: Show the directory. 15. Set Clock On: Show the clock on the screen. 16. Set Clock Off: Hide the clock from the screen. 17. Set Status On: Show the status bar on the screen. 18. Set Status Off: Hide the status bar from the screen. 19. ? Replicate (“RAHUL”, 10): Show the name number of times. 20. ? Max (10,5,18,9): Show the maximum records among all. 21. ? Min (10,5,18,9): Show the minimum records among all. 22. ? (10+18): Sum of any two numbers. 23. ? (18-10): Subtraction of any two numbers. 24. ? (10*5): Multiply of any two numbers. 25. ? (10/5): Division of any two numbers. 26. ? Sqrt (25): Sqrtroot of any number. 27. ? ABS (18+9-2*5/2): Find out the absolute value. 28. ? Date (): Show the current date. 29. ? Time (): Show the current time. 30. ? Month (Date ()): Show the month in numeric. 31. ? Year (Date ()): Show only current year. 26

32. ? 33. ? 34. ? 35. ?

Dow (Date ()): Upper (“RAHUL”): Lower (“RAHUL”): Proper (“RAHUL”):

Show the day of weak. Show the name in upper case. Show the name in lower case. Show the name in sentence case.

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FoxPro Program
1. Program for calculating the Sum, Subtraction, multiplication, Division and Square Root of any two numbers. Set talk off A=0 B=0 C=0 Clear @ 2, 4 Say “Enter the Value of A” Get A @ 4, 4 Say “Enter the Value of B” Get B Read C=A+B @ 6, 4 Say “Sum of two numbers” Get C C=A-B @ 8, 4 Say “Sub of two numbers” Get C C=A*B @ 10, 4 Say “Multiple of two numbers” Get C C=A/B @ 12, 4 Say “Division of two numbers” Get C C=Sqrt (A+B) @ 14, 4 Say “Square Root of two numbers” Get C 2. Program for Simple and Compound Interest Set Talk off P=0 R=0 T=0 SI=0 CI=0 Clear @ 2, 4 Say “Enter the Value of Principal” Get P @ 4, 4 Say “Enter the Value of Rate of Interest” Get R @ 6, 4 Say “Enter the Value of Time” Get T Read Si= (P*R*T)/100 @ 8, 4 Say “Simple Interest” Get SI CI=P*(1+r/100) ^ t-P @ 10, 4 Say “Compound Interest” Get CI 3. Program for Area of Circle Set Talk off R=0 Area=0 Clear @ 2, 4 Say “Enter the Value of Radius” Get R Read Area=3.14*R*R @ 4, 4 Say “Area of Circle” Get Area 4. Program for Area and Para of Rectangle Set Talk off L=0 W=0 Area=0 Para=0 Clear @ 2, 4 Say “Enter the Value of Length” Get L @ 4, 4 Say “Enter the Value of Width” Get W Read Area=L*W @ 6, 4 Say “Area of Rectangle” Get Area Para=2*L+2*W @ 8, 4 Say “Parameter of Rectangle” Para 5. Program for Calculating Total Marks and Average Marks Set Talk off Name=Space (20) H=0 E=0 S=0 P=0 U=0 Total=0 Average=0 Clear @ 2, 4 Say “Enter the Name” Get Name @ 4, 4 Say “Enter marks obtained in Hindi” Get H @ 6, 4 Say “Enter marks obtained in English” Get E @ 8, 4 Say “Enter marks obtained in Sanskrit” Get S @ 10, 4 Say “Enter marks obtained in Punjabi” Get P @ 12, 4 Say “Enter marks obtained in Hindi” Get U Read Total=H+E+S+P+U @ 14, 4 Say “Total Marks” Get Total Average=Total/5 @ 16, 4 Say “Average Marks” Get Average

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6. Program for Calculating Meter and Centimeter by Kilometer Set Talk off KM=0 M=0 CM=0 Clear @ 2, 4 Say “Enter the Length in Kilometer” Get KM Read M=KM*1000 @ 4, 4 Say “Total Meter” Get M CM=M*100 @ 6, 4 Say “Total Centimeter” Get CM 7. Program for Area of Triangle by Three angles Set Talk off A=0 B=0 C=0 S=0 Area=0 Clear @ 2, 4 Say “Enter the Side A” Get A @ 4, 4 Say “Enter the Side B” Get B @ 6, 4 Say “Enter the Side C” Get C Read S= (A+B+C)/2 @ 8, 4 Say “Side S” Get S Area=(S*(S-A)*(S-B)*(S-C)) @ 10, 4 Say “Area of Triangle” Get Area 8. Program for Calculating Area of Square Set Talk off A=0 Area=0 Pare=0 Clear @ 2, 4 Say “Enter the Side A” Get A Read Area=A*A @ 4, 4 Say “Area of Square” Get Area Para=4*A @ 6, 4 Say “Para of Square” Get Para 9. Program for write down the table Set Talk off M=0 Clear Do while M<=50

?M M=M+5 Enddo 10. Program for find out the maximum number from given three numbers. Set talk off A=0 B=0 C=0 Max=0 Clear @ 2, 4 Say “Enter A” Get A @ 4, 4 Say “Enter B” Get B @ 6, 4 Say “Enter C” Get C Read If A>B Max=A Else Max=B Endif If Max>C @ 8, 4 Say “Maximum No is” Get Max Else @ 10, 4 Say “Maximum No is” Get C Endif 11. Program for Find out the Even Number or Odd Number from the giver Number. Set Talk Off A=0 Clear @ 2, 4 Say “Enter Any Number” Get A Read If a%2=0 @ 4, 4 Say “This number is Even” Get A Else @ 6, 4 Say “This number is Odd” Get A Endif 12. Program for calculating the sum of the odd numbers. Clear Set Talk off T=0 X=0 Do While (X<=19) ?X T=T+X X=X+2 Enddo ? “Addition of First 10 odd Number= “, T Return

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‘C’ Language
What is Language?
Language is a medium of communication. There are several types of languages like: 1. Low Level Language: - Low level language is used to design system software and utilities etc. 2. High Level Language: -High level language is used to design the application software like Business Problems and Scientific problem.

What is C?
C is a programming language developed at AT & T’s Bell Laboratories of USA in 1972. It was designed and written by a man named Denis Ritchie. The C Compilers combines the capabilities of an assembly language with the feature of a high-level language and therefore it is well suited for writing both system software and business package. There are only 32 keywords and its strength lies its built-in functions.

Constants
Constant in C refer to fixed value that do not change during the execution of a program. This quantity can be stored at a location in the memory of the computer.

Types of C Constants
C constants can be divided into two major categories: 1. Primary Constants a) Integer Constants b) Real Constants c) Character Constants 2. Secondary Constants a) Array b) Pointer c) Structure d) Union etc.

Rules for Constructing Integer Constants
a) b) c) d) e) a) b) c) d) An integer constant must have at least one digit. It must not have a decimal point. It could be either positive or negative. No commas or blanks are allowed within an integer constant. The allowable range for integer constants is -32768 to +32767. An integer constant must have at least one digit. It must have a decimal point. It could be either positive or negative. No commas or blanks are allowed within an integer constant.

Rules for Constructing Real Constants

Rules for Constructing Character Constants
a) A character constant is a single alphabet, a single digit or a single special symbol enclosed within single inverted commas; both the inverted commas should point to the left. b) The maximum length of a character can be 1 character.

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Variables
In C a quantity which may vary during program execution is called a variable. Variable names are given to locations in the memory of computer where different constants are stored. These locations can store integer, real or character constants.

Rules for Constructing Variable Names
a) A variable name is any combination of 1 to 8 alphabets, digits or underscores. Some compilers allow variable names whose length could be up to 40 characters, still, it would be safer to stick to the rule of 8 characters. b) The first character in the variable name must be an alphabet. c) No commas or blanks are allowed within a variable name. d) No special symbol other that an underscore can be used in a variable name.

C Keywords
Every C word is classified as either a keyword or an identifier. All keywords have fixed meanings and these meaning cannot be changed. Keywords serve basic building blocks for program statements. There are 32 Keywords available in C. auto case const short double enum float void if long register do static switch union goto break char continue signed else extern return while int near default far struct typedef for unsigned

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/*for simple addition, subtraction, multiplication and division*/ #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int a,b,c; clrscr(); printf("enter the value of a and b"); scanf("%d%d",&a,&b); c=a+b; printf("Total=%d",c); c=a-b; printf("Subtraction=%d",c); c=a*b; printf("Multiplication=%d",c); c=a/b; printf("Division=%d",c); getch(); } /*for simple and compound interest*/ #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> #include<math.h> void main() { int p,r,t,si,ci; clrscr(); printf("enter the value of principle,rate of interest,number of years"); scanf("%d%d%d",&p,&r,&t); si=(p*r*t)/100; printf("simple interest=%d",si); ci=p*pow((100+r)/100.0,t)-p; printf("compound interest=%d",ci); getch(); } /*programe to find out area of a triangle*/ #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int b,h,area; clrscr(); printf("enter the value of breadth and height"); scanf("%d%d",&b,&h); area=(b*h)/2; printf("area of triangle is:%d",area); getch(); }

/*programe to simplyfy the equation*/ #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int b,a,c,d; clrscr(); printf("enter the value of b,a,and c"); scanf("%d%d%d",&b,&a,&c); d=((b*b)-4*a*c); printf("discriminant=%d",d); getch(); } /*programe to find out largest number in given three numbers*/ #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int a,b,c; clrscr(); printf("enter any three numbers"); scanf("%d%d%d",&a,&b,&c); if(a>b&&a>c) printf("a is large number:%d",a); else if(b>c) printf("b is large number:%d",b); else printf("c is large number:%d",c); getch(); } /*programe to do print the four digit number in the reverse form*/ #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int a,b,c,d,r1,r2,r3,r4; clrscr(); printf("enter the value of a four digit number"); scanf("%d",&a); r1=a%10; b=a/10; r2=b%10; c=b/10; r3=c%10; r4=c/10; d=r1*1000+r2*100+r3*10+r4*1; printf("reverse form=%d",d); getch(); }

/*programe to find out the division*/ #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int a,b,c,d,e,av; clrscr(); printf("enter marks of five subjects"); scanf("%d%d%d%d%d",&a,&b,&c,&d,&e); av=(a+b+c+d+e)/5; if(av>=60) printf("first division"); else if(av>=50&&av<60) printf("second division"); else if(av>=35&&av<50) printf("third division"); else printf("fail"); getch(); }

} count=count+1; } } /*find the enter number is prime or not*/ #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int num,i; clrscr(); printf("\n enter a numner"); scanf("%d",&num); i=2; while(i<num) { if(num%i==0) { printf("not a prime number"); break; } i++; } if(i==num) printf("prime number"); getch(); } /*find wheather number is even or odd by using switch case*/ #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int n,ch; printf("Enter the number:\n"); scanf("%d",&n); if(n%2==0) ch=1; else ch=2; switch(ch) { case 1: printf("number is even\n"); break; case 2: printf("number is odd\n"); } }

/*programe to do print the counting*/ #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int counting=1; clrscr(); while(counting<=100) { printf("%d\t",counting); counting=counting+1; } } /*programe to find out the value of even numbers among 1 to 100*/ #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int count=1,even=0; clrscr(); while(count<=100) { if(count%2==0) { printf("%d\t",count); even=even+1;

Tally
Tally is an Accounting Software that helps you in maintaining Accounts and Inventory of your office.

Accounting
“Accounting is the art of recording, classifying and summarizing in a significant manner and in terms of money, transactions and events, which are in part, at least, of a financial character, and interpreting the result thereof” – American Institute of certified public accountants.

Methods of Accounting
There are two types of Accounting Systems.  American Method or Single Entry System.  English Method or Double Entry System.

American Method or Single Entry System
It has further five types of accounting. I. Assets Accounts II. Liabilities Accounts III. Capital Accounts or Owner’s Equity A/c IV. Revenue or Income Accounts V. Loss or Expenses A/c

Methods of Recording
I. II. III. IV. V. Debit the Increase in the Assets and Credit the Decrease in the Assets. Credit the Increase in the Liabilities and Debit the Decrease in the Liabilities. Credit the Increase in the Capital and Debit the Decrease in the Capital. Credit the Increase in the Income and Debit the Decrease in the Income. Debit the Increase in the Expenses and Credit the Decrease in the Expenses.

English Method or Double Entry System
Classification of Accounts 1. Personal Accounts: - These accounts are those accounts which are opened by a
name of a person, firm, company, society or organization.

Rules: -“Debit the Receiver and Credit the Giver”. Types of Personal Accounts: I. Natural Personal Accounts: a) RAHUL’s Accounts b) Owner’s Capital Accounts c) Owner’s Drawing Accounts d) Debtors Accounts e) Creditors Accounts II. Artificial Personal Accounts a) Firm’s Accounts a) Company’s Accounts

b) Organization Accounts c) Bank Accounts d) Club Accounts e) Insurance Company Accounts f) Government Sector accounts III. Representative Personal Accounts a) Outstanding Salary Due to Staff account b) Prepaid Insurance Account c) Accrued Income Account d) Unearned Commission Account

2. Real Accounts: -Those Business assets which can be measure in the term of
money; their accounts are called Real Accounts.

Rules: - “Debit what comes in and Credit what goes out”. Types of Real Accounts: I. Tangible Real Accounts: -These accounts are those assets account which can be touched. a) Cash Account b) Stock Account c) Furniture Account d) Land Account e) Building Account II. Intangible Real Accounts: - Those accounts are those assets account which can’t touch but can be measured in the term of money. a) Goodwill Accounts b) Patents Accounts c) Trade Mark Accounts d) Copy Right Accounts

3. Nominal Accounts: -Income and Expenditure accounts of a business are called
nominal accounts.

Rules: - “All the Expenses are debited and Incomes are credited”. Types of Real Accounts: I. Expenditure Accounts: a) Salary Paid Accounts b) Rent Paid Accounts c) Bed Debts Accounts d) Commission Paid Accounts II. Income Accounts: a) Salary Received Accounts b) Rent Received Accounts c) Commission Received Accounts d) Interest Received Accounts e) Bed Debts Recovered Accounts

Steps for working in the Tally
1. Create Company: - In Tally this is the First task or primary task to create a company. For this Purpose we have to select the Create Company option from menu Gateway of Tally. After selecting the option we have to fill up the details for the Company like Company Name, Address, Started Date, and Income Tax No etc. 2. Creates Groups: -Groups are created for same type of Ledger A/cs. In Tally There are many groups which are used for making ledgers. So in the rare cases we have to create groups. These are the main groups in the tally. I. Reserve and Surplus (Retained Earning): -You can use this group heads like Investment Allowance Reserve, Select Ledger and other such reserve accounts. II. Current Assets: - This is the primary group that has all the current assets accounts. It has Six Sub-Groups under it. a) Bank Accounts: -It is used to hold all accounts of banks. b) Cash in hand: -It is used to hold ledger account of cash. c) Deposits: -It is used to hold assets like security deposits, rental deposits and all other deposits made by the company. d) Loan and Advances: -It is used to hold all advances and loans of non trading nature given by the company. e) Stock in hand: -It is used to hold certain special accounts like raw material, finished goods and work in progress. f) Sundry Debtors: -It is used to hold accounts of companies and individuals that give goods on credit to the company. III. Current Liabilities: -This is a primary group and is used to hold outstanding and statuary liabilities of the company. The group has three sub groups under it which are as follows. a) Duties and taxes: -It consists all types of taxes and duties like Excise, Local Sales tax, Central Sales Tax, VAT etc. b) Provisions: -It is used to hold other tax provisions like Income tax, depreciation in it. c) Sundry Creditors: -It is used to hold accounts trade creditors of the company. IV. Fixed Assets: -This is used to keep accounts of all the fixed assets, patents, trade tights etc. V. Investment: -This is used to hold ledger accounts of shares, bonus and other securities of the company. VI. Loan Liabilities: -This is used to keep track of loan taken by the company. This group has three sub groups which are as follows. a) Bank OD Accounts: -It is used to hold all overdraft accounts with banks. b) Secured Loans: -It is used to hold long/medium term loans taken by the company from financial companies and Banks etc. c) Unsecured Loans: -It is used to hold the loans taken unconditionally by the company. VII. Suspense Accounts: -This is used by many companies to maintain a suspense ledger which keeps track of money received or paid by the companies, whose nature of transaction is not yet known. VIII. Miscellaneous Expenses: -The loss of the company, which has not been written off but carried forward to the next year, should fall here. However, tally treats it as a negative profit and carries it to the profit and loss account. IX. Branches/Division: -This is used to keep the names of all companies which may be branches, divisions of the company.

X. Sales Account: -It is used to all goods sales accounts of the companies. XI. Purchase Account: -It is used to all goods purchase accounts of the companies. XII. Direct Income: -It is used to hold ledger accounts of non-trade income accounts that affect gross profit. XIII. Indirect Income: -This is used to hold ledger accounts of those expenses of the company that determine its gross profit. For example interest received and commission received. XIV. Direct Expenses: -This is used to hold ledger accounts of those expenses of the company which determine its gross profit. Expenses like salary paid to labour, transportation, electricity bills etc. XV. Indirect Expenses:-This is used to hold ledger account of those expenses of the company, which determine its net profit. Expenses like advertising, maintenance of vehicles, administrative expenses etc. 3. Create Ledgers: -Ledgers are actual account heads to which the transactions are identified. You Make all voucher entries in these accounts. You have to classify all ledgers in to groups. 4. Voucher Entries: -For Making the Voucher Entries first of all we have to set the voucher date by pressing F2 then enter the voucher date. There are various types of vouchers in tally. Voucher Entries are describes as follows: I. Contra Voucher: -This type of voucher is used for Cash to Bank, Bank to Cash and Bank to Bank Entries. Press F4 to select the voucher type. II. Payment Voucher: -This type of voucher is used for the Cash Payment Entries. Press F5 to select the voucher type. III. Receipts Voucher: - This type of voucher is used for the Cash Receipts Entries. Press F6 to select the voucher type. IV. Journal: - This is used for the Journal Entries like debit of credit Entries. Press F7 to select the voucher type. V. Sales Voucher: -This is used for the Goods Sales Entries. Press F8 to select the voucher type. VI. Purchase Voucher: -This is used for Goods Purchase Entries. Press F9 to select the voucher type. VII. Memo: -This is used to create Memorandum or Reverse Journal Voucher. Press F10 to select the voucher type. 5. Display Reports: -There are several types of reports are generated by the tally like Trading and Profit and Loss Account, Balance Sheet, Inventory Reporting Ratio Analysis etc.

TRADING ACCOUNT
Figure for the current year yearFigure for the previous yearFigure for the previous

Expenditure

Income

Rs

Particulars Rs. Rs. Particulars To Opening Stock: By Sales: I. Raw Materials Less: Sales Returns II. Work-in-Progress By Closing Stock: III. Finished Goods I. Raw Materials To Purchases II. Work-in-Progress Less: Purchases Returns III. Finished Goods To Manufacturing Exp. (Direct Exp.) I. Wages II. Wages and Salaries III. Direct charges IV. Carriage inwards V. Gas fuel and power VI. Freight, Octroi, Cartage VII. Royalty VIII. Excise Duty IX. Custom or Import Duty X. Factory Rent and Lighting

Rs.

Rs. Rs

To Gross Profit (If Any) Rs. Rs. By Gross Loss (If Any) transferred to Rs. transferred to P/L Account P/L Account (Bal. Figures) (Bal. Figures) To Gross Loss (If Any) B/D Rs. Rs. By Gross Profit (If Any) B/D Rs.

Figure for the current year

Profit and Loss Account
Figure for the current year yearFigure for the previous yearFigure for the previous

Expenditure

Income

Rs

Particulars Rs. Rs. Particulars To Employee Remuneration: By Gross Profit (If Any) B/D I. Salaries, Bonus etc. By Rent From Tenant II. Contribution of By Discount Received provident fund, By Income From Investment Pension fund etc. By Profit on role of investments III. Staff Welfare exp. By Interest received To Selling and Distribution By Commission Received exp: By Dividend Of Shares I. Advertising, Godown, By Apprentice Premium Rent etc. By Profit on sale of Assets II. Commission, By Miscellaneous Receipts Brokerage and By Income From other sources discount Allowed. To Office Exp. I. Rent, Rates and Taxes II. Salaries, Salaries and Wages III. Insurance Premium IV. Printing, Postage & Stationery V. Repair and lightning. VI. Unproductive wages. VII. Audit fees and legal charges. VIII. Telephone Exp. IX. Trade Exp. X. Establishment Exp. XI. General Exp. To selling and distribution Exp. I. Carriage outward. II. Commission. III. Export duty. IV. Parking charges. V. Bad debts. VI. Sales tax. VII. Miscellaneous Exp.

Rs.

Figure for the current year

Rs.

To Net Profit (If Any) Rs. Rs. By Net Loss (If Any) transferred to Rs. transferred to Capital Account Capital Account (Bal. Figures) (Bal. Figures)

Balance Sheet of RN Pvt. Ltd. As on 31st march 2007
Figure for the current year yearFigure for the previous yearFigure for the previous

Liabilities

Assets

Rs

Particulars Rs. Rs. Particulars Rs. 1. Share Capital: 1. Fixed Assets: Authorized and Subscribed I. Goodwill shares. II. Land 2. Reserve and Surplus: III. Building I. Capital Reserve IV. Leaseholds II. Share Premium V. Plant and Machinery III. Other Reserves VI. Furniture and Fittings Less: Debit Balance of P/L VII. Patents, Trade Mark and Copy Appropriation A/c (If Any) Right IV. Surplus i.e Credit Bal. VIII. Vehicles of P/L A/c (After Providing 2. Investment: the Proposed Dividend, I. Govt. or Trust Securities Bonus or Reserves) II. Share, Debentures and bonds V. Sinking Fund III. Investment and Immovable 3. Secured Loans: Properties I. Debentures 3. Current Assets, Loans and II. Loan and Advances Advances: 4. Unsecured Loans: I. Interest Accrued on I. Fixed Deposit Investment II. Short term Loan and II. Stores and spare parts Advances III. Loose Tools 5. Current Liabilities and IV. Stock-in-Trade Provisions: V. Work in Progress I. Acceptance (B/P) VI. Sundry Debtors II. Sundry Creditors Less: Cash or Bank Balance III. Unclaimed Dividends VII. Bills of Exchanges IV. Interest Accrued but 4. Miscellaneous Expenditure not due on loans I. Preliminary Expenses V. Provision for Taxation II. Discount Allowed on the VI. Proposed Dividends share or debenture VII. Provision for III. Development Expenses not Insurance adjusted. VIII. Other provisions 5. Profit And Loss Account IX. Contingent Liabilities Debit Balance of P/L Account (If

Figure for the current year

like Claim against company not acknowledged or debts

Any). (This is shown only when its debit balance could not be written off out of other reserves)

Rs.

Total Amount

Rs. Rs. Total Amount

Rs.

Computer Abbreviations
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. ALU ASCII BCD BIOS CAD CAM CD CD-ROM CGA COBOL CPU CVT DBMS DOS 15. DVD 16. DTPS 17. EEPROM 18. FAT 19. FIFO Arithmetic and Logic Unit American Standard Code for Information Interchange Binary Coded Decimal Basic Input Output System Computer Aided Design Computer Aided Manufacturing Compact Disk Compact Disk – Read Only Memory Color Graphic Adapter Common Business Oriented Language Central Processing Unit Constant Voltage Transformer Data Base Management System Disk Operating System Digital Versatile Disk, Digital Video Disk Desk Top Publishing System Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory File Animation Tool or Trunk First In First Out

20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50.

FDD GB GIF GIGO GUI HDD IBM IC IDE IT INTERNET JPEG KB LAN LIFO MAN MG MS-DOS NTFS OCR OMR OS PASCAL PROM RAM ROM SQL UNIX VDU VGA WAN

Floppy Disk Drive Giga Byte Graphic Underhand Format Garbage In Garbage Out Graphical User Interface Hard Disk Drive International Business Machine Integrated Circuits Integrated Device Electronics Information Technology International Network Joint Photographic Experts Group Kilo Byte Local Area Network Last In First Out Metropolitan Area Network Mega Byte Micro Soft – Disk Operating System New Technology File System Optical Character Reader Optical Mark Recognition Operating System A Programming Language Programmable Read Only Memory Random Access Memory Read Only Memory Structural Query Language A Multi-user Time Sharing System Visual Display Unit Visual Graphic Adaptor Wide Area Network

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