Written by Challa Sai Priyatham Kolla Chaitanya Krishna

Tribology, which focuses on friction, wear and lubrication of interacting surfaces in relative motion, is a new field of science defined in 1967 by a committee of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. The word ‘Tribology’ is derived from the Greek word ‘tribos’ meaning rubbing or sliding. Wear is the major cause of material wastage and loss of mechanical performance and any reduction in wear can result in considerable savings. Friction is a principal cause of wear and energy dissipation. Considerable savings can be made by improved friction control. It is estimated that one third of the world's energy resources in present use is needed to overcome friction in one form or another. Lubrication is an effective means of controlling wear and reducing friction. Tribology is a field of science which applies an operational analysis to problems of great economic significance such as reliability, maintenance and wear of technical equipment ranging from household appliances to spacecraft. The question is why ‘the interacting surfaces in relative motion’ are so important to our economy and why they affect our standard of living. The answer is that surface interaction controls the functioning of practically every device developed by man. An analysis of machine break-downs shows that in the majority of cases failures and stoppages are associated with interacting moving parts such as gears, bearings, couplings, sealing’s, cams, clutches, etc. The majority of problems accounted for are tribological. Our human body also contains interacting surfaces, e.g. human joints, which are subjected to lubrication and wear. Despite our detailed knowledge covering many disciplines, the lubrication of human joints is still far from fully understood. Tribology affects our lives to a much greater degree than is commonly realized. It is common knowledge that the human skin becomes sweaty as a response to stress or fear. It has only recently been discovered that sweating on the palms of hands or soles of feet of humans and dogs, but not rabbits, has the ability to raise friction between the palms or feet and a solid surface. In other words, when an animal or human senses danger, sweating occurs to promote either rapid flight from the scene of danger, or else the ability to firmly hold a weapon or climb the nearest tree.

A general result or observation derived from innumerable experiments and theories is that tribology comprises the study of:  The characteristics of films of dominant material between contacting bodies.  The consequences of either film failure or absence of a film which are usually manifested by severe friction and wear. The practical objective of tribology is to minimize the two main disadvantages of solid to solid contact: friction and wear, but this is not always the case. In some situations minimizing friction and maximizing wear or minimizing wear and maximizing friction or maximizing both friction and wear is desirable. For example, reduction of wear but not friction is desirable in brakes and lubricated clutches, reduction of friction but not wear is desirable in pencils, increase in both friction and wear is desirable in erasers.

LUBRICATION Lubrication is a process of applying lubricant between two rubbing surfaces which are in contact to each other and to carry away the heat generated by friction. It can generally be defined as the reduction of friction by using a fluid lubricant. TYPES OF LUBRICANTS  Solid  Semi-solid  Liquid EX: GRAPHITE GREASE OILS

TYPES OF LUBRICATION Hydrodynamic lubrication When a fluid lubricant is present between two rolling or sliding surfaces, a thicker pressurized film can be generated by the movement of the surfaces. The non compressible nature of this film separates the surfaces resulting in no metal-to-metal contact. The condition in which surfaces are completely separated by a continuous film of lubricating fluid is commonly referred to as Hydrodynamic or Full Fluid Film Lubrication. It can be formed by wedging the lubricant through a convergent gap with the tangential surface velocities. It often occurs in components such as cylinders, gears and plain bearings.

Boundary lubrication or thin film lubrication Boundary Lubrication is a condition in which the lubricant film becomes too thin to provide total separation. This may be due to excessive loading, speeds or a change in the fluid's characteristics. In such a situation, contact between surface peaks and valleys occurs. Friction reduction and wear protection is then provided through chemical compounds rather than properties of the lubricating fluid. Boundary lubrication often occurs during the start-up and shutdown of equipment or when loading becomes excessive.

As a result. The requirements that lubricants need to satisfy generally consist of the following (1) High oil film strength (2) Low friction (3) High wear resistance (4) High thermal stability (5) Non-corrosive . the metal surfaces deform elastically in preference to the highly pressurized lubricant which increases the contact area and thus increases the effectiveness of the lubricant.Mixed Film Lubrication Mixed Film Lubrication is a combination of both hydrodynamic and boundary lubrication. Elastohyrodynamic Lubrication This Lubrication occurs as pressure or load increases to a level where the viscosity of the lubricant provides higher shear strength than the metal surface it supports. This condition can be the result of lubricant breakdown or increased load placed upon the lubricant. In such a situation only occasional asperity contact occurs. This regime can occur in roller bearings or gears as the lubricant is carried into the convergent zone approaching a contact area or the intersection of two asperities.

It creates the loss of material from the materials used.(6) Highly anti-corrosive (7) Minimal dust/water content (8) Consistency of grease must not be altered to a significant extent even after it is repeatedly stirred. . Film failure impairs the relative movement between solid bodies and inevitably causes severe damage to the contacting surfaces. Wear Wear occurs to the parts when the two mating surfaces are in contact with each other. Wear in these circumstances is the result of adhesion between contacting bodies and is termed ‘adhesive wear’.

The relationship between the shear stress and the velocity gradient can be obtained by considering two plates closely spaced at a distance y. This shear stress is directly proportional to rate of change of velocity with respect to y. The SI physical unit of dynamic viscosity is the Pascal-second (Pa-s). The applied force is proportional to the area and velocity gradient in the fluid and inversely proportional to the distance between the plates.BASIC THEORY (DYNAMIC VISCOSITY) Viscosity is defined as the property of fluid which offers resistance to the movement of one layer of fluid to adjacent layer of another fluid. let a force F be applied to the upper plate which causes shear stress between the layers. The viscosity together with relative velocity causes shear stress acting between the fluid layers. . such that edge effects may be ignored and the velocities of lower and upper plate are taken as u & u+dy and the thickness of the fluid films which are adjacent to each other are taken as y and y+dy. and separated by a homogeneous substance. if a fluid with a viscosity of one Pa-s is placed between two plates and one plate is pushed sideways with a shear stress of one Pascal. with a large area A. The top surface causes a shear stress on adjacent lower layer and vice versa. Assuming that the plates are very large. Mathematically Represents the rate of shear strain or rate of shear deformation or velocity gradient Thus viscosity is defined as shear stress required to produce unit rate of shear strain. it moves a distance equal to the thickness of the layer between the plates in one second. The lower plate is fixed.

particularly in ASTM standards. as centipoises (cP). named after Jean Louis Marie Poiseuille. It is more commonly expressed.The CGS physical unit for dynamic viscosity is the poise (P). For liquids For gases KINEMATIC VISCOSITY Kinematic viscosity is defined as the ration of dynamic viscosity to density of fluid and also defined as ratio of the inertial force to the viscous force. TEMPERATURE VARIATION OF VISCOSITY Temperature variation has an opposite effect on the viscosities of liquids and gases. In cases of gases the molecular momentum transfer increases and hence viscosity increases. In liquids the cohesive forces predominates the molecular momentum transfer. The viscosity of liquid decreases with increase of temperature and viscosity of gases increases with increase of temperature. due to closely packed molecules and with increase of temperature the cohesive forces decreases with result of decreasing viscosity. This ratio is characterized by the kinematic viscosity defined as follows: . This is due to reason that viscous forces in a fluid are due to cohesive forces and molecular momentum transfer.

at room temperature.I can be shown easily by considering automotive lubricants.0 × 10−3 Pa-s and motor oil of about 250 × 10−3 Pa-s.Units The CGS physical unit for kinematic viscosity is stokes (St). Oil having a high V. The importance of the V. VISCOSITY INDEX The viscosity index (V. in the lateral or horizontal direction. describes the reaction to elongation.I) of oil is a number that indicates the effect of temperature changes on the viscosity of the oil. Extensional viscosity A linear combination of shear and bulk viscosity. It is sometimes expressed in terms of centistokes (CST). Volume viscosity It is called as bulk viscosity or second viscosity. Alternatively.I signifies a relatively large change of viscosity with changes of temperature and high V. because it has the same unit as and is comparable to diffusivity of heat and diffusivity of mass. The kinematic viscosity is sometimes referred to as diffusivity of momentum. Ideal oil for most purposes is one that maintains a constant viscosity throughout temperature changes. it becomes important only for such effects where fluid compressibility is essential. stoke is sometimes used as the singular form. It appears in the Stokes' law (sound attenuation) that describes propagation of sound in Newtonian liquid.I resists excessive thickening when . to the change in velocity of the fluid as you move down in the fluid (this is what is referred to as a velocity gradient).I signifies relatively little change in viscosity over a wide temperature range. named after George Gabriel Stokes. usage. Examples would include shock waves and sound propagation. In U.S. Low V. It is therefore used in dimensionless numbers which compare the ratio of the diffusivities. For example. water has a dynamic shear viscosity of about 1. Shear viscosity It is the ratio between the pressures exerted on the surface of a fluid. The oil becomes extremely thin at high temperatures and extremely thick at low temperatures. widely used for characterizing polymers.

Viscosity of standard 100% VI oil at 100oF U .I from known viscosities. Fig below shows the viscosity chart with variation of temperature.the engine is cold and. These tables permit calculation of the V.Viscosity of oil with unknown VI oil at 100oF EXAMPLE PROBLEM . it resists excessive thinning when the motor is hot and thus provides full lubrication and prevents excessive oil consumption. Tables. are issued by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). based on a large number of tests. The Viscosity index of an oil may be determined if its viscosity at any two temperatures is known. consequently. Different oils may have different ASTM slopes the viscosity index can be calculated from the following formula: VI = (L − U) / (L − H) × 100 H. promotes rapid starting and prompt circulation.

Table 2.2 .

the best and worst oils available in 1929. Uniform and non-uniform flow. density. in which the velocity. two and three-dimensional flows. therefore. etc. Series H exhibited little change of viscosity with temperature while the viscosities of series L oils exhibited large variation with temperature. One. T. Rotational and irrotational flow. the higher the VI the less the viscosity of an oil is affected by temperature and.  Steady and Unsteady flow: Steady flow is defined as that type of flow in which the fluid characteristics like velocity. Two series of reference lubricating-oil fractions (H and L) were used for comparison. the better the oil. are the kinematic viscosities at 311 K of the series L and H having the same kinematic viscosity at 372 K as the oil T. Series H oils were assigned a VI of 100.  Uniform and Non-uniform flow: Uniform flow is defined as that type of flow in which the velocity at any given time does not change with respect to space. Series H and L represented. . Non-uniform flow is that type of flow in which the velocity at any given time changes with respect to space. respectively. respectively. Cummings Value of 0.It was proposed by Dean and Davis (1929) as an indication of an oil’s viscositytemperature characteristics in terms of its Say bolt viscosities at 311 K (100°F) and 372 K (210°F). Laminar and turbulent flow. TYPES OF FLUID FLOWS Steady and unsteady flow. L and H. pressure. Unsteady flow is that type of flow. Thus. series L a Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to P. at a point do not change with time. pressure or density at a point changes with respect to time. The VI of an oil under test ( T ) was calculated from the equation VI = (L − U) / (L − H) × 100 Where U is the kinematic viscosity at 311 K of the oil in question. Compressible and incompressible flow.

The variation of velocities in other two mutually perpendicular directions is assumed negligible. Two and Three-Dimensional flows: One-dimensional flow is that type of flow in which the flow parameter such as velocity is a function of time and one space co-ordinate only. Thus the particles move in laminas or layers gliding smoothly over the adjacent layers. If the Reynolds number is less than 2000. the flow is laminar. Irrotational flow is that type of fluid particles while flowing along the streamlines do not rotate about their own axis. Three-dimensional is that type of flow in which the velocity is a function of time and three mutually perpendicular directions. Incompressible flow is that type of flow in which the density is constant for the fluid flow. The variation of velocity in the third direction is negligible. . the velocity is a function of one-space-co-ordinate only. the eddies formation takes place which are responsible for high-energy loss. Due to the movement of fluid particles in a zigzag way.  Compressible and Incompressible flows: Compressible flow is that type of flow in which the density of the fluid changes from point to point or in other words the density is not constant for the fluid. Two-dimensional flow is that type of flow in which the velocity is a function of time and two rectangle space co-ordinates. the type of flow is determined by a non-dimensional number called the Reynolds number. For a steady onedimensional flow. For a steady two-dimensional flow the velocity is a function of to space co-ordinates only. it is called turbulent flow. This type of flow is also called as streamline flow or viscous flow. But for a steady three-dimensional flow the fluid parameters are functions of three space co-ordinates. For a pipe flow. Turbulent flow is that type of flow in which the fluid particles move in zigzag way.  One. the flow may be laminar or turbulent. Liquids are generally incompressible while gases are compressible. It the Reynolds number lies between 2000 and 4000.  Rotational and Irrotational flows: Rotational flow is that type of flow in which the fluid particles while flowing along streamlines also rotate about their own axis. If the Reynolds number is more than 4000. Laminar and Turbulent flow: Laminar flow is defined as that type of flow in which the fluid particles move along well-defined paths or streamline and all the streamlines are straight and parallel.

TYPES OF VISCOSITY FLUIDS Newton's law of viscosity is not a fundamental law of nature but an approximation that holds in some materials and fails in others. agitated. Non-Newtonian fluids exhibit a more complicated relationship between shear stress and velocity gradient than simple linearity. greatly increases its apparent viscosity. Thus there exist a number of forms of viscosity: • Newtonian: fluids. or otherwise stressed. • Shear thickening: viscosity increases with the rate of shear. agitated. when subjected to a magnetic field. but misleadingly. described as thixotropic. • Thixotropic: materials which become less viscous over time when shaken. • A Bingham plastic is a material that behaves as a solid at low stresses but flows as a viscous fluid at high stresses. to the point of becoming a viscoelastic solid. or otherwise stressed. • Rheopectic: materials which become more viscous over time when shaken. . • A magneto rheological fluid is a type of "smart fluid" which. such as water and most gases which have a constant viscosity. • Shear thinning: viscosity decreases with the rate of shear. Shear thinning liquids are very commonly.

laminar. A capillary tube is one with a large length to diameter ratio. incompressible flow as: Where R is the pipe radius. The theory of operation for a capillary tube viscometer is based on the Poiseuille model of laminar flow which describes flow through a tube. an instrument called a rheometer is used. In the case of a vertical tube with both ends open to the ambient.VISCOMETERS A viscometer is an instrument used to measure the viscosity of a fluid. Capillary viscometers are typically made of glass and consist of a bulb reservoir connected to the capillary tube. In general. in a pipe can be derived from the Navier-Stokes equations for steady. or the object is stationary and the fluid moves past it. The drag caused by relative motion of the fluid and a surface is a measure of the viscosity. TYPES OF VISCOMETERS  Capillary Viscometers Capillary viscometers determine viscosity through measurement of the flow rate of the fluid travelling through a capillary tube. For liquids with viscosities which vary with flow. either the fluid remains stationary and an object moves through it. is the viscosity and dP/dx is the pressure gradient which is the driving head for the flow. The volume flow rate. the pressure gradient is caused by the hydrostatic pressure gradient: By rearranging: The user is instructed to measure the time for the fluid to travel a specified distance and then the kinematic viscosity is calculated as: . fully developed. Viscometers only measure less than one flow condition. The flow conditions must have a sufficiently small value of Reynolds for there to be laminar flow.

To use the viscometer one partially fills it and then draws the fluid to the upper mark above the right side bulb. The fluid is released to flow through the capillary tube and the time for the upper bulb to empty is measured. .  Original Ostwald  Suspended level  Reverse flow capillary viscometers Original Ostwald The Ostwald Viscometer is one of the simplest capillary tube viscometer. The viscometer consists of a bulb connected to a long capillary tube.Types of viscometers/options: There are 3 primary types of capillary tube viscometers. Some of the problems associated with the use of the Ostwald viscometer include the need to keep the viscometer vertical. the requirement for a specific volume of fluid and the effect of temperature on the viscosity measurement.

Reverse Flow Viscometers Reverse Flow Viscometers are used to measure the viscosity of opaque fluids.Suspended Level Viscometers To determine viscosity. the weight of the liquid.e. The measurements are conducted by applying either a constant torque and measuring the changes in the speed of rotation or applying a constant speed and measuring the changes in the torque. These viscometers give the ‘dynamic viscosity’. the test liquid is loaded into the upper bulb and then released. There is generally a range of types available for each capillary viscometer with capillary tubes of varying lengths to allow for the measurement of a range of viscosities. There are two main types of these viscometers: rotating cylinder and cone-on-plate viscometers. They measure the flow rate through a ‘dry’ capillary tube so that the leading edge of the opaque fluids can be easily identified. The liquid flowing through the capillary is separated from the reservoir bulb at the bottom. The third tube which connects the bottom of the capillary tube to the ambient ensures that the only pressure difference between the top of the bulb and the bottom of the capillary is that due to the hydrostatic pressure--i. In these viscometers one of the surfaces is stationary and the other is rotated by an external drive and the fluid fills the space in between. In addition to there are a number of variations including small volume viscometers requiring one mL or less of fluid dilution viscometers with extra large reservoirs for dilution of the sample and vacuum viscometers for fluids with high viscosities such as asphalt. Reverse Flow viscometers must be cleaned between each measurement. Rotational Viscometers Rotational viscometers are based on the principle that the fluid whose viscosity is being measured is sheared between two surfaces (ASTM D2983). There also exist more rugged capillary tube viscometers that are used under continuous flow condition for industrial applications.. .

Care needs to be taken with non-Newtonian fluids as these viscometers are calibrated for Newtonian fluids.Rotating Cylinder Viscometer The rotating cylinder viscometer.13. Different cylinders with a range of radial clearances are used for different fluids. consists of two concentric cylinders with an annular clearance filled with fluid as shown in Figure 2. The force necessary to shear the fluid between the cylinders is measured. also known as a ‘Couette viscometer’. The velocity of the cylinder can be varied so that the changes in viscosity of the fluid with shear rate can be assessed. The inside cylinder is stationary and the outside cylinder rotates at constant velocity. For Newtonian fluids the dynamic viscosity can be estimated from the formula .

the oil viscosity data at -18°C is required in order to assess the ease with which the engine starts. In the case of very viscous fluids. The viscosity of the oil sample tested is assessed by comparing the rotational speed of the test oil with the rotational speed of the reference oil under the same conditions. The schematic diagram of this viscometer is shown in Figure 2. The measurements provide an indication of the ease with which the engine will turn at low temperatures and with limited available starting power. two cylinder arrangements with a small clearance might be impractical because of the very high viscous resistance. .14. The inner cylinder is rotated at constant power in the cooled lubricant sample of volume about 5 [ml]. A specially adapted rotating cylinder viscometer. is used for this purpose (ASTM D2602). known in the literature as the ‘Cold Cranking Simulator’ (CCS). thus a single cylinder is rotated in a fluid and measurements are calibrated against measurements obtained with reference fluids.F IGURE shows Schematic diagram of a rotating cylinder viscometer When motor oils are used in European and North American conditions.

These viscometers can be used with both Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids as the shear rate is approximately constant across the gap. In some of these viscometers. The dynamic viscosity can be estimated from the formula: Schematic diagram of a cone on plate viscometer . This is achieved by circulating pre-heated or cooled external fluid through the plate of the viscometer. The schematic diagram of this viscometer is shown in Figure 2. The advantage of this viscometer is that a very small sample volume of fluid is required for the test. The clearance between the cone and the plate is filled with the fluid and the cone angle ensures a constant shear rate in the clearance space. the temperature of the fluid sample is controlled during tests. Either of these surfaces can be rotated.15.Cone on Plate Viscometer The cone on plate viscometer consists of a conical surface and a flat plate.

The measurement is then made by timing the period required for the ball to fall from the first to the second timing mark. based on different principles of measurement. A glass tube is filled with the fluid to be tested and then a steel ball is dropped into the tube. etched on the tube. The dynamic viscosity can be estimated from the formula: .16. Most commonly used in many laboratories is the ‘Falling Ball Viscometer’. This viscometer can also be used for the determination of viscosity changes under pressure and its schematic diagram is shown in Figure 2. The time is measured with accuracy to within 0. are also available.1 [s].Falling Ball Viscometer Many other types of viscometers.

aerodynamic bearings require a relative motion between surfaces. grooves. and they generate pressure within the gas film by viscous shearing. noise-free Operations and are free from contamination. The aerostatic bearing is able to support a higher load than the aerodynamic bearing.UNIT 5 AIR LUBRICATED BEARINGS AERODYNAMIC BEARINGS Aerodynamic bearings. its application is limited due to the fact that the surfaces require a very high standard of accuracy and a low load capacity is also not suitable for applications where frequent starts and stops or change of direction is required. Since air has a very low viscosity. the friction is extremely small and even zero when stationary. of the order of 1–10 µm. However. This type of bearing is relatively simple because it is independent of an external pressure source and mechanism. when there is no motion or when the motion is not fast enough to generate an air film. a very High stiffness can be obtained. steps or by using porous compensation techniques and discharges through the edges of the bearings. This bearing action is very similar to hydroplaning on a puddle of water in the case of automobiles moving at high speeds. Aerostatic bearings require an external pressurized air source due to which aerostatic bearings are also sometimes known as passive air bearings. function depending on the relative motion between the bearing surfaces and usually some type of spiral grooves to draw the air between the bearing lands. Overall. which are sometimes known as active gas bearings. At a lower speed. the tyre cuts through the water on the road. the bearing gaps need to be small. Pressurized air is introduced between the bearing surfaces through precision holes. . but it requires a continuous Source of power for supplying pressurized air. In a similar way. aerostatic bearings can bear loads at a zero speed. Air bearings offer a solution for many high-tech applications where a high performance and high accuracy are required. As the object floats on a thin layer of air. The aerodynamic bearing system is however simpler and cheaper to operate compared to the aerostatic system. If the correct design is used. AEROSTATIC BEARINGS In contrast to aerodynamic bearings. the bearing surfaces will come into contact. Aerodynamic bearings are often referred to as foil bearings or self-acting bearings. aerostatic bearings perform well in most aspects such as having a long life.

 If air is selected as the hydrostatic lubricant. .  A non-combustible gas eliminates the fire hazard associated with hydrocarbons. Embeddable: It is the ease by which foreign particles may embed below the bearing surface in the soft overlay. because they consist of several balls or rollers that can vibrate. Rolling element bearings. ADVANTAGES OF HYDRODYNAMIC BEARING Low noise: Since an oil film separates the moving components in a hydrodynamic bearing. Size: The advantage of the compact geometry of hydrodynamic bearings is that it takes occupies less space when compared to the other bearings. very little noise is produced. Conformability: The ability of hydrodynamic bearing materials to conform to minor misalignments resulting either from assembly or changes during service provides a favorable degree of forgivingness to the components.  Gases can offer greater cleanliness and non-toxicity than fluid lubricants.  Some gases are chemically stable over a wider temperature range than hydrocarbon lubricants. on the other hand. often create unacceptable levels of noise. then it is not necessary to purchase or recycle the lubricant.Fig shows the air lubricated bearing Gas lubricated bearings advantages:  Gas viscosity increases with temperature thus reducing heating effects during overload or abnormal operating conditions. thus reducing abrasive damage to the mating surface.

Shock load resistance: Hydrodynamic oil films can adjust their thickness and pressure distribution in response to shock loading. reduction in viscosity. hydrodynamic bearings can generally withstand shock loading for extended periods without failure. Fabrication procedures to achieve a more precise bearing could involve grinding.g. geometry. Inadequate system monitoring and improper lubricant maintenance are probably the main causes of repair and From all these basic considerations. to achieve full benefit from the lubricant the system must be constantly maintained to avoid loss of adequate oil supply. extremely long service life can be expected from well-designed and maintained hydrodynamic bearings.Long Life: Hydrodynamic bearings are not subject to contact fatigue under monotonic loading conditions. Thus. LIMITATION OF HYDRODYNAMIC BEARING Limited low speed capability: HDL films break down at low operating speeds. and surface finish: The type of material selected will have a direct impact on costs. lapping or burnishing operations and/or individual matching of components. lead and low tin bronze.g. thus creating higher manufacturing costs.. chemical changes or excessive contamination which affects performance. in high-speed bearings – a high level of precision is often required. The need for high tolerances will also boost costs. This leads to the onset of mixed hydrodynamic and boundary film lubrication in which somewhat higher friction and wear rates prevails. Lubricant maintenance: The performance characteristics of HDL components are dependent on the condition of the lubricant employed. Maintenance and replacement costs: The performance of hydro dynamically lubricated components depends on the lubricant used. Consequently. and to prevent chemical changes that affect performance.. initial cost . Therefore. tin.g. Bearing material. Lubricant maintenance recommendations must be carefully observed to avoid loss of adequate oil supply or viscosity. Teflon and graphite fibers others are comparatively less expensive – e. Precision requirements: In certain applications – e. While some materials are expensive – e. projections can be compiled. as will intricate designs and very smooth surface finishes.

variable speed sheaves. Fluid levels. This bearing is designed as a direct replacement with conventional 1/16" wall bushings. boom pivot points on forklifts and many similar applications. rock shafts. and various other critical parts need to be inspected regularly. These products are also used in the boom foot pivot of large cranes. These bearings are used in many harsh applications and in food handling machinery. If neglected or inadequately checked. wear-free thrust bearings carry loads which act along the axis of the shaft. oil filters. Depending on the application thrust bearings will be designed with fixed wedges or tilting pads. differentials. APPLICATIONS OF HYDRODYNAMIC JOURNAL BEARINGS: For construction and farm equipment. ADVANTAGES OF HYDRODYNAMIC THRUST BEARINGS Thrust Bearings Hydrodynamic. hinges. interrupted lubricant supply or contamination can lead to wear – and eventually to component failure. this product is typically used in kingpins.replacement expenditures. Advantages • • • • • • • • • • Decrease friction & save electricity Vibration free & noise free due to dynamically balanced It can run high RPM due to best polymer material Self lubricating & reduce heating Excellent sliding and dry running properties Low co-efficient of friction Good thermal conductivity High chemical resistance Excellent dimensional stability High fatigue resistance . pedals and many other pivot points. These bearings are used in self-lubricated chain. Applications include suspension points on large trucks and railroad cars. They can be combined with journal bearings.

frame supports for large trucks and other construction equipment and many other applications. The very-high-temperature operations feasible are limited only by the less capabilities of bearing and journal materials [5]  No breaking down of the film due to cavitation or ventilation [9]  Availability for both linear and rotary application. Minimal contamination to the surrounding environment  No necessity for a fluid-recovery system. wheels and pallet jacks.APPLICATIONS OF HYDRODYNAMIC THRUST BEARINGS These bearings accommodate thrust in clutches. pivot arm supports. No necessity for oil or grease lubrication  No contamination of surfaces by the lubricant. . kingpins and many other applications. and many other applications. Advantages and Disadvantages of Aerostatic Bearings  Low viscosity and hence low friction during shaft rotation  Low power loss and cool operations due to low friction  High rotational speed operations  Precise axis definition and a high accuracy over a wide speed range  Long life due to a virtually zero wear rate  Low noise and vibration levels  Virtually no necessity for periodic maintenance  Ample and clean lubricant. screw jacks. hospital beds. these systems are clean  Good performance of the lubricant at extremely low and extremely high temperatures. truck differentials and many other applications. exercise equipment. turntable support bearings. These bearings are used in cam actuator arms. valve actuators. These bearings are used in articulated frame joints. These bearings are used in crane boom foot positions. vehicle suspensions.

In vertical milling machines. . In gas compressors. vertical turbines. These also find their applications in machine tools. electrical generators. marine engine shafts and in similar applications. boring machines. motors and many other applications involves the use of hydrostatic thrust bearings. they are widely applicable They are also used mainly in case of highly précised machine tools as in case of spindle of lathe head stock etc. drilling machines etc.Disadvantages  The surfaces must have an extremely fine finish  The alignment must be extremely good  Dimensions and clearances must be extremely accurate  The speed must be high  The loading must be low  Careful designing is required to avoid vibration due to compressibility of the fluid  Careful filtering is required to avoid scoring and binding  More power is required to pressurize a compressible fluid  The design is more empirical since the flow relationships are almost impossible to solve  A very small film thickness is required to confine the fluid flow to reasonable values. they are highly applicable in marine turbo chargers. thus requiring very precise machining in manufacturing  The stability characteristics are poor APPLICATIONS OF HYDROSTATIC THRUST BEARINGS These bearings mostly find their applications in the field of marine engineering As they are having high load carrying capacity.


Load Capacity The total load supported by the bearing can be obtained by integrating the pressure distribution over the specific bearing area .






After eliminating the unnecessary terms the final frictional power is .

The conditions under which bearings must operate in service are generally far from ideal.. Conformability: It is the ability of the bearing material to accommodate shaft deflections and bearing inaccuracies by plastic deformation (or creep) without excessive wear and heating. without scoring the material of the journal. Therefore the bearing material should have high compressive strength to withstand this maximum pressure so as to prevent extrusion or the other permanent deformation of the bearing. When the journal and the bearings are having proper lubrication separating the two surfaces in contact. The selection of bearing material plays very crucial role in designing the bearing.UNIT 8 BEARING MATERIALS The bearing industry uses different materials for the production of the various bearing components. the only requirement of the bearing material is that they should have sufficient strength and rigidity. Fatigue strength: The bearing material should have sufficient fatigue strength so that it can withstand repeated loads without developing surface cracks. The bearing materials should pocesses certain properties for the full function of bearing. grit etc. . Properties Bearing Materials Compressive strength: The maximum bearing pressure is considerably greater than the average pressure obtained by dividing the load to the projected area. It is of major importance in aircraft and automotive engines. Since every material has its own significance there should be certain classification of materials that gives the appropriate choice for selection of bearing materials. Some of them are listed below. Each and every bearing is carefully designed by choosing appropriate bearing materials. Embedability: It is the ability of bearing material ti accommodate (or embed) small particles of dust . so the other properties must be considered in selecting the best material.

so that when the bearing operates over a wide range of temperature. In the cylinder. depending on the requirement of the actual service conditions. the lubricating oil comes into contact with hot cylinder walls and may oxidize and collect carbon deposits from the walls. Thus.e. Comparison of properties of bearing materials Bearing material Tin base Babbitt Lead base Babbitt Lead bronze Copper lead Aluminum Silver Silver lead deposited Fatigue strength Poor Poor to fair Fair Fair Good Excellent Excellent Conformability Good Good Poor Poor Poor to fair Almost none Excellent Embed ability Excellent Good Poor Poor to fair Poor Poor Poor Anti scoring Excellent Good to Excellent Poor Poor to fair Good Poor Fair to good Corrosive Resistance Excellent Fair to good Good Poor to fair Excellent Excellent Excellent Thermal conductivity Poor Poor Fair Fair to good Fair Excellent Excellent . Thermal conductivity: The bearing materials should be of high thermal conductivity so as to permit the rapid removal of the heat generated by friction. Bondability is an important consideration in selecting bearing material. Corrosive Resistance: The bearing material should not corrode away under the action of lubricating oil. the strength of the bond i.Bondability: Many high capacity bearings are made by bonding one or more thin layers of a bearing material to a high strength steel shell. Thermal expansion: The bearing materials should be of low coefficient of thermal expansion. there is no undue change in the clearance. Various materials are used in practice. This property is of particular importance in internal combustion engines where the same oil is used to lubricate the cylinder wall s and bearings.

5%. Tin 6%. the babbit is generally used as thin layer . Bronzes: The bronzes (alloys of copper. The bronzes commonly used for bearing material are gun metal and phosphor bronzes. Antimony 9. lead0.  Lead base babbits: lead 84%. The babbits are recommended where the maximum bearing pressure (on projected area) is not over 7 to 14 N/mm² .05 mm to 0. Antimony 5%.5%.5%. . The bush may be in one or two pieces. 0. bonded to an insert or steel shell. tin and zinc) are generally used in the form of machined bushes pressed into the shell.5%. Copper 0.When applied in automobiles. Copper 4.Materials Used For Sliding Contact Bearings: Babbitt metal: The tin base and lead base babbits are widely used as a bearing material because they satisfy most requirements for general applications.15 mm thick. The composition of the metals is as follows:  Tin base babbits: Tin 90%.

 Gun Metal: (copper 88%. Such types of bearings are used in food processing and other equipment where contamination by oil or grease must be prohibited. In addition to the high degree of Embedability and conformability. the rubber bearings are excellent for absorbing shock loads and vibrations. Cast iron: The cast iron bearings are usually used with steel journals. These are used mainly on marine propeller shafts hydraulic turbines and pumps. Non-metallic bearings: The various non-metallic bearings are made of carbon–graphite. . dimensionally stable over a wide range of operating conditions. chemically inert and can operate at higher temperatures than other bearings. cleanliness in attention to lubrication and anti seizing is important.Tin 10. Silver: The silver and silver lead bearings are mostly used in air craft engines where the fatigue strength is the most important consideration.  Phosphor Bronze: (copper 80%. rubber. wood and plastics. The soft rubber bearings are used with water or other low viscosity lubricants. These are also used in applications where the shaft speed is too low to maintain a hydrodynamic oil film. zinc2%) is used for high grade bearings subjected to high pressures (not more than 10 N/mm² of projected area ) and high speeds. The wood bearings are used in many applications where low cost. Tin 10%. The carbon–graphite bearings are self lubricating.5 N/mm² and speed to 40 meters per minute. Such type of bearings are fairly successful where lubrication is adequate and the pressure is limited to 3. particularly where sand or other large particles are present. Lead 9%. Phosphorus 1%) is used for bearings subjected to very high pressures (not more than 14 N/mm² of projected area) and speeds.

Hardened mating surfaces are essential. Small additions of alloying elements such as tin. . Small additions of lead can be added to improve bearing properties. These materials are sometimes confusingly also termed lead bronze. but excellent tribological properties. and separates out during solidification. zinc or nickel are used to improve castability. and above 12% tin alloys are brittle and difficult to machine. wear resistance and strength of the alloys. with sometimes as much as 50%. They are often cast onto steel backing to improve load capacity. improve tribological properties significantly but reduce the mechanical properties such as strength and fatigue resistance. up to about 30%. The tin content improves strength at the expense of tribological bearing properties such as conformability and Embedability. Phosphor bronze Small additions of phosphorus in tin bronze. Further additions of lead. typically 20% to 35%. Copper-lead These are materials formed by adding lead to unalloyed soft copper or copper with minor additions. They contain large quantities of lead.2% to improve machinability. but will reduce strength. again at the expense of bearing properties. improve the castability of the alloy. very rapid cooling is required. At tin contents below 5% there is no significant increase in strength and wear resistance. Leaded bronze Lead is added to bronze in small quantities of 1% . increasing the hardness. They have a low load capacity relative to other copper alloys. Lead is insoluble in the solid phases. The lead phase is susceptible to corrosion by weak organic acids and can therefore be overlay plated to advantage with a very thin layer of lead-tin or lead-indium for protection.Tin bronze This covers a range of alloys of copper and tin containing between 5% and 12% tin. The cooling rate should be controlled to ensure that it occurs as small isolated globules dispersed throughout the matrix. Such high contents of lead make these alloys difficult to cast by conventional techniques.4% to l%. The very hard copper phosphide phase is introduced. typically 0.

Additions of lead give free-machining brasses that are easy to machine and have potential economic advantages. section. Without further alloying additions. resulting in good mechanical properties and wear resistance. Other additions such as manganese. at the expense of bearing properties. Hardened mating surfaces and good lubrication are essential. especially in marine and similar aggressive environments Gunmetal The addition of zinc to tin bronze in quantities up to 6% improves the cast ability of the alloys which are known as gunmetal’s. They have excellent resistance to corrosion and erosion. forgings and tube. aluminum and iron are made to give high-tensile brasses with improved load capacity and tribological properties. the zinc improves the retention of mechanical properties at elevated temperatures but it reduces the tribological properties. brass has moderate tribological properties. A wide range of gunmetal’s is available with differing additions of tin. hardness and impact resistance. They are available as cast and in all wrought forms such as plate. Brass Brasses are alloys of copper and zinc. rod. Up to 8% lead can be added to improve bearing properties. Besides improving the cast ability. typically containing between 20% and 40% zinc. . silicon. manganese and silicon to further improve strength. zinc and lead suitable for a variety of end user requirements and manufacturing techniques.Aluminum bronze Basically. sheet. These are ideal for components with non-critical bearing applications involving light loadings. these are alloys of copper with up to 11% of aluminum but frequently contain other additions such as iron. The alloys usually contain very hard particles.

This friction is called the boundary friction.2. The load and the material of the friction pairs have obvious influence on the friction process. The micro-convex bodies of the solid surface bear almost all the load. the boundary film consists of 3-4 layers of the molecules. The frictional behavior depends largely on the lubricating properties of the boundary film and the material of the friction pairs. as shown in Fig. and its thickness is about 200 A (1 A= I 0-1° m) [3]. According to boundary friction theory Mayer studied the true state of the leak flowing in the gap of the end faces of mechanical seals when exits no obvious pressure difference and built up the flowing theory of the fluid exchange [2]. This fluid film is very thin and separate two end faces. Now two end faces directly contact. In boundary friction regime. there is a layer of boundary film of the fluid molecules.The liquid mainly permeates through the seal faces through the gap. The boundary film is partly discontinuous. There are many rough discontinuous maze caves along the whole width of the seal faces. and the liquid pressure is difficult to be measured [2]. Under the general engineering condition. so while the scaling rings revolve. the boundary film has the lubrication function. The gaps of friction surface seldom connect each other in the boundary . BOUNDARY FRICTION When the friction between the sealing faces happens. which leads to severe wear and tear. The friction is mainly decided by the solid interaction of the gliding plane. Generally. and there are solid contacts in some areas. The viscosity of the liquid film has no significant effect on the friction properties.UNIT 6 FRICTION DRY FRICTION REGIME There is no lubrication film between the sealing end faces. the liquid exchanges in the dinky gaps and the caves of two contacting friction surfaces is under the residual pressure and the centrifugal force. the sealing surface may adsorb the gas (or the steam of the medium) or oxide layer. On the surfaces.

the gap of friction pairs becomes smaller.friction regime. that is. The highest peak of the surface roughness will contact. the boundary friction and the dry friction. and it is much less than that in the dry friction regime. This extremely thin lubricant film can separate one end face front the other so that the sliding surfaces don't directly contact. The friction happens in the interior of the lubricant. The above-mentioned gaps are formed because of the separation of the solid. the high-frequency roughness and low-frequency wave of the surface topography and the radial taper of the overall form error have great influence on the performance of mechanical seals. the fluid friction and the dry friction. The fluid film between the end faces is extremely thin. The end faces of mechanical seals are irregular rough surfaces. and it has the same order of magnitude as the surface roughness. and the boundary friction and the dry friction. In completely fluid friction regime the dynamic viscosity of the lubricant affects the frictional property.3. Therefore. MIXED FRICTION REGIME With the wave of the seal end face reduced. The lubricant film of hydrodynamic pressure or hydrostatic pressure is formed between the end faces. And there is no wear and tear of the solid surfaces. FLUID FRICTION REGIME There is a layer of stable lubricant film between the friction pairs of the end faces of mechanical seals. which causes the leakage. such as the fluid friction and the boundary friction. At this time the friction force is generated only by the sheer force of the viscous fluid. . the liquid is transferred from one gap to another.. as shown in fig. Now the lubricant fluid shows its volume property. This friction regime is called the fluid friction. there are several mixed frictions between the contact surfaces at the same time. When one of two rings revolves. This is called the mixed friction regime.

A„ is Area of the seal surface (m). namely. ps is Medium pressure (Pa) . v is Average slide speed of the seal surfaces (m/s). Mayer presented the friction factors of the different friction regimes [2]. which are listed in Table 1 DUTY PARAMETER METHOD The duty parameter G was put forward by Stribeck after his research on the bearing lubricity in 1900-1902.p is Spring pressure (Pa). n is Rotational speed (rpm). the friction factor of the friction end faces is not the same. Hershey . b is Effective seal width of the seal ring (m).etc applied this similarity number of the friction characteristic in the field of the sealing technology. METHODS FOR JUDGING FRICTION REGIMES OF EDN FACES OF MECHANICAL SEALS FRICTION FACTOR METHOD The friction factor of the end faces is one of the main parameters characterizing the friction regime. the fluid film and the contact micro-convex body between the end faces of mechanical seals bear the total external load caused by the force of the elastic element and the sealed medium pressure. there is minor wear. p. pg is Locking force of the end faces (Pa). Gimbel. The duty parameter could express the friction characteristic of mechanical seals. The duty parameter of mechanical seals was defined as the ratio of the viscosity force of the liquid film between the end faces to the locking force of the end faces Pg. SommerleId. fi is Balance factor.In mixed friction regime. Its magnitude indicates the operating condition of mechanical seals and the carrying power of the liquid film. . The total friction forces include two parts. The dynamic viscosity and the material of the friction pairs have obvious influence on the frictional process. one generated by the sheer force of the viscous fluid film in the lubricating regime and the other generated by the cleformation of micro-convex bodies in the contact regime of microconvex bodies. Where p is Fluid dynamic viscosity (Pass). In different friction regime. Afterwards. Now. and the friction factor is also very small.

n is Rotational speed (rpm). pg is Locking force of the end faces (Pa). The relative film thickness was defined as the ratio of the average thickness of the liquid film 110 between the end faces to the total surface roughness of the end faces σ. mg is Spring pressure (Pa). v is Average slide speed of the seal surfaces (m/s).>I x10-6. β is Balance factor. RELATIVE FILM THICKNESS METHOD The friction regime can also be judged by the relative film thickness λ. 2x10-8<G<5x le and 5x10-8<G<1 x10-6.Where µ is Fluid dynamic viscosity (Pa-s). MAYER METHOD The relationship between the contact pressure coefficient Kg of the end faces and the clearance height h formed by the roughness of the end faces is shown in Fig. When G. The method that the friction regime is judged by the duty parameter G has been put forward by Chen [5]. the frictional pairs work in fluid friction regime. Ps is Medium pressure (Pa). respectively.4.4 Which was obtained from the experiment by Mayer. b is Effective seal width of the seal ring (m). The boundary or mixed friction regime of mechanical seals can be judged from Fig . Boundary friction regime and mixed friction. Aa is Area of the seal surface (m). .

. the friction factor f and the average radius of the end faces r.The relationship among the average thickness of the liquid Min between the end faces of mechanical seals he.„ can be expressed by Eq.(4) [6]. the duty parameter G.

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