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1 Pressure In general, fluids exert both normal and shearing forces on surfaces that are in contact with them. However, only fluids with velocity gradients produce shearing forces. For fluids at rest, only normal forces exist. These normal forces in fluids are called pressure forces. The definition of pressure is the force exerted by a fluid per unit area . The term pressure applies only for gas and liquid. The equivalent term for solids is normal stress. Definition of pressure: At every point in a static fluid certain pressure intensity exists. Specifically, this pressure intensity, usually simply called pressure, is defined as follows:

p = lim

A 0

F dF = A dA

(3.1)

where F is the normal force acting over the area A. Pressure intensity is a scalar quantity; that is, it has magnitude only and acts equally in all directions. This is easily demonstrated by considering the wedge-shaped element of fluid in equilibrium in Fig. 3.1. The forces that act on the element are the surface forces and the weight force.

Figure 3.1 Pressure forces on a fluid element in equilibrium. By writing the equation of equilibrium for the x direction, we obtain:

( p n l ) sin p x (l sin ) = 0

(3.2)

1 ( p n l ) cos + p z ( l cos ) l cos l sin = 0 2

(3.3)

(3.4)

Now, when we divide this equation by the product lcos and shrink the element to a point (l0), the last term disappears. Thus we have:

pn = pz pn = px = pz

(3.5) (3.6)

Combining Eqs. 3.3 and 3.5, we finally arrive at the result: Since the angle (alpha) is arbitrary and pn is independent of , we conclude that the pressure at a point in a static fluid acts with the same magnitude in all directions: pn = px = p = pz (3.7) The unit of pressure can be easily derived from the definition of pressure as force per unit area: the unit of pressure is therefore Newton per square meter ( N/m2), which is called Pascal (Pa). This means: 1 Pa = 1 N/m2. The Pascal unit is usually too small for pressures encountered in practice. For this reason, we are using its multiples: kilopascal (1kPa = 103 Pa) and megapascal (1MPa = 106 Pa). There are other units of pressure commonly used in engineering practice such as bar, standard atmosphere, mm of mercury column, or in Anglo-Saxon countries, the unit psi meaning pound (of force) per square inch: 1 bar = 105 Pa 1 atm = 101,325 Pa = 760 mm Hg = 14.696 psi Throughout this entire course, we will use a wide variety of different pressures: static pressure, dynamic pressure, stagnation pressure, absolute pressure, gauge pressure and others. For this reason, pressure has to be clarified each time it is used.

Figure 3.2. Absolute, gage and vacuum pressures. In thermodynamics, we are dealing primarily with absolute pressures, but not necessarily in fluid mechanics. The absolute pressure is a sum of atmospheric pressure and gauge pressure. A zero absolute pressure is the pressure of a perfect vacuum. A zero gauge pressure is the pressure of the local atmospheric pressure, also called barometric pressure. It needs to be noted that its value is not fixed but varies with both time and location on earth. In some cases, the gauge pressure is measured against a standard atmosphere the pressure produced by a column of mercury 760 mm high at the

temperature of 273.15 K. At these conditions, the absolute pressure is 1 bar or 101,325 Pascals. If the gauge pressure is positive, the pressure is greater than the local atmospheric pressure. The negative absolute pressure is sometimes referred to as suction pressure. This is illustrated in Figure 3.2. Summarizing, the pressure relative to the atmospheric pressure is called the gage pressure, and the pressure relative to an absolute vacuum is called absolute pressure. Most pressure gages (like car or bicycle tire gage) read relative to atmospheric pressure, and therefore read the gage pressure. Example 3.1. Calculating absolute pressure A vacuum gage connected to a chamber reads 24 kPa at a location where the atmospheric pressure is 92 kPa. Determine the absolute pressure in the chamber.

24 kPa

Pabs

Patm = 92 kPa

p abs = p atm p vac = 92 24 = 68kPa

We must remember that vacuum pressure is the negative of gage pressure hence the negative sign. Pressure Variation with Elevation (Depth). For a static fluid, pressure varies only with the elevation within the fluid. This may be shown by isolating a cylindrical element of fluid and applying the equation of equilibrium to the element. Consider the element shown in Fig. 3.3.

Figure 3.3 Variation in pressure with elevation. Here the element is oriented so that its longitudinal axis is parallel to an arbitrary l direction. The element is l long, A in cross-sectional area, and inclined at an angle with the horizontal. The equation of equilibrium for the l direction, considering the pressure forces and gravitational force acting on the element in this direction, is Fl = 0 and:

pA ( p + p ) A Al sin = 0

(3.8)

Upon simplifying, and dividing by the volume of the element, lA, this reduces to:

p = sin l

(3.9)

However, if we let the length of the element approach zero, then in the limit p/l = dp/dl. Also one notes that sin = dz/dl. Therefore:

dp dz = dl dl

(3.10)

dp = = g dz

(3.11)

which is the basic equation for hydrostatic pressure variation with elevation. Equation 3.11 states that for static fluids a change of pressure in the l direction, dp/dl, occurs only when there is a change of elevation in the l direction, dz/dl. In other words, if one considers a path through the fluid that lies in a horizontal plane, the pressure everywhere along this path is constant. On the other hand, the greatest possible change in hydrostatic pressure occurs along a vertical path through the fluid. Furthermore, Eqs. 3.10 and 3.11 state that the pressure changes inversely with elevation. If one travels upward in the fluid (positive z direction), the pressure decreases; and if one goes downward (negative z), the pressure increases. Of course, a pressure increase is exactly what a diver experiences when descending in a lake or pool. Atmospheric air pressure which is the external pressure exerted on the skin decreases with increasing elevation. Therefore, the pressure is lower at higher elevations. As a result, the difference between the blood pressure in the veins and the air pressure outside increases. This pressure imbalance may cause some thin-walled veins such as the ones in the nose to burst, causing bleeding. The shortness of breath is caused by the lower air density at higher elevations, and thus lower amount of oxygen per unit volume. Pressure Transmission. In a closed system a pressure change produced at one point in the system will be transmitted throughout the entire system. The principle is known as Pascal's law after Pascal, the French scientist. Pascals law states that the pressure applied to a confined fluid increases the pressure throughout by the same amount. This phenomenon of pressure transmission, along with the ease with which fluids can be moved, has led to the widespread development of hydraulic controls for operating equipment such as aircraft-control surfaces, heavy earthmoving equipment, and hydraulic presses. Figure 3.4 is an illustration of the application of this principle in the form of a hydraulic lift used in service stations.

Figure 3.4 Hydraulic lift lifting a large weight by a small force. Pressure applied to a confined fluid increases the pressure throughout by the same amount. Specifically, in Fig. 3.4, pistons are at the same heights and therefore:

p1 = p 2 F1 F2 F A = 2 = 2 A1 A2 F1 A1

(3.12)

Ratio A2/A1 is called an ideal mechanical advantage. Example 3.2. Pascal Law application a hydraulic lift. The 500-kg load on the hydraulic lift is to be raised by pouring oil ( = 780 kg/m3) into a thin tube. Determine how high h should be in order to begin to raise the weight.

We make following assumptions: 1 The cylinders of the lift are vertical. 2 There are no leaks. 3 Atmospheric pressure act on both sides, and thus it can be disregarded. 4. The density of oil is given to be =780 kg/m3. Solution: Noting that pressure is force per unit area, the gage pressure in the fluid under the load is simply the ratio of the weight to the area of the lift,

Pgage = W mg (500 kg)(9.81 m/s 2 ) = = = 4.34 kN/m 2 = 4.34 kPa 2 2 A D / 4 (1.20 m) / 4

The required oil height that will cause 4.34 kPa of pressure rise is

p gage = gh h= pgage

Therefore, a 500 kg load can be raised by this hydraulic lift by simply raising the oil level in the tube by 56.7 cm. Note that large weights can be raised by little effort in hydraulic lift by making use of Pascals principle. Pressure Variation for a Uniform-Density Fluid. Equations 3.10 and 3.11 describe the rate of change of pressure for all fluids in static equilibrium. In most technical applications we are dealing with the liquid of a constant density, therefore assuming = const and integrating Eq. 3.11 gives:

p = gz + C

(3.13)

or

p +z =C g

(3.14)

g and elevation z is constant throughout an As shown by the equation, the sum of p incompressible static fluid. Therefore, one can relate the pressure and elevation at one point to the pressure and elevation at another point in the fluid in the following manner:

p1 p + z1 = 2 + z 2 g g

(3.15) (3.16)

or

p = g z

Note, however, that Eqs. 3.13 through 3.16 are applicable only in fluids with constant densities. Therefore, Eqs. 3.15 and 3.16 can be applied between two points in a given fluid but not across an interface between two fluids having different specific weights. Pressure Variation for Compressible Fluids. The preceding section dealt with pressure variation in fluids for which the fluid density is constant. However, when the fluid density varies significantly as for compressible fluids, it must be expressed in such a form that Eq. (3.11) can be integrated. For the case of an ideal gas, this is accomplished through the equation of state, which relates the density of the gas to pressure and temperature:

p

= RT

(3.17)

or

=

p RT

(3.18)

where R is the gas constant, for example 0.287 kJ/kgK, for dry air, T is the absolute temperature K, and p is the absolute pressure in Pa.

Eq. 3.18 introduces another variable, temperature, so it becomes necessary to have additional data relating temperature and elevation. Lacking such data, one can resort to the so-called U.S. standard atmosphere. This is a set of data compiled by the U.S. National Weather Service that represents average conditions over the United States at 40 N latitude. At sea level the standard atmospheric pressure is 101.3 kPa and the temperature is 288 K. Also, the atmosphere is divided into two layers, the troposphere and the stratosphere. In the troposphere, defined as the layer between sea level and 10,769 m, the temperature decreases linearly with increasing elevation at a constant lapse rate of 6.50 K/km. The stratosphere begins at the top of the troposphere and extends to an elevation of 32.3 km. In the stratosphere the temperature is constant at -55C. We now have sufficient information to calculate the pressure and density at any elevation. Let us first consider the troposphere: Pressure Variation in the Troposphere: Let the temperature T be given by T=T0 - (z-z0) (3.19) In this equation T0 is the temperature at a reference level where the pressure is known and is the lapse rate. If we use the density of a gas from Eq. 3.18 in the basic hydrostatic equation, we obtain

dp pg = dz RT

(3.20)

dp pg = dz R[T0 ( z z 0 )]

(3.21)

p T0 ( z z 0 ) = p0 T0

g / R

(3.22)

and finally:

T ( z z 0 ) p = p0 0 T0

g / R

(3.23)

Pressure Variation in the Stratosphere: In the stratosphere the temperature is assumed to be constant. Therefore, integrating Eq. 3.20, we obtain:

ln p = zg +C RT

(3.24)

p = e ( z z0 ) g / RT p0

(3.25)

and finally:

p = p0 e ( z z0 ) g / RT

(3.26)

Example 3.3. Consequence of pressure variation with elevation There are two identical fans, one at sea level and the other on top of a high mountain, running at identical speeds. How would you compare ( a) the volume flow rates and (b) the mass flow rates of these two fans? The density of air at sea level is higher than the density of air on top of a high mountain. Therefore, the volume flow rates of the two fans running at identical speeds will be the same, but the mass flow rate of the fan at sea level will be higher. In reality, the fan blades on the high mountain would experience less frictional drag, and hence the fan motor would not have as much resistance the rotational speed of the fan on the mountain would be slightly higher than that at sea level. 3.2 Pressure Measurement The most popular method to measure pressure, which is based on the above hydrostatics theory is to use columns of liquids in vertical or inclined tubes. The height of the liquid can be translated into a pressure. These devices are called manometers. Tubes are chosen to have sufficiently large diameters that capillary effects are small. In U-tube manometer the capillary effects will tend to cancel out. There are many kinds and types of manometers, and some of them are listed below: Piezometer. The simplest form of manometer is the piezometer shown in Fig. 3.5. The height of the fluid in the tube gives the difference between pressure in the chamber and atmosphere:

p A = gh + p atm = h + p atm

(3.27)

The piezometer is only useful when the pressure to be measured is greater than atmospheric. Otherwise air would be sucked back into system.

Figure 3.5 Piezometer U-tube Manometer. A very common form of manometer is the U-tube manometer (Fig. 3.6). In this version one of the tubes is open to the atmosphere. Pressure in Point A can be determined as follows: p2 = p3 = patm + 2h2 p2 = p1 + 1h1 = pA + 2h2 pA + 1h1 = p3 = patm + 2h2, and finally: pA = patm + 2h2 - 1h1 (3.28) If fluid 1 is a gas, impact of 1h1 term is small and can be ignored.

Differential U-tube Manometer. This type of manometer is shown in Figure 3.7, where both ends of the manometer can be containers. Thus one determines the differential pressure as follows: p2 = p3 p2 = p1 + 1h1 = pA + 1h1 p3 = p4 + 2h2 = pB + 2h2 = p3 + 3h3, and finally: pA - pB = 2h2 + 3h3 - 1h1 (3.29) If fluid 1 is a gas, impact of 1h1 term is small. If fluid 3 is a gas, impact of 3h3 term is small and can be ignored.

Figure 3.7. Differential U-tube Manometer Inclined tube manometer. Consider the two-container differential tube manometer as shown in Figure 3.8.

p A p B = 2 h2 + 3 h3 1 h1

p A p B = 2 l 2 sin + 3 h3 1 h1

(3.30)

If fluids 1 and 3 are gaseous, impact of terms 1h1 and 3h3 term are small and the final expression for the differential pressure is:

p A p B = 2 l 2 sin

(3.31)

Mercury Barometer. A Barometer is the device for measuring the atmospheric pressure. Note that the atmosphere will support a column of mercury approximately 0.760m high. This observation is used for measuring the atmospheric pressure with the barometer as shown in Figure 3.9. The top of the tube is closed and is almost a vacuum. The pressure at point A is due to evaporated fluid, and in case of mercury, it can be neglected. Therefore, the pressure can be determined from the following formula:

p atm = Hg h

(3.32)

Figure 3.9 A barometer Some common working fluids are: Alcohol with specific gravity of 0.75-0.87 Water with specific gravity of 1.00 Mercury with specific gravity of 13.6

When dealing with small pressure differences, the best fluid is water or alcohol. An inclined manometer also helps measure small pressures. Mercury is used for large pressure differences. Bourdon gauges. Measuring high pressures involves the use of manometers with mercury, which is toxic. Also, manometers are in general bulky and can be inconvenient to use. The most commonly used pressure gauge is the Bourdon pressure gauge, which show the pressure directly on the scale. Basic principle is that pressure acts on an elastic structure, which deforms. The C-tube Bourdon gauge uses the principle that the tube tends to straighten as the pressure is increased. The Bourdon gauge only measures a gauge pressure, it does not measure absolute pressure.

Figure 3.10. Typical Bourdon pressure gauge (left) and the principle of operation of Ctube gauge (right). Example 3.4. Calculating pressure with multi-fluid manometer The water in a tank is pressurized by air, and the pressure is measured by a multifluid manometer as shown in Figure below. Determine the gage pressure of air in the tank if h1 = 0.2 m, h2 = 0.3 m, and h3 = 0.46 m.

We assume that the air pressure in the tank is uniform (i.e., its variation with elevation is negligible due to its low density), and thus we can determine the pressure at the air-water interface. Take the densities of water, oil, and mercury to be 1000 kg/m 3, 850 kg/m3, and 13,600 kg/m3, respectively. Solution: Starting with the pressure at point 1 at the air-water interface, and moving gh terms along the tube by adding (as we go down) or subtracting (as we go up) the until we reach point 2, and setting the result equal to patm since the tube is open to the atmosphere gives:

p1 + water gh1 + oil gh2 Hg gh3

Solving for p1 :

p1 = p atm water gh1 oil gh2 + Hg gh3

or,

p1, gage = (9.81 m s 2 ) (13,600 kg m 3 )( 0.46m ) (850 kg m 3 )( 0.3m ) (1000 kg m 3 )( 0.2m ) = = 56.9kPa

Note that jumping horizontally from one tube to the next and realizing that pressure remains the same in the same fluid simplifies the analysis greatly. Example 3.5. Expressing blood pressure in various units Blood pressure is usually measured by wrapping a closed air-filled jacket equipped with a pressure gage around the upper arm of a person at the level of the heart. Using a mercury manometer and a stethoscope, the systolic pressure (the maximum pressure when the heart is pumping) and the diastolic pressure (the minimum pressure when the heart is resting) are measured in mmHg. The systolic and diastolic pressures of a healthy person are about 120 mmHg and 80 mmHg, respectively, and are indicated as 120/80. Express both of these gage pressures in kPa, and meter water column. We assume that both mercury and water are incompressible substances. We take the densities of water and mercury to be 1000 kg/m3 and 13,600 kg/m3, respectively.

Solution Using the relation p = gh for gage pressure, the high and low pressures are expressed as: p high = ghhigh = (13,600 kg/m 3 )(9.81 m/s 2 )(0.12 m) =16.0kPa

p low = ghlow = (13,600 kg/m 3 )(9.81 m/s 2 )(0.08 m) =10.7 kPa

gh is expressed for mercury and water as For a given pressure, the relation P = p = water ghwater and p = mercury ghmercury . Setting these two relations equal to each other and solving for water height gives: mercury p = water ghwater = mercury ghmercury hwater = hmercury water Therefore, mercury 13,600 kg/m 3 hwater, high = hmercury, high = (0.12 m) = 1.63m water 1000 kg/m 3 mercury 13,600 kg/m 3 hwater, low = hmercury, low = (0.08 m) = 1.09m water 1000 kg/m 3

Note that measuring blood pressure with a water manometer would involve water column heights higher than the persons height, and thus it is impractical. This problem shows why mercury is a suitable fluid for blood pressure measurement devices. Example 3.6. Measuring height of a building with a barometer The basic barometer can be used to measure the height of a building. If the barometric readings at the top and at the bottom of a building are 730 and 755 mmHg, respectively, determine the height of the building. Assume an average air density of 1.18 kg/m3.

We assume that the variation of air density with altitude is negligible. The density of mercury is 13,600 kg/m3. Solution. Atmospheric pressures at the top and at the bottom of the building are:

p top = ( gh ) top = 13,600 kg m 3 9.81 m s 2 ( 0.730m ) = 97.39kPa

)(

)(

Taking an air column between the top and the bottom of the building, we write a force balance per unit base area,

Wair A = p bottom p top

and

( gh ) air

= p bottom ptop

(1.18 kg

which yields h = 288.5 m 289 m, which is also the height of the building. 3.3. Hydrostatic Forces on Submerged Plane Surfaces A plate submerged in water, such as swimming pool wall, dam or the hull of the ship is subjected to fluid pressure, called hydrostatic pressure. On the flat plate, the hydrostatic pressure forms a system of parallel forces. They can be described by the magnitude of the force and its point of application, which is also called the center of pressure. In most cases, the opposite side of the plate is open to the atmosphere and therefore, atmospheric pressure acts on both sides and can be neglected. It means that for convenience we are considering gage pressure only. However, we will now consider the most general case of an inclined plate of any shape submerged in a liquid in the coordinates as shown in Figure 3.11. The plane of this surface, which is normal to this page, intersects the horizontal free surface with an angle . The absolute pressure above the liquid is p 0 (local atmospheric pressure if the liquid is open to the atmosphere). If the space above the liquid is either evacuated or pressurized, then p 0 is different than atmospheric pressure.

Figure 3.11. Hydrostatic force on an inclined plane surface The absolute pressure at any point on the plate is:

p = p 0 + gh = p0 + gy sin

(3.33)

Where h is the vertical distance of the point from the free surface and y is the distance of the point from x-axis. The resultant force FR can be determined by integrating over the entire surface area A:

FR = pdA = ( p 0 + gy sin )dA = p 0 + g sin ydA

A A A

(3.34)

Note that

ydA

A

yC = 1 ydA A A

(3.35)

Substituting:

FR = ( p 0 + gy C sin ) A = ( p 0 + ghC ) A = pC A

(3.36)

Where pC = p 0 + ghC is the pressure at the centroid of the surface and hc is the vertical distance from the free surface to the location of the centroid:

hC = y C sin

(3.37)

Therefore ,we can conclude as follows: The magnitude of the resultant force acting on a plane surface of a completely submerged plate is equal to the product of the pressure at the location of the centroid of the surface pC and the area A of the surface. Next, we need to determine the line of action of the resultant force FR. For this we will use the parallel forces theorem, which says that two parallel force systems are equivalent if they have the same magnitude and the same moment about any point. Note, that the line of action of the resultant hydrostatic force, in general case does not pass through the centroid of the surface but lies somewhere lower where the pressure is higher. The point of intersection of the line of action of the resultant force and the surface is called the center of pressure (Fig. 3.12.)

The vertical location of the line of action is determined by equating the moment of the resultant force to the moment of the distributed pressure force about x-axis:

y P FR = ypdA = y ( p 0 + gy sin ) dA = p 0 ydA = g sin y 2 dA (3.38)

A A A A

and

y P FR = p 0 y C A + g sin I xx , 0

(3.39)

A

2 Where yP is the distance of the center of pressure from the x-axis, and I xx , 0 = y dA is

the second moment of area or moment of inertia about x-axis. The second moments of area are commonly available for many shapes in engineering handbooks, but they are always given about the axes passing through the centroid of the area. We can then use parallel axis theorem to calculate the moment about any axis:

I xx ,0 = I xx ,C + y 2 C A

(3.40)

Where Ixx,C is the second moment of area about the x-axis passing through the centroid of the area and yC is the distance between the two parallel axes. Substituting the FR from Eq. 3.34 and the Ixx,C from Eq. 3.40 into Eq. 3.39 and solving above relations for yP gives: y P = yC +

[ yC + p0 ( g sin ) ] A

I xx ,C

(3.41)

For the usual case when atmospheric pressure is applied to both sides of the plate, the equation above simplifies to:

y P = yC + I xx ,C yC A

(3.42)

From known yP, the vertical distance of the center of pressure from the free surface hP is determined:

hP = y P sin

(3.43)

Table 3.1 shows the values of moment of inertia and the location of a centroid for few common geometrical figures: Submerged rectangular plate. As an example, the derived formulas are used here for a fully submerged rectangular plate of height b and width a whose top edge is at the distance s from the free surface and in three different positions: (a) tilted at an angle , (b) vertical and (c) horizontal. The expressions for the resultant force is given underneath of each case. The location of the center of pressure can be calculated by substituting the plate dimensions a, b and entering the moment of inertia for a rectangle to Eq. 3.40.

Table 3.1 Moment of inertia and centroid location for common geometries

Figure 3.13. Hydrostatic force acting on submerged rectangular plate in different positions. For tilted rectangular plate:

yP = s + b b2 + 2 12[ s + b 2 + p 0 ( g sin )]

(3.44)

b b2 yP = s + + 2 12[ s + b 2 + p 0 g ]

(3.45)

when p0 can be neglected in cases when it acts on both sides of the plate and when the top edge of the plate is at the free surface (s=0) then for vertical plate:

y P = hP = ( 2 3) b

(3.46)

This formula is used very often for calculating the hydrostatic forces acting on various vertical walls of pools, channels, etc. Note, that for a horizontal plate, the resultant force acts through the midpoint of the plate. As we see, the magnitude of the resultant force acting on a plane surface of a completely submerged body in a homogeneous fluid is equal to the product of the pressure p C at the centroid of the surface and the area A of the surface. The pressure at the centroid of the surface is pC = p 0 + ghC where hC is the vertical distance of the centroid from the free surface of the liquid. This make it easy to determine the magnitude of the hydrostatic force acting on a plane surface submerged in water regardless of its shape and orientation if we knew the vertical distance of the centroid of the surface from the free surface and the area of the surface. To further illustrate the concept of a resultant hydrostatic force, consider a submerged horizontal flat plate which is suspended in water by a string attached at the centroid of its upper surface. Now the plate is rotated 45 about an axis that passes through its centroid. There will be no change on the hydrostatic force acting on the top surface of this submerged horizontal flat plate as a result of this rotation since the magnitude of the resultant force acting on a plane surface of a completely submerged body in a homogeneous fluid is equal to the product of the pressure p C at the centroid of the surface and the area A of the surface. However, in case the rotation is not around the centroid, there would be a change in the force. As another conclusion we notice that dams are built much thicker at the bottom because the pressure force increases with depth, and the bottom part of dams are subjected to largest forces. Dam construction requires an enormous amount of concrete, so tapering the dam in this way saves a lot of concrete, and therefore a lot of money. Example 3.7. Calculating hydrostatic force A car is submerged in a lake with a flat bottom. The drivers side door of the car is 1.1 m high and 0.9 m wide, and the top edge of the door is 8 m below the water surface. Determine the net force acting on the door (normal to its surface) and the location of the pressure center if (a) the car is well-sealed and it contains air at atmospheric pressure and (b) the car is filled with water. We assume that: 1 The bottom surface of the lake is horizontal. 2 The door can be approximated as a vertical rectangular plate. 3 The pressure in the car remains at atmospheric value since there is no water leaking in, and thus no compression of the air inside. Therefore, we can ignore the atmospheric pressure in calculations since it acts on both sides of the door. The density of lake water is taken as 1000 kg/m3.

Solution (a) When the car is well-sealed and thus the pressure inside the car is the atmospheric pressure, the average pressure on the outer surface of the door is the pressure at the centroid (midpoint) of the surface, and is determined to be:

p avg = p C = ghC = g ( s + b 2 ) = (1000 kg m 3 )(9.81 m s 2 )( 8 + 1.1 2m ) = 83.88 kN m 2

FR = p avg A = 83.88 kN m 2 ( 0.9m 1.1m ) = 83kN

The pressure center is directly under the midpoint of the plate, and its distance from the surface of the lake is determined to be

yP = s + b b2 1.1 1.12 + =8+ + = 8.56m 2 12( s + b / 2) 2 12(8 + 1.1 / 2)

(b) When the car is filled with water, the net force normal to the surface of the door is zero since the pressure on both sides of the door will be the same. Note that it is impossible for a person to open the door of the car when it is filled with atmospheric air. A strong person can lift 100 kg, whose weight is 981N or about 1 kN. Also, the person can apply the force at a point farthest from the hinges (0.9m farther) for maximum effect and generate a moment of 0.9 kN m . The resultant hydrostatic force acts at the midpoint of the door, and thus a distance of 0.45m from the hinges. This generates a moment of 37.35 kN m which is about 37 times the moment the driver can possibly generate. Therefore it is impossible for the driver to open the door of the car. The drivers best chance to open the door is to let some water in by rolling down a window and to keep his head close to the ceiling. The driver should be able to open the door shortly before the car is filled with water since at that point the pressures at both sides of the door are nearly the same and opening the door in water is almost as easy as opening it in air. Example 3.8 Calculating hydrostatic force and a center of pressure A room in the lower level of a cruise ship has a 30-cm-diameter circular window. If the midpoint of the window is 5 m below the water surface, determine the hydrostatic force acting on the window, and the pressure center.

Atmospheric pressure acts on both sides of the window, and thus it can be ignored in calculations for convenience. We take the specific gravity of seawater to be 1.025.

Solution: The average pressure on a surface is the pressure at the centroid (midpoint) of the surface, and is determined to be

p avg = p C = (1025 kg m 3 )(9.81 m s 2 )( 5m ) = 50,276 N m 2

2

5m

FR

D=0.3 m

The line of action of the force passes through the pressure center, whose vertical distance from the free surface is determined from

y p = yC + I xx ,C yC A = yC +

Example 3.9 Combined statics-hydrostatics problem The two sides of a V-shaped water trough are hinged to each other at the bottom where they meet, as shown in Figure below, making an angle of 45 with the ground from both sides. Each side is 0.75 m wide, and the two parts are held together by a cable and turnbuckle placed every 6 m along the length of the trough. Calculate the tension in each cable when the trough is filled to the rim. We assume: 1 Atmospheric pressure acts on both sides of the trough wall, and thus it can be ignored in calculations for convenience. 2 The weight of the trough is negligible. 3 Density of water is 1000 kg/m3

Solution: To expose the cable tension, we consider free-body diagram, which is a half of the trough whose cross-section is triangular. The water height h at the midsection of the trough and width of the free surface are:

b

FH W

45

0.75 m

The hydrostatic forces acting on the vertical and horizontal plane surfaces as well as the weight of the liquid block are determined as follows: Horizontal force on vertical surface:

FH = Fx = p avg A = ghC A = g ( h 2 ) A

The vertical force on the horizontal surface is zero since it coincides with the free surface of water. The weight of fluid block per 6-m length is:

FV = W = g ( w bh 2 ) = g ( h 2 ) A = 1000 kg m 3 9.81 m s 2 = 8267 N

)(

)(

The distance of the centroid of a triangle from a side is 1/3 of the height of the triangle for that side. Taking the moment about point A where the two parts are hinged and setting it equal to zero gives

=0

b h + FH = Th 3 3

Solving for T and substituting, and noting that h = b, the tension in the cable is determined to be :

T= FH + W ( 8267 + 8267 ) N = 5510 N 3 3

For a submerged curved surface, the determination of resultant hydrostatic force typically requires integration of the pressure forces that change direction along the curved surface. The simplest way is to determine the horizontal and vertical components separately and then to calculate the resultant force. First, we need to consider free-body diagram of the liquid block enclosed by the curved surface and the two plane surfaces (one horizontal and one vertical) passing through the two ends of the curved surface as shown in Figure 3.14 below. The vertical surface of a liquid block is the projection of the curved surface on a vertical plane and the horizontal surface is the projection of the curved surface on a horizontal plane. The resultant force acting on the curved solid surface is then equal and opposite to the force acting on the curved liquid surface (Newtons third law).

Figure 3.14 Calculation of the hydrostatic force on a curved surface Horizontal force component on curved surface is determined as: FH = Fx . Line of action on vertical plane gives y coordinate of center of pressure on curved surface. The horizontal component of the hydrostatic force acting on a curved surface is equal (in both magnitude and the line of action) to the hydrostatic force acting on the vertical projection of the curved surface. Vertical force component on curved surface is: FV = Fy +W , where W is the weight of the liquid in the enclosed block W=gV. Horizontal (x-) coordinate of the center of pressure is a combination of line of action on horizontal plane (centroid of area) and line of action through volume (centroid of volume). The vertical component of the hydrostatic force acting on a curved surface is equal to the hydrostatic force acting on the horizontal projection of the curved surface, plus (minus, if acting in the opposite direction) the weight of the fluid block.

2 + FV2 Magnitude of the resultant force: FR = FH 1 Angle of force is: = tan ( FV FH )

(3.47) (3.48)

The resultant hydrostatic force acting on a circular surface always passes through the center of the circle since the pressure forces are normal to the surface, and all lines

normal to the surface of a circle pass through the center of the circle. Thus the pressure forces form a concurrent force system at the center, which can be reduced to a single equivalent force at that point. If the magnitudes of the horizontal and vertical components of the resultant hydrostatic force are known, the tangent of the angle is: tan = ( FV FH ) . Example 3.10. Calculating hydrostatic force on curved surfaces The water side of the wall of a 100-m-long dam is a quarter circle with a radius of 10 m. Determine the hydrostatic force on the dam and its line of action when the dam is filled to the rim. Atmospheric pressure acts on both sides of the dam, and thus it can be ignored in calculations for convenience. We take the density of water to be 1000 kg/m3. Solution We consider the free body diagram of the liquid block enclosed by the circular surface of the dam and its vertical and horizontal projections. The hydrostatic forces acting on the vertical and horizontal plane surfaces as well as the weight of the liquid block are:

Fy = 0

R = 10 m

FH

FH = Fx = p avg A = ghC A = g ( R 2 ) A = 1000 kg m 3 9.81 m s 2 (10 2m )(10m 100m ) = 4.905 10 N

7

)(

Vertical force on horizontal surface is zero since it coincides with the free surface of water. The weight of fluid block per m length is:

FV = W = g = g w R 2 4 = 1000 kg m 3 9.81 m s 2 (100m ) (10m ) / 4

2

] (

)(

= 7.705 10 7 N

Then the magnitude and direction of the hydrostatic force acting on the surface of the dam become:

FR =

2 FH + FV2 =

(4.905 10

+ 7.705 10 7 N

= 9.134 10 7 N

tan =

Therefore, the line of action of the hydrostatic force passes through the center of the curvature of the dam, making 57.5 downwards from the horizontal. Below is another, slightly more involved problem, dealing also with a circular surface and requiring some knowledge of statics. Example 3.11. Hydrostatic forces acting on curved surfaces A 4-m-long quarter-circular gate of radius 3 m and of negligible weight is hinged about its upper edge A, as shown in Figure below. The gate controls the flow of water over the ledge at B, where the gate is pressed by a spring. Determine the minimum spring force required to keep the gate closed when the water level rises to A at the upper edge of the gate. Take density of water to be 1000 kg/m3.

We assume that: 1 The hinge is frictionless. 2 The atmospheric pressure acts on both sides of the gate, and thus it can be ignored in calculations for convenience. 3 The weight of the gate is negligible. Solution We consider the free body diagram of the liquid block enclosed by the circular surface of the gate and its vertical and horizontal projections. The hydrostatic forces acting on the vertical and horizontal plane surfaces as well as the weight of the liquid block are determined as follows: Horizontal force on vertical surface:

FH = Fx = p avg A = ghC A = g ( R 2 ) A = 1000 kg m 3 9.81 m s 2 ( 3 2m )( 4m 3m ) = 176.6kN

)(

Fy = p avg A = A ghC A = ghbottom A = 1000 kg m 3 9.81 m s 2 ( 3m )( 4m 3m ) = 353.2kN

Fx W

R=3m

)(

Fs B

Fy

W = g = g w R 2 4 = 1000 kg m 3 9.81 m s 2 ( 4m ) ( 3m ) / 4 = 277.4kN

2

] (

)(

FV = Fy W = 353.2 277.4 = 75.8kN

Then the magnitude and direction of the hydrostatic force acting on the surface of the 4m long quarter-circular section of the gate become

FR =

2 FH + FV2 =

(176.6kN ) 2

+ ( 75.8kN )

=192.2kN

tan =

Therefore, the magnitude of the hydrostatic force acting on the gate is 192.2 kN, and its line of action passes through the center of the quarter-circular gate making an angle 23.2 upwards from the horizontal. The minimum spring force needed is determined by taking a moment about the point A where the hinge is, and setting it equal to zero,

= 0 FR R sin ( 90 ) Fspring R = 0

Fspring = FR sin ( 90 ) = (192.2kN ) sin 90 23.2 = 177 kN

3.5 Archimedes Principle Buoyancy It is a common knowledge that bodies weight less and feels lighter when submerged in a liquid. This can be easily demonstrated by weighting any object in water and in air. Light materials, such as wood float on water while metals sink. Therefore, it must be a upward force acting on a body submerged in a liquid. This upward force a fluid exerts on an immersed body is called the buoyant force. The buoyant force is caused by the increase of pressure in a fluid with depth. In order to determine the magnitude of this force, we

will consider a flat plate of thickness h submerged in a liquid of density f as shown in Fig. 3.15. Using the formulas from the previous paragraph, the hydrostatic forces acting on a top and bottom surfaces are respectively: Top surface: Bottom surface:

Ftop = f gsA

(3.48) (3.49)

Fbottom = f g ( s + h ) A

Figure 3.15 A flat plate submerged in a liquid schematics for calculating a buoyant force. The difference between these two forces is a net upward force, called a buoyant force:

FB = Fbottom Ftop = f g ( s + h ) A f gsA = f ghA = f g

(3.50)

where volume = hA . Note, however, that the expression f g is the weight of a liquid of the volume equal to the volume of the plate. Therefore, we can state that the magnitude of the buoyant force acting on a submersed body is equal to the weight of the liquid displaced by this body. This is known as Archimedes principle and is expressed as: The buoyant force acting on a body immersed in a fluid is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the body, and it acts upward through the centroid of the displaced volume. Note that according to Eq. 3.50 the buoyant force does not depend on the depth, therefore the buoyant forces acting on two bodies with identical volumes submerged in a liquid at different depths are the same. There are three possible scenario for a body submerged in a fluid: 1. body<fluid: Floating body 2. body=fluid: Neutrally buoyant body 3. body>fluid: Sinking body For floating bodies, the weight of the body is equal to the buoyant force, which is the weight of the fluid displaced by the submerged part of the body. It is therefore:

FB = W f gsubmerged = body gtotal submerged total =

body f

(3.51)

Example 3.12. Calculating submerged volume A large cubic ice block floats in seawater. The specific gravities of ice and seawater are 0.92 and 1.025, respectively. If a 10-cm-high portion of the ice block extends above the surface of the water, determine the height of the ice block below the surface.

We make following assumptions: 1 The buoyancy force in air is negligible. 2 The top surface of the ice block is parallel to the surface of the sea. Solution: The weight of a body floating in a fluid is equal to the buoyant force acting on it (a consequence of vertical force balance from static equilibrium). Therefore, in this case the average density of the body must be equal to the density of the fluid since W = FB

total submerged

body fluid

The cross-sectional of a cube is constant, and thus the volume ratio can be replaced by height ratio. Then,

hsubmerged h total =

body fluid

where h is the height of the ice block below the surface. Solving for h gives h = 0.876 m = 87.6 cm Note that the 0.92/1.025 = 90% of the volume of an ice block remains under water. For symmetrical ice blocks this also represents the fraction of height that remains under water. Example 3.13. Determining the density of a submerged body The legend says that Archimedes discovered his principle during a bath while thinking about how he could determine if King Hieros crown was actually made of pure gold. His idea to determine the average density of an irregularly shaped object was to weight it in air and also in water. If the crown weighed 31.4 N in air and 28.9 N in water, determine if the crown is made of pure gold. The density of gold is 19,300 kg/m 3. Take the density of water to be 1000 kg/m3. Solution: The mass of the crown is

m=

The difference between the weights in air and in water is due to the buoyancy force in water, and thus

FB = Wair W water = 31.4 28.9 = 2.50 N

= FB

water g

which is considerably less than the density of gold. Therefore, the crown is NOT made of pure gold. This problem can also be solved without doing any under-water weighing as follows: We would weigh a bucket half-filled with water, and drop the crown into it. After marking the new water level, we would take the crown out, and add water to the bucket until the water level rises to the mark. We would weigh the bucket again. Dividing the weight difference by the density of water and g will give the volume of the crown. Knowing both the weight and the volume of the crown, the density can easily be determined. Example 3.14. Determining the fat-to-muscle ratio of the body. The muscle tissue is denser than the fat tissue, and, thus, the higher the average density of the body, the higher is the fraction of muscle tissue. The average density of the body can be determined by weighing the person in air and also while submerged in water in a tank. Treating all tissues and bones (other than fat) as muscle with an equivalent density of muscle, we can obtain a relation for the volume fraction of body fat xfat. The difference between the weights of the person in air and in water is due to the buoyancy force in water. Therefore,

FB =Wair Wwater water g =Wair Wwater

Knowing the weights and the density of water, the relation above gives the volume of the person. Then the average density of the person can be determined from

ave =

m Wair / g =

Under assumption that the total mass of a person is equal to the sum of the masses of the fat and muscle tissues, and the total volume of a person is equal to the sum of the volumes of the fat and muscle tissues. The volume fraction of body fat is the ratio of the fat volume to the total volume of the person. Therefore,

and

Noting that mass is density times volume, the last relation can be written as

ave = fat fat + muscle muscle ave = fat xfat + muscle (1 xfat )

Canceling the and solving for xfat gives the desired relation,

x fat =

Weighing a person in water in order to determine its volume is however not practical. A more practical way is to use a large container, and measuring the change in volume when the person is completely submerged in it. 3.6 Stability of Floating Bodies The assessment of stability of immersed and floating bodies is of great importance in the design of ships and submarines. A body at rest is in static equilibrium if this body is disturbed by an external force and returns to its original position when the force is removed, the body is considered to be in stable equilibrium. Therefore, a ship, which is inclined from its normal position and returns to its original position is said to be stable. The opposite of this is unstable equilibrium a condition when the body continues to move in the same direction after it is originally set in motion by an external force. Another state is neutral equilibrium, when the body comes to rest at any position to which it is moved. Summarizing, we have three states of equilibrium: stable, unstable and neutral. This can be illustrated by balls on the floor as shown in Figure 3.16.

Figure 3.16 Three states of equilibrium: stable, neutrally stable and unstable.

For an immersed or floating body in static equilibrium, the weight and the buoyant force acting on the body balance each other, and such bodies are always stable in the vertical direction. If an immersed neutrally buoyant body is raised or lowered by a vertical force, the body will remain in equilibrium at that location. If a floating body is raised or lowered by a vertical force, the body will return to its original position as soon as the external force is removed. Therefore, the floating body possesses vertical stability. Rotational stability of immersed bodies depends upon relative location of center of gravity G and center of buoyancy B as shown in Figure 3.17 below: There are three possibilities: 1. G below B: stable the body is heavy on the bottom 2. G above B: unstable 3. G coincides with B: neutrally stable.

Figure 3.17 Rotational stability of immersed bodies Another case is if the center of gravity is not vertically aligned with the center of buoyancy. This case is shown in Figure 3.18:

Figure 3.18. Center of gravity G is not vertically aligned with center of buoyancy. In this case, the body will rotate towards its stable state by means of restoring moment. In order to discuss the stability of a ship, it is useful to make definitions of certain points as marked below in Figure 3.19:

Figure 3.19 Stability of a ship Point B refers to the center of buoyancy. It is a centroid of the underwater or displaced volume. It is the point through which the buoyant force acts vertically upward. Point G refers to the center of gravity. The force of gravity acts vertically downward through this point. Point M refers to the metacenter. It is the intersection of the buoyant forces lineof-action with the vertical centerline of the ship. The metacenter may be considered to be a fixed point for most hull shapes for small rolling angles up to about 20.

A measure of stability for floating bodies is the metacentric height GM. Floating bodies are stable when if point M is above point G and thus GM is positive. On the other hand, the body is unstable if point M is below point G. In the latter case, the weight and the buoyant force acted on the tilted body generate an overturning moment instead of a restoring moment, causing the boat to capsize.

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