On convergence rates in the central limit theorems

for combinatorial structures
Hsien-Kuei Hwang

Institute of Statistical Science
Academia Sinica
11529 Taipei
Taiwan
August 15, 1998
Abstract
Flajolet and Soria established several central limit theorems for the parameter “number of
components” in a wide class of combinatorial structures. In this paper, we shall prove a simple
theorem which applies to characterize the convergence rates in their central limit theorems. This
theorem is also applicable to arithmetical functions. Moreover, asymptotic expressions are derived
for moments of integral order. Many examples from different applications are discussed.
Key words. Central limit theorem, convergence rate, moments, combinatorial construction, arithmeti-
cal function.
1 Introduction
This paper examines the occurrence of Gaussian laws in large random combinatorial structures. We are
mainly concerned with the rate of normal approximation to discrete random distributions. Examples
that we discuss include such diverse problems as cycles, inversions and involutions in permutations,
the construction of heaps in the field of data structures, set partitions, and the problem of “factorisatio
numerorum” in number theory.
Problems in combinatorial enumeration and in number theory often lead to the decomposition of
the underlying structure into more elementary ones by suitable algebraic operations. For instance,
a permutation can be decomposed into a set of cycles, a binary tree can be defined to be either
empty or the union of a root-node and two binary trees, and a factorization of a natural number n
is a decomposition of n into a product of prime factors. It is well-known that operations like union,
sequence, cycle, set and multiset on the structural side correspond to explicitly expressible forms on

This work was partially supported by the ESPRIT Basic Research Action No. 7141 (ALCOM II) while the author
was at LIX, Ecole Polytechnique.
1
the generating function side. Hence it is useful to establish general theorems from which one can
conclude certain asymptotic results (especially, statistical properties) for parameters in the underlying
structure by verifying some basic analytic properties of the generating function. Bender initiated this
line of investigation; see [1, 2, 3, 7, 13, 14, 15, 19].
Applying singularity and probabilistic analysis on bivariate generating functions, Flajolet and
Soria [13, 14] proved a series of central limit theorems for the parameter “number of components” in
a wide class of combinatorial structures issuing principally from combinatorial constructions. Briefly,
they obtain their results by showing that the characteristic function ϕ
n
(t) of the normalized random
variable Ω

n
in question (to be explained below) tends, as n tends to infinity, to e

1
2
t
2
; and this
establishes the weak convergence of the distribution function F
n
(x) of Ω

n
to the standard normal law
by Levy’s continuity theorem. With the aid of the Berry-Esseen inequality, we shall make explicit the
convergence rates in their central limit theorems.
In the next section, we propose a simple theorem on convergence rate which turns out to have wide
applications. In particular, it is applicable to the central limit theorems of Flajolet and Soria [13, 14]
which we shall discuss in section 3. Moreover, as a direct consequence of our general assumptions on the
moment generating function, we derive an asymptotic expression for moments of integral order. Then,
we state an effective version of the central limit theorem of Haigh [16] (by establishing the convergence
rate). This theorem is borrowed from [21] where we applied it to derive the asymptotic normality
of the cost of constructing a random heap. Examples from combinatorial enumerations, computer
algorithms, probabilistic number theory, arithmetical semigroups and orthogonal polynomials will be
discussed in the final section.
Throughout this paper, we denote by Φ(x) the standard normal distribution:
Φ(x) =
1


_
x
−∞
e

1
2
t
2
dt (x ∈ R).
All limits (including O, o and ∼), whenever unspecified, will be taken as n → ∞. All generating
functions (ordinary or exponential) will denote functions analytic at 0 with non-negative coefficients.
The symbol [z
n
]f(z) represents the coefficient of z
n
in the Taylor expansion of f(z).
2 Main results
Let ¦Ω
n
¦
n≥1
be a sequence of random variables. Define µ
n
= E(Ω
n
), σ
2
n
= Var(Ω
n
) and F
n
(x) =
Pr¦Ω
n
< µ
n
+xσ
n
¦, x ∈ R. If the distribution of Ω
n
is asymptotically normal, then F
n
(x) satisfies
sup
x
[F
n
(x) −Φ(x)[ →0, (1)
the pointwise convergence being uniform with respect to x in any finite interval of R. The first
possible refinement to (1) is to determine the convergence rate, which, in most cases, is of order σ
−1
n
.
2
The most general method for establishing the convergence rate (not restricted to normal limiting
distribution) is the Berry-Esseen inequality (see (2 below) which relates the estimate of the difference
of two distribution functions to that of corresponding characteristic functions, the latter being usually
more manageable, especially when F
n
(x) is a step-function.
Since in probability theory, this subject is almost thoroughly studied when Ω
n
can be decomposed
as a sum of (independent or dependent) random variables, we content here with presenting two simple
theorems which, for most of our applications, turn out to be sufficient. Our object is not to search
for results of the most general kind but for those which are easy to apply for combinatorial and
number-theoretic problems, especially, when probability generating function or characteristic function
are available.
The following theorem is motivated by the observation that many asymptotically normal distribu-
tions have mean and variance of the same orders.
Let ¦Ω
n
¦
n≥1
be a sequence of integral random variables.
Suppose that the moment generating function satisfies the asymptotic expression:
M
n
(s) := E(e

n
s
) =

m≥0
Pr¦Ω
n
= m¦e
ms
= e
H
n
(s)
_
1 +O
_
κ
−1
n
__
,
the O-term being uniform for [s[ ≤ τ, s ∈ C, τ > 0, where
(i) H
n
(s) = u(s)φ(n)+v(s), with u(s) and v(s) analytic for [s[ ≤ τ and independent of n; u

(0) ,= 0;
(ii) φ(n) →∞;
(iii) κ
n
→∞.
Theorem 1 Under these assumptions, the distribution of Ω
n
is asymptotically Gaussian:
Pr¦

n
−u

(0)φ(n)
_
u

(0)φ(n)
< x¦ = Φ(x) +O
_
1
κ
n
+
1
_
φ(n)
_
,
uniformly with respect to x, x ∈ R.
Proof. Let µ
n
= u

(0)φ(n) and σ
2
n
= u

(0)φ(n). Define the random variable Ω

n
= (Ω
n
−µ
n
)/σ
n
with
distribution function (characteristic function) F
n
(x) (ϕ
n
(t)) respectively.
To obtain an upper bound for the difference [F
n
(x) −Φ(x)[, we shall estimate the ratio [(ϕ
n
(t) −
e
−t
2
/2
)/t[ and apply the following Berry-Essen inequality [29, p. 109]:
Let F(x) be a non-decreasing function, G(x) a differentiable function of bounded variation on the
real line, ϕ(t) and γ(t) the corresponding Fourier-Stieltjes transforms:
ϕ(t) =
_

−∞
e
itx
dF(x), γ(t) =
_

−∞
e
itx
dG(x).
Suppose that F(−∞) = G(−∞), F(∞) = G(∞), T is an arbitrary positive number, and [G

(x)[ ≤ A.
Then for every b > 1/(2π) we have
sup
−∞<x<∞
[F(x) −G(x)[ ≤ b
_
T
−T
¸
¸
¸
¸
ϕ(t) −γ(t)
t
¸
¸
¸
¸
dt +r(b)
A
T
, (2)
3
where r(b) is a positive constant depending only on b.
Take G(x) = Φ(x) (so that A = 1/

2π) and T = T
n
= cσ
n
, where 0 < c < τ is a sufficiently small
constant, we shall show that
J
n
=
_
T
n
−T
n
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
ϕ
n
(t) −e

1
2
t
2
t
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
dt = O
_
σ
−1
n

−1
n
_
,
so that Theorem 1 follows from the inequality (2).
Let us write M
n
(s) = e
u(s)φ(n)+v(s)
(1 +E
n
(s)), so that E
n
(0) = 0 and E
n
(s) = O
_
κ
−1
n
_
for [s[ ≤ τ.
By taking a small circle around the origin we easily deduce that E
n
(s) = O
_
[s[κ
−1
n
_
for [s[ ≤ c. Since

n
(t)[ ≤ 1, we have
ϕ
n
(t) = exp
_

µ
n
σ
n
it +u(
it
σ
n
)φ(n) +v(
it
σ
n
)
__
1 +O
_
[t[
σ
n
κ
n
__
= exp
_

t
2
2
+O
_
[t[ +[t[
3
σ
n
__
+O
_
[t[
σ
n
κ
n
_
,
for [t[ ≤ T
n
. Using the inequality [e
w
−1[ ≤ [w[e
|w|
for all complex w, we obtain
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
ϕ
n
(t) −e

1
2
t
2
t
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
= O
__
1 +t
2
σ
n
_
exp
_

t
2
2
+O
_
[t[ +[t[
3
σ
n
__
+
1
σ
n
κ
n
_
= O
__
1 +t
2
σ
n
_
e

1
4
t
2
+
1
σ
n
κ
n
_
([t[ ≤ T
n
),
for c sufficiently small. Hence
J
n
=
_
T
n
−T
n
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
ϕ
n
(t) −e

1
2
t
2
t
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
dt
= O
_
1
σ
n
_
T
n
−T
n
(1 +t
2
)e

1
4
t
2
dt +
1
κ
n
_
= O
_
1
σ
n
+
1
κ
n
_
.
This completes the proof of Theorem 1. 2
The assumption that the moment generating function M
n
(s) exists in the neighbourhood of 0
is not a necessary condition for the validity of Theorem 1. As is evident from the proof, a weaker
sufficient condition is that [u

(it)[ and [v

(it)[ are bounded for s close to 0. But the following theorem
does require the analyticity of M
n
(s).
Theorem 2 The k
th
moment of Ω
n
satisfies
1
k!

m≥0
m
k
Pr¦Ω
n
= m¦ = π
k
(φ(n)) +O
_
φ(n)
k
κ
n
_
(k = 1, 2, 3, . . .),
where π
k
(X) is a polynomial in X of degree k define by
π
k
(X) = [s
k
]e
u(s)X+v(s)
(k = 1, 2, 3, . . .). (3)
4
In particular, the mean and the variance of Ω
n
satisfy
E(Ω
n
) = u

(0)φ(n) +v

(0) +O
_
κ
−1
n
_
, (4)
Var(Ω
n
) = u

(0)φ(n) +v

(0) +O
_
κ
−1
n
_
. (5)
Proof. Since M
n
(s) is analytic for [s[ ≤ τ, by Cauchy’s formula, we obtain

m≥0
Pr¦Ω
n
= m¦
m
k
k!
= π
k
(φ(n)) +R
k
(n),
where the remainder term R
n
(n) satisfies
R
k
(n) = O
_
1
κ
n
_
|s|=r
[s[
−k−1
¸
¸
¸e
u(s)φ(n)
¸
¸
¸ [ds[
_
(0 < r ≤ τ).
Clearly, the degree of the polynomial π
k
(X) is k. Taking r = φ(n)
−1
, we obtain
R
k
(n) = O
_
φ(n)
k
κ
n
_
,
for k = 1, 2, 3, . . .
For the more refined results (4) and (5), let us consider the cumulant generating function of Ω
n
:
λ
n
(s) := log M
n
(s) = u(s)φ(n) +v(s) +Y
n
(s),
where Y
n
(s) = O
_
κ
−1
n
_
. By the analyticity of M
n
and the relation M
n
(0) = 1, the function λ
n
(s) is
well-defined in a neighbourhood of the origin and is analytic there. Similar arguments as above yield
the required results (4) and (5) since the mean and the variance of Ω
n
are nothing but λ

n
(0) and
λ

n
(0), respectively. This completes the proof. 2
Writing u
j
:= u
(j)
(0) and v
j
:= v
(j)
(0), j = 1, 2, 3, . . ., we have
π
1
(X) = u
1
X +v
1
, π
2
(X) =
u
2
1
2
X
2
+
u
2
+ 2u
1
v
1
2
X +
v
2
+v
2
1
2
.
In general, some of the terms in π
k
(φ(n)) may be absorbed by the remainder term O
_
φ(n)
k
κ
−1
n
_
.
Corollary 1 We have

m≥0
m
k
Pr¦Ω
n
= m¦ = u

(0)
k
φ(n)
k
_
1 +O
k
_
1
φ(n)
+
1
κ
n
__
,
for each fixed k = 1, 2, 3, . . .
3 Combinatorial schemes of Flajolet and Soria
We now apply Theorem 1 to establish effective versions of the central limit theorems considered in
[13, 14]. The developments here are made possible since the singularity analysis provides uniform
bounds on the coefficients of analytic functions.
5
3.1 Exp-log class
The exp-log class covers such problems as cycles in permutations, cycles in random mappings and
random mapping patterns, irreducibles in polynomials over finite fields (and, more generally, over an
additive arithmetic semigroup under Knopfmacher’s axiom A
#
), profiles of increasing trees, etc. See
[13, 23, 19].
Recall that a generating function C(z) analytic at 0 is called logarithmic [13] if there exists a
constant a > 0, such that for z ∼ ζ, ζ > 0 being the radius of convergence of C,
C(z) = a log
1
1 −z/ζ
+H(z),
where the function H(z) is analytic in the region
∆ := ¦z : [z[ ≤ ζ + and [ arg(z −ζ)[ ≥ δ¦ ( > 0, 0 < δ <
π
2
),
(with possibly a finite number of other branch cuts starting from the circle [z[ = ζ), and as z → ζ in
∆,
H(z) = K +O
_
log

1
2
1
1 −z/ζ
_
,
uniformly in z, where K is some constant. For brevity, we shall refer to as saying that C(z) is
logarithmic with parameters (ζ, a, K).
Remark. The condition that we imposed here on H(z) is weaker than that required in [14]. They need
H(z) = K +o
_
log
−1
1
1 −z/ζ
_
(z →ζ, z ∈ ∆),
to ensure that both the mean and the variance are a log n + O(1). But by our Theorem 2, only the
weaker condition H(z) = K + o(1) for z ∈ ζ, z ∈ ∆, suffices to guarantee the later. This was the
original condition used in [13]. 2
We first consider generating functions of the form
P(w, z) =

n,m≥0
p
nm
w
m
z
n
= exp (wC(z) +S(w, z)) (C(0) = 0),
where C(z) is logarithmic with parameters (ζ, a, K) and the function S(w, z) is analytic for [z[ < ζ +
and [w[ < 1 +

, ,

> 0. By singularity analysis [14, 12] (see [19] for details), we obtain
M
n
(s) =

m≥0
Pr¦Ω
n
= m¦e
ms
:=
[z
n
]P(e
s
, z)
[z
n
]P(1, z)
= exp
_
(e
s
−1)a log n +K(e
s
−1) +S(e
s
, ζ) −S(1, ζ) + log
Γ(a)
Γ(ae
s
)
_

_
1 +O
_
1

log n
__
, (6)
uniformly for s in some complex neighbourhood of the origin.
6
Theorem 3 Let F
n
(x) = Pr¦Ω
n
< a log n + x

a log n¦, where Ω
n
and a are defined by (6). Then
F
n
(x) satisfies, uniformly with respect to x,
F
n
(x) = Φ(x) +O
_
1

log n
_
.
Proof. The result follows from Theorem 1, since 1/Γ(ae
s
) ,= 0 for ['(s)[ < [ log a[. 2
Theorem 4 The k
th
moment of Ω
n
, k ∈ N
+
, satisfies
1
k!

m≥0
m
k
Pr¦Ω
n
= m¦ =
(a log n)
k
k!
_
1 +O
_
(log n)
−1/2
__
,
In particular, the mean and the variance of Ω
n
satisfy
E(Ω
n
) = a log n −aψ(a) +K +S
1
+O
_
(log n)

1
2
_
Var(Ω
n
) = a log n −aψ(a) −a
2
ψ

(a) +K +S
2
+S
1
+O
_
(log n)

1
2
_
where ψ denotes the logarithmic derivative of the Gamma function and the two constants S
1
and S
2
are defined by
S
1
=

∂w
S(w, ζ)
¸
¸
¸
¸
w = 1
, S
2
=

2
∂w
2
S(w, ζ)
¸
¸
¸
¸
w = 1
.
Proof. This follows from (6) and Theorem 2. 2
The above theorems apply to the following four classes of combinatorial structures when C(z) is
logarithmic:
1. Partitional complex construction: P(w, z) = exp(wC(z));
2. Partitional complex construction in which no two components are order-isomorphic:
P(w, z) =

k≥1
_
1 +
wz
k
k!
_
c
k
(c
k
:= k![z
k
]C(z));
3. Multiset construction: (i) total number of components (i.e., counted with multiplicity)
P(w, z) = exp
_
_

k≥1
w
k
k
C(z
k
)
_
_
;
(ii) number of distinct components (counted without multiplicity)
P(w, z) =

k≥1
_
1 +
wz
k
1 −z
k
_
c
k
(c
k
:= [z
k
]C(z)),
when the dominant singularity of C is strictly inferior to 1;
4. Set construction:
P(w, z) = exp
_
_

k≥1
(−1)
k−1
k
w
k
C(z
k
)
_
_
,
when the dominant singularity of C is strictly less than 1.
Further refinement of Theorem 1 is possible under slightly stronger conditions on H(z). This will
be discussed in the companion paper [20]; cf. also [19, Ch. 2].
7
3.2 Algebraic-logarithmic class
Next, let us consider generating functions of the form
P(w, z) =

n,m≥0
p
nm
w
m
z
n
=
1
(1 −wC(z))
α
_
log
1
1 −wC(z)
_
β
(C(0) = 0),
where β ∈ N, α ≥ 0, and α + β > 0. Define the random variable Ω
n
by its moment generating
function:
M
n
(s) =

m≥0
Pr¦Ω
n
= m¦ e
ms
=
[z
n
]P(e
s
, z)
[z
n
]P(1, z)
,
for sufficiently large n.
Definition. (1-regular function [14]) A generating function C(z) ,≡ z
q
(q = 0, 1, 2, . . .) analytic at
z = 0 is called 1-regular if (i) its Taylor expansion at z = 0 involves only non-negative coefficients; (ii)
there exists a positive number ρ < , being the radius of convergence of C(z), such that C(ρ) = 1.
Assume, without loss of generality, that C(z) is aperiodic, namely, C(z) ,≡ z
a
D(z
b
) for some generating
function D(z) and integers a, b ≥ 2.
To start with, let us first suppose that C(z) is 1-regular and consider the equation
1
w
= C(z).
Since C(z) is 1-regular, we have C

(ρ) > 0, where ρ satisfies C(ρ) = 1. By the inverse function
theorem, the above equation is locally invertible, viz, the equation has a unique solution ρ(w) for
w ∼ 1 and ρ(w) is analytic at w = 1. Of course ρ(1) = ρ.
The following lemma is fundamental to further investigations.
Lemma 1 Let P
n
(w) := [z
n
]P(w, z). The formula
P
n
(w) = A
α
(w)ρ(w)
−n
n
α−1
(log n)
β

0≤k≤β
_
β
k
_
(log n)
−k

0≤j≤k
g
j
(α) (log A(w))
k−j
+
+O
_
[ρ(w)[
−n
n
α−2
(log n)
β
_
,
holds uniformly for w ∼ 1, where
A(w) =
1
wρ(w)C

(ρ(w))
, g
j
(α) =
d
j
dx
j
1
Γ(x)
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
x = α
.
Proof. Let us fix a w, w ∼ 1. Expanding C(z) at z = ρ(w), we get
C(z) =
1
w
−ρ(w)C

(ρ(w))
_
1 −
z
ρ(w)
_
+
ρ
2
(w)
2
C

(ρ(w))
_
1 −
z
ρ(w)
_
2
+ .
Thus
1
1 −wC(z)
= A(w)
_
1 −
z
ρ(w)
_
−1
_
1 +A
1
(w)
_
1 −
z
ρ(w)
_
+A
2
(w)
_
1 −
z
ρ(w)
_
2
+
_
,
8
where
A
1
(w) =
ρ(w)C

(ρ(w))
2C

(ρ(w))
, A
2
(w) = ρ
2
(w)
_
C

(ρ(w))
2
4C

(ρ(w))
2

C

(ρ(w))
6C

(ρ(w))
_
.
For P(w, z), we get
_
1
1 −wC(z)
_
α
_
log
1
1 −wC(z)
_
β
= A
α
(w)

0≤j≤β
_
β
j
_
(log A(w))
β−j
_
1 −
z
ρ(w)
_
−α
_
log
1
1 −z/ρ(w)
_
j
+
+O
_
_
1 −
z
ρ(w)
_
−α+1
_
log
1
1 −z/ρ(w)
_
β
_
.
By the remark before the lemma, we can apply the singularity analysis [12]. Thus transferring to
coefficients, we obtain
P
n
(w) = A
α
(w)

0≤j≤β
_
β
j
_
(log A(w))
β−j

0≤k≤j
g
j−k
(α)(log n)
k
+ O
_
[ρ(w)[
−n
n
α−2
(log n)
β
_
.
The double sum can be rearranged in descending powers of log n:

0≤j≤β
_
β
j
_
(log A(w))
β−j

0≤k≤j
g
j−k
(α)(log n)
k
= (log n)
β

0≤k≤β
_
β
k
_
(log n)
−k

0≤j≤k
g
j
(α) (log A(w))
k−j
.
This completes the proof. 2
In particular, when β = 0 and α > 0, we obtain
P
n
(w) = A
α
(w)ρ(w)
−n
n
α−1
_
1 +O
_
n
−1
__
;
when α = 0, β = 1,
P
n
(w) = ρ(w)
−n
n
−1
_
1 +O
_
n
−1
__
;
and when α = 0 and β > 0,
P
n
(w) = ρ(w)
−n
n
−1
(log n)
β

1≤k≤β
_
β
k
_
(log n)
−k

1≤j≤k
g
j
(0) (log A(w))
k−j
+
+O
_
[ρ(w)[
−n
n
−2
(log n)
β
_
.
Note that the indices of the last two sums both begin at 1 since g
0
(0) = 1/Γ(0) = 0.
Remark. From a computational point of view, the following expressions for g
k
(0) are useful.
g
k
(0) = k![x
k
]
1
Γ(x)
= k!(−1)
k−1
[x
k−1
]
1
Γ(1 −x)
9
= k!(−1)
k−1
[x
k−1
]
Γ(x) sin πx
π
= k(−1)
k−1

0≤j≤
k−2
2

(−1)
j
π
2j
_
k −1
2j + 1
_
Γ
(k−2−2j)
(0)
=

0≤j≤
k−1
2

(−1)
k−1+j
π
2j
_
k
2j + 1
_
Γ
(k−1−2j)
(1).
Thus, with M
n
(s) := P
n
(e
s
)/P
n
(1), we have, by Lemma 1,
M
n
(s) =
_
e
s
ρ(e
s
)C

(ρ(e
s
))
ρC

(ρ)
_
−α
ρ(e
s
)
−n
ρ
−n
(1 +ε
α,β
(n)) , (7)
where
ε
α,β
(n) =
_
O
_
n
−1
_
, if (α > 0 and β = 0) or (α = 0 and β = 1);
O
_
(log n)
−1
_
, if (α = 0 and β ≥ 2) or (α > 0 and β > 0),
uniformly for [s[ ≤ τ, τ > 0.
Define two constants
α
1
=
1
ρC

(ρ)
, and α
2
=
1
ρ
2
C

(ρ)
2
+
C

(ρ)
ρC

(ρ)
3

1
ρC

(ρ)
.
Theorem 5 Let F
n
(x) = Pr¦Ω
n
< α
1
n +x

α
2
n¦. Then F
n
(x) satisfies
F
n
(x) = Φ(x) +O
_
1

n

α,β
(n)
_
,
uniformly in x, x ∈ R.
Proof. Using (7) and Applying Theorem 1. 2
Theorem 6 The k
th
moment of Ω
n
satisfies
1
k!

m≥0
m
k
Pr¦Ω
n
= m¦ = Π
k
(n) +O(n
k
ε
α,β
(n)),
where
k
(n) is a polynomial in n of degree k defined by
Π
k
(n) := [s
k
] exp
_
−nlog
ρ(e
s
)
ρ
__
e
s
ρ(e
s
)C

(ρ(e
s
))
ρC

(ρ)
_
−α
,
for k = 1, 2, 3, . . . In particular, we have
E(Ω
n
) = α
1
n +αL
1
+O(ε
α,β
(n))
Var(Ω
n
) = α
2
n +αL
2
+O(ε
α,β
(n)) ,
where the two constants L
1
, L
2
are given by
L
1
:=
1
ρC

(ρ)
+
C

(ρ)
C

(ρ)
2
−1
L
2
:=
2αρC
1
C
2
+αρ
2
C
2
2
−ρ
2
C
2
1
C
2
−ρC
3
1
+ρC
1
C
2
−2αρC
3
1
+2ρ
2
C
2
2
−ρ
2
C
1
C
3
+αρ
2
C
4
1
−2αρ
2
C
2
1
C
2
+αC
2
1
+C
2
1

2
C
4
1
,
(C
j
:= C
(j)
(ρ) for j = 1, 2, 3.)
10
Proof. This follows from (7) and Theorem 2. 2
These results apply to sequence constructions of both labelled and unlabelled structures
P(w, z) =
1
1 −wC(z)
(C(0) = 0);
and to cycle constructions
P(w, z) = log
1
1 −wC(z)
, P(w, z) =

k≥1
ϕ(k)
k
log
1
1 −w
k
C(z
k
)
,
provided that the radius of convergence of C(z) in the last case is less than 1, where ϕ(k) denotes
Euler’s totient function. It should be noted that for sequence constructions, we often have exponential
convergence rate for M
n
(s).
Remark. For Bender’s central limit theorem [1, Thm 1], the convergence rate is O
_
n

1
2
_
, provided
that the function A(s) in that theorem has bounded derivative for s near 0.
4 A classical central limit theorem
The following theorem is borrowed from [21] where we used it to derive the asymptotic normality of
the cost of constructing a random heap. Since the proof has already been given there, it is omitted
here. Without the explicit error term it is due to Haight [16].
The object of study here is sums of independent but not identically distributed random variables.
This problem has been extensively studied in the probability literature; see, for instance, [6, ¸27] [25,
Ch. VI] [17, 29].
Theorem 7 Let ¦Ω
n
¦
n
be a sequence of random variables taking only non-negative integral values
with mean µ
n
and variance σ
2
n
. Suppose that the probability generating function P
n
(z) of Ω
n
can be
decomposed as
P
n
(z) =

1≤j≤k
n
P
nj
(z),
for some sequence ¦k
n
¦
n
, where the P
nj
(z) are polynomials such that (i) each P
nj
(z) is itself a prob-
ability generating function of some random variable, say, Ω
nj
(1 ≤ j ≤ k
n
); and (ii)
M
n
σ
n
→0,
where M
n
= max
1≤j≤k
n
deg P
nj
(z). Then the distribution of Ω
n
is asymptotically Gaussian:
Pr¦

n
−µ
n
σ
n
< x¦ = Φ(x) +O
_
M
n
σ
n
_
,
uniformly with respect to x.
Proof. See [21].
11
Corollary 2 Let P
n
(z) be a probability generating function of the random variable Ω
n
, n ≥ 1. Suppose
that, for each fixed n ≥ 1, P
n
(z) is a polynomial whose roots are all located in and on the half-plane
'z ≤ 0. If σ
n
→∞, σ
2
n
:= Var(Ω
n
), then Ω
n
satisfies
Pr¦

n
−µ
n
σ
n
< x¦ = Φ(x) +O
_
1
σ
n
_
,
for −∞< x < ∞, where µ
n
= E(Ω
n
).
Proof. M = 2 in Theorem 7. 2
In particular, if all roots of P
n
(z) are non-positive, then the results of the corollary hold, cf. [18].
5 Examples
Let us discuss some typical examples from different applications.
Example 1. Cycles in permutations. A permutation is a set of cycles. The number of permutations
having m cycles is enumerated by the (signless) Stirling number of the first kind s(n, m):
s(n, m) := [w
m
z
n
] exp
_
wlog
1
1 −z
_
= [w
m
] (w(w + 1) (w +n −1)) (1 ≤ m ≤ n, n ≥ 1).
Both Theorems 3 and 7 apply to the random variable Ω
n
, defined as the number of cycles in a random
permutation of ¦1, 2, . . . , n¦, where each of the n! permutations is equally likely. We obtain
Pr¦

n
−log n

log n
< x¦ = Φ(x) +O
_
1

log n
_
,
a result originally due to Goncharov (without error term).
Many other examples in this same (exp-log) class can be found in [5, 13, 23, 33] [26, ¸2.4 and 2.5]
and [19, Ch. 5].
Example 2. Stirling numbers of the second kind. The generating function for the number of blocks
(marked by w) in set partitions satisfies

n,m≥0
S(n, m) w
m
z
n
n!
= e
w(e
z
−1)
,
where S(n, m) denotes Stirling numbers of the second kind. Theorem 1 is not applicable since, as we
shall see, the mean and the variance are not of the same order. So we turn to Theorem 7. Harper [18]
showed that the polynomials
P
n
(z) :=

0≤m≤n
S(n, m) z
m
(n = 1, 2, 3, . . .),
have only simple non-positive roots. It remains to show that σ
n
→∞, namely,
σ
2
n
:= Var(Ω
n
) =
b
n+2
b
n

b
n+1
b
n
−1 →∞,
12
where b
n
:= n! [z
n
]e
e
z
−1
are the Bell numbers. Using the asymptotic expression [9, Ch. 6]
b
n
=
e
n(ρ+ρ
−1
−1)−1

ρ + 1
_
1 −
ρ
2
(2ρ
2
+ 7ρ + 10)
24 n(ρ + 1)
3
+O
_
ρ
2
n
2
__
,
where ρe
ρ
= n, it is not hard to show that
σ
2
n
=
n
ρ(ρ + 1)
+O(1) ∼
n
(log n)
2
→∞;
so that Theorem 7 gives, defining Pr¦Ω
n
= m¦ := b
−1
n
S(n, m),
Pr¦

n
−µ
n
σ
n
< x¦ = Φ(x) +O
_
log n

n
_
,
uniformly with respect to x, where
µ
n
= E(Ω
n
) =
b
n+1
b
n
−1 =
n
ρ
+O(1) ∼
n
log n
.
The asymptotic normality is due to Harper [18]. Alternatively, we can write
Pr¦

n
−n/ρ
_
n/(ρ(ρ + 1))
< x¦ = Φ(x) +O
_
log n

n
_
,
but this formula cannot be further simplified by using the asymptotics of ρ.
For other examples, see [31, 28].
Example 3. Cost of heap construction. Doberkat [11] shows that the probability generating functions
for the number of exchanges and for the number of comparisons used by Floyd’s algorithm to construct
a heap of size n have the form

1≤j≤n
p
n,j
(z), where p
n,j
(z) are polynomials of degree ≤ log
2
n.
Moreover, the mean and the variance are all linear. Thus Theorem 7 applies with M
n
= log n to
both cases [21]. More precisely, given a random permutation of size n, defining Ω
n
as the number of
exchanges used by Floyd’s algorithm to construct a heap from this permutation, we have [21, Thm 4]
Pr¦

n
−c
1
n

c
2
n
< x¦ = Φ(x) +O
_
log n

n
_
,
uniformly with respect to x, where c
1
= −2+

j≥1
j(2
j
−1)
−1
= 0.744033... and c
2
= 2−

j≥1
j
2
(2
j

1)
2
= 0.261217... Similar result holds for the number of comparisons and other construction algorithms
preserving randomness in each step, cf. [27].
For other examples on algorithms, see [19, Ch. 1].
Example 4. Ordered set-partitions. The generating function for the number of blocks (marked by w)
in an ordered set-partition is (1 −w(e
z
−1))
−1
. Obviously, e
z
−1 is 1-regular. Theorem 5 applies. We
can also consider other constraints like parity on the size of each block and on the number of blocks,
cf. [8, p. 225–226]. Many other examples can be found in [1, 14, 22] and [19, Ch. 7].
13
Example 5. Inversions in permutations. Given a permutation π = (π
1
, π
2
, . . . , π
n
) of ¦1, 2, 3, . . . , n¦,
a pair π
i
, π
j
is called an inversion if i < j and π
i
> π
j
. Let Ω
n
denote the number of inversions in a
random permutation of size n. Then it is easily seen that [24, ¸5.1.1]
Pr¦Ω
n
= m¦ =
1
n!
[z
m
]
_
(1 +z)(1 +z +z
2
) (1 +z +z
2
+ +z
n−1
)
_
.
From which we obtain
E(Ω
n
) =
n(n −1)
4
, and Var(Ω
n
) =
n(n −1)(2n + 5)
72
, (8)
for n ≥ 1. Theorem 7 applies and we get, in view of (8),
Pr¦

n
−n
2
/4
n
3/2
/6
< x¦ = Φ(x) +O
_
1

n
_
,
for all x.
Example 6. Erd˝os-Kac Theorem. Define a random variable ξ
n
by its probability distribution:
Pr¦ξ
n
= m¦ =
1
n
[¦k : 1 ≤ k ≤ n, ω(k) = m¦[ =
1
n
[z
m
]

1≤k≤n
z
ω(k)
,
where ω(n) denotes the number of distinct prime divisors of n, e.g., ω(23
4
5
6
7
8910
11
12
13
141516
) = 6.
It is known that E(ξ
n
) = log log n + O(1), and Var(ξ
n
) = log log n + O(1). The Erd˝ os-Kac Theorem
states that
Pr¦
ξ
n
−log log n

log log n
< x¦ →Φ(x).
The convergence rate was first conjectured by Le Veque and then proved by R´enyi and Tur´ an [30] to
be O((log log n)

1
2
). Let us apply Theorem 1 to establish this fact.
Starting with the well-known Selberg’s formula [32]
M
n
(z) := E(e
ξ
n
z
) = V (e
z
)(log n)
e
z
−1
_
1 +O
_
1
log n
__
,
uniformly for [·z[ ≤ π, where V (t) is an entire function in the t-plane, we readily obtain
Pr¦
ξ
n
−log log n

log log n
< x¦ = Φ(x) +O
_
1

log log n
_
,
uniformly with respect to x.
For many other examples, see [10] and [19, Ch. 9].
Example 7. Number of factors in square-free factorizations. Let f
n,k
denote the number of factor-
izations of n into k distinct factors greater than 1, n ≥ 2, k ≥ 1. Define f
1,k
= δ
0,k
, where δ
a,b
is
Kronecker’s symbol. Consider the bivariate generating function:
P(w, s) := 1 +

n≥2
n
−s

m≥1
f
n,m
w
m
,
14
which equals to
P(w, s) =

n≥2
_
1 +
w
n
s
_
('s > 1, w ∈ C).
Define a polynomial P
n
(w) := 1 +

2≤k≤n

m≥1
f
k,m
w
m
and a random variable ξ
n
for which
Pr¦ξ
n
= m¦ =
[w
m
] P
n
(w)
P
n
(1)
.
We show in [19, Ch. 10] that
P
n
(w) =
ne
2

wlog n
2

π(log n)
3/4
w
3/4
(1 +w)Γ(w)
_
1 +O
_
1

log n
__
,
the error term being uniform with respect to w ∈ C¸ (−∞, 0]. Thus we obtain
M
n
(z) := E(e
ξ
n
z
) =
2 e
2

log n(e
z/2
−1)−3z/4
Γ(e
z
)(1 +e
z
)
_
1 +O
_
1

log n
__
,
and Theorem 1 gives
Pr¦
ξ
n


log n
4
_
1
4
log n
< x¦ = Φ(x) +O
_
1
4

log n
_
,
for all x.
For other examples, see [19, Ch. 10].
Example 8. Hermite polynomials. The number of fixed points (cycles of length 1), marked by w, in
the involutions is enumerated by
exp
_
wz +
z
2
2
_
=

n≥0
h
n
(w)
n!
z
n
,
where h
n
(w) are Hermite polynomials. The asymptotic behaviour of h
n
(w) is well-known [34, p. 200]:
h
n
(w) = 2

1
2
n
n/2
e
−n/2+

n+1 w−w
2
/4
_
1 +O
_
1

n
__
,
uniformly for all finite w. Defining Ω
n
as the number of fixed points in a random involution, we obtain
M
n
(s) = E(e

n
s
) = e

n+1 (e
s
−1)−
1
4
(e
2s
−1)
_
1 +O
_
1

n
__
,
uniformly for [·s[ ≤ π. We obtain
Pr¦

n


n + 1
4

n + 1
< x¦ = Φ(x) +O
_
1
4

n
_
,
the O being uniform with respect to x, x ∈ R.
15
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Publications. AMS, Providence, Rhode-Island, forth edition, 1977.
18

Hence it is useful to establish general theorems from which one can conclude certain asymptotic results (especially. we derive an asymptotic expression for moments of integral order. we state an effective version of the central limit theorem of Haigh [16] (by establishing the convergence rate). With the aid of the Berry-Esseen inequality. o and ∼). All limits (including O. Flajolet and Soria [13. Define µn = E(Ωn ). 3. Briefly. Then. as a direct consequence of our general assumptions on the moment generating function. which. as n tends to infinity. statistical properties) for parameters in the underlying structure by verifying some basic analytic properties of the generating function. All generating functions (ordinary or exponential) will denote functions analytic at 0 with non-negative coefficients. it is applicable to the central limit theorems of Flajolet and Soria [13. 2 Main results 2 Let {Ωn }n≥1 be a sequence of random variables.the generating function side. arithmetical semigroups and orthogonal polynomials will be discussed in the final section. we shall make explicit the convergence rates in their central limit theorems. will be taken as n → ∞. If the distribution of Ωn is asymptotically normal. to e− 2 t . 15. 14] proved a series of central limit theorems for the parameter “number of components” in a wide class of combinatorial structures issuing principally from combinatorial constructions. we denote by Φ(x) the standard normal distribution: 1 Φ(x) = √ 2π x −∞ 1 2 e− 2 t dt 1 2 (x ∈ R). in most cases. 19]. σn = Var(Ωn ) and Fn (x) = Pr{Ωn < µn + xσn }. 13. computer algorithms. x (1) the pointwise convergence being uniform with respect to x in any finite interval of R. In the next section. Applying singularity and probabilistic analysis on bivariate generating functions. The symbol [z n ]f (z) represents the coefficient of z n in the Taylor expansion of f (z). The first −1 possible refinement to (1) is to determine the convergence rate. In particular. 14. Bender initiated this line of investigation. Examples from combinatorial enumerations. they obtain their results by showing that the characteristic function ϕn (t) of the normalized random variable Ω∗ in question (to be explained below) tends. 2 . Moreover. and this n establishes the weak convergence of the distribution function Fn (x) of Ω∗ to the standard normal law n by Levy’s continuity theorem. whenever unspecified. see [1. 7. 14] which we shall discuss in section 3. we propose a simple theorem on convergence rate which turns out to have wide applications. Throughout this paper. x ∈ R. 2. This theorem is borrowed from [21] where we applied it to derive the asymptotic normality of the cost of constructing a random heap. then Fn (x) satisfies sup |Fn (x) − Φ(x)| → 0. is of order σn . probabilistic number theory.

Our object is not to search for results of the most general kind but for those which are easy to apply for combinatorial and number-theoretic problems. where (i) Hn (s) = u(s)φ(n)+v(s). Suppose that F (−∞) = G(−∞). u (0) = 0. turn out to be sufficient. (ii) φ(n) → ∞. T is an arbitrary positive number. the distribution of Ωn is asymptotically Gaussian: Pr{ Ωn − u (0)φ(n) < x} = Φ(x) + O u (0)φ(n) 1 + κn 1 . F (∞) = G(∞). t T (2) 3 . p. Suppose that the moment generating function satisfies the asymptotic expression: Mn (s) := E(eΩn s ) = m≥0 Pr{Ωn = m}ems = eHn (s) 1 + O κ−1 n . the O-term being uniform for |s| ≤ τ . ∞ γ(t) = −∞ eitx dG(x). 2 Proof. this subject is almost thoroughly studied when Ωn can be decomposed as a sum of (independent or dependent) random variables. when probability generating function or characteristic function are available. (iii) κn → ∞. To obtain an upper bound for the difference |Fn (x) − Φ(x)|. the latter being usually more manageable. τ > 0. s ∈ C. G(x) a differentiable function of bounded variation on the real line. The following theorem is motivated by the observation that many asymptotically normal distributions have mean and variance of the same orders. and |G (x)| ≤ A. φ(n) uniformly with respect to x.The most general method for establishing the convergence rate (not restricted to normal limiting distribution) is the Berry-Esseen inequality (see (2 below) which relates the estimate of the difference of two distribution functions to that of corresponding characteristic functions. with u(s) and v(s) analytic for |s| ≤ τ and independent of n. 109]: Let F (x) be a non-decreasing function. Theorem 1 Under these assumptions. especially. Then for every b > 1/(2π) we have T sup −∞<x<∞ |F (x) − G(x)| ≤ b −T ϕ(t) − γ(t) A dt + r(b) . ϕ(t) and γ(t) the corresponding Fourier-Stieltjes transforms: ∞ ϕ(t) = −∞ eitx dF (x). we content here with presenting two simple theorems which. Since in probability theory. Let µn = u (0)φ(n) and σn = u (0)φ(n). especially when Fn (x) is a step-function. we shall estimate the ratio |(ϕn (t) − e −t2 /2 )/t| and apply the following Berry-Essen inequality [29. x ∈ R. for most of our applications. Define the random variable Ω∗ = (Ωn − µn )/σn with n distribution function (characteristic function) Fn (x) (ϕn (t)) respectively. Let {Ωn }n≥1 be a sequence of integral random variables.

. . 3. . where 0 < c < τ is a sufficiently small constant. . a weaker sufficient condition is that |u (it)| and |v (it)| are bounded for s close to 0. . (3) φ(n)k κn (k = 1. 2 σn σ n κn for |t| ≤ Tn .). Since n |ϕn (t)| ≤ 1. we obtain ϕn (t) − e− 2 t t 1 2 = O = O 1 + t2 σn 1 + t2 σn exp − 1 2 t2 +O 2 1 σ n κn |t| + |t|3 σn + 1 σ n κn e− 4 t + (|t| ≤ Tn ). . 2. 2. But the following theorem does require the analyticity of Mn (s). n By taking a small circle around the origin we easily deduce that En (s) = O |s|κ−1 for |s| ≤ c. . we shall show that Tn Jn = −Tn ϕn (t) − e− 2 t t 1 2 −1 dt = O σn + κ−1 . so that En (0) = 0 and En (s) = O κ−1 for |s| ≤ τ .). 2 The assumption that the moment generating function Mn (s) exists in the neighbourhood of 0 is not a necessary condition for the validity of Theorem 1. As is evident from the proof. Using the inequality |ew − 1| ≤ |w|e|w| for all complex w. σ n κn = O This completes the proof of Theorem 1.where r(b) is a positive constant depending only on b. n so that Theorem 1 follows from the inequality (2). Hence Tn Jn = −Tn ϕn (t) − e− 2 t t 1 2 dt 1 2 1 Tn 1 (1 + t2 )e− 4 t dt + σn −Tn κn 1 1 = O + . Let us write Mn (s) = eu(s)φ(n)+v(s) (1 + En (s)). 3. Theorem 2 The k th moment of Ωn satisfies 1 mk Pr{Ωn = m} = πk (φ(n)) + O k! m≥0 where πk (X) is a polynomial in X of degree k define by πk (X) = [sk ]eu(s)X+v(s) 4 (k = 1. √ Take G(x) = Φ(x) (so that A = 1/ 2π) and T = Tn = cσn . we have ϕn (t) = exp − µn it it |t| it + u( )φ(n) + v( ) 1+O σn σn σn σ n κn 2 3 t |t| + |t| |t| = exp − + O +O . for c sufficiently small.

3. let us consider the cumulant generating function of Ωn : λn (s) := log Mn (s) = u(s)φ(n) + v(s) + Yn (s). the function λn (s) is n well-defined in a neighbourhood of the origin and is analytic there. where Yn (s) = O κ−1 . . some of the terms in πk (φ(n)) may be absorbed by the remainder term O φ(n)k κ−1 . . respectively. n Var(Ωn ) = u (0)φ(n) + v (0) + O κ−1 . |s|=r Clearly. 3 Combinatorial schemes of Flajolet and Soria We now apply Theorem 1 to establish effective versions of the central limit theorems considered in [13. . n Proof. we have π1 (X) = u1 X + v1 . . Similar arguments as above yield the required results (4) and (5) since the mean and the variance of Ωn are nothing but λn (0) and λn (0). . we obtain Rk (n) = O for k = 1. . For the more refined results (4) and (5). 5 . 2 2 2 φ(n)k κn . 14]. for each fixed k = 1. we obtain Pr{Ωn = m} m≥0 (4) (5) mk = πk (φ(n)) + Rk (n).. . Taking r = φ(n)−1 . 2. the mean and the variance of Ωn satisfy E(Ωn ) = u (0)φ(n) + v (0) + O κ−1 . 2 In general. This completes the proof.In particular. j = 1. 2. by Cauchy’s formula. the degree of the polynomial πk (X) is k. Since Mn (s) is analytic for |s| ≤ τ . The developments here are made possible since the singularity analysis provides uniform bounds on the coefficients of analytic functions. 3. n Corollary 1 We have mk Pr{Ωn = m} = u (0)k φ(n)k 1 + Ok m≥0 1 1 + φ(n) κn . Writing uj := u(j) (0) and vj := v (j) (0). 2. . k! where the remainder term Rn (n) satisfies Rk (n) = O 1 κn |s|−k−1 eu(s)φ(n) |ds| (0 < r ≤ τ ). π2 (X) = 2 u2 2 u2 + 2u1 v1 v2 + v1 1 X + X+ . 3. By the analyticity of Mn and the relation Mn (0) = 1. .

uniformly in z. only the weaker condition H(z) = K + o(1) for z ∈ ζ. a. etc. cycles in random mappings and random mapping patterns. C(z) = a log 1 + H(z). K). The condition that we imposed here on H(z) is weaker than that required in [14]. z ∈ ∆. 0 < δ < π ).1 Exp-log class The exp-log class covers such problems as cycles in permutations. This was the original condition used in [13]. For brevity. 6 . we shall refer to as saying that C(z) is logarithmic with parameters (ζ. z ∈ ∆). ζ) − S(1. profiles of increasing trees.3. z) = n. such that for z ∼ ζ. a. See [13. 1 − z/ζ where the function H(z) is analytic in the region ∆ := {z : |z| ≤ ζ + and | arg(z − ζ)| ≥ δ} ( > 0. By singularity analysis [14. z) is analytic for |z| < ζ + and |w| < 1 + . where K is some constant. ζ) + log × 1+O √ 1 log n . . Mn (s) = m≥0 > 0. z)) (C(0) = 0). K) and the function S(w. to ensure that both the mean and the variance are a log n + O(1). over an additive arithmetic semigroup under Knopfmacher’s axiom A# ). Remark. where C(z) is logarithmic with parameters (ζ. and as z → ζ in ∆. we obtain Pr{Ωn = m}ems := [z n ]P (es . suffices to guarantee the later. z) [z n ]P (1. irreducibles in polynomials over finite fields (and. z) Γ(a) Γ(aes ) (6) = exp (es − 1)a log n + K(es − 1) + S(es . ζ > 0 being the radius of convergence of C. 2 (with possibly a finite number of other branch cuts starting from the circle |z| = ζ). Recall that a generating function C(z) analytic at 0 is called logarithmic [13] if there exists a constant a > 0. 23. more generally. But by our Theorem 2. We first consider generating functions of the form P (w. H(z) = K + O log− 2 1 1 1 − z/ζ .m≥0 2 pnm wm z n = exp (wC(z) + S(w. 12] (see [19] for details). They need H(z) = K + o log−1 1 1 − z/ζ (z → ζ. 19]. uniformly for s in some complex neighbourhood of the origin.

ζ) . z) = exp(wC(z)). satisfies 1 (a log n)k mk Pr{Ωn = m} = 1 + O (log n)−1/2 k! m≥0 k! In particular.. z) = exp  (−1)k−1 k wk C(z k ) . Var(Ωn ) = a log n − aψ(a) − a2 ψ (a) + K + S2 + S1 + O (log n)− 2 1 where ψ denotes the logarithmic derivative of the Gamma function and the two constants S1 and S2 are defined by S1 = ∂ S(w. counted with multiplicity) wk P (w. z) = k≥1 wz k 1+ k! ck (ck := k![z k ]C(z)). Set construction:  k≥1 P (w. The result follows from Theorem 1. 4. 2]. z) = k≥1   wz k 1+ 1 − zk ck (ck := [z k ]C(z)). 3. Partitional complex construction: P (w.e. The above theorems apply to the following four classes of combinatorial structures when C(z) is logarithmic: 1. Ch. ∂w w=1 S2 = ∂2 S(w. Fn (x) = Φ(x) + O √ 1 . Multiset construction: (i) total number of components (i. ∂w2 w=1 2 Proof. Then Fn (x) satisfies. where Ωn and a are defined by (6). This will be discussed in the companion paper [20]. Further refinement of Theorem 1 is possible under slightly stronger conditions on H(z). Partitional complex construction in which no two components are order-isomorphic: P (w. uniformly with respect to x. k k≥1 (ii) number of distinct components (counted without multiplicity) P (w. log n 2 Proof. This follows from (6) and Theorem 2. k ∈ N+ . z) = exp  C(z k ) .√ Theorem 3 Let Fn (x) = Pr{Ωn < a log n + x a log n}. cf. since 1/Γ(aes ) = 0 for | (s)| < | log a|. the mean and the variance of Ωn satisfy E(Ωn ) = a log n − aψ(a) + K + S1 + O (log n)− 2 1 . 2. Theorem 4 The k th moment of Ωn .  when the dominant singularity of C is strictly less than 1. ζ) . when the dominant singularity of C is strictly inferior to 1. also [19. 7 .

C(z) ≡ z a D(z b ) for some generating function D(z) and integers a. 1 + A1 (w) 1 − 8 z ρ(w) + A2 (w) 1 − z ρ(w) 2 + ··· . . where β ∈ N. viz. where A(w) = 1 . we get C(z) = Thus 1 z = A(w) 1 − 1 − wC(z) ρ(w) −1 1 z − ρ(w)C (ρ(w)) 1 − w ρ(w) + ρ2 (w) z C (ρ(w)) 1 − 2 ρ(w) 2 + ···. z). 2. Let us fix a w. let us consider generating functions of the form P (w. Define the random variable Ωn by its moment generating function: Mn (s) = m≥0 Pr{Ωn = m} ems = [z n ]P (es . z) for sufficiently large n. 1. such that C(ρ) = 1. By the inverse function theorem. . where ρ satisfies C(ρ) = 1. Definition. b ≥ 2. let us first suppose that C(z) is 1-regular and consider the equation 1 = C(z). (1-regular function [14]) A generating function C(z) ≡ z q (q = 0. Of course ρ(1) = ρ. w ∼ 1. Lemma 1 Let Pn (w) := [z n ]P (w. w Since C(z) is 1-regular. being the radius of convergence of C(z). and α + β > 0.) analytic at z = 0 is called 1-regular if (i) its Taylor expansion at z = 0 involves only non-negative coefficients. namely. dxj Γ(x) x = α Proof. To start with. . The formula Pn (w) = Aα (w)ρ(w)−n nα−1 (log n)β 0≤k≤β β (log n)−k gj (α) (log A(w))k−j + k 0≤j≤k +O |ρ(w)|−n nα−2 (log n)β . Expanding C(z) at z = ρ(w). (ii) there exists a positive number ρ < . that C(z) is aperiodic.m≥0 pnm wm z n = 1 1 log α (1 − wC(z)) 1 − wC(z) β (C(0) = 0). .2 Algebraic-logarithmic class Next. holds uniformly for w ∼ 1. The following lemma is fundamental to further investigations. α ≥ 0. the above equation is locally invertible. [z n ]P (1. z) = n. wρ(w)C (ρ(w)) gj (α) = dj 1 . we have C (ρ) > 0.3. z) . Assume. without loss of generality. the equation has a unique solution ρ(w) for w ∼ 1 and ρ(w) is analytic at w = 1.

where A1 (w) = For P (w. β (log n)−k gj (0) (log A(w))k−j + k 1≤j≤k +O |ρ(w)| −n −2 n (log n)β . β = 1. Remark. Note that the indices of the last two sums both begin at 1 since g0 (0) = 1/Γ(0) = 0. gk (0) = k![xk ] 1 1 = k!(−1)k−1 [xk−1 ] Γ(x) Γ(1 − x) 9 . Pn (w) = ρ(w)−n n−1 (log n)β 1≤k≤β . we get 1 1 − wC(z) = Aα (w) 0≤j≤β α ρ(w)C (ρ(w)) . The double sum can be rearranged in descending powers of log n: β (log A(w))β−j gj−k (α)(log n)k j 0≤k≤j β (log n)−k gj (α) (log A(w))k−j . From a computational point of view. 4C (ρ(w))2 6C (ρ(w)) log 1 1 − wC(z) β β z (log A(w))β−j 1 − j ρ(w) −α+1 −α log . when β = 0 and α > 0. 2C (ρ(w)) A2 (w) = ρ2 (w) C (ρ(w))2 C (ρ(w)) − . In particular. we obtain Pn (w) = Aα (w) 0≤j≤β β (log A(w))β−j gj−k (α)(log n)k j 0≤k≤j + O |ρ(w)|−n nα−2 (log n)β . we can apply the singularity analysis [12]. . the following expressions for gk (0) are useful. Thus transferring to coefficients. Pn (w) = ρ(w)−n n−1 1 + O n−1 and when α = 0 and β > 0. we obtain Pn (w) = Aα (w)ρ(w)−n nα−1 1 + O n−1 when α = 0. 1 1 − z/ρ(w) j + +O 1− z ρ(w) log 1 1 − z/ρ(w) β By the remark before the lemma. z). k 0≤j≤k 2 0≤j≤β = (log n)β 0≤k≤β This completes the proof.

O (log n)−1 . 2 3 (ρ) ρC (ρ) ρC (ρ) √ Theorem 5 Let Fn (x) = Pr{Ωn < α1 n + x α2 n}. ρ−n (7) uniformly for |s| ≤ τ . 3. where the two constants L1 . if (α = 0 and β ≥ 2) or (α > 0 and β > 0). L2 are given by L1 := L2 := 1 C (ρ) + −1 ρC (ρ) C (ρ)2 2 2 3 3 2 4 2 2 2 2αρC1 C2 +αρ2 C2 −ρ2 C1 C2 −ρC1 +ρC1 C2 −2αρC1 +2ρ2 C2 −ρ2 C1 C3 +αρ2 C1 −2αρ2 C1 C2 +αC1 +C1 . In particular.) 10 . n uniformly in x. if (α > 0 and β = 0) or (α = 0 and β = 1). 3. 2. .β (n) .= k!(−1)k−1 [xk−1 ] = k(−1)k−1 0≤j≤ Γ(x) sin πx π (−1)j π 2j k−1 Γ(k−2−2j) (0) 2j + 1 k−2 2 = 0≤j≤ k−1 2 (−1)k−1+j π 2j k Γ(k−1−2j) (1). we have E(Ωn ) = α1 n + αL1 + O (εα.β (n)) . k! m≥0 where k (n) 2 is a polynomial in n of degree k defined by Πk (n) := [sk ] exp −n log ρ(es ) ρ es ρ(es )C (ρ(es )) ρC (ρ) −α .β (n) = O n−1 . . 2j + 1 Thus. Then Fn (x) satisfies 1 Fn (x) = Φ(x) + O √ + εα.β (n)). 4 2ρ2 C1 (Cj := C (j) (ρ) for j = 1. Theorem 6 The k th moment of Ωn satisfies 1 mk Pr{Ωn = m} = Πk (n) + O(nk εα.β (n)) . 2. for k = 1. Proof. x ∈ R. with Mn (s) := Pn (es )/Pn (1). we have. τ > 0. . Using (7) and Applying Theorem 1. Mn (s) = where εα. ρC (ρ) and α2 = ρ2 C 1 C (ρ) 1 + − . es ρ(es )C (ρ(es )) ρC (ρ) −α ρ(es )−n (1 + εα. Define two constants α1 = 1 .β (n)) Var(Ωn ) = α2 n + αL2 + O (εα. by Lemma 1.

Proof. z) = log 1 . the convergence rate is O n− 2 . 2 provided that the radius of convergence of C(z) in the last case is less than 1. [6. For Bender’s central limit theorem [1. where the Pnj (z) are polynomials such that (i) each Pnj (z) is itself a probability generating function of some random variable. say. 29]. 11 Mn Ωn − µn < x} = Φ(x) + O . VI] [17. we often have exponential convergence rate for Mn (s). It should be noted that for sequence constructions. The object of study here is sums of independent but not identically distributed random variables. where ϕ(k) denotes Euler’s totient function. See [21]. 1 4 A classical central limit theorem The following theorem is borrowed from [21] where we used it to derive the asymptotic normality of the cost of constructing a random heap.Proof. see. 1 − wC(z) P (w. Remark. z) = and to cycle constructions P (w. This follows from (7) and Theorem 2. Then the distribution of Ωn is asymptotically Gaussian: Pr{ uniformly with respect to x. σn σn . and (ii) Mn → 0. k C(z k ) k 1−w k≥1 1 1 − wC(z) (C(0) = 0). This problem has been extensively studied in the probability literature. Thm 1]. Theorem 7 Let {Ωn }n be a sequence of random variables taking only non-negative integral values 2 with mean µn and variance σn . σn where Mn = max1≤j≤kn deg Pnj (z). §27] [25. Without the explicit error term it is due to Haight [16]. Suppose that the probability generating function Pn (z) of Ωn can be decomposed as Pn (z) = 1≤j≤kn Pnj (z). z) = ϕ(k) 1 log . for some sequence {kn }n . Ωnj (1 ≤ j ≤ kn ). provided that the function A(s) in that theorem has bounded derivative for s near 0. These results apply to sequence constructions of both labelled and unlabelled structures P (w. for instance. it is omitted here. Ch. Since the proof has already been given there.

m) denotes Stirling numbers of the second kind. 13. 5]. then Ωn satisfies Pr{ Ωn − µn 1 < x} = Φ(x) + O . Pn (z) is a polynomial whose roots are all located in and on the half-plane 2 z ≤ 0.). Ch. for each fixed n ≥ 1. . It remains to show that σn → ∞. . Many other examples in this same (exp-log) class can be found in [5. . Cycles in permutations. have only simple non-positive roots. 23. 2. The number of permutations having m cycles is enumerated by the (signless) Stirling number of the first kind s(n. Harper [18] showed that the polynomials Pn (z) := 0≤m≤n S(n. Example 1. Proof. So we turn to Theorem 7. 2 In particular. If σn → ∞. cf. σn σn for −∞ < x < ∞. The generating function for the number of blocks (marked by w) in set partitions satisfies S(n. . Theorem 1 is not applicable since.5] and [19. M = 2 in Theorem 7. m) z m (n = 1. Example 2. 5 Examples Let us discuss some typical examples from different applications. Suppose that. bn bn 12 .Corollary 2 Let Pn (z) be a probability generating function of the random variable Ωn . 33] [26. m): s(n. n ≥ 1). n ≥ 1. m) := [wm z n ] exp w log 1 1−z = [wm ] (w(w + 1) · · · (w + n − 1)) (1 ≤ m ≤ n. . where each of the n! permutations is equally likely. defined as the number of cycles in a random permutation of {1. σn := Var(Ωn ). the mean and the variance are not of the same order. We obtain Ωn − log n 1 Pr{ √ < x} = Φ(x) + O √ . then the results of the corollary hold. m) wm n. §2. Both Theorems 3 and 7 apply to the random variable Ωn . n}. log n log n a result originally due to Goncharov (without error term). . 2 σn := Var(Ωn ) = bn+2 bn+1 − − 1 → ∞.4 and 2. namely. [18]. 2. 3. if all roots of Pn (z) are non-positive. .m≥0 zn z = ew(e −1) . where µn = E(Ωn ). A permutation is a set of cycles. as we shall see. Stirling numbers of the second kind. n! where S(n.

given a random permutation of size n. We can also consider other constraints like parity on the size of each block and on the number of blocks. c2 n n uniformly with respect to x.744033. see [19. Using the asymptotic expression [9. Ch.j (z) are polynomials of degree ≤ log2 n.. Ch. σn n uniformly with respect to x. cf. Moreover. Similar result holds for the number of comparisons and other construction algorithms preserving randomness in each step. 225–226]. More precisely. it is not hard to show that 2 σn = 1− ρ2 (2ρ2 + 7ρ + 10) +O 24 n (ρ + 1)3 ρ2 n2 . Alternatively. see [31. Cost of heap construction.. Many other examples can be found in [1. Obviously. 1]. we can write Pr{ Ωn − n/ρ log n < x} = Φ(x) + O √ . 14. Thus Theorem 7 applies with Mn = log n to both cases [21]. defining Ωn as the number of exchanges used by Floyd’s algorithm to construct a heap from this permutation. n n + O(1) ∼ → ∞. Example 4. p. cf. 13 . where pn. [8.. For other examples on algorithms. Example 3. 7]. For other examples. ez − 1 is 1-regular. Doberkat [11] shows that the probability generating functions for the number of exchanges and for the number of comparisons used by Floyd’s algorithm to construct a heap of size n have the form 1≤j≤n pn. [27].261217. Ch. m).j (z). 28].where bn := n! [z n ]ee z −1 are the Bell numbers. we have [21. Theorem 5 applies. defining Pr{Ωn = m} := b−1 S(n. bn ρ log n The asymptotic normality is due to Harper [18]. Ordered set-partitions.. the mean and the variance are all linear. where c1 = −2+ j −1 j≥1 j(2 −1) = 0. The generating function for the number of blocks (marked by w) in an ordered set-partition is (1 − w(ez − 1))−1 . where µn = E(Ωn ) = n n bn+1 − 1 = + O(1) ∼ . and c2 = 2− j≥1 j 2 (2j − 1)2 = 0. 6] −1 en(ρ+ρ −1)−1 √ bn = ρ+1 where ρeρ = n. ρ(ρ + 1) (log n)2 so that Theorem 7 gives. n Pr{ Ωn − µn log n < x} = Φ(x) + O √ . n n/(ρ(ρ + 1)) but this formula cannot be further simplified by using the asymptotics of ρ. 22] and [19. Thm 4] log n Ωn − c1 n Pr{ √ < x} = Φ(x) + O √ .

It is known that E(ξn ) = log log n + O(1). log log n The convergence rate was first conjectured by Le Veque and then proved by R´nyi and Tur´n [30] to e a be O((log log n)− 2 ). k ≥ 1.. and Var(ξn ) = log log n + O(1). Number of factors in square-free factorizations. π2 . we readily obtain 1 ξn − log log n < x} = Φ(x) + O √ . The Erd˝s-Kac Theorem o states that ξn − log log n Pr{ √ < x} → Φ(x). 9]. in view of (8). e. see [10] and [19. uniformly for | z| ≤ π. πn ) of {1. . 72 (8) 1 m [z ] (1 + z)(1 + z + z 2 ) · · · (1 + z + z 2 + · · · + z n−1 ) . Consider the bivariate generating function: P (w. Example 6.b is Kronecker’s symbol. Pr{ √ log log n log log n uniformly with respect to x. n ≥ 2. Define a random variable ξn by its probability distribution: o Pr{ξn = m} = 1 1 |{k : 1 ≤ k ≤ n. Pr{ for all x. Starting with the well-known Selberg’s formula [32] Mn (z) := E(eξn z ) = V (ez )(log n)e z −1 1 1+O 1 log n .k = δ0. ω(k) = m}| = [z m ] z ω(k) . 14 . n}.Example 5. . Define f1. Example 7.m wm . ω(2·34 ·56 ·78910 ·1112 ·13141516 ) = 6. 4 and Var(Ωn ) = n(n − 1)(2n + 5) . s) := 1 + n≥2 n−s m≥1 fn. 3. Theorem 7 applies and we get.g. where δa. For many other examples. Then it is easily seen that [24. . πj is called an inversion if i < j and πi > πj . a pair πi . n! for n ≥ 1. Given a permutation π = (π1 . . Let Ωn denote the number of inversions in a random permutation of size n. . . where V (t) is an entire function in the t-plane.k denote the number of factor- izations of n into k distinct factors greater than 1. Erd˝s-Kac Theorem. §5.1] Pr{Ωn = m} = From which we obtain E(Ωn ) = n(n − 1) . Inversions in permutations. n n 1≤k≤n Ωn − n2 /4 1 < x} = Φ(x) + O √ .k . Let fn. Let us apply Theorem 1 to establish this fact. . n n3/2 /6 where ω(n) denotes the number of distinct prime divisors of n. .1. Ch. 2.

w ∈ C). log n where hn (w) are Hermite polynomials. 0]. Γ(ez )(1 + ez ) log n and Theorem 1 gives Pr{ for all x. 200]: hn (w) = 2− 2 nn/2 e−n/2+ 1 √ n+1 w−w2 /4 1 1+O √ n .which equals to P (w. the error term being uniform with respect to w ∈ C \ (−∞. x ∈ R. Ch. m Define a polynomial Pn (w) := 1 + 2≤k≤n m≥1 fk. 1 √ . The asymptotic behaviour of hn (w) is well-known [34. 10] that [wm ] Pn (w) . We obtain √ Ωn − n + 1 √ Pr{ < x} = Φ(x) + O 4 n+1 the O being uniform with respect to x. Defining Ωn as the number of fixed points in a random involution. uniformly for all finite w. p. Example 8. n! n≥0 ξn − 4 √ log n 1 4 < x} = Φ(x) + O log n √ 4 1 . 4 n √ n+1 (es −1)− 1 (e2s −1) 4 1 1+O √ n . The number of fixed points (cycles of length 1). Pn (1) √ 1 n e2 w log n 1+O √ Pn (w) = √ 3/4 w 3/4 (1 + w)Γ(w) log n 2 π(log n) . see [19. 10]. marked by w. Hermite polynomials. Thus we obtain √ z/2 1 2 e2 log n (e −1)−3z/4 ξn z Mn (z) := E(e ) = 1+O √ . s) = n≥2 1+ w ns ( s > 1. For other examples. 15 . in the involutions is enumerated by exp wz + z2 2 = hn (w) n z . Ch.m w and a random variable ξn for which Pr{ξn = m} = We show in [19. we obtain Mn (s) = E(eΩn s ) = e uniformly for | s| ≤ π.

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