KLBINB TEXTE FOR VORLBSUNGEN U ND OBUNGBN

BBCJlONOBT VON HANS LlBTZWANN
HBJlAUSCBGBBBN VON JCUJlT ALANO
189
AN ANTHOLOGY
OF BYZANTINE PROSE
BY
N I GEL G. WI LSON
WALTER DE GRUYTER · BERLIN· NEW YORK
1971
KLEINB TEXTE FOR VORLESUNGEN UND 0BUNGEN
BEGRONDET VON HANS LIBTZMANN
HBRAUSGEGEBEN VON KURT ALAND
189
AN ANTHOLOGY
OF BYZANTINE PROSE
BY
NIGEL G. WILSON
\\'ALTER DE GR UYTER · BERLIN · NEW YORK
1971
ISBN 3 11 001898 5
©
1971 b1 Waiter de Gm,tet & Co., -.orma1a G. J.
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(Prlaud ill Gamlm1)
Satz uad Druck: Waiter de Gm,tet & Co., Bcrlla.
What numbers of fine writers in the later
empire of Rome, when refinement was carried
to the highest pitch, have missed that fame
and immortality which they had fondly arrogated
to themselves? How many Greek authors, who
wrote at that period when Constantinople
was the refined mistress of the empire, now
rest either not printed, or not read, in the
libraries of Europe?
GOLDSMITH
The citizen of the world.
Introduction .
Abbreviations
CONTENTS
Cosmas Indicopleustes .
Procopius .. .
Agathias ... .
Ioannes Malalas
Ioannes Moschos
Theophanes the confessor
Methodios ...... .
Photius . . . . . . . . .
Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus
Ioannes Mauropous
Michael Psellos
Cecaumenos . .
Anna Comnena
Eustathius . .
Michael Choniates .
Timarion ....
Georgios Acropolites
Theodoros Lascaris .
Maximos Planudes
Theodoros Metochites
Nicephorus Gregoras
Manuel II
Bessarion
Ducas ..
Page
1
5
6
11
22
26
28
32
36
40
63
68
68
83
87
98
108
111
. . . 121
123
. 126
130
.. 136
. 142
146
.. 162
INTRODUCTION
This book is intended for students and scholars who would
like to learn about the Byzantine world from primary sources.
It has been designed mainly for those who already know some
classical Greek, but I hope that it may also tempt medieval
historians and students of modern Greek literature to make
their first direct acquaintance with an unusually fascinating
period of history.
My object has been to select from prose writers a number
of representative extracts which will give a general picture
of Byzantine life and culture. The only existing anthology
of this kind is a little book by G. Soyter, Byzantinische Ge-
schichtsschreiber, Heidelberg 1929, which seems to me too
short and limited in scope to be satisfactory.
The task of an anthologist is not easy. Byzantine literature
is so vast in bulk - Migne's Patrologia Graeca consists of a
hundred and sixty one volumes-that no one can read more
than a fraction of it, and consequently no fully representative
selection can be compiled without exceeding the limits of
space that must be observed in a book designed as an introduc-
tion. In order to stay within these limits I had to take difficult
decisions. The most practicable solution led to two restrictions
in the choice of passages. The first is chronological: following
the example of Beck and Krumbacher I have assumed that
Byzantine literature began in the reign of Justinian. As a
result some authors of the fourth and fifth centuries who are
important in themselves and were influential in Byzantium
have been left out. The writings of John Chrysostom, the
Cappadocian Fathers and Athanasius' Life of St. Antony are
the most obvious omissions. The second restriction is that,
whereas nothing has been done to obscure or minimise the
pervasive influence of the church in every sphere of life, some
kinds of theological literature, especially sermons, mys-
1 Wilson
2
INTRODUCTION
ticism and philosophical theology, have been excluded.
This may be thought a shortcoming, particularly in view of
the emphasis given to matters connected with the survival
and study of classical antiquity throughout the book. Perhaps!
should anticipate criticism by saying that the decision, though
not easy or welcome, seemed justifiable on two grounds. My
purpose has been not so much to give examples of every class
of prose writing as to offer a panorama of Byzantine life. In
addition it is a tenable proposition that the Byzantine contribu-
tion to theology is less important for the history of European
culture than the preservation and study of classical Greek
texts.
In the selection here offered to the reader the historians
claim the lion's share. That is only to be expected. Although
they mostly set to work with the narrow aim of writing
military and political history, they permitted themselves
digressions from the main theme which are admirably suited
for inclusion here. There is also little doubt that the historians
are the best writers of medieval Greece. Only their works
can stand the test of being translated into a modern language
for the benefit of a wider audience than professional scholars.
Of the other literary forms the letter is best represented, and
throughout the period it was practised with success by school-
masters, bishops, statesmen and even emperors.
The absence of two authors requires explanation. The story
of Barlaam and Joasaph, usually ascribed to St. John
Damascene, has been omitted, since I am inclined to share
the view of D. M. Lang, BSOAS 17. 2. 1955. 312---8, that it
is a translation from the Ge9rgian and not an original work
of Byzantine literature. And there is no specimen from the
works of Plethon. This is deliberate, since the proper appraisal
of his philosophical position is not yet agreed among scholars.
I suspect that the revolutionary nature of his ideas has been
exaggerated, and would refer the reader to E. Wind, The
pagan mysteries of the Renaissance, second edition, Penguin
Books 1967, 244-6. His economic ideas, however, designed
to strengthen the Morea, are reflected in the extract given
from Bessarion's letter.
INTRODUCTION
3
Most Byzantine prose was written with the object of
imitating the language and style of the great Athenian writers
of the fifth and fourth centuries B. C. The historians for
example attempted frequently and with varying degrees of
success to model their style on that of Thucydides. But that
did not prevent them from borrowing Ionic expressions from
Herodotus, who was also read and respected as a model.
Most writers permitted themselves to use the vocabulary of
the Septuagint and New Testament, and few could resist the
temptation of drawing on the large additional resources of
vocabulary offered by Hellenistic Greek. This modified or
impure Atticism lasted as long as the empire, and led to
excesses of virtuosity that were scarcely equalled by the most
dedicated practitioners of Ciceronianism in the Italian
Renaissance. Even when allowance is made for the slow pace
of linguistic change in Greek, this degree of archaism limited
freedom of expression so much that the result could not often
be more than mediocrity of literary achievement. Gibbon
roundly condemned Byzantine literature: 'Not a single
composition of history, philosophy or literature has been saved
from oblivion by the intrinsic beauties of style or sentiment,
of original fancy or even of successful imitation. In prose the
least offensive of the Byzantine writers are absolved from
censure by their naked and unpresuming simplicity; but the
orators, most eloquent in their own conceit, are the furthest
removed from the models they affect to emulate'. The highest
praise that a Byzantine author is likely to receive from· a
critic is that he writes a smooth pastiche, so as not to offend
the reader by linguistic incongruity, and at the same time
offers thought or narrative worthy of attention. Yet it is
hard to withhold a certain admiration for a man who handles
the classical language a millennium after its maturity as well
as Procopius does.
The development of the Greek language and the importance
of Atticism are described by R. Browning, Medieval and
modern Greek, London 1969, especially chapters 2--4.
Advanced students may like to consult G. Bohlig, Unter-
suchungen zum rhetorischen Sprachgebrauch der Byzantiner,
4
INTRODUCTION
Berlin 1956, 1-17, who shows that authorities did not always
agree in their definition of strict Attic practice.
In the commentary a large proportion of the notes are
linguistic, because it is important to show in detail how the
Byzantine authors deviated from the usage of their models
and what the components of their vocabulary are; the closer
the superficial resemblance to classical Greek the more
necessary it becomes to note the differences. Learned allusions
to classical authors are traced wherever possible; the educated
Byzantine reader was expected to be able to follow them.
I have not assumed that the extracts will necessarily be read
in the chronological order in which they are given, and for
that reason notes are occasionally repeated.
Byzantine Greek should be pronounced in the same way
as the modern language. The accent had changed from pitch
to stress by the fourth century, and most of the changes in
the values of vowels and consonants were complete by the
tenth century.
A very important feature in late Greek prose is that
writers attempt to follow a rule regulating the clausula; in
each clause the last two stressed syllables should if possible
be separated by an even number of unstressed syllables,
usually two or four (P. Maas, Greek metre, Oxford 1962,
17 para. 23). The earliest practitioner of this type of rule is
Himerius (Wilamowitz, Kleine Schriften IV 56ft.= Hermes
34. 1889. 216ff.). Different authors apply it in different ways,
so that it can be employed as a criterion for assessing the
authenticity of disputed works such as Procopius' Secret
History (P. Maas, BZ 21. 1912-3. 52).
In conclusion I record with pleasure my debt to two
friends, who have helped to make this book less imperfect
than it would otherwise have been. Prof. R. Kassel read the
manuscript and suggested many improvements in the com-
mentary. Dr. M. Winterbottom read a set of proofs and drew
my attention to other points in need of correction.
N.G.W.
BSOAS
BZ
DOP
EHR
GRBS
JHS
JOBG
LexPatrGr
LSJ
LXX
OrChrPer
ProcCambPhilSoc
Pauly-Wissowa
TAPA
ABBREVIATIONS
Bulletin of the School of Oriental and
African studies
Byzantinische Zeitschrift
Dumbarton Oaks Papers
English Historical Review
Greek Roman and Byzantine Studies
Journal of Hellenic Studies
Jahrbuch der Oesterreichischen byzanti-
nischen Gesellschaft
A patristic Greek lexicon, by G. W. H.
Lampe
A Greek-English lexicon, by H. G. Liddell,
R. Scott, H. Stuart J ones
The Septuagint
Orientalia Christiana Periodica
Proceedings of the Cambridge Philological
Society
Pauly-Wissowa-Kroll, Realencyklopadie
der classischen Altertumswissenschaft
Transactions of the American Philological
Association
COSMAS INDICOPLEUSTES (fl. c. 520-550)
Although the name and epithet are traditional, both are open to
doubt. The name is found in only one of the three manuscripts, and was
unknown to Photius in the ninth century; it could have been given to the
author because of his description of the cosmos. As to his travels, it is clear
that he was a merchant trading in the Red Sea and Ethiopia (see especially
2. 66), but what he says of India and Ceylon does not prove conclusively
that he had been there himself.
His work, the Christian Topography, is intended to refute Ptolemaic
theories of geography and astronomy; the Bible is the only accurate source
of knowledge; the world is shown to be shaped like the tabernacle of Moses.
The combination of bigotry and naivete is unattractive but revealing. There
are many digressions, which are often valuable sources for the history of
trade between Byzantium and the Orient. The author arranged for his work
to be profusely illustrated, and there is a fascinating series of miniatures in
the manuscripts.
Photius' summary and co=ents are printed below (pp. 000). The
book's popularity in Byzantium is difficult to estimate, but translations of
it were made into several Slavonic languages.
Edition with French translation and commentary: W. Wolska-Conus,
Paris 1968-, in progress(= Sources Chretiennes 141); for books V-XII
text by E. 0. Winstedt, Cambridge 1909.
•yTr66ecns
TlVES 'KO:l T'l')v 6e{a:v rpa:cpf}v IJ.T)5ev
• &XA.a Treplcppovovv-res Ka:l \rrrepcppovovv-res, Ka:-ra
TOVS <plAOO'O<pOVS acpa:lpl'KC>V elva:l TO OXflJ.lCX TOV ovpa:vov
5 b< T6>V 'liAlCX'K&>V 'KO:l O'eAT)VlCX'K6>V b<Af{l.fJEc.:>V
TrACXVOOIJ.EVOl. TrCXO'CXV To{vvv Tf\S Tf}v \nr66ea1v els TrEVTE
2 VOI.Itl;61JSVOt: i.e. Christians who are acquainted with Greek scientific
theory. The polemic is directed at least in part against his contemporary
John Philoponos, the commentator on Aristotle. 4 TOVs usually
'pagans'; here it may include heretics as well. 6 Titvre: there are now
twelve books, the last seven being subsequent additions by the author.
COSMAS INDICOPLEUSTES
7
&p"'-oS{ws StetA.6"'-flV. TrpwTov mxVTwv TrPOs Tovs
Kal o TrpwTos A.6yos 00s ov SvvaTov Tov
chrayea6at Tij Trt6avij TWV
10 TrAcXVTJ, E-repa Tfis 6e{as fpa<pf}S Kal yap TlS
6eA.i}aetev (3aaav{aat TCxS • EAA11 vtKCxS \rrroWaets, TrAaO""'-aTa
TrOVTc..:IS ropf]aet Kal ""veooST} aocp{a""aTa Kal &SvvaTa TraVTEAWS.
eha AOlTT'OV TrPOs TOV alTT}O"a""evov XptO"Tlavov ocpe{A.oVTa Myet V
,To\rrwv Tro{as XPTt &VTEtaayetv
15 &A116eis ;" o Se\JTepos A.6yos TCxS XptO"Ttavt-
KCxS Tiis 6e{as rpacpfls Kal Sf}AWV
TT'OVTOS TOV KOO"""OV TO O"Xfl"'-a, Kal OTl TWV TraAOlWV
TotaVTT}s eha TrcXAtv ooaavel Ttvos chropovVTos
Kal ,Tr66ev Sf}A.ov et CxAfl6eVet MwOO"f}s Kal ol Trpocpf}Tat
20 TotaiiTa ;" 6 TpiTos A.6yos To chroSe{Kvvatv
Kal TWV TrpO<pflTWV, Kal OTl ovK &cp• tavTwv
&AA. • eK 6e{as &TroKaAV'f'EWS Kal SoKt"'-ao-WVTes
epyCf> Kal TrPcXy"'-aTl, Trpoeewpi}aaVTES aVTCx OVTc..:IS Kal
oi ev Tij TTaA.at<;X Kal ol ev Tij Ne((:, Kal T{ TO XPTJO"l""OV TWV
25 O"Xfl"'-OT(A)V TOV KOO"""OV, Kal Tr66ev &cpop""l)v Kal &pxl)v eaxev
Tiis acpa{pas ti \rrr6vota. eha TrcXAt v Trepl TWV Tro6ovVTwv O'f'El
TrapaA.a(3eiv TCx O"Xi!"'-aTa, 0 TETapTOS AOYOS aVVTO"'-OS
&vaKecpaA.a{wats Kal Staypacpl) Twv \rrrapxwv,
Kal Tiis acpa{pas Kal TWV CxVT1Tr6Swv ti avaTpoTri}. eha TrcXAlV
ao Trpos Tov alTT}o-6:'-'-evov TCxS XptO"TtavtKCxS 6
A.6yos SflA.wv 00s o\Jx tavTois TrAaaa"'-evot, o\rre
""veovs ecpevpf}K6TES, ii &AA. chro-
7 apiJoSfoos: first in Plut. Arist. 24, ace. to LSJ. 10 lav ... eeAiJOl:te: the
optative is incorrect; compare Photius' comment below, p. 42. 13
).onrov reinforces eha, a Hellenistic usage common in late and modern
Greek. TO\/ ••• AtyEtv: 'the Christian who must necessarily ask'. 17
Cosmas permits himself to quote Ephorus, Pytheas of Massilia and Xeno-
phanes at 2. 78-80 in support of his thesis. 21 lAO:AT)aav: 'spoke'; in
Attic usually derogatory, 'chatter'. 22 liJ1TliEVa6tVTEs: 'inspired'; LSJ
quote this sense first from Longinus 16. 2. 23 1Tpo6eoopiJaaVTES: 'having
considered these things in advance'. i. e. by revelation. 24
Ntq: i.e. llta6iJK1J. xPilatiJ0\1: because it conforms to a certain eschatol-
ogy, as outlined below. 28 avaKEcpCIAafooats: 'summary', first in Dion.
H. 1. 90. StaypcxcpiJ. 32 SteypO:\jlcxiJE\1: the diagrams are clearly inten-
ded as an integral part of the book.
8
COSMAS INDICOPLEUSTES
KcxAU\vsoos Kal esov "TOV "TC>V KOO'IJ.OV SfliJ,lOVpYI'l-
O'OV"T05, &oopf)aav,-ss "To "TOV 1TOV"T0s KOO'IJ.OV, -rl)v
as 01<flvf}V "Akyoo -rl)v \nro Moovaioos Ka"Ta01<svaa&iaav, f)v Kal f)
Nia O'VIJ.<pOOVOOS 1TOV"TOs "TOV KOO'IJ.OV cxV-rTtv E<pflO'SV
dva1, t;v Kal S1EA.oov 6 Moovafis Sul: "TOV Ka"Ta1TS"TCxaiJ.a"T05, -rl)v
ds Svo 1TS1TO{flKSV, Ka66:1Tsp Kal 6 esos &pxiis "TOV
xoopov "TOV "TOV &1To "Tf\S yfls "TOV ovpavov Sul: "TOV
40 CTTSpSOOIJ.a"TOS Slsi'Asv ds Svo xoopovs· tv "Tij 01<flVij ,;
Kal tv,-a\i6a Ka"TOO"TSpOS Kal avoonp05 xoopos. 6 Ka700-
7Sp05 tCTTL v 6 o\Fr05, 6 &voonpos Se 6
ev6a Kal 6 AE0'1TO"TflS XplCTTOs Ka"TO aapKa tK VSKpoov O:vaCTTCxS,
1rpOO"Tos 1Tav,-oov &vsi\T)i\v6sv, Kal ot S£Ka1o1 ,.aV,-a 1TOA1V
45 aVSAEVO'OV"Tal. Kal chl &1To "TOV • llixP• Kal &1To
'looavvov, Kal &1To 'looavvov 1TaV"Tss ot &1T6-
CTToi\ol Kal svcxyysAlCTTa{, 1TCxV"TES, Kal S1a i\6yoov Kal
Sla "TV1Toov 1TEpl "TOOV Svo "TOV"Toov Ka"TaCTTaaeoov, Kal chl
ouSels aV"Toov SlS<pOOVflO'SV, o\i-rs 1Tp0 7aV"TflS d1TOOV o\i-rs
so -rl}v SEV"Tipav ,.p{"Tflv &XAa 1TcXV"TES oos
6s{ov n VEVIJ-0705 "TOS Svo Ka"TOCTl'CxO'SlS
oesv eappf)aav,-ss "Tij 6s£q: OV"TOOS rpacpij,
Kal "TO axT!IJ.a"TO "TOV 1TOV"T0s KOO'IJ.OV, Kal aV"TOVS Kal "TOVS
"T01TOVS tv ols ropf)as1s Kal -ri}v aV"Toov "TOOV 'lapOflAl"T00\1,
55 Kal "TO opos tv 4> "TOV VOIJ.OV tyypacpoos Kal "TOOV
Ti}v 1Tsipav Kal "Tf\S 01<flViiS -ri)v S1aypacpf)v,
Kal -ri)v Ka"TcXO"XSO'lV aV"Too\1 Ti}v tv "Tij yij "Tf\S rncxyysA{as,
&)(p•s av 6 aV"Toov Kal 1TPOKflpV7761J.eV05 S1<x
1TCxV"TOOV "TOOV apxa£00\1 av6poo1TOO\I Kal 1TpO<pfl"TOOV
60 &vaSslKvvoov -rl)v SSV"Tepav Ka"TaCTTaalv, f)v Kal
tv 1TCXO'l\l dO'sA6oov ds "Tft\1
34 b<J,Jcxydov: 'model', originally
'impress, imprint'. 35 cn<TlviJv: 'tabernacle'. 36 The quotation is
not accurate. 37 KCXTCX'ITETaaJJCXTOS: 'veil'; Hellenistic. 40 crrepeooJ,Jcx-
Tos: 'firmament', as in the LXX. 44 1TaAtv: 'in their turn'. 45 6-n:
'(note) that'. 48 T{nroov: perhaps 'images'; alternatively 'written pro-
nouncements', a technical term in the civil service. 55 A common
theme of early Christian polemic is that the Jews achieved a concept of
law and knowledge of writing earlier than the Greeks; Cosmas returns to
the topic in book XII. 57 Kcrraoxeatv KTA.: 'establishment in the
promised land'. 60 avcxSetKvVOOV: 'proclaiming'; Hellenistic.
COSMAS INDICOPLEUSTES
9
O"KT')vflVI els TOV &voo-rspov ovpCxV10V xoopovl els ov Trpocr-
KaAEiTa1 Tovs SlKa{ovs Tij TrapovaiCit Myoov ,Se0-re
1
ol
e\JA.oyt)I-\Evo1 ToO TiaTp6s IJOVI l<AT')povol.l-ftaa-rs -rl}v f)T011Jaai-\Evf)v
65 VIJiv j3aa1A.etav &Tro KaTaj3oA.fis K6a1.1ov." a\JT4> t; els Tovs
aloovas. &1.1-ftv.
2. 75
1
77 The eternity and primacy of the Roman empire
ovv ti j3aa1A.eta TOOV •poo1Ja{oov TOOV Tfis
J3aa1A.etas Tov XplO'TOV I Traaas V1fepa{povaa oaov
KaTa TOV J3{ov TOVTOV
1
CxTtTTfiTOS S1aJ,\Evovaa
Tfjs avVTeA.e{as· ,els Tov aloova yap" cpf)aiv ,ov S1acp6ap-ftaETa1."
5 Kal rnl J,.LSv TOV XplO'TOV els TOV aloova TO Cm:A.e&rr}TOV
O'T')IJa{vE1
1
Ka6a Kal 6 faJ3pn'}A. Tij A.eye1 ,KalJ3aalA.eVae1
rnl TOV o{KOV •taKooj3 els TOVS aloovasl Kal Tfjs f3a0'1Ae{as aVTOV
OVK EO'T01 I rnl Se Tfjs • Poo1Ja{oov j3a0'1Ae{as oos O'VVOVaTEl-
ACxO'T')S T't> Xp10'T4l els Tov aloova Toii-rov ov Slacp6ap-ftO"ETal.
10 eappoov yap &Trocpa{VOIJOll OTl el Kal S1a Tas til.lrnpas cXIJapT{as
lfPOs TfalSe{av 6A.{yov J3apJ3apol Tij • PooiJaV{Cit rnav{-
O'TaVTall C:il\Aa Tij SvvaiJEl Tov SlaKpaToVVTOS CxTtTTfiTOS
ti J3aalA.e{al rnl TO l.lfJ O'TEVOV0"6al Ta TOOV XplO'T1avoovl
C:il\Aa TfAcrrVVE0"6a1. Kal yap Kal TrpOOTOV j3aa{Ae10V rn{O"TEVO'EV
15 Xp10'T4l Trapa Ta A.omal Kal ti j3aa1A.eta Vlff)ph1s
Toov TOV XplO"Tov olKovo1JlOOV
1
ilv S1a Taii-ra cpvA.Cx-r-re1 6 Toov
OAOOV LleO'Tf6TT')s eeos CxTtTTfiTOV Tfjs O'VVTEAe{as. Tij
yap •pooiJa{oov yij TrpOOTOV rnl TOOV CxlfOO'T6AOOV TO
XplO'TlOVlKOV K{]pvyl.lal Kal TfCxAlV Tiepa{S1 Sla eas-
20 Sa{ov Tov &TfoO"T6A.ov. Kal Tais Ka6oA.1Kais
63 Matthew 25. 34.
4 avVTEA£1as: 'the end' (of time); Hellenistic in this sense. - Daniel
2. 44. 6 Luke 1. 33. 8 avvavcrretACtOTIS: 'rise together with'; Hellen-
istic. 11 •pw11avlq;: 'the Roman empire'. 14 1rAcrrVvea6at: at 3.
64-65 Cosmas surveys the diffusion of Christianity. 'empire',
a sense not attested in LSJ. 16 olKOVOI!twv: 'dispensations'. 17
2. 76 (here omitted) describes the Persian empire as second in importance
to the Roman. 19 The apostle Thomas was believed to have sent
Thaddeus to Edessa in the reign of king Abgar (Eusebius hist. eccl.
1. 13).
10
COSMAS INDICOPLEUSTES
ae oft tv Baf3v:Aoov1 &XA.a -ro -roov
• PooiJa{oov f3aaf:Aetov "!To:AAO: Ex,et tv -roV-rq>, 00$
Kal 1Tpoo-rov ov Kal 1Tp00-rov "'Ttcneiiaav els Xpta-rov Kal \rm')pe-
-rovv tv '1T00'1J -rfj Ka"TCx Xpta-rov rnpov
25 Svvaa-refas -roov • o aV-rois KE)(O:pta-rat 6 9e6s, Akyoo Sf}
8-rl tv -re;> aV-roov "'TOV"Ta -ra reVT), Kal tv
"!Tarn -r6'1Tq> &"!T• &Kpov yi)s eoos &Kpov yfls SEK-r6v ta-rtv,
"'TapO: "'Tav-ros &vepoo"'Tov Kal "'TOO'flS f3aat:Aefas,
o"'Tep hepc;x (3aat:Aefc;x o\Jx Vn-apxet -ro -rotoV-ro.
21 I Peter 5. 13. 22 -rrpoAftllllaTa: 'advantages'; Hellenistic. 27
SEKTov: 'acceptable'; first in the LXX.
PROCOPIUS (b. c. 500)
Of all Byzantine historians Procopius is the best from a stylistic point
of view (within his self-imposed limits), and he is equal to any of his rivals
in the interest of the story he has to recount. Having become a staff officer
or private secretary to Belisarius at an early age, he accompanied him on his
campaigns in Persia, Africa and Italy (627-40), as a result of which the
territories of the Roman empire were very greatly extended for a short
while. His main work, a history of the wars of Justinian in eight books,
has all the advantages that would be expected in an eye-witness account;
for modern taste its one failing is the inclusion of numerous speeches in the
manner of Thucydides. There are many interesting digressions, including
one on the Nika riots of 632. Since Procopius possessed great linguistic
ability as well as intellectual curiosity (he knew Syriac and Latin, and very
probably Gothic, Armenian and Persian), the accounts he gives of the
various races he came into contact with are sources of unique value for the
early history of central and northern Europe; where modern research is
able to verify his statements they are found to be accurate (see R. Benedicty,
JOBG 14.1966. 61-78).
At much the same time as he was writing the history which treats
Belisarius as a hero and is no more than moderately critical of imperial
policy, Procopius composed his Secret History, a ferocious invective against
Justinian and his wife Theodora, which has enjoyed a certain notoriety
ever since Gibbon relegated some of the more scabrous passages about
Theodora to his footnotes, saying 'her murmurs, her pleasures and her arts
must be veiled in the obscurity of a learned language'. It is not known what
provoked Procopius to this apparently schizophreD.ic state of mind.
There is also a monograph on various buildings constructed in Justinian's
reign, which describes elegantly and with much praise of the emperor such
monuments as Hagia Sophia.
Editions: J. Haury, Teubner 1905-13, reprinted with additions 1963--4;
H. B. Dewing and G. Downey, Loeb series. English translation of the Secret
History by G. A. Williamson, Penguin books 1966. On P. in general see
B. Rubin's article in Pauly-Wissowa. See also P. N. Ure, Justinian and his
age, Penguin books 1961. For an interesting note on P. 's account of England
see A. R. Burn, EHR 70. 1965. 268-61.
12
PROCOPIUS
History 1. 1. 1-5 Proem
TlpoK6'Tt'tOS Kcoacxprus 'TOVs 'Tt'Oi\t!Jovs ovs
'Iovcrrtvtcxvbs 6 •pc.o!Jcx{c.ov (3cxatAe\Js 'Tt'pos (3cxp(3apovs Snivcyt<e
'TOVS 'TE Kcxl oos 'TtTl cxV-rwv
yevea6cxt, oos l-l1'l epycx VrrEp!JeyEer, 6 IJE)'cxs cxlwv A6yov EPfliJCX
5 xetpc.oaCxj.lEVOS 'Tij 'TE A{}&t:l cxVTCx KCX'TCX'Tt'pOfl'TCXl Kcxl 'Tt'CXV'TCx'Tt'CXO'l\1
&i;'TCXl, OOV'Tt'Ep 'Tf}v 1-lvi}l-lfl\1 cxVTOs IJEyCX 'Tl eaea6cxt
Kcxl •a IJCxAtcrrcx Tois 'TE viiv ovat Kcxi Tots 'TO
E'Tt'El'TCX YEVTlO'OIJEVOlS, ei 'Tt'O'TE KCXi cxVets 6 xp6vos 6j.lo{cxv 'Tl\1Cx
•ovs &vepc.::movs &v(xyKflv StCxeol'To. •ois 'TE yap
10 Kcxi &AAc.os &yc.ovtov!JEvots OVI'la{v 'Ttvcx oicx 'TE
, 'Tiis lcrrop{cxs CrnOKcxAV'Tl"Tovacx IJEv O'Tt'Ol
'Tt'O'Te Tois 'Tt'poyeyeV111JEvo•s •a 'Tiis &yc.ov{cxs £xcbpflaev,
cxlvtaao!JEVI'l Se 6'Tt'o{cxv 'Tl\1Cx 'TEAEV'Tf}v 'TOiS ye oos aplO"TCX
(3ovAevo!JEvots 'TCx 'Tt'cxp6VTcx, oos 'TO elK6s, Kcx{ ot
15 'Tt'CxV'TC.OV IJCxAtcrrcx SvVCX'TOs wv TaSe
KCX'T' &AAo !-LEv ovSev, cht Se BeAtacxp{ct>
axeS6v 'Tl &ircxa1 'Tt'cxpcxyevea6cxt 'TOiS 'Tt'E'Tt'pcxy-
IJEV01S 'Tt'prnetv 'TE -i}yei'To Pfl'TOptKij IJEv SetVO'Tfl'TCX,
'Tt'Olfl'TtKij Se 1Jv6o'Tt'ottcxv, Se &A{}6etcxv. •cxii'Ta •o•
20 ovSe 'TOV 'TWV ol &ycxv rnt'TflSe{c.ov 'TCx 1JOX6r)pCx &'Tt'eKp\1\yCX'To,
&AAa •a 'Tt'cxat El<cxcrrcx &Kpt(3oAoyov1JEvos
\f-ICX'TO, ehe e\5 ehe it'fl &AAT) cxV-rois elpyaa6cxt
1 As a rule historians began with a statement of principle more or less
closely derived from their great models Herodotus and Thucydides, and
P. is no exception. Already in the second century Lucian (De historia
conscribenda 16) had poured scorn on facile imitation of this kind, but
the habit remained unaltered until the fifteenth century, when it is found
in Laonikos and Kritobulos. See H. Lieberich, Studien zu den
in der griechischen und byzantinischen Geschichtsschreibung, Munich
1899-1900. 5 In this passage P. depends more on Thucydides, but
is Herodotean. 8 This is reminiscent of Thuc. 2. 48 (on the
plague) ef 'TT'O'TE Kal aV61!) bnmao1. 11 il.lq>EpOV!): a favourite word of
Herodotus. 15 was used by Xenophon and Gorgias for
the Attic 18-19 An elaborate profession of veracity; a less
epigrammatic but otherwise similar idea is seen in Polybios 2. 56.
11-12. 19 TcxVTa: 'for this reason'.- In the remainder of the proem
P. argues that the war in question was more important than any previous
one; cf. Thuc.l.l. Belisarius' exploits make the claim moderately plausible.
PROCOPIUS
13
2. 22. 1-17 The plague
•y'TrO Se -rovs xp6vovs -roV-rovs AOlJ.lOS yeyovev, 00 Sf)
&rrav-ra 6:A{yov -ra &v6pooirEla elva1. &rraa1 J.,lev
OOV TO iS ovpavov rnl<n<ft'TT"TOVO'l V iaoos cXV Kal AEyOlTO TlS
\rrr• &vSpoov -roAJ.111Toov al-r{ov :A6yos, ola 'TroA:Aa <p1:Aova1v ot
5 -ra\i-ra Selvol al-r{as -repcx-reVea6al ovSaJ.,lfj &v6poom:t> KOTaATl'TT"TaS
ovaas, <pVO'lOAoy{as -re OVO'TrACxO'O"ElV \rrrepop{ovs,
J.,leV oos AEyOVO'lV ovSev VylES, &iroxpfiv Se 'l'ly.ovJ.,lEVOl acp{alv, f)v
ye -roov -r1vas -re;> :A6y<t> 'TT"Eiaooa1.
-roV-r<t> J.lEVTOl -re;> KaKc;'> irp6cpaa{v -r1va ii :A6y<t> el'Treiv ii
10 SlaVO{<f: :Aoy{aaa6al J.lTlXOvTt TlS ovSeJ.,l{a 'TrATtV ye Sf) oaa
TOV eeov &vacpepea6al. ov yap rnl J.,lEpovs -rfis yfjs ovSe &v-
6pcbirOOV TlO'l yEyOVEV ovSe TlVO oopav TOV hovs eaxev, o6ev cXV
Kal aocp{aJ.,la-ra al-r{as e\Jpea6a1 Svva-ra ei11, &AAa irep•ef36:AAE-ro
J.,lev -rf)v yfjv f3iovs Se &v6pcbiroov &rrav-ras
15 Ka{irep r!:iAA.it:Aoov -rovvav-r{ov irapa iro:Av S1a:AA6:aaov-ras,
OVTE <pVO'EOOS TlVOS OVTE f}AlK{as <pelO'CcJ.,lEVOV. ei-re yap xoop{oov
EVOlKf)O'el ei-re VOJ.l't> Sla{'TT}s. ii cpvaeoos -rp6ir<t>, ii rnl'TT}SeVJ.,lOO'lV,
ii &AA<t> 8-r<t> &v6pclnroov O:v6pooirol S1acpepova1v, -rcxV-nJ Sf)
J.lOV'Q -rij VOO<t> TO SlaAACxO'O'OV ovSev OOVTlO'eV. rnEOl<Tl't'e Se -rois
20 J.,leV OOP<f: eepovs. -rois Se xelJ.,lOOVl, -rois Se KOTa TOVS O:AAovs
Kalpovs. :Aeyhoo J.,lev oov oos 'Tr1l !Kaa-ros irepl aV-roov y•vooaKEl
Kal O'O<pla-rf)S Kal J.,lETeoopo:A6yos, eyoo Se o6ev -re 1'1
1 Thucydides' description of the plague at Athens was so famous that
later historians almost always took the opportunity of imitating it. P.
was not alone; in the fourteenth century we fi.nd Nicephorus Gregoras
(16. 1. 5) and John Cantacuzene (4. 8) describing the Black Death in
terms which owe something to Thucydides (in striking contrast to the
prologue of Boccaccio's Decameron). P. here deals with the outbreak of
bubonic plague in 542. 2 elvat: P. is obviously fond of this
adjective, which he used in his proem; more usual would have been
&cpavta6fivat. 4 ah(ov i\6yos: 'account of the cause', scarcely different
from ah(a. 6 cpvatoi\oy(as: apparently 'scientific explanation' rather
than 'investigation'. \nrepop(ovs: 'outlandish'; it is not clear against
whom this polemic is directed. 10 Tl5 is otiose. ooa: the general
sense is clear, but not the construction. 13-14 m:ptel30i\i\ETo ...
€!3i\mye: there does not seem to be much point in the variation of the
tenses. 17 v611ct': in its early sense of 'custom'. Stal'TT'Is: 'diet'.
14
PROCOPIUS
v6aos f)Se Ked Sf} Tovs &v6pooTiovs Stecp6etpev
epxo!Jal.
25 Alyvrrr{oov ot q>Kf}VTal
yeVOIJEV, Stxa lTf} rn{ TE • Kal Tiis CXAATlS
Aly&rr-rov lTf} rnl ITcx'AataT{ vovs TOVS Alyvrrr{ots
OIJOpovs fj'A6ev, TE KaTSAaj3e Tf}v yiiv aVIJlTaaav, oSc;>
TE ael lTpoiovaa Kal XP6V01S TOiS Kcx&f)KOVO'lV. rnl
so PTlTOiS yap xoopeiv Kal xp6vov TCXKTOV XOOP<iC
StaTptj3f}v E)(etv, ovSevas &v6poolTOOV lTapepyoos TW
XPOOilEV,, O'KeSaVVVIJEVTl llSxPl Tas Tiis oiKOV-
IlEVTlS ooO'lTep SeSotKVia ll'li TlS aVTT}v Tiis yiis Sta'ACxeot
llVX6s. OVTE yap vfia6v TlVa i1 CTTT"ft'AalOV i1 &Kpc.Opetav e'A{lTETO
85 &v6poolTOVS oiKf}Topas E)(ovaav· f)v Se lTOV Ttva Kal Tiapf)'Aaae
;; ll"Ti "J'aVO'aaa TOOV Tcx\m;l &v6poolTOOV i1 O:llooayelTOOS
aVTOOV O:"J'allEV,, &:A.Aa Tt;> miSts
rnaVlOVO'a TOOV llEV lTEpto{Koov, oTs Sf} lT1Kp6TaTa rnEO'KTl"J'E
lTpoTEpov, ovSallOOs ii"J'aTO, Ti;S xoopas ov lTpOTepov
40 CxlTEO'Tfl eoos TO llhpov 6p6oos Kal StKa{oos TOOV TETEAEVTfiKOTOOV
arreSooKEV, OOO'lTEp Kal TOiS O:ll<p. aVTT}v t;>KTliJEVOlS Tt;>
Stecp66:p6at TETVx11Kev. Se O:el Ti;s Tiapa-
'A{as Tj v6aos f)Se, o\hoo Si] Tf}v J,1Ea6yetov &vej3atve xoopav.
ETEl J..lEO'OVVTOS TOV fipos a<p{KETO, evea
45 Kal rntSTlllEiV T'llVlKaVTa ey{veTO ooSe. <pCxO'IJaTa
Satll6voov lTOAAois lTCXO'aV O:v6poolTOV ISeav oocpe,, 00'01 TE
a\JTois lTapaTI{TITotev, Tia{ea6at q>oVTo lTpos Tov
23 fpXOIJO:l: a Herodotean phrase, but for thegeneral sense cf. Thuc.
2. 48. 3. 25 ovv or yap might be expected. 29ff. The v6aos
is made the subject of numerous verbs, ending with the personification
ooCTTTEp SeSoncvla:, a usage which seems foreign to classical prose idiom.
rnl 'at a steady pace'. 38-39 Areas which had once suffered
were not subject to reinfection. 40 TO IJErpov: 'the due measure'; at
2. 23. 1 it means 'number'. 41 ooCTTTEp MSS.: 61TEp Haury, but prob-
ably no emendation is needed. 42 he Tiis 1Ta:pa:Aia:s: because it was
spread by rats in ships. 44 Theophanes says that the outbreak began
in October, which is unlikely. P. makes an autobiographical statement
here, perhaps because Thucydides had permitted himself one (a:VT6s TE
vocn1aa:s). 45 q>etO"IJCXTO: JCTA.: the description begins without a connect-
ing particle, a fine point of Atticism well observed by P. 46 Sa:tJ,l6voov
in this pejorative sense is not classical. 47 1TO:pcrrr11TTotev: here and at
60 below the compound in 1rep1- may be a better reading.
PROCOPIUS
15
O:vSpas, O"'TTl "'T<:xp<X'T\ixot Tov crooJ.laTOS, &!lex Te To cp6:crJ.lcx ToiiTo
Kcxl Tij cx\rr{Kcx f}A.{CYKoVTo. KaT• &pxexs J,.\Sv oov ot
50 "'TO:pCX"'TE"'TTOOKOTES &"JTOTprne0'6cxl cx\rrex rnetpOOVTO, TOOV TE
ovoJ,l<hoov TCx 6et6TOTCX Kcxl Ta &XA.cx
J.lEVOl, oos "'TTl ilvvov J.lEVTot To "'Tcxperncxv
ovSev, rnel KCxV Tois tepois ot "'TAeiO'TOl KaTCX<pEVyOVTES Stecp6e{-
poVTO. VO'TEpov Se ovSe TOiS cp{AOlS KcxAOVO'lV rnCXKOVElV
55 Cil\AO: cx\rrovs Tois SooJ,laT{OlS, OTl Si) OVK rncxtotev
1TpocrE"'TotovVTo, Kcx{"'Tep &pcxcrcroJ,lEvoov cx&:rois Toov 6vpoov,
SetJ.lcx{voVTEs S11A-ov6Tt J.lfl ScxtJ,l6voov TtS o Ko:A.oov ei11. Ttcrl Se
OtJx OVTOOS 0 AOlJ.lOs rney{vETo, &J\A.. OI.J'lV 6ve{pov IS6VTES
TcxVTO TOVTO 1Tpos TOV rnlO'TCxVTOS "'TOCYXEl V 11 A.6yov
60 &Kovetv 1TpoA.eyoVTos acp{crtv oTt Si) Toov Tov
O:pt6J,lov &vecypCX"'TTol elev. Tois Se "'TAe{CYTots o<rre V"'Tcxp o\ITe
ovcxp cxlcr6oJ,levots Tov ecroJ,levov ehcx Tij &Aoovcx1.
f}A{O'KOVTO Se TOtCi)Se. rnvpecrcrov &cpvoo, ot J,leV V"'Tvov
ot Se "'Tept"'T<hovs "'TotovJ,levot, ot Se &:AA.o o Tl Sf}
65 1Tp6:aaoVTes. Kcxl To J,lev aooJ,lcx o<ITe Tl Stf)i\Acxcrae Tiis 1TpoTepcxs
XPOlCXS OVTE eepJ.lOV ?lv, &-re "'TVpETOV rnl"'TEO'OVTOS, ov J.lftV ovSe
cpA.6yoocrts rney{vETO, CiAA. OVTOOS aj3A11XPOs TlS O:pxfls TE Kcxl
&x.PtS o 1TVpeT6s ?lv ooCYTE J.li)TE Tois voaoiiatv cx\rrois
J.li)Te laTpCi) S6K11crtv KtvSvvov 1Tcxpexecr6cxt. ov yap
70 oov ovSe TlS TEAEVTCXV TOOV "'TEpl"'TE"'TTOOKOTOOV &"'T. ccVTOV
f}J.lep<(: Se Tois J,lev Tij cx\rrij, Tois Se Tij rntyevoJ,lev1J, hepots Se ov
"'TOAAcxis VO'Tepov j3ovj3oov rnflpTo, OVK JlOVOV, evecx Kcxl
TO TOV O'OOJ.laTOS J.lOplOV, 0 Si) TOV i1Tpov evepeev j3ovj3oov
KeKATlTcxt, Cil\AO: Kcxl Tiis J.laATlS Se Kcxl "'TcxpO: TO: ooTcx
75 Kcxl O"JTov "'TOTe TOOV J.lTlPOOV ETVXE.
51 01TO-
CTTOj.I<XT(l;oVTES: 'reciting', a meaning first found in post-classical Greek.
P. avoids specifically Christian terms, but he means 'reciting prayers and
crossing themselves'. 53 lepols: 'churches'. 69 ov yap oi:iv ovSe:
Denniston, The Greek Particles, Oxford 1954
2
, does not list this colloca-
tion. 75 The rest of the chapter, omitted here, describes the various
ways that the disease affected individuals.
16 PROCOPIUS
2. 23
•H ovv v6aos Tecrcrapcxs 5lf'jA6e vas,
Tp1cri Kai KaT • apxas TWV
elw66Twv 1TAe{ovs, eha E-n TO fjpETo,
1TEVTaK1CTX1Atovs To Twv vEKpwv
5 Kal aV 1TaA1V TE Kal To\rrwv h1 1TAe{ovs
-?iA6e. TCx ovv 1TpWTa Tfjs Tacpfjs aUTOs EKOCTTOS
Twv KaTa -rljv olK{dv veKpwv, o\is 51'} Kal &AA.oTptas &f}Kas
i1 Aav6avovres 11 rne1Ta 1TcXVTa
ernacr1 5ovAot Te yap 5eCT1ToTwv
10 cS:v5pes TE Ta 1Tp6TEpa A{av Tfjs TWV o[KETWV \rrrovp-
y{as i1 vocrovvrwv 11 TETEAEVTflK6Twv 1TOAAa{ -re
olK{al 1Tavr<X1Tacr1V &v6p&11rwv eyevovro. 610 51'}
T1CTi TWV Tij ernop{<;X 1TOAACxS O:Tacp01S etva1.
Te TOV 1rp6vo1a, ws TO elK6s, -?iA6e.
15 CTTpaT1WTCXS ovv 1TaAaT{ov Kal 9e65wpov
TOV TOVTOV os 51'} &1ToKp{crecr1 TaTs
&el TCfl TCxS Twv lKETwv 6ef}cre1s
OyyEAAWV, TE aVe1s cera av aVTCfl eifl.
pecpepev6ap1ov Tij AaT{vwv cpwvij TT)v Ta\rrT}v K<XAovcr1
20 • ols ovv o\hrw 1ravrernacr1 v
K6Ta Ta KaTa -rljv o[K{av hVyxavev, cnnol EKaCTT01 Tas TWV
1TpOCTT}KOVTCo:IV rno10VVTO Tacpas. 9e65c.5pos TcX TE
616o\ls Kal Ta olKEia 1TpocravcxP.{CTKwv TOVS
TWV VEKpwv e6a"TTTEV. rnel Tas &f}Kas Crn-acras, ai
25 1Tp6Tepov -?icrav, TWV VEKpwv ETVXEV, ot 6pvcrcrov-
4 'The number of deaths each day reached 5,000'. How did P. know?
Presumably from the offices of the city prefect or the heads of the four-
teen city districts, who must have had to keep statistics of the population
for tax purposes. (The new capital was divided into the same number of
districts as Rome). 9 occurs in Thuc. 2. 52. 4 in an almost
identical context. 14 1rp6vota: 'provisions to be made for a contin-
gency'. 16 &lroKpfaeat KTA.: a long explanation of his duties is given
in the best Attic terms, so that the Latin loan-word of the spoken lan-
guage need be used only in parenthesis. 18 ooa av ell'\: wrong syntax
with the optative. 20 OWe.) Maltretus: el1rov V: om. G: the cause of
the corruption is not obvious. 24ff. A period with anacolouthon; per-
haps ol (25) should be taken as 'some people'.
PROCOPIUS
17
TES &rrexvrex 'TCx OJ.lq>l -ri}v 1TOA1\1 xoop{ex, lvrcrii66: TE 'TOVS
6vf}O'KOVTCXS KCX'TCX'T16EJ.,lEV01, 00s Ei<excrr6s iTT} lSvvCX'To, &-rn,AAaa-
aovro, rne1'Tex Se ol 'TCxS KCX'TOOpV)(CXS 'TcxV'TCXS 1T010VJJEV01 1TP0s
'TOOV &1To6VT)O"K6vroov 'TO JJhpov o\n<h1 &vrexoVTEs ls 'TOVS
80 wpyovs 'TOV 1TEp1(36Aov &vef3ex1vov, Os tv l:VKexis m{· 'TCxs TE
opoq>CxS 1TEp1eA6VTES lvrcriieex lpp{1T'TOVV 'TCx O'OOJ.,lCX'Tex o\JSevl
KOO"J.l't>, Kexl oos 1TT} 1Texph\J)(ev, lJJ1TAT)aa-
JJEVO{ TE 'T00\1 YeKpOOV OOS el1TeiV OOrexVTCXS, e!'Tex 'TexiS opoq>exis
cxV61S lKcXAV1T'TOV. Kexl ern· a\rrov 1TVEVJ.,lex SvqooSes ls -ri}v 1TOA1\1
85 lov E'l'1 J.lCXAA0\1 EAV1TE1 'TOVS 'Tcx\rn:l av6poo1TOVS, OAAOOS TE i')v Kexi
CXVEJ.lOs 'T1S lKei6ev rn{q>opos rn11TveVO'E1E.
TT6:vrex Te \nrepcbq>61') 'TOTE 'TCx 1Tepl TCxS 'Texq>Cxs VOJ.l1J.lex. oV'Te
yap 1TexpCX1TeJ.l1TOJ.levo1 15 vev6J.11crrex1 ol veKpol oV'Te
KCX'Tex\l}cxAAOJ.,lE\101 i51Tep eloo6e1, aAA • lKexV0\1 i'j V el q>epoov T1S rnl
40 T00\1 OOJ.lOOV 'T00\1 TETEAevTT}KOT00\1 T1\1Cx ES TE 'Tfls 1TOAeOOS TCx
rn16cxA6:aa1ex tA6oov epp1\I}EV, ov Si} 'Texis OKCxT01S lJJ(3cxAA6JJEV01
aoopT)Sov EIJEAAOV 01TT} 1TexpCX'TVxo1 'TOTe Kexl 'TOV
Si)JJov oao1 crrexa1ooTex1 1Tp6TEpov i'jaexv, i)(6ovs 'TOV ls &AAi}Aovs
aq>EJ.lE\101 'Ti;S TE oa{exs 'T00\1 K01Vij ElrEJ.lEAOVTO
45 Kexi q>EpOVTES a\rrol 'TOVS o\J 1Tpoaf}KOVTexS aq>{a1 YeKpOVs E6CX1T'TOV.
&XA.a Kexl oao1 1Tp6:yJJexa1 Ta 1Tprnpex 1Texp1crr6:JJEvo1 exlaxpois TE
Kexl 1TOVT)pois i){ex1pov, oiSe -ri}v ts -ri}v S{ex1'Texv ernoae1a6:J.,lEvo1
1TexpexvoJJ{exv -ri}v e6aef3e1exv &Kp1(3oos i\aKovv, o\J -rl}v aooq>poa-VVT)v
J.lETexJJcx6oVTEs o6Se 'Ti;s &pe'Ti;s lpexcrrex{ 'T1VES tK 'TOV exlq>v1S{ov
50 yeyEVT)JJE\101. rnel 'TOiS &v6poo1T01S oaex lJJ1TEit'T}ye q>VO"e1 ;;
' xp6vov J.lCXKpov S1SexaKcxA{<iX Si} o\hoo J.leTexf36:AAea6ex1
aSvvCX'Ta lcrr1v, O'T1 JJf} 6e{ov 'T1VOs rnmvevaexvros·
&XA.a TOTE oos el1Tetv &rrexVTEs KCX'TCX1TE1TAT)yJ.,lEvo1 J.,lEv 'Tois
1T{1T'Tova1, Se a\rr{Kex Si} JJaAex ol6JJEV01, &v6:yt<1J, oos
36 cS:vellos hr(cpopos
is a phrase in Thuc. 3. 74. 43 crracnooTat: a reference to the circus
factions; see below on Malalas, p. 27. . 44 oo(as: funeral rites'; L S J
cite this meaning only from Iamblichus. 46 The psychological effects
of the disaster on the population, especially the breakdown of law and
order, are emphasised in Thucydides, and P. rightly follows his model;
for a modern treatment of the theme see Manzoni, I promessi sposi. 49
IJETalla66VTEs: i. e. 'learning something new in place of the old', as in Hdt.
1. 57.
2 Wibon
18 PROCOPIUS
55 TO elK6S, "'TCxO"'IJ Tl)v hne{KE1ee\l rnl Kee1pov TcxVTCx
T01, rne1Si) TCxx10'Tee Tfis \IOO"OV CrncxAAcxyEVTES E\1 TE
Tc;:> &aq>ee'Aei yeyevfjaeee1 i1S11 \rneT61Teeaeev, Cm: Tov KCXKov m-·
&AA.ovs &vepoo"'T00\1 T1\/Ccs KE)(OOP11K6TOS, &y)({o-rpoq>0\1 cniEhs Tfis
YVOOJ.111S Tl)v rnl TCx xe{poo 1TE"'T01flllE\101 ii
60 1Tp6TEpov Tl)v TW\1 &To"'T{eev
aq>O:s c:xVTovs Tfj Te "'TO\/Tlp{cte Keel Tfj &i\A1J
\IE\11K11KOTES. rnel Keel a\1 T1S OV TCx 'f'EVSfi
ei1To1 oos T) v6aos f)Se ehe TVx'IJ Ttvl eiTE 1Tpovo{c;c TO &Kp1!3es
TOVS "'TO\/TlPOTCxTOVS &q>fiKE\1. &i\AO: TcxVTee Tc;:>
65 &iroSeSe1KTee1
T6Te Se T1\lee ovK eV"'TETes eTvee1 ev ye
tSeiv, OM· oiKo1 &ireeVTES, oao1s
TO ii TOVS \IOO"OV\/TeeS reepemevov, ii TOVS
TETEAeVTflKOTeeS rep{JVOV\1. i')v Se T1S Keel 1Tpoi6VT1 T1\ll
70 iaxvo-ev, oSe TW\1 T1\lee \IEKpwv eq>epev. TE
TlPYE1 Keel TCxS Texvees ol TSX\IiTee1 ern6:aees, epyee TE
&AA.ee oaee s..; EKeeO'T01 xepalv eTxov. 1TOAe1 yov\1 ayee6ois
&rree0'1\l &Texvws eV&r)\IOVO"'IJ A11l6s T1S &Kp1J3i)s
Ci:pT0\1 CxJ.1EAe1 ii &AA.o OT10V\I S1eepK6)s ExE1\I xeeAe"'T6v TE
75 Keel A.6yov 'TTOi\i\ov eTvee1" ooo-re Keel TW\1 \/OO"OV\/T00\1 T10"l\l
cS:oopov \lee1 SoKEi\1 ernop{cte TW\1 O:vcxyKee{oo\1 T1) \1 TOV J3{ov
KCXTeeo-rpoq>{J\1. Keei TO el"'TEi\1, OVK i'jv
T1\lee To 1Teeperneev tSeiv, &i\Aoos Te T)v{Kee
J3eea1A.ei voafjaee1 {Keel c:xVTc;:> yap !3ovJ3wvee
80 rnfjp6ee1•, &i\i\ • 1T6'Ae1 j3eea1'Ae{eev Tfis
• PooJ.lee{oov &pxiis lllCxT1ee tS1ooT&v &rree\I"Tes
'liavxfi eJ.1evov. Ta !le" Tc;:> ev Te Tfj &i\A1J • Poo-
yfj Keel TcxVT1J 1TTl eaxev. rnEO"KTli.J'E Se Keel
Tl)v Tiepaw\1 yfiv Keel J3eepJ3apovs TOVS &AA.ovs crnee\/Tcxs.
77 'formal dress', like the toga in Rome; not military
uniform, the Attic meaning of the word. fvStSuaK61lfvov is not Attic,
but found in the LXX and N. T. 82 with the dative ( = 1rEpl
with the genitive) is not Attic usage.
PROCOPIUS
19
8. 17. 1-7 The secret of silk
'Y-rro Toihov TCW xp6vov Tc;':>V TlVES J.lOVCX)(OOV ·rvsoov
f}KOVTES, yv6VTes Te oos ·rovcrr1v1av4) S1a cnrovSfls ei11
TrpOS TlepCTOOV -ri}v ooveia6a1 •pc.>J.la{OVS,
yev6J.1EV01 oV.oo Sf) Ta CxJ.lcpl Tij S1o1t<tiaea6a1
5 OOJ.loi\6yovv, 00s IJTlKhl •pooJ.laiol Tlepaoov Toov acpfa1 -rroi\e-
J.l{oov ft &XA.ov TOV e6vovs TO TOiho TrOlTJCTOOVTal.
XPOVOV yap KaTaTpi'J'al llflKOS XOOP<jX \rrrep •1 vSwv E6v11 Ta
-rroi\i\0: OVO"'), f}-rrep Tcx\rn;l TE TO
6-rro{<jX -rroT€ ll'llXavij yfvea6a1 Tf)v yij
10 Tij •poo!Ja{oov SvvaTa ei11. Se TCi)
Kai el 6 i\6yos aATl6flS ei11 ecpaCTKOV ol
!Jovcxxol CTKooi\TlKCxS Tlvas Tiis S'll!Jlovpyovs etva1, Tfls
cpvaeoos a\nois S1SaCTKCxi\ov TE ovCTTls Kal S111veKoos
&XAO: Tovs 1.1ev CTKOOATlKas
15 CxiJTJxava etva1, Tov Se a\noov y6vov eV-rrop6v TE Kal
oi\oos. etval Se TWV CTKOOATJKOOV TwvSe TOV y6vov c;>a
&vap16J.la. Taiha Se Ta c;>a -rroi\i\4) Tiis yovfls vcrrepov
Kai\V'J'aVTES O:v6pc.>Tr01 Tcx\rn;l TE SlapKii eepJ.li)VaVTES
XPOVOV Tr010VCT1. Taiha el-rr6VTaS 6 J.leyCxAolS
20 TOVS cS:vSpas &ya6ois Soopf}aaa6a1 61Joi\oyf}aas TCi) -rre{6e1
rnlppoocral TOV i\6yov. ol Se yeVOIJEVOl cx061S T6: TE
c;>a J.lETTJVeyKav CTKooi\11K6:s n a\n-0:
c;>-rrep TE av-
Ka!J{vov cpvi\i\OlS, Kal ern· a\nov y{vea6a1 TO i\omov
25 KaTEaTTJCTaVTO •pOOJ.la{c.>V Tij yij.
1 TOO\/ Tl\IES I.IO\ICX)(00\1: note the Herodotean word-order. 'lvSoov: in
fact from Sogdiana (E. Stein, Histoire du Bas-empire, Paris 1949, II
769-73) where Nestorian missionaries were active. For another account
see Theophanes (not to be confused with the chronicler) in Photius
Bibliotheca 64; according to him it was not monks but a Persian who
brought silk-worms to Byzantium, in a hollow baton. 3 'silk',
a loan-word of unknown origin; other writers use the form 4
J3aatAia (without the definite article) usually meant the king of Persia
in classical Greek. 5-6 Like his classical predecessors P. rarely dis-
cusses economic questions, although he evidently understood that the
empire's financial situation was difficult.
20 PROCOPIUS
Buildings 1. 9. 5-10 A convent is founded
Bac:TlAeVS ·loVO'"t'lVlavbs t<al f3acnAls 9eoSoopa (-ri)v yap
eVO"ej3elaV OAA:t')AOlS rnlt<Ol VOVj.1EVOl CrnaVTa frrpao-o-ov) rne-
v6ovv -r6:Se. -rl}v "TTOAl-re{av -rov -roov j.lao--rpo"TTe{oov ayovs
b<Cxer)pav, -ro -roov 'TTOpvof3oO"t<OOV OVOj.la, -roov
5 yvva1t<oov -ras "TTEV{GX -raAal"TToopovllfvas "TTOAA fj &t<oAao-fas -rfis
SovAo"TTpcrrovs i}Aeveepooo-av, f3£o-rov o-cp{cnv a\rr6voj.lov,
-rl}v o-oocppo<7VV11V 'TTE1T0plo-!lfvol. -raii-ra OVV
SlCflt<i}O"aVTO -rfjSe. 'TTapa -rcx&n,v -rov 'TTOp6!lOV -rl}v &l<"r'l']v, Tt
• elO""TTAEovn -rov t<aAovj.levov Tl6VTov,
10 f3ao-{Aela 1Tp6-repov 6VTa j.lovaO'"t'T)plov t<a-reO'"t'T)-
o-aVTo t<a-rayooy1ov -rais j.lE"t'a!leA.ovllfvalS rnl
'TTpo-repCfl 4> -rfj 'TTEp{ -re TOV eeov t<al
-rl}v eVo-ef3elaV CtO)(OA{GX YEV110"0j.lEVTJ 'TTEplt<aefjpal TCxS aj.lap-r6:Sas
Svva-ral elev -rfis j.lao--rpO"TTE{Cfl S1ahT}s. S1o Sfl t<al Me-r6:vo1av
15 -roV.o Sfl TOOV yvvalt<OOV -ro SlalTT}TftplOV Oj.lOOWilOOS epy'fl
t<al 'TTOAAais XPflll<hOOV 1Tpoo-6S01S ot f3a-
0"1AeiS oV-ro1 -ro j.lovaO'"t'TJp•ov SeSoopf1VTal -roV-ro, "TTOAAa Se
olt<{a t<CxAAel -re t<al 'TTOAv-reAe{GX S1acpep6VToos -rais
"TTapCX'JN)(flV c;>t<oSollT,O"aVTo, Ws llT)Sevl &vay-
20 t<ao-6eio-al "TTPOs -ra -rfis o-oocppo<7VV11S rnlTT}SeV!la-ra -rp6"TTCf1
O"t'CfiOVV ernot<vf)O"OVO"l.
Secret History 17. 5-6
• AXAa t<al \rrrep aj.lap-r6:Soov -roov -ro o-ooj.la t<oA6:<7ElS -rfj
9eoSoopGX rn1voeiv rnlllEAES i'jv. "TT6pvas &ilEAe1 'TTAeov 'fi 'TTEVTa-
3 'brothels'; the word is not in LSJ. 7 V.ev6epfav: 'fit
for a freeman' is contrasted with SovAo1t'pE"Trovs; Haury's emendation
P.evetpav is unnecessary. 11 KCXTay&lytoV: 'refuge'. "Tals rnl "T{i)
1rpO'rip(j) J3f(j) would have been the normal classical
word-order, but in later Greek adverbial phrases are less often placed
between the definite article and a participle. 13 a1,1ap"T6:Sas: the Ionic
a1,1ap"Tcis is used instead of the Attic a1,1ap"Tfa, doubtless because P. had
seen it in Herodotus. olK(a in 18 below is a similar phenomenon.
P. gives another version of the events mentioned in the preceding extract.
Yet a third account exists in Malalas 440-441, who misreports events so
grossly that he fails to mention the new convent. 2 'for in-
stance'.
PROCOPIUS
21
KOO'{as &ye{paaa &yopC?; JJtar.t Tptoo(3oA.ov OO'OV
, . .na6apvovaas, es TE -rl}v OVT11Ttpas T;1TEtpov aTE{Aaaa TCfl
s METavo{Cj( j3{ov j.lETaj.lcptt-
aaa6at &v SfJ TlVES mrras &cp.
lM<Toop, TaV-n:l TE Tfls &Kovaiov !lETa(3oA.fls &"JT,AA.exaaoVTo.
3 Is 'at the rate of three obols'; the prepositional
usage does not seem to be classical, and the mention of obols is an ana-
chronism, as they were no longer a unit of currency. . 5
literally 'to put on a new dress', hence 'take up, adopt'. 6 !ppbt'Tovv:
j!mrdoo existed alongside j!)I1T'Tc.>; see LS J s. v. for the origin of the by-
form. <XVras Alemannus: a\rro\ls MSS.
AGATHIAS (c. 530 -c. 580)
His main work was a continuation of Procopius' history of the wars
against the Goths and the Persians, covering the years 662-9. As a young
man he wrote poetry, and in addition compiled an anthology of epigrams
by recent poets, a large part of which has been preserved in the Greek
Anthology. By profession he was a lawyer and there is no evidence that he
had any experience of military affairs. His style is more laboured than that
of Procopius, and the literary merit of the work cannot be rated very high,
but it is an important source for the campaigns of the outstandingly brilliant
Armenian general Narses. The pedestrian narrative is enlivened by digressions
such as the following.
Edition: Agathiae Myrinaei historiarum libri quinque, ed. R. Keydell,
Berlin 1967. See also Averil Cameron, Agathias, Oxford 1970.
3. 1 A self-portrait
1. T a J.lEV ovv 1TCXpa TiepcrCXlS v6J.llJ.lCX KCXl TJ 1TOlK{ATl Tfis cr<poov
1TOA1Tdcxs J.1eTcx(30Aft KCXl cm6crcx XPfiVCXl c;,,;er,v 1Tepl Xocrp6ov
Kcxl Tov KCXT" cx\rrov yevovs elpficr6cxl, Ta:VTcx 81) ovv erncxVTcx, el
KCXl J.lCXKPOTEP<t> A6Yct> Kcxl OV A{cxv ExETCXl TOOV
5 1TpOTepoov, CxAA • OV 1TeplTTCx ye icroos CXV ov8e CXxPTlcrTCX,
J.lCXAAOV J.lEV ovv Kcxl TO eEAyov, cbs EJ.lE ,;yeicr6cxl, T(i) oo<peA{J.lq:>
CrnelATl<p6Tcx. 2 !etAoo yap, el rn· EJ.lOl ei'tl, Kcxl 1Tepl 1TAe{crTOV
TIOlOVJ.lCXl Texis Movcrcx1s, <pcxcr{, Tas X6:plTCXS KCXTCXJ.llywvcxl.
3 KCXfTOl hepoo6{ J.le KcxeeAKOVC"lV ex{ <ppoVT{8es, Kcxl rnOJ.lCX{ ye
10 ov·n elvcxl Tij 1TeplcxyOV01J OVCxyK1J. ,; y6:p J.lOl
TOVTO Sf} TO J.lEylcrT6v TE Kcxl crEJ.lV6TCXTOV epyov KCXl 1TCxCTTlS
1 "TcX ... v61ltlla: the last ten chapters of book II are taken up with an
excursus on Persian history and customs. acpoov: the Atticists were not
all capable of observing the Attic rules for the use of this pronoun. 6
The notion is reminiscent of Horace's qtti miscuit utile dulci; it is also
found in Lucian De historia conscribenda 8-9. 8 Eur. Here. Fur. 673
o\J ncniaoj.lat "Tcls Mo\Jaats avyKa"TaiJEty\IUs.
AGATHIAS 23
&axoi\{as VrrEp'TEpov, ehrot av Tt i\vpa Tt Botw·rta, oSov -re Kal
(3fov ;rapepyov yfyve-rat, Kal OVK evecrr{ IJ.Ol ws T\Stcrra
-rois ;ro60VIJEV01S. 4 Seov ya:p -rovs ;rO:i\at O'Ocpovs axoi\af'TEpov
15 O:vai\Eye0'6at IJ.liJ.ftO"ews &rrav-ra -re -ra
p61J.Eva yvw!Ja"TEVetv -ro &Kpt(3es Kal &va;rvv6ave0'6at &vet!Jevov
-re &!Jcpl -ra\i-ra E)(etv -rov vovv Kal v.eveepov, &i\i\ • eywye T\!J.Evos
-rij (3ao-ti\ef<t> crro<;X (3t(3i\{Sta ;roi\i\0: StKWV &vCciri\ea Kal
;rpay1J6:-rwv vov !J.Expt Kal T)i\tov Ka-raSvv-ra
20 Kal O:vei\h-rw · Kal i\fav J.,IEv &)(6o1Jat -rois &vtw!Jat Se
aVets et IJTJ Ws o\Jx ol6v -rE IJ.Ol ov -rwv &vayKa{wv
&iroxpoov-rws O:vev ;r6vov Kal Sv11;ra6efas. 5 ;ri\T!v
CiAi\. ovS. oos CxvftO'W 70VIJOV ovSe &it"OiraVO'OIJ.Ol, ECTT. O:v 0
epws 1JE CXylJ, et Ka{ IJO{ 715 VEIJ.eO'f}o-eteV WS Vrrep-repwv Ka{,
25 -ro i\ey61J.Evov, ;r{6<t> cpti\epyovv-rt -rfJv KEpa!JE{av. 6 et yap
-r<t> Kal elvat -r&!Jex v66a ye ws &i\116ws Kal &ve!Jtaia Kai
ola \fNXTlS ;ri\eicrra J<V1i1Ja-ra, &i\i\ •
yovv io-ws &peO"Kot!Jt O:v, Ka66:irep -rwv ol a1Jovo-6'TEpot.
7 ws O:v Se IJTJ ;repat-repw ;rotov!J.Evos Kal IJE-ra(36:o-ets
ao &iretpoKcxi\{av aVets ST! e!Jotye -rwv Koi\xtKwv
O:yoovwv Kal -rov ;rpo-repov i\6yov IJE7cxi\Tl;r-rea.
5. 6. 7-7. 5 Anthemius of Tralles, one of the architects of
Hagia Sophia, demonstrates an application of steam power.
&i\i\0: yap chov eveKa -rovSe -rov avSpc)s rne1Jvft0'611V,
IJ.Ol Kal sr, a\J-r{Ka &vf}p 71S Zf}vwv
12 Pind. lsthm.
1. 2 aoxoi.(as &rrip-repov. Eur. El. 509 1r6:pepy' 6Sov. 15 IJliJi)CTEOOS
kern: he is quite explicit about his purpose in reading classical Greek; TcX
bcacrraxov are Attic words and idioms, not the content of
the books. 20 aveAfTTc.:l: 'meditate, Study'; in this sense also at 1.
20. 3. avtooiJat: this ought to be optative; he means 'I should be in
difficulties'. 22 SVT)mx6e(as is the reading of what appears to be a
short quotation in an etymologikon; the manuscripts have Sva;ra6e(as.
which gives a better clausula. Both words are Hellenistic. 25 An
adaptation of the proverb Tl'!vt<epaJ,.Ie(av 1Jav6avoo (Zenobius 3. 65),
applied to beginners who attempt something beyond their powers. 28
OIJOVa6-repot VbL: -6TaTot WPRO; comparative and superlative are often
confused by scribes. 2 L.
24
AGATHIAS
c5voj.la, -r(j) 1-lEv -roov pT}-r6poov KCXTc:xA6yC{> &vayeypaj.lj.levos,
CiJ\J\.oos St Slaq>avf}s Kal (3aa1N:i yvoopll-lOO'LCXTOS, KCXTci>KSl &yxov
5 'TTOV -rov • Av6ej.l{ov, oos SoKSiv AKCX"dpC{) f}voocr6a1 -roo oiKoo Kal vq> •
"Ltpl-lCXTl Slaj.lE-rpeicr6al. 8 'TTpoeA.66v-ros Se xp6vov eplS cx\rrois
K<Xl SVO'KOA{a i1 -rov SlOTI'"l'EVecr6al xaplv, -rvxov ov
'TTp6-repov el6•a!JEvov, ft veoo-repas olKoSol-l{as 'TTepa -rov j.lE-rp{ov
V\J'OS &p6e{O'T}S Kcxl -r(j) q>oo-rl AVj.l<XlVOlJEVflS ft &J..J...ov -rov 'TTEpl,
10 cmota 'TTOAACx -rois 'TTAT}O'l<XhCXT<X 'TTpOO'OlKOVO'l Sl<XqllAOVElKEicr6cXl
&v(xyKT}.
7. T 6-re s,; ovv 0 • A v6Ej.llOS \rrro -rov &-re SlKT}y6pov
KCXTappT}-ropev6j.lEvos Kal o\Jx ol6s -re oov -rf.i Se1 v67T}-rl -roov
Pfll-l<hoov -roov oj.lo{oov &v-rlq>epecr6al, o Se Tfis olKe{as cx\rrov
15 &v-reA.Vrrr}ae ..SXVflS -rp6'TTC{> 't"Ol(j)Se. 2 S6j.lOV ... va \rrrep(j)ov 0
Zi}voov e\Jpvv -re :A{av Kcxl Sl<X'Tt'pe-rrfj Kal 'TTEplepy6-rCXTa:
'TTE'TTOlKlAj.lEVOV, 4> Sf} -ra 'TTOAAa e[oo6El KCXl
-rovs q>1:A-r&-rovs. -roV..ov St -.a. 'TTPOs -r(j) • •
1-lCXTa: Tfis • Av6ej.l{ov ov-ra hVyxave j.lo{pas, 00s 70
20 -reyos -r(j) j.leV ss opoq>i}v, -r(j) St (36:alV 'TT<Xpa-re-.6:cr6al. 3
ea s,; ovv AE(3T}'L<XS 1-leyCxAOVS vSCXTOS Sl<XKplSov
EO"LT}O'E 'TTOAACXXOV -rov Sooj.lCXT{ov, a:V:Aovs Se cx\rrois
aKV-r{VOVS 'TTEpl(3cxAOOV, K6:-roo j.leV eVpVVOj.lEVOVS 00s Crn<XO'<XV -rf}v
a-req>6:Vflv 'TTEpl(3e(3vcr6al, St Kcx66:irep a6:A'TT1yya \rrroa..eA:Ao-
25 j.levovs Kal -ro &vc:xAoyovv -reAev-roov-ra:s, -rais SoKois
Kal -rais aavia1 -ra &-rro:Ai}yov-ra Kal -ro &Kp1(3es
oos Kal -rov cx\rrois &-rrelAfll-lllEvov &epa &q>e-rov 1-lEv E)(e1v -rftv
&voo q>opav S1a Tfis KSvO-rT}-ros &v16v-ra Kal yvl-lvf.i 'TTPOO'\J'aVElV
-rf.i opoq>f.i KCXTCx 70 'TT<XpEiKOV, [Kal] -rf.i (3VpOlJ 'TTEplEXOI-lEVOV,
3 TCf'> ••• this probably means that he
belonged to the official guild of advocates: cf. St'KT'IY6pov in 12 below. ey-
Reffel. 5 005 So"Keiv 'KT A. : this clause is typical of Byzan-
tine affectation, with its dual and oxymoron 'to be united and divided by
a single boundary'. 7 St011'TEVeo6at: 'to be overlooked'. 12 &-re Sfl
'KaTTly6pov L. 14 6 St: anacolouthon; perhaps an apodotic particle
intended as an imitation of Herodotus' style. 15 Vn-epCf>ov: 'in the
upper part of the building'. 18 lvStarn'liJaTa: 'rooms'. 20 TOO
.•• Too St VbO: TO JJtv ••. TO St LWR. 21 Sta'KptSov: here 'in several
places'. 24 OTEcpc!nn)v: 'rim'. 25 ls TO avaAoyovv: 'proportionately',
a technical term from mathematics. 29 Tij J3vp171J TrEP1E)(61JEVOV should
probably be transposed after Vm'Kcptpeaeoo (Keydell).
AGATHIAS
25
80 T;KlCTTa Se -ra mbs Slappeiv Kal Vrm<cptpe0'6al. 4 -rcrii-ra St,
oov -rov &cpavovs m:ip bfiKE crcpoSpov \.mo
Tovs -roov AEj3i]Toov Kal cp1.6ya cx\n{Ka
Se TOV vSa-ros Slcx6epolJtvov Kal CxTlJOS rnfjp-ro
1t'OAVS Kal 1l'CX)(Vs TE Kal 1l'E1l'VKVOOlJtvos· OVK
85 Se 011'1J s.cxxveet,, rnl -rovs ooi'Aovs &veipll'E Kal -rij O'TSVOTT)Tl
j31a16Tepov CxVE1T'tlJ1l'ETO, EOOS -rij CMty1;} 1t'p00'1l'Ta{oov
&rracrav Kal S1tcre1crev, ocrov \.moTpt-
lJElV f}ptlJa Kal SlaTSTplytval -ra 5 ol s.e CxlJ<pl_ -rov Zf]voova
hapCn-rov-ro Kal Kal CxlJ<pl Tf}v Aeoocp6pov
40 Kal j3ooov-res Kal -re;> Se1 vc;> • •
<pOl"TOOV TE -rois j3aCT1Ae{OlS CxVE1t'Vv6CxVETO"TOOV yvoop{lJOOV,
Olt'oos cx\nois -ra -rov O'ElO'lJOV KaTE<pCxVT) Kal lJi] Tl crcpas 0-rct> Sf}
oov -rp61rct> S•eS,t.f]cra-ro. -roov Se • t.ey6v-roov ,cT> Tav"
Kai ,cnraye" Kai ,lJf)ll'OTS ytVOl"TO" Kai 1rp6$ ye VElJEO'OOVTOOV
45 cxV-rc;> oos Sf} -ro1crii-ra <pEVKTa Kal &1raicr1a oln<
etxev o -r1 Kal Slavo,eet,. o\hc yap &ll'lCTTSiv ol6s -re fiv
ols i}1ricrra-ro &p-rloos yeyev,lJtvo•s Kal SlalJCxxE0'6al KCXT1J-
SeiTo rnl 1l'OAV "TOO'OVTOlS &vSpacrl Kal OVTOO
34 'ITO)(VS MSS.:
citus P, hence Vulcanius proposed TO)(VS, which is also found in the margin
of L. The same change was plausibly made by Bentley at Ar. Ach.
851. 37 ivSeAe){tCTTcrra: 'continuously'. On this episode see Lynn White
Jr., Medieval technology and social change, Oxford 1962, 90.
IOANNES MALALAS (491( ?)--578( ?))
Little is known with certainty about this man, except that he lived in
Antioch in the sixth century. His work is a history of world events down to
the end of Justinian's reign or a little later, in which Antioch receives more
than its due share of attention. Many later chroniclers exploited it or
followed its general design, and it was translated into Old Church Slavonic
and Georgian, but there is only one Greek manuscript surviving (MS. Barocci
182 in the Bodleian Library), which gives a slightly abridged text. The book
was intended for wide circulation and has no pretensions to style or learning;
though full of egregious factual errors it is an important document for the
evolution of the spoken language. The following short piece is from book
XVIII, the account of Justinian's reign pp. 448-9.
Text: L. Dindorf, Bonn 1831 (except that IX-XII may be read in A. S.
Stauffenberg, Die rOmische Kaisergeschichte bei Malalas, Stuttgart 1931).
Bibliography: G. Moravcsik, Byzantinoturcica, Berlin 19582 I 329 ff.
'Ev Se OVCXKooS{KSVO"lS EyEVE'TO 'TOOV "ri"cxAalOOV
v61lwv • Kal "ITolf]aas lS{ovs v61-1ovs KaTE"ITEil'f'EV 1raaa1S Texis
1r6Aea1 1rp0s 'TO 'TOVS llft "ITEpl"ITi"IT"TElV 6i\{'f'E0"1 Kal
&i\i\a 'Taxeiav E)(e1v "Tftv &"ITcxAi\cxy{tv • 81rep llov6(31(3i\ov
5 Ka'TCXO"KEVaaas rnEj.l'f'EV > Aef]valS Kal
· o Se CXV.os (3aa1AEvs &1rellep1aev &1ro 'A V'Tloxe!as Tiis
"ITPOO'TTJS Lvp{as AaoS{KElCXV Kal fa(3c:xAa Kal n6:i\'TOV 'TaS "ITOAelS,
Kal &1ro 'A"ITa!lE!as Tfis SEVTepcxs Lvp!as Bc:xAaveas 1r6i\1v, Kcxl
1 cxV-r4>: 'this', as in the modern language. &vCXKooSIKEVcns: note the
hybrid formation. Justinian directed the publication of a Codex in 529,
then the Digest, begun in 530 and completed in 533, finally the second
Codex in 634, since its predecessor was now out of date. 2 with the
dative is often used to indicate motion towards a point. 4
none of the publications mentioned above was a single book, so Malalas
must be referring to a set of laws designed to speed the administration of
justice. 5 Athens was less famous than Beirut as a centre of legal
study. Malalas records (p. 451) Justinian's edict of 629 prohibiting the
teaching of law and philosophy at Athens (see A. D. E. Cameron, Proc
Camb Phil Soc 195. 1969. 7-29).
IOANNES MALALAS
27
rnO{flO'EV rna:pxfa:v, TJVTlVCX 9eo5oopta5a:, 5o\Js
10 a:V-rij Ka:l 5{Ka:tov. Tov Aa:o5tKe{a:s
o\JK f}Aeveepooae Tov \moKeia6a:t Tef> lTCXTptapx1J Ti'js •AVTtoxeoov
lTOAEOOS .
• E V Tef> a:V-ref> XPOVCf> rncx6ev \mo v{a:s
Tfis AVKia:s TO: Mvpa: • Ka:l lToAA.O: Tois \moA.e1<p6eiat
15 Ka:l Tij lTOAel els 6 a:V-ros f3a:O'lAeVS.
• E v Tef> a:V-ref> xp6vef> eye vETo Ta:pa:xit ·A VTtoxetq: Tij
T'f> 6ec:hpef>. KO:l TCx TfiS TCXPCXXfiS .0VflVEx6fl T'f> a:V-r'f>
f3a:atA.ei. Ka:l &ya:vCXI<T'I)aa:s -ri}v eea:v TOV
eec:hpov lTpos TO rnlTEAEia6a:t TOV A.orrrov Tij TOOV ·AVTl0-
20 xeoov lT6A.et.
·Ev a:V-ref> Tef> xp6vef> yeyovev •EAA,f)voov
Ka:l lTOAAOl ols rnA.e\rrflaa:v MCXKe56vtos,
.AaKAillT165oTOS, <l>c..:>KCXS 6 KpCXTepov, Ka:l 6 Kota:{O'Toop·
Ka:l To\!Tov lToA.vs cp6J3os yeyovev. WeO'lTtae 6 a:V-ros f3a:-
25 O'lAEVS OOO'TE lTOAlTEVea6CXl TOVS TOVS TOOV
&:A.A.oov a:lpeaeoov oVTa:s &cpa:veis yevea6a:1 Tfis • lTOAl-
TE{a:s, Tptoov A.a:f36VTa:s els To yevea6a:1 a:V-rovs
Kotvoovovs Tfis lT{aTeoos. oO"TtS 6eios TV1Tos
lTCxO'CXlS TCXiS lTOAeO'lV.
13 (1Tcx6eV: se. through an earth-
quake; the usage is common in Malalas. &oiJTtVLas: note the view of
causation implied; the word is late. 19 6eerrpou: 'circus'. The most
spectacular of the riots caused by the circus factions of the Blues and
Greens was the so-called Nika riot of 532 in the capital, in which 30,000
people are said to have been killed. Malalas records other disturbances
of the same kind in the capital and at Cyzicus (pp. 490--492); for some
fresh evidence of their occurrence in Crete see S. Spyridakis in GRBS
8. 1967. 249-250. Modern historians hold that the factions represented
political and religious interests. 21 'EJ..Af)voov: 'pagans'; Justinian did
his best to stamp out paganism and heresy. At p. 491 Malalas records
that pagan books were burnt, a very rare event (see C.]. Forbes, TAPA
67. 1936. 114-125); yet there is no evidence that classical texts ceased to
be read in the schools or elsewhere. 22 'had their prop-
erty confiscated'. heAe\rrriaav: Theophanes says that these men were
arrested and that Asklepiodotos died; he was an ex-prefect of the city,
Makedonios was a consul and poet whose epigrams are found in the Greek
Anthology, while the other two appear to have been members of the
commissions appointed by the emperor to codify the law. 24
is often used of royal commands. 29 must here mean 'outlying'.
IOANNES MOSCHOS (d. 619)
A popular branch of hagiographicalliterature consisted of brief edifying
stories about the monks and hermits who lived in Egypt and other countries
of the Eastern Mediterranean. Of the many collections of this kind,
variously entitled • A'trocpetyJ,lcrra TOOV ay(c:.>v 'trcrripc:.>v, na-rept1<6V, repovnJ<6v,
the Leimon or Pratum Spirituale by Moschos is the best known. For more
information about him see Photius' comments below, pp. 61f. The vivid
picture of daily life and social conditions make the text attractive, and
from the linguistic point of view it has the unusual and refreshing merit
that there is no attempt to imitate Attic models; it is one of the few good
sources for the development of the spoken language in Byzantium. There
are several recensions of the Greek text, which have not yet been fully inves-
tigated. The book was translated into Latin, Old Church Slavonic and
Arabic.
Text: Migne PG 87 part 3. There is a selection with French translation
and notes by D. C. Hesseling, Paris 1931. See also N. H. Baynes, OrChrPer
13. 1947. 404---14 (reprinted in his Byzantine studies and other essays,
London 1966).
70 (p. 2924.) "EAeyev Se "Jilliv Ked Toii-ro 6 yepoov oTl llETCx
Toii- &!3f30: Llcxf3lS ?}A.6ev Kcxl &AA.os llOVCX){OS 6v61lCXTl • ASoA.Q:s Kcxl
cx\nos Mecro;roTcxll•v6s ,Kcxl tvEKA.e1crev a\rrov els To &-rro llepos Tfis
;r6i\eoos e[s 1TV6jlevcx 1TACXTCxVOV. rno(,.,aev Se tv cx\nij lllKpav
s 6vp(Scx 86ev Kcxl avve-niyxcxvev Tois ;rpos a\rrov tpxollevo•s.
OTCXV oov ol f36:pf3cxpol ?}i\6ov Kcxl ;r5:crcxv TJ1 V xwpcxv tA.e,.,A.6:-
T110"CXV, avvef311 cxVTois Sl<): TOV T61TOV tKe(vov Slepxecr6CX1" KCXi
1 6 ytpc:.>v: 'the monk', who was the narrator of the preceding story. 2
& ~ ~ a : literally the Aramaic for 'father', as found in the N. T., but the
title was given (like ytpc:.>v) without regard to age. 3 els To &-rro J,ltpos:
'the distant part of the city', the preposition being used adverbially, but
the context perhaps favours els To J,ltpos &-rro TfiS' 'tr6Aec:.>S, 'in the region
outside the city'. 4 TrV6J,1tva: 'hollow trunk', rather than 'base,
root'. 5 avVE"t'Vyxavev: 'conversed'. 6 6Tav is by now an ordinary
temporal conjunction.
IOANNES MOSCHOS
29
lSoov els Twv (3apJ36:poov yepoVTa 1rap<XK\rrn'oVTa To
Kal CcVaTe{vas -ri}v xetpa rnl TO Sovval cxV-rov
10 EKTeTaiJSVT)V E)(oov -ri}v xetpa Kal CodVT)TOV. TOVTO
Kal ol 'Ao11t'ol J36:pJ3apo1 Kal Tov yepoVTos
1t'p00"1t'{1t'TOVTES Kal 1t'Ol{]aas E\JxftV 6 yepoov l6:0"aTO
cxV-r6v
1
Kal o\hoo erntAvaev cxV-ro\is elp{]VIJ.
77 (p. 2930.) IJlcii els TOV oiKov Tov
15 aoq>lO"Tov tyoo Kal 6 J<Vp1os i'jv Se
IJECTTIIJJ3pw6v. Se els -ri}v ay{av 9eoT6KOV
1
ftv
6 IJCXKCcplOS 1t'Cc"Jt'as Ev'A6ytosl -ri}v -riis
etas. oos ovv els TOV oiKOV TOV <plAOO"O<pOVI 1t'aptKv-
'¥EV KOPTl Akyovaa ,Ka6eVSEl
1
CiAA. 6'A{yov
20 TOTE s,; Akyoo KVpict> ,c5:yOOIJEV TETpaTI'V'A<t>
KCxKei !O"TlV Se 6 T61ros TOV TETpa"Jt'V'Aov 1r6:vv ae-
(3ao-1JlOS 1rapa To is • 'Atyovo-1 yap oTl Ta 'Ae{"''ava
•tepe!J{ov I Tov 1t'pocp{]Tov I erno Aly\mTov 'Aa(3oov •
6 KTiO"TTlS -riis 1t'OAeOOSI aU-ra KcrreOe lO. oos ovv
25 els TOV T01t'OV ovSeva rupOIJEVI el IJft Tpeis TV<p'Ao(ls· IJECTT)IJJ3pwov
yap i'jv. ovv 1t'ATlaiov Twv TV<p'Awv 1iavxias
Kal O"l001t'f\S Kal E}(OVTES TcX j3l{3A{a f}IJWV.
Se ol TV<p'Aol 1rp0s CiAA.{]'Aovs Kal Akye1 6 els &XA.<t> ,oVToos
O"Ol
1
1t'Ws ytyovas TV<p'A6s ;" Kal 'Atyoov ,
80 -fiiJTlV liEOOTEpos· Kal erno 'AcpplKf\S rnAEOIJEV
1
Kal 1t'eACxyEl
6cp6cx'AJ,ll6:aas Kal IJTt E)(oov 1t'Ws 1t'EploSev6w
1
Ta AevKOOIJaTa
9 Sovvat: se. 1t'ATIYQs, constructed with an
accusative of both the objects. 13 lrrrD.v01:v: 'bade them farewell'. 14
'one day'; see 39 below. 15 aocpta&ou: 'teacher'; just below he
is called cptAoa6cpov. iva 'to meet for meditation or a ser-
vice'. 16 'he lived', a rare classical usage. 17 1rcrrras: 'pope',
a title held by the bishops of Alexandria, Antioch, Jerusalem and
Rome. 19 'wait'; Hesseling restored this late word for
the meaningless of the Migne text. 20 -r(i) Te-rpa-
WACt>: 'let's go to the Tetrapylon', a colonnade in the centre of Alex-
andria; this usage of &yoo is found in the N. T. 28-29 6v-roos aot looks
like an abbreviation of ov-roos aot Myoo, as at 56 below. 29 c!rrra<pl&Ti:
Attic c!rrra<p(va-ro. 30 -f\IJTIV: this form is found occasionally instead of
in manuscripts of classical texts. 31 1t'EptoSev6(;): 'cured'; in late
authors 1t'EptoSruoo means 'practise medicine'.
30
IOANNES MOSCHOS
ecrxov Tois 6cp6c:xAJ,lois J.lOV Ked hvcpP.cbet,v." AEyEl Ked •et> &:A.Aop
,CY\J "'TOOS yeyovcxs 'TV<pP.6s ;" ernEKpfet, K&i<eivos P.eyoov
iiJ.l'llV -ri}v 'TExV'IlV Ked 'TOV "'TVPOs rntxvow EO')(OV ot Svo
85 o<p6cxAJ.lOl Ked hvcpP.cb6r}v." AEyOVOW t!iAAop KcXKEiVOl ,eN "'TOOS
yeyovcxs 'TV<pA6s;" 6 Se &ireKp{et, ,oVToos eyw r.Eyoo VJ.liv·
chcxv iiJ.l'llV VEOO'TEpos, 'TOV KCxJ.lCX'TOV "'TCcVV. yeyovcx Se
Kcxl CXO"OO'TOS. OVK exoov ovv "JT66ev <pCxyOO AOl"'TOV EKAE"'T'TOV.
ovv 'TOOV f}J.lepoov J,lE'Ta 'TO "'TOl'i)acxl J,le "'TOAAa KCXKa lOTCx-
40 J.l'llV OVV rnl -ri}v &yopav KCXl 6eoopoo VEKpov KcxAOOS
cpopOVV'TCX. &Kor.oveoo ovv C)"JT{aoo 'TOV ivcx eeoopf}aoo "JTOV
J,lEAAoval V cx\nov 60:rrret V. ot Se -?}P.6ov o"JT{aoo 'TO V ay{ov ., ooav-
vov Kcxl Eet,Kcxv cx\rrov els J.lV'IlJ.lEiov Kcxl &-rrflP.6ov. eyw Se oos
elSov &ireP.66VTcxS cx\rro\Js, eloi)P.6ov els 'TO J.lV'IlJ.lElOV Kcxi erneSvacx
45 cxV'TOV ei'Tl cx\nc;> ev J.lOVOV 666vtov. oos ovv EJ.lEAAOV
•ov J.lV'IlJ.lE{ov P.cxf3oov "'TOAAa "'TCxVV, i} KCXKf} J.lOV
• P.eye1 J.lOl ,P.af3e Kcxl •o 666v1ov cx\rrov, o•• 1Tt6cxv6v
v." ovv 6 Se{P.cxtos eycb. Kcxl oos chreSvov cx\nov
To 666vtov ivcx yvJ.lvov cx\nov 6 vEKpOs
50 EJ.l1Tpoa6Ev J.lOV Kcxl •as Svo xeipcxs cxV'TOV rn· EJ.le 'TOiS
SCXKTVAOlS cx\nov J.lOV -ri}v KCXl 'TOVS Svo
J.lOV ocp6cxAJ.lOVS. 'TOTE eyoo 6 a6AlOS "'TCxV'TCX J,lE'Ta
"JTOAAf\S Kcxl KlvSvvov 'TOV J.lvi}J.lCX'TOS. lSov el"'TOV
VJ.liV K&yoo "'TOOS yeyovcx 'TV<pA6s" 'TcxVTCX &KovaaVToov flJ.lOOV vrue1
55 J.lOl 6 KVplOS Kcxl &vexoopf}acxJ,lEV cx\noov. Kcxi
P.eye1 J.lOl ,oVToos ao1, Kiip• &f3(3cx, J.lft af}J.lepov.
Mey<lAoos yap oocpei\1}6r}J.lEV." OO<pEA116EV'TES ovv yeypcx<pf}KCXJ.lEV
ivcx Kcxl VJ.lElS cXKOVOV'TES 'TcxVTCX OO<pEA116f\'TE. &i\Tleoos yap chl
ouSels "'TOlOOV KCXKOV Acxv6Cxvel 6e6v· Kcxl 'TOV J,leV Sl'llY1lJ.lCX'TOS
60 'TOVTOV f}J.lEiS cxVTf}KOOl 1Tcxpa 'TOV 1TE"JTOv66'TOS yey6VCXJ.lEV.
33 VcxAOifiOS: 'glass-
maker'. 34 hrlxvow: 'discharge'. 38 Aonr611: 'so', a slight ana-
colouthon; in 40 ov11 shows the same colloquial tendency. 40
IJiliiOII: 'being taken for burial'. 45 EiTt: 'everything'. 47
'impulse', personified. 1rt6a11011: 'beautiful'. 52 6AIIJIEOOS: 'affliction,
anguish', so used in Hellenistic and Biblical Greek. 56 Kiipt doubtless
represents the colloquial pronunciation of the vocative l<Vpte. 58 aAT)-
6c;)s yap OTI: another colloquial ellipse of a verb, cf. 28-29, 56.
IOANNES MOSCHOS
31
217 (p. 3108.) Ehrev yepoov ,Ta<v{o:, TO &Ao:s tK TOV vSCXT6S
Ko:l lav 1rpOO"eyy{01J vSCXTl AVETO:l Ko:l
01-lO{OOS KO:l 6 !lOVCX)(Qs tK Ti}S yvvo:11<6s KO:l 1rp0-
aeyy{01J yvvo:11<l Avcro:l, Ko:l els To llft ei vo:1 !lOVCX)(Os Sf1Aov6·n
65
61 &Aas: this neuter form is frequent in the LXX and almost universal in
the N. T. 64 Hesseling thought the words els •.. ST]i\ov6Tl a gloss
that has intruded into the text.
THEOPHANES THE CONFESSOR (c. 752-818)
The main source for the history of the seventh and eighth centuries is
Theophanes' chronicle, which covers the years 284--813 in annalistic fashion.
It is a continuation of a similar work by George Syncellus and was under-
taken at his request. Some parts are no more than a dull summary of extant
sources such as Procopius, but elsewhere he has preserved valuable lost
material. He makes a praiseworthy if not entirely successful attempt to
achieve chronological precision: at the beginning of the account of each
year he lists in eight columns the various rulers and patriarchs with the
year of their reign or tenure of office. In style he is much closer to the
colloquial than the Atticist. Numerous manuscripts, one at least being as
early as the ninth century (Christ Church Oxford, MS. Wake 6), attest the
popularity of the chronicle, and in 873--6 the papal librarian Anastasius
translated it into Latin.
Theophanes was a leading figure in the religious life of his day and
founded a monastery near Cyzicus, to which he retired. For his orthodoxy
he was imprisoned by the emperor Leo V and then banished to Samothrace.
See below, pp. 37 ff.
Edition: C. de Boor, Leipzig 1883, reprinted 1963.
Events in the year 726
'Ev cxVT't> Se T't> rnl, lvSli<TlWVOS 6', OOP<i'C c:h!Jls oos
Ka!J{vov TTVPOs 9f)pas Kal 9flpaa£as Twv
vflaoov TOV I3v6ov Tfis 6aACxO'O'flS rnl TlVCxS, Kal KaTCx
I'PCXXV Kal Tfj TfiS TTVpwSovs
s oAos 6 Kcrnvas TTVpocpavf}s Tfj Se ncxxVTT)Tl
Tfis yewSovs ova{as 1TETpOKlO'af)povs 1Jey6:Aovs oos A6cpovs
1 a\rr4': 'this', as in modern Greek. lv6t1CT1&>VOS 6': 'in the ninth
in diction'. Byzantine dates were usually expressed in terms of an indic-
tion cycle of fifteen years; the alternative was to reckon from the creation
of the world (5508 B. C.). 2 perhaps best taken here as
'chimney'. 4 'heat'. 5 probably the fiery matter
erupting. 6 lTETpOKta<riJpovs: 'pumice-stones'.
THEOPHANES THE CONFESSOR
33
TlVCxS aWrrEIJ\YE Kcx6• 8AT}S Tfis IJlKpas •ACT{CXS Kal Kal
• Aj3vSov Kal Tfis TrPOs eaA.aCTCTav MaKESov{cxs, 00s ernav TO
1TpOCT001TOV Ti)S 6aAaCTCTT}S TaVTflS KlCTO"ftpoov
10 ytiJElV. TOV TT}AlKOVTOV TrVPOs vflCTOS &1Toyeoo6eiCTa Tij
• CTVVJicp6T}, !Jf}Troo TO Trpl v OOCTa, &:J..A • oos al
Trpoppfl6eiCTal vflCTol 91}pa TE Kal 9T}pama Tron
OVTOO Kal aVTT} vVV trrl TOOV xp6voov TOV 6eOIJCxxOV Os
Ti)v KaT. cxV-rov 6e{av opyi}v AOYlCTcXIJEVOS &val-
15 KaTCx TOOV ay{oov Kal CTeTrTOOV eiK6voov i')ye1pe TrOAeiJOV,
CTVIJIJCX)(OV 8flcritP Tov &pVflCT{6eov Kal Tfis iCTT}S &Aoy{as
aiJ<pOO yap lxTralSevCT{as fjCTaV Kal TrcXCTT}S
01Jcx6{as, fis TCx 1TOAAO TOOV Kal<OOV epxeTal. ol KaTCx Tf}v
j3aCTlA{Sa TrOAlV oxAol CTcp6Spa AVTrOVIJEVOl trrl Tais Kalvais
20 SlSaCTKaA{alS cxV-rc;> Te trreA6eiv Ka{ Tlvas j3aCT1AlKOVS
av6poo1TOVS &veiAov Ka6eA6VTcxs Tf}v TOV KVp{ov eiK6va Tf}v trrl
Tfis IJEYOAflS XaAKfls Tl"VAflS, 005 TroAAovs cxV-roov Tfis
eVCTej3efcxs T11JOOPfl6flVal IJeAoov Kal Kal
Kal IJOAlCTTa TOVS e\ryeve{q; Kal Slacpaveis· OOCTTe
25 Kal TO TralSEVTi}pla CTj3eCT6flval Kal Tf}v evCTej3fl Tra{SeVCTlV Tf}v
&Tro Tov &y£o1s KoovCTTaVT{ vov Tov IJEYOAOV Kal wv
Kpcrrt;CTaCTaV, tjs Kal IJETCx aAAOOV 1TOAAOOV KaAOOV o
CTapaKflv6cppoov oOTos yeyovev. TOVTOlS oov
KlVOVIJEVOl KaT• cxVTOV IJEYOATJ VOVIJCX)({q;
13 T. attempts to
make a smooth transition to another topic; he had already narrated under
the years 723 and 725 the beginnings of Iconoclasm. 14
i. e. out of reacb, and so having no effect on him. 15 O'E1TTOO\I: 'august',
a word not found in classical prose. 16 8fi<11'1P: T. earlier had said
that he was a Syrian Christian taken prisoner by the Arabs and con-
verted for a while to Islam, and that he exercised great influence over
the emperor. The name is presumably a misunderstanding of the title
VIZier. &p\IT}al6eov: 'atheistic', a common patristic word. 20
T00\1: 'planned', as in modern Greek. 21 &v6poonovs: here 'officials'. 23
ba<onaTs: 'mutilation', 'banishment', 25 natSEV"n')pta: 'schools';
all Hellenistic words. The schools in question seem to be primarily eccle-
siastical; if T. is right, the fact is important for the history of Byzantine
education and classical scholarship, since pagan authors occupied a strong
position in the curriculum. 28 aapCX1Cf1v6cppoov: Iconoclasm coincided
with Islamic doctrine in forbidding representational art, and T. sees the
movement as Islamic in origin. 29 O"Taat&l;ovO'l: 'rebel'.
S Wilson
34 THEOPHANES THE CONFESSOR
80 OVIJ<pc..:>vf}croVTES 'EAAoS1Ko{ -re Kol ol 'T00\1 KVI<A6:Soov vf}croov
Kocr!JO:v 'Tl\lo OVVE1TolJevov E)(o\I'Tes els 'TO cr-re<pefj vo1, • Aya"A'A1o-
v6s Se, Tovp1J6:PXTlS Toov •EAf.oS1Koov, 'l'}yei'To Tiis O"'TpaT1CXs, Kol
l:'TE<povos • oi Kol 1Tpocnre'A6:croVTEs 'Tf.i !3ocr1'AfS1 1TOAe1 111' 'TOV
• A1rp1A'A£ov 1-lfl\IOS Tiis 1' lvS1KT1oovos ft'T'Too\I'To1 OVIJi3aA6VTES Tois
85 cx\rroov 'T00\1 \lfl00\1 'T4) O"KEVoO"'T4)
1TVpL Kol ol lJev mpl 'T0\1 1\cS:KKov, ols Kol • Aya"A-
A1ovos E\101TAO\I kwrov rno\I'TOOO"E\1, ol Se 'T4) Kpa'TOV\I'T1
1Tpocrpvo\I'To1. Kol erno'TSIJ\IO\I'T01 'TOS KE<pa"AO:s KocriJO:s 'TE Kol
l:Te<povos, Se 'Tf.i KaKtq; /\eoov 6 Svcroc(3tis Kol ot ToV'Tov
40 crVlJ<ppoves 'TO \I Ka'TCx Tiis aicre(3e£os S100YIJO\I rn1-re{ \IOVTES.
30 'EMa-
StKol: the armed forces stationed in the province Hellas, which at that
time included most of Greece. 32 'commander of a
squadron', a hybrid formation from the Latin lurma. 35
Toov: on the failure to observe the gender rules seeR. Browning, Medieval
and modern Greek, 68-69. 35-36 cn<£VacrTftl TI'Vp(: Greek fire, the
devastating secret weapon of the Byzantine fleet, which the rebels evi-
dently had not been able to lay their hands on. It was invented by a
Syrian refugee called Kallinikos c. 673 (see further A. A. Vasiliev, History
of the Byzantine empire, Madison 1958, 214). It is usually supposed to
have contained saltpetre, but J. R. Partington, A history of Greek fire
and gunpowder, Cambridge 1960, 28-32, argued that it was 'a distilled
petroleum fraction, combined with other specified ingredients, but not
containing saltpetre'. 36 i\cDa<:ov: 'reservoir'.
METHODIOS (d. 847)
Hagiography began in the fourth century with Athanasius' life of
St. Antony. A considerable proportion of Byzantine literature consists of
the lives of saints, many of which were revised, elaborated or rewritten in
the course of the centuries; notable in this context is the activity of Symeon
Magister (tenth century), known as the Metaphrast because he recast
many of the lives in a style more acceptable to the taste of his day.
Methodios' life of Theophanes the Confessor is selected for inclusion
here for three reasons. First, it is written by an author personally acquainted
with the events he describes, so that there is less chance for inaccurate
pious legend to grow up and obscure historical fact. Second, Theophanes is
well known for another reason, since he is the author of the valuable chron-
icle of events from A. D. 284 to 813 (see above, pp. 32££.); strangely enough
neither this biography nor the other two printed by de Boor in his edition
of the chronicle make any allusion to his work as a historian. Thirdly,
Theophanes was involved in one of the great struggles of Byzantine history,
the Iconoclastic controversy, a kind of civil war that plagued the empire
for a century and a quarter; the claim of the Iconoclasts that worship of
images and icons was idolatrous was finally refuted by the great theological
writings of John of Damascus (d. 749) and Theodore the Studite (769-826).
Methodios himself suffered imprisonment by the Iconoclasts. In 843
he became patriarch and at a special synod reintroduced the worship of
images.
The following extracts illustrate Theophanes' thaumaturgic powers
and the persecution that he had to suffer for his orthodoxy.
Text: D. Spiridonov, Ekklesiastikos Pharos 12. 1913. 88-96, 113--163 and
V. Latyshev, Zapiski of the Russian Academy 13. 1916 no. 4.
XX. 'Ev ya:p 6epJJois 1ro-re -rov JJCXKap{ov JJlKpcxs
6epa1refas Eva<EV J3a-rpCx){oov 1jv 0 -r61TOS, 4)1Tep KCX"t{Avaav,
oos vSpev6J,lEvos. -ro&roov o 66pvJ3os ftv{a 1TOOS
1 b yap presumably 'in the heat' (in classical Greek Ta
referred to xoop(a or }.ov-rpa). 2 &pa-rrelas: 'service, favour'. 3
'irrigated'; LSJ cite only from Theophr. H. P. 2. 6. 3.
36
METHODIOS
Kal \rrrt&i\1f3e To\ls hnii\vScxs Tij TpCX)(\rrr}Tl Toov Kpavyoov TO
5 oJ..lai\ov Tfis f)avxtcxs oarapCrr-roov Kal \rrrooarooJ..lEvos. n{crnv
OVV avai\aj3oov TlS Kal T6i\J..laV e\rrrp6AT)1TTOV TOOV avyyevoov
TOV oa{ov Kal nopev6els cxV-ran6aToi\osl O"Tas trrl TOV T61TOV
<pT)O"i 1Tp0s TOVS ,o KaA6yr)pOS el1TE
1
lTaVO"aTE Kal
llfJ ot Se T'liv aia&r,a1v Tov &KovaTlKov Tpavooeev-res
10 lTAEOV i;nep av6poo1TOOV o{ &i\oyooTaT01
1
0"1001Tij TTJV \rrraKOTJV
TOxOS i1 b<ei\eva&r,aav epyov 6e{as Soopeas TOVTO
Kal TlllTlS 1TpOs TOV OO"lOV cpepov ol yap TO
els <pVO"lV J..leV E)(ov-resl TO Se OKOVElV ovSrnoTEI ilvnep OVK eixov
eli\f)cpaa1 v aia&r,a1 vI 8 S • ov KaTeixov yvooplaJ..la ·
15 To yap i\ai\eiv els &Kove1v OKT)Koeval a1yoov-res
cxV-rov 00s oiOJ..lall TOV rnlTlJ..lTtTOpa Kal !lET.
flllCXS TOVS OKOVO"OVTCXS elSeval aej3ElV lTaTepa KEAEVOVTES
Kal llfJ aai\eve1 V TOOV i\6yoov TcX op1a TOVTOV SfJ
yevoJ.1evov Kal napei\6ovO"T)s SEVTepas f)!lEpas Tfis a1oo1Tf)s
20 cxV-roov <pT)al v o Spa!laTovpyos Kal mrr<Xyyei\Tos npos Tov
StKa1ov ,f}i\ef)ST)!lEv n<XTEp flavxaaaVToov Toov i\lJ..lvoxapoov
KvooS<Xi\oov oos navv ye"
1
Tov Se ,Kal noos &pa wv ;"
&nftyye1i\ev o <pli\ai\ft6T)s avyyevils aVTov Kal
oVK El<pV\fiEV
1
av6VT)Tov SEVTtpav Ki\o1TfJv oV)( f)yoVJ..lEVOS npo-
25 a6eival1TCXV S{KalOVTij J..lETCx n{O"TEOOS yeyovv{Cjt rnlKEpSei np6TEpov.
oaTlS eeros &panoov 1-1a6oov
1
cl>s T4l To\JTov ov61-1CXT1 rnlTl-
4 bnlA.vSas: here 'travellers'. 5 VrrOO"Tt'OOIJEVOS: 'preventing, reducing';
not classical in this sense. 6 e\nrp6A1)1TTOV: 'enterprising' ( ?) ; lexicis
addendum. avyyevoov: 'companions'. 7 aV-rcrrr6a-roA.os: lexicis ad-
dendum. 8 KcxA6ytlpOS: 'venerable', very frequently used of monks. 9
Tpavoo6ivres: in patristic Greek this verb can mean 'instruct'. 11 TCxxOS
ft: probably in origin a mixture of TCxxOS and 6CiTrov ft; there are several
examples of this construction in Agathias (see p. 221 of Keydell's edi-
tion). 14 o<J Kcrntxov Spiridonov: o(/1( &m:txov MS. yvooptaJ.la:
probably 'sign of faith'; see 39 below. 16 bnTtJ.li)Topa: 'critic'; the
lexica cite only Odyssey 9. 270, where it means 'avenger'. 18 Proverbs
22. 28, 23. 10. 20 SpaJ.laTovpyos: 'deviser', first in Josephus. aV-r-
CryyeATOS: aV-rc!ryyeAos in classical Greek. 21 AtJ.IVOXapoov: cited by the
lexica only from Batrachomyomachia 12, 212; a surprising echo of clas-
sical literature. 22 KVooS&Aoov: not in classical prose. 24--25 'not
thinking it entirely right to add another pointless deception to the one
that had already turned out profitable'. 26 8etos 6ep6-rroov: 'the servant
of the Lord'. Tolhov = aV-rov.
METHOD lOS 37
J.lTtCTCXS Ta -n)v CTtoo'TTT)v KCX'TT)VCcyKaCTev, CXVT<t>
1TaTptKOOS Kal a\ITE1TtTtJ.lf}CTas Ta 1Tp6CTcpopa, &1TeCTTEtAe 1Tapev-
ev AVO'OJ.lEVOV 000'1Tep SetKvVS 00s TO Tij <pVO'El
so ov XPfl xav !VtCTXVOl VnaJ.1E{J3etv TlVCx &vcxyt<aO'Tl-
KOOTaTa. KOJ.l{CTas oov -n)v AVCTtv 6 1rplv Tov SeCTJ.lOV V1To1T011")0'Cx-
J.1EVOS O'V!lcpoovos f} t<pavyf} 1rapa 1TaVToov eVevs TCfl r.6yct> Tov
AeAVKOTOS rnaveS{SoTO, 00s elKCxO'al s,r.aSf) T1")pOVVTOOV TOVTO
TJT01 1TpoJ3Ae1fOJ.lEVOOV Kal 1TpQs aUTO ftTOlJ.laO'J.lEVOOV 1TaJ.l1T6-
85 &r)Ta. cpavepoi To{vvv !vre\ieev Kal voeiv S{SooCTtv f} V1T66eCTtS,
oos o\Jx Tt 1TfO'T1S TOV SpaJ.laTOvpyov rntTlJ.lT)TOV 1Tp6TEpov, &AA.
Ti !v TCfl 60'{'1' SvvaJ.llS Kvp{ov TOV eeov !vetpyf}Ket OJ.l<pOTEpa,
el Kal TO J.lOVOV rnl TCfl TOVTOV OVOJ.laTl AaAflO'al 1TP0s aVTOVS
;rp6TEpov 1TtO'TeVOVTOS i'}v, oVt< OJ.l<pt(36:AAoVTOS yvcbptCTJ.la.
XXVI. Kal !v TCfl !lECT<t> Tiis 6yS611s ftAtKtooCTEoos xp6vct>,
01TEp !CTTl Tphov Kal 1TeVTT)KOO'TOV apt6J.10VJ.1EVOV, !KpO:TT)CTEV 6
TVpavvf}CTaS Tov TtJ.lf}CTaVTa, oo0'1Tep Kal &cpeA6J.1evos
TCfl S6Act> Tiis J3aCTtAe{CXS To r.0:(3opov Kal CTKi;1TTpov &pJ.lEvtoye-
s Tfj •pooJ.la{oov &pxfj Kal o\Jx, 00s <pflCTtv,
oCTTpaxov CTtSftpct>, To e<J6pV1TTov TCfl O'KA1")p(f> &vacpvpas, &AAO:
K01Tpov l1T1Teiav Tfj evooS{<jC XptO'Ttavoov 1TapapTVO'CXS. CSO'a TftV
!Kl<AflCT{av eSpaCTE Kal !wJ3ptO'eV, 8CTa SeSf}J.1EVKe Kal KaTEO'Tpe"J'eV,
ola ;recpaVAtKE Kal 1TE1T0:T,KEv, OM • ov Kal TOV AEyOVTOS Kal
10 TOV Katpov. TaVTa SEeTat J.lEYfCTToov OJ.l<pOTepoov, eh' oov
lCTXvpov Kal 1TapaTETa!lEvov, oos 1ravv ye, 1TpayJ.laTE{av yap
olt<efav Kal TeVxOS lStoO'Vyyacpov (3£(3r.ov 'lrrrepEK1TAi;CTat Svva-
28, 30 aV'lnt'1T11JfJaas,
lexicis addenda. 30 &VCX)'I<aaTti<OOTcrra: this superlative is not cited by
thelexica. 34 'Tl'al.l'T1'66r}Ta: commoninpatristic Greek. 35 w66eats:
'story'.
1 'l'tAtl<tooaeoos: lexicis addendum. 4 ).aJ3opov: Latin labarum, 'stan-
dard'; etymology uncertain. &pi.LEvtoye\lts: Leo V was, like a surpris-
ingly high proportion of leading Byzantines, an Armenian (see further
P. Charanis, The Armenians in the Byzantine empire, Lisbon 1963). He
rose to power by deposing his predecessor. 5 Daniel 2. 41. 7 'Tt'ap-
ap-niaas: 'season', a Hellenistic word. 10 elT' the particles are
incorrectly used and perhaps corrupt. 12 TE\ixos: 'volume'. lSto-
oVy-ypaq>ov: 'devoted to this theme alone'; lexicis addendum.
38
METHOD lOS
lleVa. 'TOO"OVTO Se ehreiv 'TEKilOlpojJSvovs aVcxyKaiov I oos 'TOlaVTO
'TE 1<a\ Toaaii-ra \rrrfipxev, &rrep -ri}v OO<A'T}a{av 1<a\ Tcw aV-rfls
15 &yyeAOV 1<al aVV 'TOVS a1-1cp • cxtrrOV 'TTOlllEVOS 'TE
Kal !lE{ovcxs 01-10 'TOiS XPlO"LO'Tp6'Tt"OlS &pEill-100"1 l<al<Cx eSpaaev I
O'Tl ovSevl 'T(;.')V nc.::mo'TE aVV l<aK{<tX j3a0"1Asv0"0V'TOOV 'TOlOVTO
nepas SvaaV'TES <royl<SXOOP'T}'Tal npOil'T}&ev-nl<OO'Ta-ra, olov
av1Jj3ej31}KE &eoo/1lcp•a-ra.
XXVII. To&roov &i<ovacxs Toov S'T}A00!-16:-roov 6 xp•a-ro!J{Il'T}'TOS,
'TCx 'TOV Kvp{ov Tois lla&'T}'Tais j3ej3a1oov napayy0.1-1a-ra ,yvoo-
aoV'Tal n6:VTEs" cp'T}a{v ,&n 9eov lla&'T}Ta{ !a-re !I< 'Tfis npbs
&Aft.f}Aovs ay6:'Tt"'T}s, f)v npoSell<WS wep ti1-1oov erno&aveiv
5 6 cp1Aav6poo'Tt"OS 'Ta&rf}V EAeye 'TOiS cp{AOlS 1<al napET{6e'TO 'TfiS
lla&'T}'TE{as Soopi}!la-r6: 'TE l<al yvoop{O"Ila-1"0, 'TOO"cc\rrr)V ov-
aav -ri}v 6eonap6:Sell<'TOV ay6:'Tt"'T}v, ooa-re 'Tfis 'VV)(fiS acpe1Sfjaa1
Kal wep cp{Aoov OOVAOOV lllO"OVIlEVOV SeO"'TTO'T'T}V Se-
Sool<Eval 'TTO!lcp{A'TOTa." eha -ri}v rnl 'TOVT'tl l<al erna-
10 peyKAl'TOV 'Tfis n{O"'TEOOS nap6:Soa1v 'T'T}pfjaal Slellap'TVpETo, 005
1<al &aveiv aOll<OVjJSVOVS wep 'TOO"OVTOV 'TTPOil1}60VIleVOS
npcXy!JaTOS, ov lli)V weA6eiv 'TOOV 'Tfis l<aK{as !pya-roov 'Ti)v
'Ti)v w6aa6pov. 'TaVTa 'Tt"Oll<{Aas S1Saxais rnl!lap'l'Vpoos
'Tt"cxAOlCXS 1<al veas r pacpfis 'TfiS 6eonveva-rov 1<al nap •
15 'TOV 'Tfis !va-r6:aeoos Aall'Tl"f}VIJ j3A1}6els S1a 'TO &i<{V'T}'TOV
OAOOS l<al avE'Tt"{j3a-rov, !I< 'Tfis llE'TOTe6els els 'TTAOlOplOV,
i\x&'T} npos 'Ti)v j3aa1Aevovaav TcXxla-ra. 1<al 'Tfis 1-1ev Svae1So\is
cS"J'eoos Tov TVpavvovVTos &eoxap{a-roos oVi< ilTVXe, nAl)v S'T}A00-
1-16:-roov allcplAacpoov, oos 1<al naw ye. !x6V'TOOV rnayyeA{as el
20 rnOl'TO, 1<al O"V\1EX6V'TOOV l<al<O'Tt"a6das el O:'Tt"elef}aele. 'TOOe 'ijv,
O'Tl ,el 1<a-ravevae1s 1<al avv&tlael 'Tij napal<Af}ae1 llOV, 1<al aoi
15 &yyU.ov: Christ. 18 Svaarns: 'disagreeable'.
1 'news'. 3 John 13. 35. 6 cxli-r<;;: possessive dative.
'training, discipleship'. 7 6eo1rapaSeuCTov: lexicis adden-
dum. 7-8 John 16. 13,14.15. 9 &-rraptyi<AtTov: 'direct'; Hellen-
istic. 13 lexicis addendum. 15 l'IIO'Taaeoos: 'opposi-
tion'. 'covered chariot', cited by LSJ from Soph. fr. 441
and LXX. 16 aVE1T(j3aTov: 'inability to mount a horse (or mule)', a
sense not attested by the lexica. 17 -rltv j3aaV.Wovaav: se. 1T6AtV.
METHOD IOS
39
Kcxi Tij !Jovij aov &ycxeo1Ton'}aoo • 1TcxpCXKovoV'T1 Se Kcxl
1TE1pooiJSVct> 'TCxS 1Tcxpcx1VEO"e1S IJOV S1CXKpo\Je0'6cx1, CxY)(OVT]S
1Tcxpa:Se1YIJCX'T{aoo Kcxl Toov l!r.i\Aoov ets cp6j3ov ae 1Tpo-re&r)Koos." Kcxl
25 opKOV KCXK{<j'( 'TOV cp1i\eiv rnlOpKEiV !v 'TCi> IJTJ
!Kj3cxi\eiv 'TO 61JW01Jevov, tvcx 1TCxV'TOOS ye KCXKovpyoov Toov Svo
S1a:Se1KvVOl'TO, i; CxVCXlpoov OOS IJlO"av6p001TOS, i; rnlOpKooV oos
6eo1Tapo1T'TOS. 'Tcxii'TCX 'TCi> 6eoO"'TVYei S1CX1TEIJ1TOiJSVct> 1TpQs 'TOV
cp1AOXP10"'TOV &1T6Kp10"1S 1Tcxp • cx\rrov y{ VE'TCXl c:x6-n, 1TCXpETv1JCX
ao ,Toov 1-1ev Soopeoov aov IJTJ !KKevoo01Js Ta 6r}acxvp{a1JCX'Tcx, Toov Se
erne1i\oov aov 0"1TeVO"OV i\6yos 'TO IJCXpTVpOIJCXl
yap eeov KCX'TEV001T10V, oos et hlvaels IJE 'TOV Svacxxeovs Kcxi
1TOi\voSvvov O"OOIJCX'T{ov IJOV, ov 'TCxS av{cxs IJOYlS vcp{O"'TCXIJCXl,
xapl V OIJOi\oyoo 0"01 ruepyE'TOVV'Tl KCXi 1Tcxpa YVOOIJTl V et Se
85 KCXl olov Crn01TE1pcxv 'TOV cxlpeia6cx{ 1JE 6aVCX'TOV 'TOV \Jnep aATl-
6e{cxs, 00s aoo'TT'lp1ocp6pov 1To'1'ftp1ov O"T'iiaov 'TO ii &pov 'TO
nVp 'fiSTl aTtiJEPOV. Kcx\ et IJTJ 'TOV006els 1Tp06v1J{<j'( IJOV els
cm6Tepov 1TpoaE:i\6oo TCXXVTCX'Tcx, yvoo61 00s avvecppoVT]O"CxiJTlV Tij
KCXKOVO{<j'( O"OV Kcxl OVK lVEO"'TT'lV ruae(3(;)s &Y){lVOVO"'TCX'TCX."
25 opKov: it looks as if some word like hd6T)KEV has out.
IJ.0\11: lexicis addendum. 26 Spiridonov: MS., a demotic
form less likely to be used here (Jannaris, Historical Greek Grammar,
996. 24); the sense required is 'through appearing not to carry out what
he had sworn to do'. 28, 29 6eo-rrapOlT'TQS, lexicis addenda.
37 Tovoo6els: 'braced, strengthened'; the text is corrupt and probably
requires the insertion of crovotSa after ( = as found occa-
sionally in classical Attic; in Polybius and the N. T. it is standard usage;
see Fraenkel on Aesch. Ag. 1672).
PHOTIUS (c. 810-891)
Photius, who occupied the patriarchal throne of Constantinople in
86S--67 and 877-86, is equally important in the history of the church
and of classical scholarship. As patriarch he conducted negotiations which
led to a schism with the Roman church, as scholar he seems to have been
responsible more than anyone else for the revival of education and classical
studies which took place when the Iconoclastic controversy came to an
end in 843.
His voluminous writings include sermons, letters, a new edition of the
code of canon law, an Atticist lexicon (of which the first complete manu-
script was discovered in Macedonia in 1969), and the Bibliotheca, from
which some extracts are given here. This consists of 280 sections (sometimes
referred to as 'codices'), each naming a book that he had read and giving
some account of its content and literary merit. These reviews, which seem
to be the earliest of the kind, cover a very wide range of literature, of which
nearly half is classical. Many texts that have since been lost are included.
Photius' choice is virtually confined to prose (but for evidence that he had
read Aristophanes' Ploutos see his letter no. 160). The factors governing
his selection, the sources (if any) of his critical judgements, and the extent
to which he relied on his memory in drafting, are questions which have
still not been finally answered.
On P. in general see K. Ziegler's article in Pauly-Wissowa. For his
career and the composition of the Bibliotheca see H. Ahrweiler, BZ 58.
1965. 34S--63, N. G. Wilson, GRBS 9. 1968. 451-5. Texts of the Biblio-
theca: I. Bekker, 1824-6; R. Henry, Paris 1959 - (in progress), with
French translation and notes.
1
'Aveyvcb0'6r) eeoScbpov 1Tpeaj3vTepov chl YVTJO"{a, TOV
aylov Lllovva{ov j3£j3Aos. SteAVOVTo Se Tct> •
Theodore is believed to have lived in the sixth century. The lost work
discussed here was doubtless intended to combat the scepticism of Hypa-
tius of Ephesus, one of the very few people ever to question the authen-
ticity of the works ascribed to Dionysius the Areopagite. These treatises
of mystical theology, a synthesis of Neoplatonism and Christianity written
PHOTIUS
41
Teo-o-apes, IJ{a !JeV c5Tl el ftv yVT)o-{a, 1TOOS o\JK e!Jvf)cr&t,o-av Toov
EV cxV-rij TE Kal Xpftaecbv Tl VES TOOV IJETayEVEO"Tepoov
5 1TaTepoov; SEVTepa [lb] Se, oTl Evae(31os 6 TlaiJq>fXov, &vaypa-
q>T}v 1TOlflO"OIJEVOS Toov avyyeypa!JIJEvoov Tois IJal<ap{o•s 1TaTpa-
O"lV TJIJOOV J:?n(3:A{oov, OVOEIJ{av Ta\rrr}S IJvTJIJflV rnoli}O"aTO. Tp{Tfl
Se, OTl 1TOOS TOOV l<aTCx 1TpOKOnTtV ev T,ij EKKAflO"{CjX Kal Sla IJal<pov
TOV xp6vov a\t9)6eVTOOV 1TapaS6o-eoov ,; (3{(3:Aos cxV-rr) Arn'TOIJEpfi
10 TT}v 1ro1eiTal; 6 [2a] IJEv yap 1-lEyas • o-Vy-
xpovos i'jv, oos Sfi:Aov El< TOOV Tois & Se,;
(3{(3AOS 1TEP1ExEl, TCx 1TAeiO"Ta TOOV l<aTCx 1Tp01<01TTtV Kal Es liO"TEpov
ev Tij EKKAflO"{<i' 1TapaSooecbv EO"TlV &vaypaq>ft.
Cxir{6avov ovv, q>aa{, IJCXAAOV Se KaK61TAaO"Tov, Ta IJETCx 1ro:Avv
15 xp6vov Tfis TEAevTfis TOV IJeyaAOV ev Tij EKKAflO"{CjX
a\t9)6eVTa \rrro:Aa1J(3ave1v &vayproya•· TETOPTfl Se,
1TOOS !Je!JVT)Tal Tfis TOV 6eoq>6pov 'lyvaT{ov rnlO"TOAfiS,; J3!(3:Aos;
6 !Jev yap • • Tois Toov &1ToO"T6:Aoov evf)K!Jaae xp6vo•s.
'lyvcrnos Se rnl T pa"iavov TOV Sla IJOPTVp{ov f}6AflO"EV &yoova.
20 os Kal 1rpo J3paxv Tfis Te:AevTfis TcxV-rr}v TT}v rnlO"To:Aftv, i'is it
(3£(3:Aos IJV'Tl!Jove\te•, ypaq>el.
by a Syrian c. 500, enjoyed immense authority until Lorenzo Valla called
them into question. 2 'objections', a technical term of logic
and rhetoric. 4 XPfJaeoov: 'sayings', often applied by Christian writers
to passages of scripture. 5 6 nallcpl:;\ov: the famous church historian
was the pupil of the martyr Pampbilus, not his son, which the Greek
suggests at first sight. 8 1<crra npo1<o7Tl'Jv: 'progressively, gradually';
the noun seems to be Hellenistic. 9 masculine participle
with feminine noun; for possible examples of this construction in classical
Greek see Ed. Fraenkel on Aesch. Ag. 562; Lobeck Aglaophamus 216-218
showed that it is quite common in late writers and cited an interesting
comment by Maximus Confessor (580-662) on Ps.-Dionysius the Areo-
pagite: To el1<6aw Cx1TOTV'Tt'ovaw", Stov el1TETv "Cx1ToTV1Tovaats'',
1111Sels V1To:;\al3ot a6:;\otKov, ayvofJaav-ros TOv llEYCxAOV tuowalov, &JV.. •
faToo TCi> c5v-rt • A&nvaTos 1<al Mav 'ATTtl<Ws oliToo cpnalv· • ATTt-
l<OV yap To llEToxas e,AVI<Ws avv-rtxTTetv ·ollnpos "n:;\n-
ytv-re (Iliad 8. 455). napaS6aeoov: 'traditions'. ArnTOIJEPfi:
'in detail'; this sense is late. 14 cpaal Henry: cpnal MSS. l<aK6-
n:;\aaTov: 'ill-conceived'; LS J quote only from Hermogenes. 15 Tfjs
TEAevTfis: the construction is analogous to 20 npo Tfis ruEVTfis. 18
the compound verb is not classical. 19 llaPTVplov: 'martyr-
dom'; fl&:;\naev ayoova is a metaphor regularly used in such contexts.
42
PHOTIUS
TexV.exs ovv TcXS TEO"aexpa:s O:rrop{exs SlcxAVO"exl rna:yooVlO"Cx-
j.lEVOS, (3e(3ex1oi TO ye trr• c::xVT(i) yVT)a{exv elvex1 TOV !lEyaA.ov
l:!.lovva{ov -rl}v (3f(3i\ov.
36
• Aveyvcba&r] (31(3i\{ov' ov ,; rnlypex<pf} XplO"Tlexvov (3f(3i\os,
els -rl}v oK'TO:Tevxov. TlexJ.l<p{i\'t' Se TlVl ;rpoa<poovei To
(31(3i\{ov. 1jv Texis "lovaT{vov TOV •pooJ.lex{oov (3exali\eoos
,; iJSpexlS
5 • A;rapxETexl \rrrep Tlvoov EKI<i\
11
alexO"T1Koov Soy!lO:Toov
ypex<plKexis, OOS e56KE1, J.lexpTVp{exlS .
.,EO"Tl TCXiTElVOS -ri}v <ppaalV Kexl Tf)s
KOtVflS J.lETExOOV. &XJ\.0: Kex{ TlVex KCXTcX Tf}v {aTop{exv 0:rr{6exvex
avVTfe,o-1 • S1o Ko:l J.lV61KooTEpov J.liD\Aov ;; &i\116eo-TEpov i)yeia6ex1
10 TClV O:v6poo;rov S{KexlOV. &v SoyJ.lcXTOOV ev{O"TCXTO:l,
TcxVTex, chl 6 ovpexvos OVK a<pexlplKOS ,; yi;, &i\i\"
6 ooael Kexj.lapex, TJ hepOJ.li)K11S, Kexl KEK6AA11Tex1 TcX iTEpCXTex
TOV ovpexvov ;rpos TcX iTEpCXTex Tfls yi;s, Kexl OTl iTcXVTES ot OO"TEpes
KlvovVTexl &yyei\oov c::xVTois Tfj KlvfJael SlCXKovovVToov, Ko:l
15 hepa Tl Vex TOlcxVTex.
23 T6 ye trr• cniT4': 'as far as he can', rather than 'in his own view'. The
phrase may be a cautious way of hinting that Photius himself was scep-
tical on the subject; it is difficult to think that he would fail to see the
force of the arguments he summarises, and he gives no idea of the means
used by Theodore to combat them.
On Cosmas see above, p. 6. 2 1rpoaq1C:A)vel: 'dedicate'; not pre-Hellen-
istic in this sense. 3 "lovcnivov: Cosmas 2. 56 says that he made a
voyage to Ethiopia in the reign of Justin (518-527), and that it was
about twenty-five years ago. 4 bcnq.16:l,;oov: the late word is chosen
partly for the clausula; the participial construction, already known in
Attic, is popular with Byzantine writers. See G. HN
Uppsala 1940. 5 \ntip Bekker: 61rep M: lnro A. 6 ypaqnKals: 'scrip-
tural'; from (t') 6ela) l86Ket: 'it would seem'; the imperfect
would be easier if accompanied by c5:pa. 'defend', as in
court. 9 l.lv6tKOOTepov: 'more a writer of myths', a sense not attested
in the lexica. 10 lv!aTaTat: 'argues'; not quite classical, but see LSJ
s. v., B. IV. 12 Ka1.16:pa: 'vaulted room'; in Hdt. 1.199 in another
sense. hepOI.IftK11S: 'rectangular'.
PHOTIUS
43
Tio1eiTa1 Se Kal oos tv Ti)s yeveaeoos Kal Ti)s
S1aTp{(3e1 Se Tfj S111YltO'E1 Kal Tfj eeoop{q: 00s Tils
O'K'Il viis. rn1TpE){e1 Se Kal TOVS 1rpocpf)Tas, K&Kei6ev TOVS O:rro-
O'TOAOVS. i\Eye1 Se 6T1 To l.leyeeos Ex,e1 6 iii\•os Svo KAllJ.<hoov, Kal
20 OTl ot CXyyeAOl OVK elalv Tc;> ovpavc;> &:Ai\a lJ,OVOV VTI'o TO O'TE-
peoolJ,a Kal T)l.l&'w, Kal OT1 6 Xp10"TOs &vei\6oov &-rro Tfls yi'ls
els TO TOV ovpavov Kal TOV O'TEpEOOlJ,aTOS eloi\i\6e, Kal
OTl TOVTO tO"Tl Kal lJ,OVOV ..; (3aa1i\e{a TOOV ovpavoov. AEyEl Se Kal
&J\Aa Tl VCx &i\i\OKOTa.
25 Tipoacpoovei Se TOVS a\rrov i\6yovs TialJ,cp{i\ct> TlV{, TOOV
Se i\omoov (ot yap 1t'cXVTES cx\rrov SooSEKa elal) TOV
lJ.OV • AvaO"Taa{ct>, tv c1l OTl CxKaTcXAVTO{ ela1V ot ovpavo{, TOV
oySoov Se, Os els -n;v ci>Sf}v Kal els TOV OVCX1TO-
SlO'lJ,OV Tov T)i\{ov, TI€Tpct> 1rpoacpoovei, c1) oTl VTI'ElJ.V'IllJ.Crrlae Ta
so {XalJ.aTa Toov i\eye1. ot Se i\omol Teaaapes ov 1rp6s Tl
1rp00'001t'OV a\rrc;> O'VVETcXyr)aav.
60
•HpoS6Tov lO'Top1oov i\6yo1 tvvea, KaTa
&pl6lJ,OV Kal rnoovvlJ,{av TOOV Movaoov. 'looV1KiiS Se Sla-
AEKTOV Kavoov &v oihos ei11, oos 6:Tr1KiiS 9oVKV5{51lS·
17 (h) -rij 6t11Y1'!0'Et would have
been better Attic idiom. 18 ClCTiviis: 'tabernacle'. 19 I<AtllO:rc.w:
I<Ailla is a technical term of geography, meaning the distance between
two parallels. 20 crn:ptc.>lla: 'firmament', as in the LXX. 27 &Kcrra-
AVTOl: 'indestructible': Hellenistic and LXX. 28 &vcrrro6taj.l6v: 'retro-
grade motion' of the sun or a planet. 29 VrreiJ"TlllCrnO'E: 'wrote a treati-
se on'; common in Hellenistic· Greek, but usually middle, not active, in
form.
1 &veyvwa6T): the singular verb with a plural subject occurs elsewhere in
the Bibliotheca; the opening phrase is formulaic as in the following chap-
ter &veyvwae, Alaxfvov ot -rpets A.6yot, and in 128. The formula may owe
something to the language of officialdom, but in documents &vtyvc.>v was
standard. 3 Kavwv: uncharacteristically Photius gives no stylistic crit-
icism; perhaps Ionic dialect did not interest him because it was not a
model for imitation. The comment is borrowed from Dion. Hal., Letter
to Pompeius 3. 16.
44
PHOTIUS
Kt){pflTCXl Se J,.lv6o]t.oy{cxlS Kcxl 1TcxpEKj36:aeal 1TOAAcxis, S1"
5 oov cx\rrCi) f) KCXTCx S16:vo1cxv yAV!<\rn-)S S1cxppei, el Kcxl 1TP0s Tl)v
TTlS {O"Top{cxs l<CXTCxAf)\l)lV Kcxl olKEiOV cx\rrfls Kcxl l<CXTCxAAf)AOV
-rVrrov Tcrii-rcx rnlO"KOTEi, OVK Tiis CxAf)6e{cxs
J,.1V60lS cx\rriis aJ,.1cxvpova6cxl Tl)v &1<p{j3ElCXV, ovSe 1TAEOV TOV
1TpOoTtKOVTOS &1T01TACXVaa6cxl TCXiS 1TCXpEKj3CxO"EO"lV.
10 "ApxETcxl Se Tiis taTop{cxs &1To Tiis Kvpov j3cxalAeicxs Tov
1Tpc.:nov nepaoov j3CXO"lAeVO"CXVTOS, o6ev TE Kcxl 01TC:.OS hpacpf) TE
KCXl Kcxl KCXl l<CrrElO"l J.lt){pl TTlS j3cxal-
AE{cxs Kcxl Tiis l<CXTCx TOOV • Ae,vcx{oov rnEACxO"EOOS Kcxl Tiis cpvyiis
Tiis ThcxpTOS Se &-rro Kvpov Sewpos yap
15 KcxJ.lj3VO"f)S Kcxl Tphos Acxpeios. 6 yap l:J,.lEpS1s 6 J.layos
OVK apl6J,.1EiTCXl TOVTOlS, &re Sl) wpcxvvos Kcxl ov 1TpOoTtKOVO"CXV
c:xVTCi) &pxl)v S6Act> Kcxl &1T6:-nJ \rrre]..6cbv. Acxpe{ov Se S16:Soxos 6
vlbs oQ f) lO"Top{cx l<CXTCXATJYEl, ovSe Jltxpl TEAOVS TiiS
cx\rrov 1TpoeA6ovacx j3cxalAe{cxs.
20 ·o Se • Hp6SOTos cx\rrois To\!To1s T)KJ.lcxae Tois xp6vo1s, ws
CXAI.o1 TE Kcxl 6 l:lKeAlOOTflS A16Soopos laTopei. AEyETCXl Se &vcx-
YlVOOO"KoJ,.lEVf)s c:xVTCi) Tiis lO"Top{cxs KOJ,.llSij veov OVTCX 1TCXpa TCi)
1TCXTpl 9oVKVS{Sflv O:Kovacx1 Kcxl SCXKpvacxl. Tov Se • Hp6SoTov
&1Tocp'l'tvcxa6cxl oos ei11 6 1Tcxis, oo "Q]t.ovpe, 6 abs 6pyooacxv E)(oov
25 Tl)v <pVO"lV 1TpOs J.lcx&tiJ.lCXTCX.
5 n KCXTa St6:votav yAVK\rn'}S: as opposed to that of
the style. Stappei: 'diffuses itself'; but in the classical language the
word would have meant 'is reduced, falls away'. 6 KCXTcXAAfiAOv: 'cor-
responding, appropriate'; mainly Hellenistic. 10ff. If the text of
Herodotus had not come down to us we might assume from this state-
ment that his history was cast in annalistic form. 13 trreA6:crec..>S: first
in Plut. Tim. 27 ace. to LSJ. 16 6:pt61JE1Tat TOVTOtS would be
expected. 21 Diod. Sic. 2. 32. 2. - The following anecdote is from
Marcellinus, V ita Thucydidis 54. 24 dfl: after this the construction
suddenly changes so as to report the words directly. "OAovpe: in
other sources the name seems always to be written Oloros.
PHOTIUS
45
73
"AveyvwO'&r) ·H'A1oSwpov Al6lo1TlK6v. ecrr1 Se •o cn}v-
•cxyllcx Spo:J.1CX'TlK6v, <ppaae1 Se 1TpE1TOV01J •fj \rrro6eae1 KExPT'l'TO:l"
Kcxl yap &q>e'Ae{CiC Kcxl y'AVKV'T,'Tl Kcxl 1T&eea1 Se 'To J,lev
1Tcxpova1 •o se •o se Kcxl &ve'A1Ticrro1s SlCX1TOlKi'A-
s 'AE'Tcxl i} Sn1y11a1s, Kcxl OVJ.l<popoov aoo.,p{cxls,
'TE evCTT1J.10lS Kcxl Kcx6cxpcxis. Kcxl ei 1Tov, 00s elK6s, Kcxl 'Texis els
•po1T11v K7\lvovacxls &noxpi}acxl'To, EVO"T'lJ.lO{ 'TE elm Kcxl
1TO:plCTTOOO"O:l 'TO 1TpOKE{J.1EVOV. 1Tep{oSol aVJ.lJ,.\S'Tpol Kcxl 1Tpos 'TO
(3pcxxV.epov olcx ST) avcrre'AA6J,1evcx1. Kcxl f} avv6ftK11 Se Kcxl
10 'T&:J\Acx •et' 'A6yct> &v&Aoycx.
87
"AveyvwO'&r) • ·Ax1'A'Aeoos Tcx•{ov •oov 1Tepl
/\EVK{1T1TT'l v Kcxl IO.el'To<pooV'Tcx 'A6yo1 ,., '. ecrr1 Se Spo:J.1CX'TlK6v,
Heliodorus: novelist of the second half of the fourth century; ed. A.
Colonna, Rome 1938, R. M. Rattenbury-T. W. Lumb, Paris 1935-1943.
On the date see R. Keydell, Polychronion, Festschrift fO.r F. DtSlger,
Heidelberg 1966, 345-350. A pious fiction, first found in Socrates, hist.
eccl. 5. 22, and repeated noncommittally by Photius at the end of his sum-
mary, represented the author as a Christian bishop. Photius was not the
only Byzantine to write about this popular novel; see H. Ga.rtner, Antike
und Abendland 15. 1969. 47-69. 1 Al6tonn<6v: the title of the novel
is normally in the plural. 2 Spa(.1crn1<611: in patristic Greek Spa(.la can
mean 'story, fable'. See further E. Rohde, Der griechische Roman
8
376f.
3 nAeoval,;et: 'abounds in', without pejorative sense. na&at: the usual
sequence of events in a Greek novel included shipwreck, encounter with
brigands, the resuscitation of a person apparently dead, etc. But Photius
fails to mention how Heliodorus manages his plot more skilfully than the
other novelists. 6 'clear', Hellenistic in this sense. 7 Tpo-
lTI'}v: 'figurative language'. 8 mp(oSot: for modern taste Heliodorus'
periods are too long (A. Lesky, Geschichte der griechischen Literatur
3
924 (p. 867 in the English edition)). 9 ola S-ft: an Attic expression
obscurely employed; it probably does no more than modify the following
participle. - The text printed here is the first paragraph of Photius'
notice; it is followed by a not entirely accurate account of the action of
the novel.
Achilles Tatius: novelist of the second century; ed. E. Vilborg, Stockholm
1955.
46
PHOTIUS
epooT6:S TlVCXS &T6;rovs rnetcr6:yov. 'KC:.d 'KC:.d QVv61}1<1J
SoJ<ei Stcrrrprnetv· TE yap 'KC:.d rnl Tpom1v olJ<e{oos
s oTE J<cxl Tcxtrn:l XP4ho • &cpoptO"TtJ<cx{ Te 'Kcxl crcxcpeis
'Kcxl TO f}Sv cpepovcrcxt cxt ;r'AeiCTTcxt ;rep{oSot, 'Kcxl -rl}v &J<of}v
'Aecx{ vovcrcxt. C:J.XA.a T6 ye A{cxv \rrrepcxtcrxpov 'Kcxl &J<CxecxpTov
TOOV tvvotoov 'Kcxl Titv Tov yeypcxcp6Tos 'Kcxl yvoo!J'Tl" tv
;r5:crt 'Kcxl cr;rovSf}v, 'Kcxl Tois &vcxytvooCTJ<etv ffieAovcrt 'KCXTO:irTvO"Tov
10 -rl}v &v6:yvoocrtv irOteiTCXl 'KCXl cpEV'KT'I'}v. irOAAftV Se tv
Tij StcxCTJ<EVij 'KCXl irA6:cret TOOV irAftV crxeS6v Tl TOOV
;rpocrc.O;roov Ti'is 'Kcxl Tfls cxlcrxp6T'T\TOS, ;rpos
TCx TOV •HAtoSc.Opov cpvA6:TTet.
128
'Aveyvc.OcrEh') AovJ<tcxvov \rrrep <t>c:cA6:ptSos Kcxl veKptKol Kcxl
hcxtptKol St<XAoyot St6:cpopot, 'Kcxl hepot Stcxcp6poov \rrro6ecreoov
A6yot, tv oTs crxeSov &rrcxcrt TCx TOOV .EAAf}voov Tf}v TE Ti'is
6eo;rAcxCTT{cxs c:cVToov ;rA6:VT'\V J<cxl 'Kcxl Tf}v ets &crtAyetcxv
5 6:CTXETOV 'Kcxi &J<pcxcr{cxv, 'Kcxl TOOV irOl'T\TOOV cxVTOOV TCxS Tepcx-
TOOSEtS J<cxl &vcrrrA6:crets, Kcxl Tov eVTeV6ev irA6:vov Ti;S
5 &cpoplaTIKa(: 'pithy'; the term is first found in Dion. Ha!.
Isaeus 7, who provided Photius (indirectly?) with a good deal of his
critical vocabulary. 7 A£alvovaa1: as a critical term this is borrowed
from Dion. Hal. de comp. verb. 12 and 16. 8 cpav}.ll,;el: 'give a bad
impression of'; not classical in this sense. 11 S1aaKEVij: this comment
is not entirely true; see above on Heliodorus. 13 cpvAlrTTEI: 'retains
throughout' seems to be the sense. - A comparison with Heliodorus at
greater length was made by Michael Psellos (printed in J acobs' ed. of
Achilles Tatius, Leipzig 1821 CVI-CXIV; see H. Gll.rtner, op. cit.,
56-60). Photius alludes to the matter briefly again in codex 94, the lost
Babyloniaca of Iamblichus.
Lucian was one of the most popular classical authors in Byzantium, as is
shown by imitations such as the Timarion (see pp. lllff.) and by the
large number of manuscripts that survive. 2 After S1acpopo1 the cor-
rector in the MS. A adds in the margin Kal 6eoov S16:Aoyo1. 4 6eo"TrAa-
a-rlcxs: the lexica do not cite this noun from any author before Athanasius
(d. 373), but the verb 6eo"TrAaaTETv was used by Hellenistic writers. 6
cXva"TrAcXaEIS: 'inventions', not classical in this sense.
PHOTIUS
47
;roArrefas, Kal 'T'OV OXA.ov J3fov -rl)v &vilillcxAOv ;reptcpopav Kal
'T'CxS ;rept'IT"t'ooc:rets, Kal 'T'OOV cptAoc:r6cpoov aV-roov 'T'O cptAOKOil'ITOV
-jljeos Kal llflSsv OXA.o 'ITAftV Vrt'oKpfc:reoos Kal Kevoov
10 j.1EO"T'6v· Kal CrnAOOs, oos E<pflllEV, KOO!l<t>Sfa 'T'OOV •EAAf}voov
a\rr't> Tt a;rovST} AOY'f>
"'EotKe Se aV-rbs 'T'OOV llflSsv OAOOS ;rpec:rJ3ev6v-roov elvat· "t'CxS
yap &XAoov KOOil<:f>S&v Kal aV-rbs ilv ov
7f6flc:rt, 'ITAftV ei 'T'lS aV-rov 'T'O llflSsv
15 Tf}v llEVTOl cpp6:c:rtv cS:plO"T'OS, evc:rflll<t> 'T'E Kal
KVpfcte Kal 'T''t> Sta;rpe;rovC11J KE)(PflllEVOS, eVl<pt vefas 'T'E
Kal Ka6ap6"t'f17os llE'T'6: ye 'T'OV Aall;rpov Kal avll!Jkrpov llEYeeovs,
ei 'T'lS OXA.os, avvef}Kfl 'T'E aV-rct> o\Troos i1PilOO"T'at ooO"T'e
SoKeiv 'T'OV &vaytvooaKov-ra llft A6yovs AEyetv, &AAa llEAOS [96b]
20 'T'l "t'Ep'ITVOV xoopls c:i>Sfls 'T'OiS ooc:rl V V 'T'OOV
&i<pOO'T'OOV. Kal OAOOS, ooa;rep E<pflllEV, cS:ptO"T'OS 0 A6yos aV-rct> Kal
ov ;rptrroov Vrt'o6ec:rec:rtv, as aV-rbs eyvoo cniv 'T''t> yeAof<t>
·on Se a\rrbs 'T'oov llflSev -jljv oAoos Kal 'T'o 'T'fls
(3f(3AOV rnfypaj.lj.lO S{Sooc:rtv VrrOAOilJ36:vetv. lxel yap ooSe.
25 AoVKtavbs 76:S • eypooya, ;rcxAat6: -re lloop6: -re elSoos·
llc:.:>pa yap &v6p00it"ots Kal 'T'Cx SoKovv-ra c:rocp6:,
KovSev &vepoo;rotc:rt v6flllO ·
aAA • 0 crV "t'o\ie• hepOlO'l ytAoos.
7 TrOAITelas: 'con-
duct', rare but classical in this sense; the title of the lives of the saints
usually begins J31os J<al TrOAITI:Ia Toii 6alov mrrpbs 1'!11&v J<TA. 10 1<0011-
T&v •f:AAflvoov: this doubtless helped to make Lucian acceptable to
Christian taste; his few uncomplimentary references to the early church
were outweighed by his ridicule of pagan religion. On the other hand the
scholiasts heaped abusive epithets on him; see the list in index II of
Scholia in Lucianum, ed. H. Rabe, Leipzig 1906. 13 6etal;et: 'worships',
Hellenistic in this sense. 15 'vocabulary'; the praise that follows
is extravagant, especially as Lucian uses many words that do not seem
to occur in Attic prose. 16 J<Vplc;c: 'natural, standard',
'expressiveness'; both are common technical terms among scholiasts and
grammarians. e\ncptve(as: 'limpidity', cited by LSJ only from the
rhetorician Hermogenes. 25 The epigram (app. Anth. Pal. Ill. 132) is
not thought to be genuine. 27 StCXKptS6v: 'set apart', i. e. superior,
must be the meaning, but the adverb is difficult.
48
PHOTIUS
[117a]
170
• A veyvcba&r, 13t(3A{ov lTOAVCT'TlXOV' J.lCXAAOV 1TOAVI31(3AOV'
A6yots te'' TEVxEO"l e'. ols J.lCXp-rvpkxt s;;eev Kcxl
xpftaets OAoi<A{}poov A6yoov, o\Jx ci:AAflVli<CXl J.,l6vov &XA.a Kcxl
nepatl<cxl KCXl Kcxl Aly\rrrrlOl KCXl Bcxl3VAOOV1CXKCXl Kcxl
5 Xc:xAScxiKcxl Kcxl Si} Kcxl 'ITc:xAol -roov 1Tcxp •
Aoy{oov Kcx-rea-rpcb&t,acxv' as 0 avyypcxcpe\Js O"VJ.l<pEpoJ.,ltvcxs
lTEtp&rcxt SetKvvetv -rfj -roov Xpta-rtcxvoov axp6:v-rct> Kcxl \nrepcpve'i
Kcxl 6eto-r<htJ lTEp{ LE c:x\rriis -rfls \nrepova{ov Kcxl O!lO-
ova{ov TptaSos, oos Kcxl \nr" l<flptn-reLcxtKcxlKcx-rcxyyrue-
10 -rcx1, 1Tep{ LE -ri;s acxpKl -rov /\6yov 1Tcxpova1cxs, -roov LE 6eOO"fl-
J.1e{oov Kcxl -rov a-rcxvpov Kcxl -rov 1TCxeovs Kcxl -rfls -rcxcpfls Kcxl -ri;s
avcxa-raaeoos -rfls LE ava:Aft"YEOOS Kcxl -rfls "t'OV 1Tcxvcxy{ov lTVEV-
J.lCXLOS 1TVp£vcxts yAcbaacxts E-rnxopflYfl6e£0"fls -rois J.lcxe,-rcxTs
A6yov xapt-ros, Kcxl Sf) Kcxl -riis cpof3epas Xpta-rov -rov 9eov
15 T)!loov 1Tcxpova£cxs Kcxl -ri;s -roov &vcxl3tcbaeoos Kcxl
Kp{aeoos Kcxl aJ.,lotl3iis oov ll<cxa-ros 13£ct> ov JJ6vov
Se &AAa Kcxl 1Tepl -rfls -rov 1Tcxv-r6s SflJJtovpy£cxs Kcxl 1Tpovo£cxs,
1TcxpcxSe{aov LE Kcxl -roov ava-ro£xoov -roV.ots, Kcxl Sf) Kcxl 1Tepl
One would like to know more about the anonymous lost work summarised
here, which, as Henry remarks, is disregarded by modern scholars. The
compilation of a book of its kind in the late seventh or eighth century is
surprising in view of the decline of literary and scholarly activity. 1
'of many lines'. Lines, not columns or pages, were the unit
of measurement in antiquity, as is shown by e. g. the subscriptions to the
speeches of Demosthenes. 2 TEVx.ecn: 'volumes', another post-classical
technical term. 6fj9ev: not ironical as it is in classical prose. 3 XPit-
aets: 'quotations'. 4 TlepcnKal did the author already possess
translations from all these languages, or did he commission some of them
(as for instance Agathias (4. 30) asked a friend to translate some Persian
texts for him) ? 6 KCXTEO'Tpoo&r}aav: probably not 'ont ete jetes pele-
mele' (Henry), but 'collected and arranged'; Kcrrea-rpoo&r} was a tech-
nical term in the Byzantine civil service, meaning 'the provisions of this
document have been duly noted' (F. Dolger-J. Karayannopoulos, Byzan-
tinische Urkundenlehre 1. 1968. 37). 7 SetKvVetv: verbs in -J.Ll had
mostly been replaced by forms in -oo long before Photius wrote. 8
Vn-epova(ov Kal 611oovoiov: on these terms one may consult the material
assembled in Lex Patr Gr. 10 6EO<J'TI11E(c.:>v: 'signs of his divinity', i. e.
miracles. 13 &rrep 'miraculously'. 18 ava-rolxoov: 'concomi-
tant', i. e. the accompanying doctrines.
PHOTIUS 49
Tfjs Tiapa Xpurnavois t<al ei Tl Tcx\m)S
20 irapairi\{}cnov, Tiepl To\noov &rraVToov ·Ei\i\,a{ TE t<al Al)Nll"-
TfolS t<al Xai\Safo1s t<al Tois iTEcpli\oaocpfla6a{ TE
t<al SlaKEKflPVx6al lS£o1s a\rroov Tie1pfrra1 Se1t<wva1 avy-
ypa!JIJOO'l V,
Ov 1J6vov Se &iro Toov &ye£pe1 t<al avVTfS,a1 Tas
25 IJapTVpfas, CiAAa t<al &iro Toov XElJ.lEVTlt<oov Zooa{!Jov i\6yoov
(9flj3aios s· 1jv oihos llavoiToi\{Tfls) OVK Ta a\rra
V. ols t<al • Ei3pait<OOV m{6ETal O'fliJOO'{as
t<al TOOV &iroO"T6i\oov EKOO'TOS ev6a TE TO aooT{}plOV
IJcleT)IJO, t<al cp T6iTCj) TOOV av6pooir{VOOV TI6VOOV CcVEiTCxVO'aTO.
ao Tei\e1 Se TOOV i\6yoov t<al Tiapa{vealV lS{av t<aTaT{6ETa1,
YVOOIJOAoy{alS TE TOOV t<al ypacplt<ois i\oy{ols Tcx\m)V avvv-
cpa{ voov t<al SlairlO'TOV!Jevos · IJOAlO'Ta To cpli\apETov Tov
&vSpbs t<al TO els evaei3elaV &S16:i3i\flTOV EO'TlV rnlyvooval.
• H Se Toov i\6yc.ov a\JTov lSea oUt< &cpeO'Tflt<e Tov !JflSe I Sea
as elva1· i\ TE yap avv&ftt<fl Tioi\i\ois o\hoos t<al ,;
rnl TOO'OVTOV OOO'TE IJflSe TOOV Tp16Sov
cpe£Sea6a1.
Kal 0 vovs Se TOOV ypacpOIJEVOOV a\rr4) iTOi\i\CxKlS ovSev
Cx!JE{voov. t<al Tov !Jev Tov &vSpos TI6vov t<al Tov [117b] aKoTiov
40 OVK &v TlS eVyVOOIJOVOOV oVt<rn s. OIJO{oos t<al TO
epyov. OV yap IJ6VOV iTOi\i\OiS t<al iTOi\i\6:t<lS OVCxpiJOO'Ta
Tois 'Ji1JETepo1s 6efo1s S6y1Jaa1v Cxi\i\a t<al
1JV6ovs t<al 6ve{povs Tovs irap• a\JToov b<e{voov TOOV Tet<6VToov
&v. ei ye aoocppoveiv EIJEi\i\Ov, 0 Se ovSe TOVTOVS
45 AEyElV irapalTEiTal Tfj O'V!Jcpepea6al, CiAAa t<al
O'TC'evSe1 -ri}v Tots 1JV6o1s t<al 6ve£po1s Cxi\i\6t<oTov evvo1av els
25 XEtiJEVTlK&:w: 'alchemical'
(XVJJ.EVTtK00\1 is a better form, since it probably derives from XVJ.Ia). Zosimos
of Panopolis, a fourth century Gnostic, is the first identifiable Greek
alchemist. 30 KCXTCXT(6eTat: 'records', a meaning not attested in the
classical language. 31 ypacptKols: 'scriptural'. 32 StcrmcrrovJJ.EVOS:
'proving'; lexicis addendum. 36 T(;)v b< Tpt65ov f!>T'l!lc!rroov: the author
must have used some of the spoken language of his day. 44-45 ouSt
TOVTOVS 11-cyetv 'TTaparreiTat: 'not even these does he refuse to claim'; the
verb is not used in this sense by classical writers. 45 6eoaocp('il: first
in Porphyry and Proclus.
4 Wilson
50
PHOTIUS
'TCxS OA116eis Keel eeo1TpE1Teis Keel O:rreepcxypCm-rovs Keel Kcc6eepas
'TOV 6e{ov S6yllCC'TOS avCC"T{6ecr6eet. wv KtpSos 1-1ev
ovS. O'TtOVV 'Tij evaej3e{<i'C, acpOpllCxS Se A.eej3iis KCC'T. c::x\rriis 'TOiS
50 cptA.eet'T{ots o\JK &v &A6yws ei ye Keel •a ll'llSev
1TpO<TI')KOV'Tee OAACx Keel Ws 1TAeiC"'TOV &ire!lcpee{VOV'Tee rntxetpOVV'TCxS
'Ttvees •oov 'lillE•epwv SetKvVetv ets cruC""Teeatv 'Tfls &irpoa-
Seovs Keel llOVTlS Kcc6eepas Keel &A116ovs ACC'Tpe{ees 'ft1-1oov, •a
Keel rntxetpOVV'TeeS els C"VIlcpwv{eev O:yetv, & 1TAEOV
55 1TpOs 'TCx 'ft1-1rnpee f) 'TO C"KO'TOS 1rpos 'TO cpoos StEC"'T'IlKev.
'Y1reSv Se •ov 1TOAVIloxeov •oii'Tov o &v6pw1ros 1r6vov, oos
o:V'Tos 1roA.A.Co<ts Tvee 'TO XptC"'Tteevoov S6y1-1ee
1TCXC"t V e6veat 1TpOKCC'TcxyyeA.6ev 1Teepa 'TOO V tl<aC"'TOtS A.oy{wv
Kal 1TpOKTlPV'T'TOilEVOV &vCC1ToA.oyi)'TOVS 'TOVS
60 oaot llfl •et> 6e{Cf> 1Tpoaf1A.6ov KTlPVyllCC'Tt. Keel 6 1-1ev C"K01TOS
rneetve'TOS, OVK eSet Se St. wv f)v &1Top6v 'Te Keel ern{6eevov, &AAO:
St• wv Keel 1i 1TfC"'TtS avve{1TE'TO, •oii'Tov 1Tepee{vecr6eet.
T 0 llEV'TOt OVO!lee 'TOV C"VV'TE'TCCXO'TOS 'TCx 'Te\Jx'll llExPt wv
o\JK eaxo1-1ev etSeveet · ov yap •ois j3tj3A.fots oaee eiSo1-1ev
65 1rA.f)v ye Sf} O'Tt KwvC""TeeV'TtvowoA.tv c:;lKet, yvveetK{ 'TE VOil'fl
y6:1-1ov avvci>Ket Keel •ois o:V'Tfls cx\rrov 1ree1ai, Keel o'Tl llE'TCx
'TOVS 'Hpcct<Ae{ov xp6vovs 'TOV j3{ov Stf}waev.
47 Oeonpem:Ts: not in classical prose. &napa-
yp&rrrovs: 'unexceptionable'; first in Pseudo-Dionysius. 48 avCXT(6e-
a6at: the required meaning, not given by the lexica, seems to be 'put in
accord with'. 50 a better Atticist would have written 51
'irrelevant'; a Hellenistic usage. 52 croo-raatv: 'con-
firmation', by extension from the meaning 'commendation'. &npoa-
Seovs: 'self-sufficient'; Hellenistic. 56 \rrrtSv: 'undertook'; classical
Greek used this verb normally in the middle voice. 59 &vano:AoY1'!Tovs:
'without possibility of reply', a sense not given by the lexica. Does this
statement of the author's intention imply that he wrote with a view to
helping the missionary effort of the church? 60 C7K01TOs rnati/ETOs: i. e.
the refutation, not the writing of the book. 64 ooa eiSoiJEv: had he
looked at a number of copies in different libraries? 67 Heraclius was
emperor 610-641.
PHOTIUS
51
199
·Aveyvwcr&t, j31j3Afov S' Kcxl T' S111Y1illcxa1 1TEplE1ATlllllEVov.
"'TPOs Tl')v OO"KTlTlKT)v Kcxi TOVTO TCx IJCxAlCYTCX O'VVTEAOVV tCYTl
"'TOAlTE{cxv, TCx cxlrrO 1Tc.:lS 1TpcxyiJCXTEVOIJEVOV T4)
1TAf}V ch1 TWV IJETcxyeveCYTepwv avSpwv epycx TE Kcxi
5 &vcxypO:cpel· Kcxi yap 8<ei6ev TWV llExPl Tiis
c Hpo:KAe{ov &pxfls Kcxi rnl "'TAEOV SlCX"'TPE"J'OVTc.:lV &:peTcxis rnep-
XETCXl Tovs j3{ovs.
AEliJWVCX KCXAEia6cxl S{Sc.:lCYlV 0 OVOIJCX TO
j31j3A{ov. c:xlrro KCXi Neov TTcxpcxSe{CYlOV. 0
10 O'VVTETCXXWS. •Jw6:VV11S c:xlrr4) OVOIJCX. rnli<Ai}aews
tr.eyeTo o Tov M6axov • os tv Tij Tov ay{ov
eeoSoa{ov IJOVij. ehcx cruvSlETPl"J'E TOiS TE KCXTCx TOY •JopSO:VTlv
&vex -ri)v EPTliJOV aCYKOVIJEVOlS KCXi TOiS tv Tij VECft AcxVpCft TOV
IJEYOAOV Slcx6AOVCY1V. tVTeVeev TCx TE Tiis • AVTlOXEfcxs
15 I<A{IJCXTCX Kcxi -nl v • Ar.e Kcxi Tl') v 1Tepl cxlrrf} v EPTliJOV Kcxi
IJEXPl •oaaews rneA6wv, Kcxi "'TOAAWV Kcxi IJeyaAwv avSpwv
aplCYTEfcxs O'VVcxyTlOXOOS TOVTO 0'-J'El TOVTO Kcxi
&:Koij, S1ex -ri)v cxlrrf}v S • cxhicxv Kcxi vi}aovs lCYTOPTlCYOIJEVOS tv T4)
1Tpos -ri)v 'Pw1-111V t!<eiae Te Tex 1TcxpCX1TAi}alcx [162b]
20 S1epevVTla6:1Jevos Kcxi 1-1cx6wv, To 1Tcxpov O"VVTcxyllcx ypacpe1, Kcxi
1Tpoacpwvei ft T4) Kcxi
On Moschos see above, pp. 28ff. 1 5' Kal T': 304; the Migne text prints
a different recension with only 219 chapters; yet another is mentioned at
27 below. 7TEp1E1ATJI.l!Jillov: 'contained in'. 2 Kal ToiiTo: the preceding
codex is another text of the same kind. 4 I..IETayEIIEOTipoov, 5
are Hellenistic words. tl<ei6ev: i. e. the chronological limit of the
other collection. 11 6 Toii M6axov: the following information comes
from a prologue that is not by Moschos himself, but nevertheless seems
reliable. 'took his leave', hence 'retired', a usage found in
the New Testament. 13 AaVpG': originally 'alley' or 'sewer', it came
to mean a group of monastic cells, then a monastery, the best known
example being the Mey6:A11 1\.a\lpa on Mount Athos. 15 KAil.laTa:
'regions'. 17 &p1a-relas: i. e. feats of virtue in the struggle against the
temptations of the world. 1/Eal;ovOlJ &Koij: 'while the tradition was
still young'. 19 •pc.::,111111: despite the separation of the Eastern and
Western empires Rome still had a considerable Greek colony with its
own churches and monasteries. 21 Sophronios: patriarch of Jerusalem
634-638.
52
PHOTIUS
a\no TOVT'f>, -rl)v TOV (3{ov
1TpOS TcX Cxj.lE{VOVCC j.lETCC(30AftV.
'H TOV A6yov els TO TCC1TElv6Tepov TOV 1Tpo,-Epov
25 Kai Cxl.lcx6EaTEpov ernol<A{vel. Keel TcX Sl1lyTtl.lCCTCC oV)(l TOV
iaov &pt61.1ov 1Taa1v e\Jp-ftaets Tois (3t(3A{ots
&:1\A • gy TlO"l Kal els (3 I Kal 1.1 I Kal T
1
St1l1TAOOJ.leva, ToiiTo IJEY
Kecpc.cAa{oov rnlSlatpeael TOV &pl61.lOV
TOVTO Kal Sl1lY1ll.lCxTOOV EO"TlV oov 1Tapev61}1<1J. 1TAftV ernav-
30 TOOV TO XPfJO"lJ.lOV 6 avvETos Kal 6eo<plAftS &vf}p Spe1TOIJEVOS
OVK av TOOV avVTETayl.lEvc.uv Kopov KCCTayvo{,.
24 Photius' judgement is a great deal milder than one would
expect, but perhaps the quality of the Greek was better in the recension
that he read than in the Migne text. 27 !3' Kal ll' Kal T': 342. 28
trnStatptCTEt: 'sub-division'. 31 K6pov: 'excess' which bores the reader.
CONSTANTINE VII PORPHYROGENITUS (905-959)
Constantine succeeded to the throne at the age of seven, but he had Do
real power until 945. Living in semi-retirement he devoted himself to
writing about Byzantine institutions and to supei-vising the compilation
of encyclopaedic anthologies on historical and other topics. Some sections of
these, for instance the so-called Excerpta de legationibus, could not have
been written without the vast resources of the imperial library, and they
preserve fragments of texts that were already rare in his day and have
since been lost. Much of C.'s work never existed in more than a tiny number
of copies circulating among the royal family and its most trusted advisers,
since it was in varying degrees confidential; this applies to the Book of
Ceremonies, an invaluable guide to Byzantine court procedure and cere-
monial, and even more to the De administrando imperio, which includes
highly secret information about foreign policy. The latter is addressed to
his son and is an example of the tradition of paraenetic literature that goes
back ultimately to Isocrates' letter to Nicocles on the duties of a ruler.
Editions: Book of Ceremonies: text by J. J. Reiske, Bonn 1829; with
French translation and commentary but incomplete, J. Vogt, Paris
1935-40. De administrando imperio: text and English translation by
G. Moravcsik and R. J. H. J en.kins, Budapest 1949; commentary by J en-
kins and others, London 1962.
De adm. imp. 2: diplomacy with northern neighbours
·on J<al -rois •pa,s ot yehoves J<al o"'"opot
J<cx6ecrniJ<acnv, J<al 6-rav "'-fl ;rpc)s &!.Af)Aovs elpT}-
1 6-n: 'note that', a standard feature of matter in draft or note form.
C. had announced in the previous chapter that he would not attempt
fine writing or an Atticising style. •p005: 'Russians'; on the linguistic
form see J enkins' commentary. 'Pechenegs', a Turkic
race that was extremely dangerous to the Byzantine empire until 1091,
as may be seen from the pages of Anna Comnena. C. recommends that
they be given annual presents as an inducement to friendship. 2 6Tav:
'when' with the indicative, as in modem Greek; not 'whenever'.
54
CONSTANTINE VII PORPHYROGENITUS
vruovcn, 1Tpa1Sevovcn -nlv •poocr{av, Kal lKav&s aVTJ1v 1Tapa-
j3i\Crn-rovcr1 Kal i\vlla{voVTa1.
5 "On Kal ol •pc.;:,s S1a CT"'TovSfis E)(ovcr1v elpt1V1lv E){e1v 1-lETCx
T&V yap cx\n&v j36as Kal
i1T1Tovs Kal 1Tp6(3aTa, Kal ToVToov ev1-1apeCTTEpov Kal
TpV<pEpOOTEpov, rnel llT')SEV T&V 1TpOE1pT')!-1EVOOV Tfj
• PooCTlCjX Kcx6ECTTT')KEV. Cti\i\. ovSe 1Tpos V"'Tepop{ovs "'TOAEilOVS
10 ernepxecr6a1 SvvaVTa1 oi\oos ol •pc.;:,s, el llft 1-lETCx T&V
VaK1T&V elpT')VEVOVTES, S16T1 SvvaVTa1 Tc;':> T&v
olKE{OOV VTrOXOOpEiV cx\nol rnEpXOilEV01 Ta TE
Kal AVIla{vecr6a1. 510 llai\i\Ov ael CT"'TOVST}v ol • P&s T{6eVTal,
S16: TE TO llft 1Tapa(3i\Crn-recr6a1 1Tap • cx\n&v Kal S1a TO
15 lcrxvpov eJ Va1 TO T010VTOV e6vos, CTVIlllOX{av 1Tap • cx\n&v
i\a1-1(36:ve1v Kal exe1v cx\novs els (3ot16e1av, oos &v Kal Tfjs E)(6pas
cx\noov O:rrai\i\c:hTooVTa1 Kal Tfjs f3o116efas KaT01TOi\cxVo1ev.
"0T1 ovSe 1TpOs -nlv (3aCT1AeVOVCTaV TaVTT')V TOOV •poolla{oov
"JT6A1V ol ·pc.;:,s 1Tapay{vecr6a1 SvvaVTa1, el llft 1-lETO: TOOV
20 VaK1TOOV elpT')VEVOVTES, OVTE "'TOAEilOV xap1V, o\J-re 1TpayllaTE{as,
rne1Sf} Tc;':> 1-lETa TOOV "'TAO{oov els TOVS <ppayllOVS TOV
"'TOTallov yfvecr6a1 Tovs •Poos Kal llft Svvacr6a1 S1ei\6eiv, el llft
TOV 1TOTOilOV Ta "'TAOia cx\noov Kal rnl TOOV 001-lOOV
rn1T{6eVTa1 TOTE cx\nois ol TOV
25 T010VTOV e6vovs TOOV Kal pc;xS{oos, &Te 1Tpos Suo
1T6vovs aVTE){E1 V llft SvvaVTa1, Tp01TOVVT01 Kal
3 npatSruovat: 'plunder', from Latin praeda. 15 'TO 'TOto\rrov: no more
than 'that', a change of meaning found in early papyri, E. Mayser, Gram-
matik der griechischen Papyri aus der Ptolemii.erzeit II 1, Berlin-Leipzig
1926, 76. 17 KCXTa'JTOAcxUOiev: 'enjoy to the full'; the compound is rare
and late. 20 the first Russian attack on Constantinople had
occurred in 860, and the patriarch Photius spoke of the invaders in his
sermons as 'TO l:KV6tKov 'TOVTO Kal WI,IOV !6vos Kal JMpJ3apov (Homilies
3. 3). 21 cppay1,1o\ts: 'rapids', in the Dnieper river, of which C. has
more to say later. 24 StaJ3tJ3aaooat Moravcsik: StaJ3aaooat MS.; 'carry
them past'. 26 SvvaVTat: classical syntax would require Svvai,IEVOI. -
This paragraph hints at the idea of the balance of power, and so does
c. 4; but in neither case does C. formulate the idea clearly as a general
principle; see below on Anna Comnena, p. 88.
CONSTANTINE VII PORPHYROGENITUS
55
The Book of Ceremonies: the reception of envoys (p. 567-70).
Kal &re ;raVTa Kai\oos e\npe;r10'6oocn v Vir6 TE Tov Tiis Ka-ra-
crraaeoos Kal TOOV Kal TOV i\oyoehov TOV Sp6!lOV,
elaepxoVTal ol ;rpa1;r6a1T01 Kal VrrO!llllvTt<TKOVal Tovs Sea;r6Tas.
Kal eVeeoos ol Sea;r6Tal, Kal ernepxoVTal ev6a at
5 xi\a!lvSes Kal TCx O'TE!l!laTa c:br6KElVTal, Kal ;rep1j3aAi\61lEVOl TCx
CX\JTCx VrrO TOOV ;rpamoaiToov OVEPXOVTal Kal rnl
TOOV ep6voov. Kal 6 i\a6s TOOV Svo -rrpos SVCTlV avpTOOV
131ti\oov AEyEl !leyc:XAoos TO ;roi\vxpoVlOV. Kal ere· OVTOOS
X6!lEVOl ol ;rpam6alTOl elaayova1 Tois Tov Kovj3oVKi\e{ov S1a
10 Toov Svo !lEpoov Kal &pl<TTEPC:X Ka6oos ,; avvf}6e1a exe1. Kal
!v Tef> TOVToVS aTfl Val VeVEl 6 irpalirO<TlTOS Tef> OO'Tlap{Cf> Tef>
-riJv XPVofiv j3epyav KaTSxOVTl, Kal Kal elaaye1 j3fli\ov
;rpooTov Tovs !lay{crrpovs. Kal ;rc:XA1 v S1a vev!la-ros Tov ;rpal-
;roaiTov hepos OO'TlaplOS Kal elaayel Tef> a\nef>
15 <TXftllaTl j3fli\ov Se\JTepov, Tovs ;ra-rplK{ovs. Kal ircXAlv S1a
vevlla-ros Tov 6 eTEpos 6crr1ap1os Kal
elaaye1 Tef> a\nef> <TXftllaTl j3fli\ov TpiTov, TOVS CTVYKA'IlTlKOVS, Kal
erni\oos 6aa O:v j3fli\a ExEl ft avv,;eela Kal ,; TOOV Soxoov. Kal
ere> OVTOOS elaepxETal 6 KaTElTCxVOO llETCx Kal TOV SO!lEO'T{KoV Kal
20 TOOV xpvaoTplKAl VlTOOV Kal icrraVTal Kal &p1crrepC:X ;rpo
Toov Svo ;rp(>s Sva1v avpToov 131ti\oov, Kal llETCx To aTflval a\novs
1 an with the subjunctive is faulty Atticism. 1-2 -rov "Tfis KCX"Ta<TT6:-
aeoos KTA.: 'the master of ceremonies, the chamberlains and the foreign
minister'. Exact modern renderings of Byzantine ranks and offices are
not possible; for more information about their history and duties see
J. B. Bury, The imperial administrative system in the ninth century with
a revised text of the Kletorologion of Philotheus, London 1911. 3 TOVs
Seo-rr6"Tas: the emperor and empress. 5 XAallvSes: 'official dress', as in
Procopius, above p. 18. 7-8 -rwv Svo -rrp6s Svaw avp-rwv j3T)Aoov: 'the
two drawn curtains at the west end of the hall'. 13ilAO\I = Latin
velum. 8 TO 1rOAV)(p6vtov: the acclamation els 1rOAAOVs xp6vovs (or
-rroA}.a -ra E-rTJ TW\1 aotS{!l00\1 j3aatAtoov 'l')!lwv). 9 -rots: -ro\Js would be
expected; perhaps C. fails to handle the archaic dative case correctly.
KOVj3oUKAe{ov: 'bed-chamber', Latin cubiculum. 11 6<TTtap{Cfl: 'usher'.
12 j3tpyav: 'staff', Latin virga. 13ilAov here means a group of persons
who make up a division in a procession or formal gathering. 17 avy-
KAfi"TIKovs: 'senators'. 18 Soxwv: 'receptions', a late word. 19 Kcrr-
e-rr6:voo: a military title.
56
CONSTANTINE vn PORPHYROGENITUS
vevet 0 "'l'PCXlTt'OO"l'TOS -ri}v xpvofiv
Ked elaO:yet 'TC>V !evtt<6v, STlAov6'Tt t<pCX'TOVIlEVOV trrro
'TOV t<CX'TE"'l"cXVOO 'TOOV j3cxatA1KOOV ft t<cxl VrrO 'TOV 1<01-lTl'TOS 'TOV
25 O"'TcxVAov ii t<cxl \JTro 'Tov "'l'POO'TOO"'Tpcl'Toopos, ovv6V"Tos a:V-rois t<cxl
'TOV STlAOVO'Tl t<cxl 'TOV Aoyo6hov
'TOV Sp61lOV. t<cxl s,; 'TOV'Tov ela-sA66V'TOS "Jl'{"Jl"TEl rn'
"'l'pOOl<VVOOV 'TOVS SeO"TT'O'TCXS KCX:l cxVAOVO"l 'TcX opycxvcx.
ehcx t<cxl tO""TCX'TCXl erno Sta:O"'Tf}llCX'TOS 'TOV j3cxatA1KOV
80 6p6vov KCX:l "Jl'CX{OVO"l 'TcX opycxvcx. cht 'TOV <p{AOV
Crn01<1VOVV'TOS "'l'pos 'TOV ol "'l'pot<pl'TW'TEpot
'TOV'Tov O:v6poo"'l'01 KCX:l "'l'pOOl<VVOVV'TES tO"'TCXV'TCXl evSov 'TOOV Svo
ovp'Toov j3f}Aoov. t<cxl "'l'OtOVV'TOS 'TOV Aoyoehov 'TcXS ovvi]6e1s
ets a:V"Tov apxoV'Tcxt j3pvxacr6cxt ol t<cxl 'TcX
85 opvecx 'TcX Oj.10{oos t<cxl 'TcX 'TO'iS
• 'TcX Se 'Ta erno 'TOO V lS{oov j3cx6!-loov
&vop6ovV'Tcxt. t<cxl 'TcxV'TCX o\hoos 'TeAeicr6cxt elaO:yE'Tcxt 'TO 'TOV
!evtt<ov t<cxv{O'Ktov \JTro 'TOV "'l'poo'Tovo'Tcxp{ov 'TOV Sp61-1ov t<cxl
"Jl'aAlV j.1E'T' oA{yov "Jl'CX{OVO"l 'TCx opycxvcx t<cxl ol ftpej.10V0"1
40 t<cxl 'TCx opvecx 'TOV <XSetv "'l'cxVOV'TCXl 'TcX 'TE 'TO'iS lS{ots 'TO"'l'OlS
t<cxl Sf) llE'TcX -.Qv OV!l"'l'Af}pooatv 'TOV t<a:VtO'K{ov
\JTro 'TOV Aoyo6hov "'l'po'TpCX"'l'els 6 !evtt<OS "'l'poOl<Vvf}acxs
XE'TCX:t, t<cxl 'TOV'Tov CrnOK1vfjO"CX1 'TcX 'TE opycxvcx
cxVAOVOlV t<cxl ol t<cxl 'TcX opvecx -ri}v lS{cxv erno-
45 "'l'ATlpovat cpoov'liv t<cxl 'TcX 6Tlp{cx "'l'cXV'TCX 'TOOV tS{oov j3cx6!-l{Scuv
23 l&vtKOV: 'foreigner', a Hellenistic usage.
'led by the hand'. 25 OTooi)l.ov: 'stables'. The protostrator
was originally head groom, then became a more important officer. 27
The genitive absolute has the same subject as the main verb. 28
<Spyaw: 'organs', automata of the kind described by Hero of Alexandria,
like the lions on the throne and the birds in an artificial tree mentioned
just below. These mechanical toys were intended to astonish foreign
visitors, one of whom has given us an account of his reception; see Liut-
prand of Cremona, Antapodosis 6. 6, ed. J. Becker, Hannover-Leipzig
1915, 164--165. 29 lrrro StaaTfn1crros: 'at a distance from'. 30 '!ra(-
ovat: as in English 'strike up'. cpO.ov: i.e. honoured visitor. 35
'throne', from ataaos, = Latin sessus; cf. Italian seggio. 38
KavfaKtov: a box of presents for the emperor, handed over to one of the
secretaries of the minister for foreign affairs. 41 here
'presentation'. 43 lrrroKtvflaat if the text is correct this means
'begins to leave'.
CONSTANTINE VII PORPHYROGENITUS
57
S1ccv(crrcxv-rcx1. Kcxl -r'fl -rov Wv1Kov -rov (3fti\ov ;rcx(ova
1
TCx TE opycxvcx Ked -ra opvecx Kcxl -ra 6r)p(cx -rois IS(01S TOiT'01S
el Se Kcxl Eo-nv hepos cpfi\os Kcxl Kei\roova1v ol Se-
O"it'6-rcx1 -ro\iTov elaei\6eiv, ;r6:i\1v -r'fl elaepxea6cx1 c:xVTov Kcxl
so 'f} cxV-n1 Kcxl &Koi\ov6(cx cpvi\C:cTTeTcx1, ov Tp6-
;rov elpf}KCXIJEV, KCXl CrnAOOS 00"01 OV 6EACU0'1V cpfi\01, •
Tei\eiTcx1, oos ;rpoelpfl7CX1. lrnov, o-r1 -roov cp(i\cuv
i\eye1 o ;rpcxm6a1-ros IJeyCxi\cus ,KEi\eVaCXTE". Kcxl ot
-re IJCxy1crrpo1 Kcxl iT'CXTpiK1o1 Kcxl c:TV)'Ki\11-r1Kol rnevx61-1evo1 To
55 ,els ;roi\i\ovs xp6vovs". KCXliJETCx TO -ro\rrovs iT'Cxi\1 V AEyE1 0
irpCX1iT'00"1TOS ,KEAeVO"CXTE". KCXl ot TE XPVO"OTp1-
KA1ViTCX1 Kcxl ol -rov Kov(3ovKi\e(ov, rnevx61JEV01 ,els ;roi\i\ovs
XPOVOVS". KCXl iT'CxVTCUV KCXT(CX0"1 V ol SeO"iT'OTCX1 CmO
-roov 6p6vcuv Kcxl -ra -ro\rrcuv b<J3Cxi\i\ov-res CTTEIJIJCXTCx Te Kcxl
60 xi\cxv(S1cx ;rep1J3Cxi\i\ov-rcx1 -ra XPVO"o;rep(Ki\e1CTTCX cxVTOOV acxy(cx.
Kcxl elaepxov-rcx1 IJVCTT1Koos -r'fl 6eocpvi\C:cKT'!' ;rcxi\CXT('I' 81 • fis
Kcxl &vfli\6ov oSov, Sflp1yevOIJEV01 VrrO TOV Kov(3oVKi\e(ov.
53 l<EAEVacrre: 'at your service', rather like modern
Greek 6p£a(a)'TE and Italian comandi. 60 xpvao'TTEp{ICAeta-ra: 'gold-
embroidered', literally 'surrounded by gold'. aayla: 'cloaks', a dimin-
utive of the Hellenistic word aayos. 61 I.IVCJ'TlKws: 'secretly'. 62
s,ptyeV61.1EVOl: from Latin dirigere. TOV: TWV TOV gives the sense
required.
IOANNES MAUROPOUS (c. 1000-c.1060)
After being employed for a time in the imperial chancery he was
appointed professor of rhetoric in the university of Constantinople, and not
many years later he became metropolitan of Euchaita. At some time he
seems to have taught Michael Psellos. His works in prose and verse are
very numerous (see J. M. Hussey, BZ 44. 1951. among them are
verses on etymology derived from an ancient Stoic source and a prayer
begging God to spare the souls of Plato and Plu+,arch (item 60 in C. A.
Trypanis, Medieval and modern Greek poetry, Oxford 1961).
The best source for many of his writings is the manuscript Vaticanus
gr. 676, which also contains the charter for the new faculty of law set up
by the emperor Constantine IX Monomachus in the capital in 1046; Mauro-
pous may be presumed to have drafted the text. It begins with a long
preamble on the duty of the emperor to maintain the rule of law and the
current lack of suitable facilities for training lawyers. The provisions for a
new faculty are outlined. The section printed here amounts to about half
the text of the edict. It is followed by exhortations to future students of
the faculty, where a copy of the text was doubtless displayed.
The specimen may enable readers to decide whether the higher civil
servants in Byzantium were justified in priding themselves on the merits
of their prose style; it is difficult to imagine modern administrators writing
state papers with a view to publication as works of literature.
Edition: A. Prague 1954 .
• AXA.a TcxiiTa !lE V &){pl viiv I TO s. ev-re\ieev o-rroiov I cx\rro ( cpaa{)
S11:Awae1 To -rrpay!la. i} yap (3aa1:Aeia i}llWV
1
XPTlCTlllWTCm,v
acp6Spa Kal -rrprnovaav TOiS XPOVOlS cxV-riis -ri}v evaeJ3ii Tatrn,V
V AOylaa!J1V'I'l
1
Ka\ OCTO V Tij 1<01 Vij KaTaCTTCcCTEl 7rEpllT011lCTEl
1 -rcxiiTa: the shortcomings of the present situation. cpaal: an Attic
expression found at e. g. Dem. 19. 157. 2 1'! yap !3aawla 'l'!llc.;">V: the
abstract noun with the genitive of the personal pronoun became common
in the late Roman empire; the idiom is used for many ranks besides that
of emperor. 4 'KOtvij 'Ka-raa-r6:C1Et probably means 'public affairs'.
IOANNES MAUROPOUS
59
5 TO KepSos Kcxi iTPOs Oj.lOV Kexi iTPOs AVCTlTEAelexV Ka:i\ws
iTp06vll6Tep6v Te KEK{VT)Text iTpos -ri}v VOillKftV
E-nwfutexv, Kexi To Ei\i\e{iTetv E-rt SoKovv Tc;; Ka:i\c;; Tiis iToi\tTe{exs
pvellc;; iTexp • &-rroxpwVToos avCXiTi\T)poi, Kexi
StSexCTKa:i\ov Tois v61lots iTexpexcrxollEVT'l •JooexvVflv Tov i\oytwTCXTov
10 li\i\ovCTTplOV, KplTftV rnl TOV liTiToSpoj.lOV Kexi TOV
rn{Ki\T)V, Os OVK &cpexvws ovs· &criJilOOS ovs· aj.lvSpws
Ti)v iTOAVj.lCxeetexv, &i\i\a Kexi cpexvepws
a:VTexis Texis Twv iTpcxyllCx-roov iTe{pexts 6!lo{oos llEV
Texis Tiis i\oyt6TT)TOS, Olloioos Se Kexi Texis Tiis Twv v61loov elST)-
15 creoos TExVexlS KEKOCTilT)IlEVOS, Kexi llT)SEV iTpOTlj.lOTEpov llT)SrnoTe
6ej.levos Twv iJilETepoov Kei\evcreoov.
Oirros Totyexpovv T)ST) iTpWTOS &ya6ij Kexi Kexi Kp{cret Tf)S
TWV vojloov Kexi SeSoKtllexCTilEVT)S StSexCTKa:i\{exs, iTpo-
eSp{<tt TE TlllT)6eis Kexi acpopllCxS TE i\exJ3oov OV TCxS
20 TVXovcrexs els 6epCXiTE{exv Tiis tillETepexs cpti\oTtll{exs, Kexi StSex-
CTKa:i\e{ov TVXOOV OV lllKpoiTpEiTOVS ovSe cpa:Vi\ov' TOVVexVT{ov
llEV OOV lleyexi\oiTpEiTECTTCrrOV Kexi Stexcrl]j.lOV Kexi TOlOVT(j) iTpCxy-
llCXTl iTprnoVTos. eCTTexl yap &-rro Tiis iTexpovCTT)s llETa Tfls
ovpexvov J3oT)6e{exs Kexi crvvepy{exs &vet!lEvov !lEv Tois v61lots els
5 i\vatTtAI:tav: 'advantage', a Hellenistic word rejected by the Atticist
lexicographers Pollux 5. 136, Moeris and Photius. 6 T'l')v the
adjective is rare in Attic, and TWV would have been natural in-
stead. 8 1rap' i. e. Ti)s !3aatAI:Ias. 9 John Xiphilinos: a
member of the same intellectual circle as Mauropous and Michael Psellos,
who later held the patriarchal throne of Constantinople from 1064 to
1075. i\oytC:>TaTOV: 'learned', perhaps a title given to him in virtue of
his position as a judge. The rest of the description is a trifle obscure.
10 li\AovaTptOS' was a title given to many high-ranking officials;
ciKTwp is originally 'tax-collector', but in this case perhaps means that
he was responsible for receiving the fees paid in to the court. 14 i\oyt-
6-n)Tos: 'eloquence'; post-classical. 16 Kei\evcnoov: instead of "the clas-
sical 17 Totyapovv in Attic was always the first word of
its clause, but Lucian sometimes put it in second position. Kplcnt Ti)s
ba<piTov: the two words derived from the same root are deliberately
placed together for effect. 18 'tested and approved';
this extension of the original meaning resembles the semantic shift in
Latin spectatus. 20 els 6epa1rdav: 'for his benefit'. 23 1TapovCTfls:
i. e. '1')!-lipas. an easy ellipse, but LSJ imply that it is not classical.
60
IOANNES MAUROPOUS
25 lTO:tSE\J"l"i}plOV 'TO KcXAAlO"TOV O")(ESOV Kcxl 'TEplTVO'TCX'TOV OiKT}J.lCX
'TOV evcxyovs 'I'JJ.lOOV oiKOV, OV rnl KpE{'T'TOCW KCX'TCXC"-
KEVOC"CXV'TES, &Cj) 'TCj) lTaV'Toov 'I'JJ.liv 'Toov &ycxeoov SoTi)pt Kcx-
6tepcbcro:J.lev, Kcxl 'TOV J.lOp'TVC"l lTEptcbVVJ.lOV, 'TOV Kcxl M:t')cret Kcxl
lTpCxyJ.lCX'Tl 'TpOlTO:lO<pOpOV feoopytOV olove{ 'TlVCX J.lEyCXV O{K05EC"lTO-
SO 'TTlV o:V'Tfj Kcxl olKtcr-rf}V 'TE Kcxl <pVACXKCX ACXJ.llTPOOS rncrri)cro:J,lSV,
c1' KO:l 'TOV eerov vcxov ov Tiis J.lO:p'TVptKfls xoopls (oTJ,lO:l)
crvvevSoK{cxs &J.lcx Kcxl cXV'TlAft"''EC.OS Kcxt viis &VTiye{po:J.lEV Kcxl ets
lepov <ppOV'Ttcr-rf}ptOV 'TO V oTKOV KCX'TEC"KEVOC"CXJ.lEV • gO"TO:l 'TOl-
ycxpovv o1rep eipfl'TO:t, 'TOlTOS &cpooptcr!-LEvos 'Tois Tiis
85 'TOOV v6J,loov J.lcx6ftcreoos, ov o:V'Tois 'TO
KpO'Tos, !v c1) Kcxl 'TOV StSo:CTKo:AtKov 6p6vov tSpvcre, Kcxl 'TO erno
'TOVSE StSCXC"KcxAEiov VOJ.lOOV 'TO evcxytaTCX'TOV oiKflJ.lCX KAf16f}-
C"E'TCX1 'Toii'To, o StSaCTKo:Aos, ov J,lev ovv ernAoos
ovS. &A6yoos, &AA. cht VOJ.lOVS StSaC"KOOV, Kcxl <pVAO'T'Tel V EACX)(E
25 oxeS6v modifies slightly the fOf'ce of the superlative: 'the most beautiful,
if one may say so'. oTKTUla: the new faculty, although a secular institu-
tion, will be housed in the monastery of St. George in the district of
Mangana. This monastery was a foundation of the same emperor; accord-
ing to Psellus (Chronographia I 143 Renauld) his reason was that he
wanted to have an excuse for visiting regularly his mistress Scleraina
whom he had accommodated in that part of the city, and frequent inspec-
tion of the building operations at the church and at a new palace nearby
gave the necessary pretext. 26 rnl Kpehooatv V.1rfatv: 'in the hope Of
salvation'; cf. Anth. Pal. 7. 606, Agathias 2. 23. 28 'famous far
and wide', rare and post-classical. t<Aflaet: 'calling', as in I Ep. Cor.
7. 20. 29 Tpo1t"atocp6pov: a regular epithet of martyred saints. olKo-
Sea1r6-rT}v: Attic writers preferred o1Kfa5 Sea1r6-rT}v, e. g. Plat. Legg. 954 b;
Phrynichus 348 and Pollux 10. 21 state the same preference as a rule for
students of Greek prose. 32 ovvevSoK{aS": 'consent, approval'; not in
LSJ, but the verb ovvevSoKEYv is mainly Hellenistic. &V'TlAfl'f'EOOS': here
'collaboration'. b< Katvi'jS": 'afresh', which ought to imply that the
emperor rebuilt in much grander style an existing church; but this is not
mentioned in R. Janin, La de ]'empire byzantin
I. ill, Les et les monasteres, Paris 1953. 76ff. 33 cppovnaTflptov:
'place of prayer and contemplation'; the word apparently invented by
Aristophanes at Clouds 94 as a humorous description of Socrates's school
had a rich semantic history; it is used of churches and lecture-rooms.
36 6p6vov: the professorial chair; the usage goes back to the description
of the sophist Hippias in Plato Prot. 315c. 38-39 o6 ... 6:-rri\G)s- o6s•
&i\6yoo5: 'not lightly or unreasonably so called': the title nomophylax
had existed in classical times, but meant a magistrate, not a teacher of law.
IOANNES MAUROPOUS
61
40 v61J.ovs - Toii-ro IJ.Ev ols Tovs cxV-r(i) TrPOs
cpvA.<::XKTtv Kal avv-ri)pT}CTlV Ti'is Toov VOIJ.OOV J3ov'A{}ccoos,
TraVTa Kcx'Aoos Kal TrapaS1Sovs 00$ ol6v -re Tf}v VOIJ.OIJ.Cxeelav
CrnTalCTTOV, Toii-ro s·, OTl J<al TCxS j3{j3A.ovs TOOV VOIJ.OOV,
as B< Ti'is 8<eicc j3lj3AlO&f}KT}S Trapa TOV eVAaJ'eCTTchov j31J'Al0-
45 cpv'AaKos els XPTlCTlV Kal TrpOs To SoKovv
a\rr(i) 1J.ETaxe1p1eiTal, ST}A.aSt) Tas xpelooSeCTTspas Kal TrPOs Tf}v
515a0'1<cx'A{av Toov VOIJ.OOV XPTlCTliJ.OOTEpas • Kal yap 51) Kal Toii-ro
A.va1Te'Aoos To e\1ccj3es 'I'JIJ.oov Kpchos, tv• oiJ<o6ev E)(o1
TCx Ti'}S TSxVT}S opyava TrclVTa 6 els TaVTT}V ael Trapa Ti'}S j3aCTl-
50 'Aetas Kal llt1 Trap • hspoov Taii-ra
IJ.T}Se TrpCxyiJ.aTa E)(o1 &AA.o6ev &AA.o Trpoaal-relv Kal av'AASye1v
ecp. tl<aCTTT}s av a\rros TVXOV TOVTOOV &Tropo{T}
S1a Trev{av.
T o\i-rov To{ vvv Tov Tp6Trov Kal o\i-roo KcxAOVIJ.EVOS 6
55 SlaiJ.Evei. TOlOVTOlS Se xp{}aETal SlJ<a{OlS Kal Trpovo-
IJ.{OlS. evapl6IJ.i}CTETal IJ.eV TOiS O'\J)'1<AT}TlKOiS, Se
40 TOVTO J,l!v oTs 'in the first place by guiding'; a fuller
expression might have been (b<efvots) oTs. 'by those means by which'.
llcx6TJ'TEVOiltvovs: a word drawn from the N. T. cxV-rlt): dative of the
agent. 41 avii'T'I'IpflCTIV: 'preservation', post-classical.
'the intention Cif the law'. aacpflv(l;oov: probably Hellenistic or later
in this sense of 'interpret'. 42 VOilOilO:eetav: 'knowledge of the law';
not in LSJ; originally 'knowledge of the Mosaic law'. 44-47 The
professor can borrow books from the library; by implication the privilege
is denied to the students. On the library see further N. G. Wilson, GRBS
8. 1967. 60. 46 xpetooSecrrtpas: a Hellenistic word. 48 oTKo6ev: 'at
home', as often in the classical language. 49 Ta Tiis Tt){VflS 6pyava:
'the tools of his trade'; I have not found an earlier example of the met-
aphor. 6pyavov is not even used of Aristotle's logical works until after
the sixth century; see Ed. Zeller, Philosophie der Griechen II 2', 187
D. 3. 6 E[S Ta<rn,V ae(: the emperor does DOt simply guarantee the
salary of the professor, but reserves the right to appoint subsequent
holders of the chair; the regius chairs in various universities of Great
Britain are somewhat analogous. 52 'on each occasion'
the adverbial expressions are usually -rrap' ft<acrrov, Ka6' fl<acrrov. 53
mv(av: books were expensive, and a single volume might cost a substan-
tial proportion of the annual salary of a civil servant; see L. D. Rey-
nolds-N. G. Wilson, Scribes and Scholars, Oxford 1968, 56. 55 -rrpo-
VOil(ots: 'privileges'; the usual (Hellenistic) form is -rrpovo11fa. 56 avy-
KAflTIKots: 'members of the senate', fJ oVyKAflTOS being the trans-
62
IOANNES MAUROPOUS
Kal. evEhJs 'TOV rnl. 'TOOV Kp{o-eoov, 4> Kal. 7rpos 'TO
T)!Jhepov KpCrrOS OVVElO"EAeVO"E"Tal Kcx6• OS K&i<eiVOS Kal.
'Tfls Kal. o..yeoos ooo-aV'Toos 00s
60 KaV'TeVeev 'T'?> 'Tfls \rrrepS)(oV'Tl Stacpep6v-
'TOOS Kal. p6yav &vex Tiav E'Tos Ai}t.ye-rat
xe1poov Ahpcxs Kal. 13Aa'T'T{ov Kal. !3atov, O"l'Tflpeo-{oov Se
xapl V 'TaSe Kal. 'TaSe.
Totoii'Tov 'fiSfl 'TOV oo0"7Tep
65 &vSptaV'Ta Katvov 'TE Kal.
&VEKcppaO"'Tots 'Tfls KVI3epvooO"fls TiaV'Ta 7rpovo{as, 'li'TtS 'TO
o-tov 'TO\i-ro Kal. epyov 'fiVeyKEV els rn{VOlaV
Kal. 'Too-o\i-rov 'Tais 'TOV Kpcrrovs

70 TflAlKoV'Tov 'To{vvv Kcx6• hloyftv,
Se VEVO"lV rntl3fival,
ocp6f;va1 7Tepl. -nlv 'TOO"alrrflV xaptv
&vao-x1J, 'TCxS rnl. o-ol. \I}EV0'6fival 7Tapa-
O"KEVCxO"'IJS, OXA.a 7TCXO"av f}Sfl 0"7TovSftv, 7Tao-av
75 7TEpl. 'TO o-acpoos ch1 Kal. aVV 6:Kpti3E{GC 7TOAAfj
lation of the Latin senatus; membership now had little significance
except for ceremonial occasions, since its residuary powers had been
abolished by Leo VI (886-912). 57 TOV rnl TOOV Kplaeoov: a judge of
a certain rank, established by Constantine IX (so DuCange, Glossarium
mediae et infimae graecitatis, s. v.). 61 'priding him-
self upon', Hellenistic. 'stipend', a borrowing from late Latin.
62 AITpas 'KT A. : 'four pounds of gold (i. e. 288 gold pieces; the lowest
civil servants received 72 per annum), a silk garment, a baton of office,
an allowance for food'. 63 TaSe Kal TaSe: 'such and such'; the text is
only a draft, and this detail of the professor's emoluments had not yet
been decided. 64 the word is apparently not attested before
the 8th century. 65 &vSptaVTa: the application of the word to a
person, rather as in the English 'model', goes back to Dem. 18. 129. 0:-rr-
'polish', as opposed to the original sense 'scrape'. ol'KTtplJots:
found in Pindar and biblical Greek. 66 aVEKq>pOO"TOtS: 'ineffable',
quoted by LSJ only from Proclus. 68 'kept in store for,
reserved for'. 70ff. The professor is addressed rather surprisingly in the
second person with a mixture of instructions and exhortations, as are the
students in the part of the document not printed here. J3a61JOV: 'rank',
post-classical. 71 6etoTtpav: the comparative, rather than 6elav, is
chosen for the assonance with vevatv: 'consent'; lexicis
addendum.
IOANNES MAUROPOUS
63
-n;v T6.'w v6!lc.ov S16:vo1a:v &vcrrrniaac•v Tois veo1s, Toii-ro 1-16vov
gpyov "ITOlOV!lEVOS Sl'llVEKes Ka:l &tS1ov Ka:l -rrepl Toii-ro -niv oA-11v
&-rra:va:A{CTKc.ov WK-rc.op 1-1ev llEAEToov Ta -rrpos -niv
CTVVTE{VOVTCX, Se IJE6> f}!lEpa:v, Ka:l Ka:6>
80 a6Kvc.os TO iS <pOlTTlTCXiS Oil lAW V· M{ vc.ov Si;A.ov OTl Ka:l 1-16vc.ov TWV
TJilEPWV Vj.liV Ka:6> &s e6os Ka:l Tois ypa:j.l-
j.lCXTlKOiS OXOATJV CXyElV.
Ov cpvA-oKp•vflcre•s se Tovs CTVVTpE)(oVTa:s rnl -n;v Toov v61-1c.ov
aKpoa:CTlV, ouSe "ITAOVT{VS'Ilv a:U-rois, &JV..> &plCT'T{VSTlV, oos Sei, -niv
85 Tfls Ka:6eSpa:s V &lfoKATlPWOClS • Ka:l ave-rr1cp66vc.os j.leV -rr6:VTa:S
ets -n;v SlCXTplj31'}v O:va:py(Jpc.os Se "ITOO"l Ka:l aj.ll0"6l
Ka:l Ka:6a:pO:v j.leV xeipa:, Ka:6a:pO:v Se XPTJCTElS -n;v yA.wa-
CTCXV Ka:l -n;v yvwll'llV Tois v61-1o•s. oi Ka:l Tovs Tas l'!iAAa:s O:pxO:s
S10: ATlllllCxTC.OV KCXTa:ppv-rra:{voVTa:s oia:1s cxUCTTTlp{CXlS llETEPXOVTa:l,
90 oTSa:s -rr6:VTc.os -rrpo -rr6:VTc.ov, 6 Toov v61-1c.ov · -rrA.1'}v et
llTJ "ITOV TlS TOVTC.OV euSa:{j.lOVOS opj.looj.lEVOS oiKOV e\ryevoos TOV
SlSaCTKCXAOV qnA.ocppovflcra:CT6a:l j3oVAOlTO. TOTE yap o\Jx o-rrc.os
&-rra:yopeVollEV -niv A.fli.JllV TOV SlSoj.levov, O:AJ\0: Si} Ka:l -rrpoac-
-rra:lvouj.lEv, CTVVCf>SO: KO:i a:U-rol TOiS eucrej3ecr1 v6j.lOlS <ppOVOVVTES,
95 Ka:l lllcra:v6pc.o-rr{a:v j.lev Kp{voVTEs -niv Ka:6• oA.ov TOV -rra:VTos
&-rroxflv, erna:v6pc.o-rr{a:v Se lfaAlV -niv CmAOOs TOOV -rr6:VTc.oV
-rra:pa:Soxflv. -rrpovoflCT'IJ Se llaAlCTTa: Ka:l Tiis Toov &KpoCXToov
e\JKocr!l{a:s, Ka:l OXiilla: Tij crxoA. ij -rrep16flcre1s cppoVTlO"TTlp{ov
O"Ej.lVOV, rne•Sfl-rrep Sei TOV "ITCXlSeuacc.os aATl6lvfls 6pey6!lEVOV
lOO-rrpo TOV A.6yov TOV Tp6-rrov Ka:l TO i'i6os exe•v "ITE"ITCXlSEVIlEVOV.
76 &vcrn-niaCTEl\1: not in classical prose. 77 StflvadS:
not in classical prose. 83 cpvi\oKpnn'JCTEIS: 'make distinctions of nation-
ality' is the original meaning, in which case this is an instruction not to
discriminate against Armenians or other racial minorities in the empire;
but later it means 'select'. 84 &Kp6aal\l: 'lectures'. 84-85 TJ'tv ...
O:rroKi\flpOOaEIS: if the text is right it means 'allot them places in order',
suggesting that the number of places in the faculty is limited. But Kcx6-
iSpa could equally well refer to the professor's chair, and perhaps we
should read &-rro-rri\flpOOCTEIS, 'fulfil your duties as professor'; but then the
construction of the preceding adverbs 'to students chosen for their merit
rather than their wealth' is not easy. 86 'school', perhaps
first so used by Epicurus fr. 217'1'] tv Tctl Kft1T'tl 96-97 O:rroxitv:
'abstinence', -rrapaSoxftv: 'acceptance', &-rrav6poo-rr!av: 'unpleasing con-
duct'; all Hellenistic. 100 -rrpo TOV i\6yov: obscure; probably 'before
attaining the faculty of reason'.
64
IOANNES MA UROPOUS
... Av OVTOO -rcxV-ra: 1TOlijS, Ka:l-rolOVrOV O"CXV'TOV rnl-roov
f}IJTV ernoSElKvVElV a:V-r6s -re 1rp0 mJ:v-roov, Ka:l ae
ol -rov -ro1oV-rov Els -ro -rex
-re &:1\A.a: XPfla-rC: Tia:pC: -riis f3a:a1:Aeta:s t<a:l t<cx-rC: at<o1rov
105 VIJlV crna:v-rf}ael, Ka:l -rov IJEYcxA01TpE1Tii -ro\i-rov 6p6vov, ov
1TlcneVea6e, S1a J3fov ava:cpa:{pe-r6v 7E Ka:l
aS1exSoxov, El 1TOV 71S a:V-rc)s -rfls "t'flAlt<a:V-rflS
Ei-rE VOO"OOV Ei-rE a1Ja:6{a:v, fJ Ka:l &:1\A.oos
Sva-rp01TOS OOV -roov o\JK
110 EVxpfla-ros· 8 1TCx01J cpvACXKij 6 -rov 6p6vov -ro\i-rov
arroaK01TOOV Ka:l "t'OV V1fep KE<pcxAflS K{VSVVOV, CXV cpoopa:6ij
KCXKos oov ;; Tia:pa:J3a:i vEl v oAoos -roov 1ra:p • -r1 S1oo-
p1aJ.LEvoov, &:1\A.oos -ro 1rpay1Ja: t<cx-rC: vovv •
rnlXElpEhoo 1TCXV7CxTICXO"l "t'flAlt<0\1-rov t<VJ3ov 1TEpl-rpo1Tij, El -ra
115 Kpo:Tla"t'CX 1TCxV"t'OOV avyylVOOC"KEl, Ka:l v61JOOV
exEl 1roAA,;v, se yAooaaa:v cruv &t<pl-
1TCx01J 1rpote-ra:1 - -riJv •EAAflVlt<iJv AEyOO -ra:V-rflv Ka:l -riJv
oa11 • -, t<cx-ra:6a:ppET Se t<61roov -ra:Aa:lTioopta:s t<a:l
cXypV1TVlOOV KCXKOVX{a:s, a:Is avCxyl<, SoVAeVEl V -rov -ri;S "t'flAlKCXU"t'flS
120 TliJiis Ka:l -rov t<a:l

-r1s SplJ,.lETa: Ka:i
SElyiJ KCXKOfi6ElCX -roTs ru{vov CTTTACxyxVOlS VTIOlKOVpij, ii 1TCXO"l
103 Hellenistic for ets
TO !dAAov: St. Luke 13. 9; in Attic TO 105-106 VI-ITV, mCTTE\}ea6e:
Xiphilinos and his successors are addressed. 106 'once for
all'. &vacpalpeoov: 'with security of tenure'. 107 &St&Soxov' 'per-
manent'; both post-classical. 108 the future optative is
inappropriate, but Mauropous probably wrote it; see below 128 and
163. voawv: an extension of the classical v6aov voaeTv. 109
Svaopc11ros: 'unsatisfactory'; in Attic it meant 'peevish, surly', but later
Svaopo1t'{a developed the sense 'perversity, evil disposition'. 111 cX-rro-
aK01t'w\l: 'aspiring to'. 114 TT}AtKoV.ov !<VJ3ov 1t'EptTpo1T'ij: obscure; per-
haps 'a change fraught with such drastic consequences'. et 111'! KTA.:
'unless he is conscious of possessing the highest qualities': in Attic the
verb is constructed with a participle, here omitted. 117 of!v 15aTl: an
inept imitation of the usage seen at lliad 17. 172. 118 •p(A)Ilaii<1'J: here
'Latin'; in Byzantium as a rule only a few lawyers and interpreters knew
it. Usually •p(A)IlaiK1\ means 'Greek', because the Byzantines regarded
themselves as maintaining the Roman empire. Kaoa6appeT: 'facing
confidently', Hellenistic. 119 KCXKovxlas: 'rigours'; in Attic 'maltreat-
ment'. als Wilson: ols MS. 121 V1t'otKovpij: 'lurk', Hellenistic.
IOANNES MAUROPOUS
65
Tp01T01S 6 TOlOVTOS c!rneAcx&ftaeTeel, I<CXV cp66:cro1 I<CCTCx TlVee
cruveepm:xytiv 1Tpoj3AT'\6e{s, Tc;> 6p6v<t> Tov
Keel KpefTTOVQS.
125 • AAA.a Ta:iiTee J.lev olov SleeJ.leepTVp{ee TlS 1TPOs Tovs vCTTEpov •
o\J J.lftV &:AA' o\Jx T\KlCTTee Keel To Kp6:Tos f!J.loov a:\JT6 Te 1TeeVTo{oos
rn•IJEA{)crETeel Tiis TOV VOIJO<pVACCI<OS 1TPOXE1p{aeoos, av Keel
1TCxA1V TOVTOV Se{)crol, Keel TOiS Ilea· f!IJCXS j3eecr1AeVO'lV rn10'1<i}1TTE1
Ta 1TeepCC1TA{)crlee • llT'\Se yap iSo1 Tl TOlOVTOV TOAIJOOIJEVOV
180 tVTa:Veee 6 1\AlOS, olee Kav Tois &AA.o1s cnJJ.lj3ee{ve1 llcx&ft-
J.leecrlv, oov ivee IJT'\Sev ei1Too 1TAtov, o\Jt< rnee1voo Ta 1TOAA6:.
Toov 1Teep' tl<e{VOlS To{vvv s.·
11 Keel O'l<eelOTT'\Tee o\JSev 1TeeVTEAOOS rnl TOV etiJCCTOS TOVTOV KCCT.
o\JSevee XPOVOV 11 Tp01TOV CxVSXOJ.le6ee yfvecr6ee1, &:1\A • ti<eivov els
185 -ri}v 1TpoeSp{eev KccAOVIJEV, tl<eivov els To V\f'OS TOV
To\/Tov 6p6vov 1TeepeeSex6J.le6ee, Tov a:\JT661 J.lev Ta
Toov v61Joov lt<eevoos a:\JT661 Se 1reipeev
SeSooK6Tee Keel TOOV 1TAefCTT<t> llhP<t> S1eveyt<6VTee O'VJ.l-
cpolTT'\TOOV lJEYt6e1 TE cpvcreoos Keel 0'1TovSfls e\JTov{Cft, ETl Se Keel
140 yA.oocrO'T'\S e\Jpofctt Keel 1TOAVJ.la:6e{ees 1TEplovcr{ctt Keel - To IJEylCTTov
1TCxVToov - Tp61Toov XPT'\CTTOTT'\Tl • cruveA.6VTee S • ellTEiv, olos oinos
6 1TpOOTOS 1Teep. f!llOOV 1Tpoj3AT'\6e{s, rn{ TE Tois CXAAOlS TO CxVE1T{AT'\1T-
TOV exoov Keel Tiis TOOV A011TOOV o\Jx ijTTOV 11 Tiis TOOV
v61Joov elST)creoos tJ.l1TE1p6TCCTOS · j3ovA.6J.le6ee yap Tovs lepovs
145 f!IJOOV VOIJOVS olove{ T10'1 Aee1J1Tpois Sopvcp6po1s xpflcr6ee1 Tois
A.6yo1s, Keel 1TeeVTa:xov 1reep • tl<e{ voov 00s j3eecr1A.eis Toov oA.oov
1Tpa:yiJCxTOOV TE Keel 1Tp01TOJ.l1TEVecr6ee1 els TlJ.lftV
121-122 1raat -rp6-rrots: the plural is cited by LSJ only from Plato Phaedo
94d. 122 &-rreAa(a)et;aE"Tat is the usual form. 123 Ka-ra avvap1ra-
Yl'!v: 'precipitately'; earlier meanings are 'on an impulse, by deception'.
125 Sta11ap-rvpla in the sense of 'solemn affirmation' is quoted only from
LXX 4 Macch. 16. 16 by LSJ. 127 1rpoxetplae(I)S: 'appointment', a
sense not given in LSJ; in the papyri 1rpoxetp1a116s is found instead. 128
Seftaot: Sefta1J would be an easy emendation to restore Attic syntax.
130-131 -rots &AAots 11a6ti11aaw: the reference is not clear, but it is known
that at about the same time the emperor issued an edict regulating the
faculty of philosophy. 132 first in Arrian Epict. 4. 12. 6.
133 rnl ... -ro\rrov: 'in this field, in this case'; post-classical. 138
1ri\ela-rct>llh'Pct> seems not to be a classical usage. 139 eV-rovl'i": 'vigour',
Hellenistic. 145-146 -rois i\6yots: 'reason, intellect'. 147 \rrrepa0'1TI-
z.;eaeat, 1rp01TOI11TeVea6at: both Hellenistic.
5 Wilson
66
IOANNES MA UROPOUS
OIJOV Kal &crcp6Aetav 1Tpos 'TOVS V oohois 8< -riis epa-
0'\J'TCrrrtS oUt< 6KvovVTas crocptcrrtKfls • ov yap s,; P11•optKf} v
150 cpai11v O:v 'Tf}v 'TO 1Tt6avov &1Tt6avoos i\ Kal 1Tt6av00$ 'TO &1T{6avov
VTl v.
Olov Se IJlKpov Kal Stecpvyev T)IJOS 1Tapei\66v. rnel yap
Kal CTVV11y6poov, &vayKaiov
ci>fl6111JEV Kal 'TO KO'T' 8<e{vovs EV 6ecr6a1, OOS 1TOV'TCX)(06ev i)IJiV
155 c5:p•tov ei11 Kal KO'Ta 1-111Sev •o 1Tepl •ovs v61Jovs •oV.o
KOl voocpei\E<TTO'TOV O"lTOVSaCTIJO.
ovv 'TCx 'Tois 1Tai\atois St11yopev1Jeva VOIJOlS 1Tepl
8<e{voov, &rrep i)S11 CT)(ESov aVTl IJTt yeypa!JIJEVOOV f)
&xP11cria 1TE1T0{11KE, "Ti}v IS{av Kal 1T6Atv exe•v loxvv, Kal IJTt
160 IJOVOV a\J'Tovs 1TCxV'TO 'Tp01TOV 8<'JToveiv Kal IJOv6CxVEl V rnl!JeAOOS
•a •oov v61Joov 1Tapa •et> vo!Jocpvi\aKt, &i\i\0: 1-111S •
1TpOTepov 'TOiS TOlOVTOlS O'VO'TfliJaCTl, 1Tplv OV
OVTOS aV'Tbs 0 StSaCTKai\os aV'Tois rnliJOpTVpflcrol, Kal Ti}v
\nroi\11\jJlV rn{ 'TE 'Tij TOOV VOIJOOV IJa6flO"el Kal 'Tij i\omij
165 - yi\cb'T'TTlS OIJO cpoovij Kal xe•pbs ypacpij -
0'01.
Tov Se 1Tapa ToV'Tov •ov TV'lTov els Tovs crvVTly6povs i\
Tovs Kai\ov!Jevovs 1Tapeve{petv TOAIJOOVTa 1-111Sev
KepSa{vetv -rfis 1Tp01TE'TEias, &i\i\ • aVets
170 IJETCx crcpoSp6TTlTOS, oos O:v 8< 'TOV 1Ta6eiv
rntyv(i) IJ11KET1 Tf}v els Se\ipo Kpa'Tflcracrav rn-· aV'Tois &Stacpop{av,
&XA.a 'Tf}v &pxatoTa-n,v 8<e{V11v Toov v61Joov
TEVOIJEV11V c5:pTt Tois 1TpCxyiJOO"l, 1-111Se Scbp111Ja .VX11s i\ 1Tep1-
152 In a document so care-
fully drafted the touch of informality is specious and incongruous. 153
'notaries', post-classical. 156 Kotvc.:><peJ.to-ra-rov:
Hellenistic. 157 eeo-rrfl;OIJEV: 'decree', a usage attested from the 4th
century onwards. 159 6:){pT)afa: 'disuse', not classical. He is perhaps
referring to rules for membership of the legal profession laid down in the
Book of the Eparch, a document issued in the reign of Leo VI (886-912).
162 av<TT"fJIJaO't: 'profession'. 163 rnt!Jap-rupnaot: here 'gives a testi-
monial'. 164 &rr6AT)Ifltv: 'reputation'. 167 T\rrrov: 'rescript', decision
formally communicated by an emperor. 168 Tal3oVAAaplovs: 'nota-
ries'. -rrapevelpetv: 'intrude', a sense not found before Plutarch. 171
&Stacpoplav: 'indifference, neglect', Hellenistic. 173--174 -rreptSpo!JfiS
IOANNES MAUROPOUS
67
SpoiJfiS &plTay(.la, &AA • e1ra6i\ov CTTTovSfis Kal cpli\olTov{as Ta
175 TOlcxiiTa WV (JOVOlS TOTS lTpoKE{(.le\la.
0\i-rc.o To{vvv TtiJ'iV S1avvo-6ev To KaT6p6oo(.la Tij Tov Kpd"TTovos
xaplTl Sla(JEVOl lJExPl lTaVTQs -ri}v lTOAlTS{av O'E(.lvVVOV, Kal
(JT)Sels cxVTO xp6vos, (.lfl cp66vos T(;)V KaKOOV ernocrf3ecrol, &:1\Aa
S1a TEi\ovs hla(.llTol, &El Kai Tl(.loo(.levov \rrro
1so Toov yeveoov Kai SlKalOaVVT)V 6:tS1ov bnf3pa(3evov T(ij (3{'1'·
6:p1Taylla: 'the reward of intrigue'; both words late in these mean-
ings. 176 KCXT6p6c.>j.la: 'virtuous action', as in Chrysippus. 180 rnt-
J3paf3e\iov: 'guaranteeing', not attested before the 6th century.
MICHAEL PSELLOS (1018-96/7( ?))
Psellos spent most of his career in the service of the emperors, first as
an administrative official and later as a highly influential minister. When
he temporarily fell from favour he entered a monastery, but seems to
have had no difficulty in returning to his former activities. For a time he
was also professor of philosophy (liTrCXTO!i 'T(;)v cp1Aoa6cpc.w) in the imperial
university, restored largely at his own suggestion, and he enjoyed consid-
erable fame as a lecturer; he was noted for his deep interest in Platonic
ideas, which in due course led him and his pupil John Italos into conflict
with the church authorities (a special synod anathematised the belief in
the Platonic theory of forms).
Psellos was exceptionally versatile in his learning and the number of
his writings is enormous; by no means all have been correctly identified
and printed. The most important are: the Chronographia, a history of
his own times full of gossip and intriguing sketches of important people and
events, perhaps better described as memoirs than as a formal history;
funeral orations on his distinguished contemporaries Cerularios the pa-
triarch, Leichudes and Xiphilinos; a large correspondence; the De omnifaria
doctrina, a set of short discussions of various topics in philosophy, science
and theology, much of which depends on Plutarch's De philosophorum
placitis.
Editions: many of the letters and other works are in the Scripta minora,
ed. E. Kurtz-F. Drexl, Milan 1936--41, others in vols. 4-5 of K. N. Sathas,
Meaat(I)VtKT') Athens 1875. De omnifaria doctrina, ed. L. G.
Westerink, Utrecht 1948. Chronographia: ed. E. Renauld, Paris 1926--8,
with French translation; English translation by E. R. A. Sewter, Penguin
books 1966. On P. in general see the article by E. Kriaras in Pauly-Wissowa,
Supp.-Band XI.
Revolution (Chronographia 5. 25-9, 36-41, 43-5)
XXV. ·o yap f3a:cnA£vs hpvcpa: Ka:l. 1TA'IiPTlS
Ka:6E1CTT'f)KE1 cppovf}J..ICX"TOS, ,; ye TT6i\1S,
Michael V (1041-1042) trumped up accusations against the dowager em-
press Zoe, who had adopted him and permitted his accession to the throne.
She was sent into exile on the nearby island of Prinkipo.
MICHAEL PSELLOS
69
-rrcxv Kal -r\Jxflv Kal, TJAlK{av, wO'lt'Ep :hv&{O'f)s cxV-rfj "Ti'\s
OVIJ<pVOVS apiJOV{as, K<rra IJEpf) TlVCx avyKlVEia6a1 Kal Sla-
5 TapchTea6al T;pxe-ro, Kal OVK t'jv T6:>Y "ITCxVTWV ovSels os o\Jxl
Ta -rrpwTa 1-1ev Tfj y:hwTTtJ Kal Se1 v6Tepov Tfj
KapS{q; -rrepl TOV -rrpayiJ<rrOS Kal Tfj y:hwTTtJ
Tov :heye1v fuv6ep{av. ws yap 1'} cpfliJT') &rraVTaxov
(t'jv) "T'f\S -rrep\ -ri}v j3aalA{Sa KalVOTOIJ{as, -rrev6ovaav ijv opcxv
10 -ri}v n6AlV Kal WO'"ITEp rnl Tais KlVf}O'EO'l
TOV -rraVTos ernaVTES TCxS I.JN)(CxS Kai oV!<:
E){OVO'lV o-rrws O:v &v<XKTftaalVTO, TCx IJeV TWV SelVWV
V-rro1JEIJEVT)K6Tes, Ta Se o\rrw ST} Kal ToTE -rrcxaav
'¥V)(t;V Kcx-rft<pelCx TlS K<rrElAll<pEl SElvTJ Kal ernapaiJ\JeT')TOS
15 OVIJ<pop&, Kal els SEVTepav 1'}!-lEpav ovSels TEWS rneixe -ri}v YAWT-
TaV, ov TWV TEAel, ov TWV TOV j3T)J.l<rrOS, CiJ\A. ovS. OO'OV
ru{vov avyyevlKOV Kal olK{Slov· ot S' OQV rn\ TWV
Kai -rrpos IJeya:has TOAIJas &AA. ovS. OO'OV
TE Kal OVIJJ.laxlKOV elw6aa1 -rrap<rrpE<pEl V o{ j3aO'lAEiS,
20 :heyw Se Tovs mpl Tov Ta\ipov l:t<Veas, Ti hepo{ TlVES, K<rrExElV
f}SvvaVTO TCxS opyas, CxAACx lfaVTES K<rrae\JElV V"Tfep "T'f\S j3aal-
:h{Sos Tas I.JN)(&s.
XXVI. To S • ayopaiov yevos Kal O:cpe-rov i;Sf) -rrov Kal
-rrapEKEK{ VfiTO ws aVTlTVpavvfiaov TCfl TVpavvevaaVTl · To Se
25 &fl:hv yevos, &AAa -rrws &v ToiiTo To is oV!<: elS6a1 v &cpf)yf)aa{IJfl v;
tyw yovv -rroA:has as ovSels axpl TOTE Ti'\s yvvalKWV{-
TlSOS TE6ecrral, Sf11JOcr{q; TE -rrpoiovaas Kal j3owaas TE Kal
KO"ITTOIJEVaS Kal SelVOV CrnOAO<pVpOIJEVaS rnl TCfl -rr&ee1 Tf\S
j3aal:h{Sos, at Se :homal Ma1v6:Swv S{Kf)V Kal TCxyiJa
ao ov Tl IJlKpov rnl TOY &XlTf}plOV avvecrniKeaav ,-rrov "ITOTE"
4 KCXTcX
Sathas: Kal TcX MS. 6 Vrre-rov66pvz;e: 'murmured in an undertone';
first used by Lucian. 7 'brooded'; found in the Odyssey
and the Atticists. 9 (?jv) add. Sathas. Ka\voTollfcxs: 'news' or
'outrage'. 11 Tov -rraVTos: 'the universe'. 16 Twv Tov J3ftllcrros: 'the
clergy'; J3filla 'chancel' occurs in c. 40 (line 54) below. 17 olKfS1ov:
'domestic'; a very rare adjective. 20 At this date the imperial guard
was composed of Varangians from Russia. 24 &VTtTVpavvfiaov: the
compound is cited by LSJ only from Lydus De magistratibus 2. 1.
Michael, who rose from low origins, is regarded as a usurper. 24ff.
Psellos speaks as if the women of the lower classes led a restricted exist-
ence of the same kind as in classical Athens.
70 MICHAEL PSELLOS
J3oooaa1 ,. Tt llOVT) t<al -ri} V 'VV)(ft V eVyEvftS t<al -ri} V llOpcpT) V eve1Sf}s;
1TOV 1TOTE Tt llOVT) TOOV Traaoov tAeveepa, Tt TOV
yevovs SeaTT6TlS, ,; Tov t<Aflpov Tfls J3aa1i\etas tvvollOOTOTa
lxovaa, -?is t<al 6 Tra-ri}p J3aa1i\evs t<al 6 tl<eivov cpvs t<al 6 ToiiTov
35 aV&1s arroTEt<oov; noos S • apa t<al o SvayevT}s Tfls e\Jyevo\is
I<OTETOAilT)O"E t<al TOao\iTov rn• tt<E{VT)V tv6VIlT)IlO 6n6aov
ovSej.l{a 'VV)(ft TOOV TraVTOOV txoopT)ae ;" TaVT• li\eyov t<al
avve6eov oos tllTrpi}aovaal TO J3aa{i\ela. 00s s . oUt< -jJj V E-n TO
t<ooi\vaov ovSev, "TraVTOOV ftST) rnl -ri}v TVpaVVli<TlV avappayev-
40 Toov \l'vxilv, To npooTa t<OTo !lEpos t<al ooaTrep t<OTo aVO"'TT)Ila
rnl TOV lfOAej.lOV I<OTEO"'TpaTOlTESevoVTO, lTTElTO OA1J Tfls noi\eoos
t<OT• aV'Tov avveO"Tpmvov Tij cp6:i\ayy1.
XXVII. "Et<aaTOS yovv TOOV naVTOOV t<a600TTAlaTO, 0 j.lEV
Trei\et<vv SlT)yt<aAlO"j.lEVOS, 6 poj.lcpa{av TlVO t<paSa{voov Tij
45 xe•pi J3apva{ST)pov, E-repos Se j.lETat<SXE{plaTO t<al &i\i\os
S6pv, 0 Se TTOAVS oxi\os, TOOV aSpOTepoov i\{6oov TOVs j.leV I<OATTOO-
aaj.lEVOl, TOVS s. tv xepoiv EXOVTES, &-rat<TOTEpov e6eov. eyoo
yovv TT)Vlt<aii'Ta Trpo TOOV J3aa1i\etoov ela'Ti}t<e1v eia6Soov, Tr6ppoo-
6ev \rrroypallllOTeVOOV TCi'> J3aa1i\ei t<a\ apTl llEilVT)IlEVOS TCx
5o Trpoe1a6S•a· t<a{ 1-lE elxev ,; O"Too ypacpas -nvas Toov 1-lVO"Tl-
t<oo'TEpoov \rrrayopevoVTa. &6p6ov J'oi} TlS TtlliV TrpoaJ'O:i\i\el
ooaTrep lTTTr6t<poTos t<al s •eae1ae Tos Toov Troi\i\oov 6 -?ixos 'VV)(O:s •
ETTElTCx TlS -?jt<ev &yyei\i\oov, 00s 6 SflllOS C'rnas rnl TOV J3aali\ea
t<Et<{VT)TOl t<al ooamp vcp. avvef}j.laTl TTPOs -ri}v aV-ri}v YVOOj.lT)V
55 avve{i\ei<'Tal. Tois ovv Troi\i\ois t<alVOTOil{a TlS &i\oyos To
33-35 Zoe was descended
from Constantine VIII, Romanos II and Constantine VII Porphyro-
genitus. 39-40 'against the tyrannous spirit of the emperor'. 40
and can both be used of.military units. 41 Kcm:a-rp<XTo-
m:Sruovro: 'they marched'; for the usage see LXX 2 Mace. 4. 22. 42
<XVTov Sathas: <XVToov MS. avvecrrpO:-n:vov Wilson: avvea-rpcrniyovv
MS. 44 StT)YKcxAta!dvos: simply 'carried'; apparently lexicis adden-
dum. a heavy sword. 45 LSJ cite this
only from Plut. Aemilius 18. 46-47 KOA1TOOaC(J..IEVOI: 'putting into the
folds of their clothing'. 48--49 1T6ppoo6ev: 'for some time past', a rare
classical usage. 50 1Tpoeta6Sta: originally this meant 'ceremonies of
entry to the royal palace', then 'antechamber'; here the sense must be
that he had the right of entry to special offices in the palace. 51
&ep6ov: 'suddenly'. Kurtz: MS. 52 11T1T6-
KpoTOS does not occur in classical prose.
MICHAEL PSELLOS
71
1rpCXTT6J,.lEvov eyoo Se cvvels c!>v 1rp6npov -ra !lSv
-ra Se i}KT)K6e1v, oos els 1TVpKa:iav 6 O'iT'lv6T}p &ve<pAE)(&r}
Ka:l Sei TI"OAAOOV TI"O'TCXIJOOV Ka:l rnl<p6pov 'TOV peVIJCX'TOS OOO'TE
ernoaj3eaefiva:l, a:\rr{Ka: 'TOV i1T"1T"OV &va:j3as Sla IJEO"T)S {lelv -riis
60 n6:Aeoos KO:{ ye 'TOiS 6<p6cxAI.lOiS a:\rrois 1repl OOV vVV
1.101 CxiJ<plO"j3T)'TeiV.
XXVIII. "QO'iT'ep yap -r1vos Kpeh-rovos l.lE'T-
eaxf'tK6ns lTVeVIJCX'TOS, OVK hl rnl 'TOOV 1rpo-repoov -riis
\IJVXTlS Ka:-ra:a-r6:aeoov, c!iJ\A • ot TE Sp61.101 a:V-r6?v IJCXVlKoo-repol Ka:l
65 xeipes tppc..>J.lEVEO"'Tepa:l, Ka:l 'TOOV 6<p6cxAIJOOV a:t j3o:Aa:l1TVpooSels TE
Ka:l tv6oVO"lOOO"CXl, ot -re 'TOV O"OOIJCX'TOS -r6vo1 pc..>IJcxAeOO'Tepol,
Se 1rpos -ro eVO")(T)I.lovea-repov ;; J.lETa:-rf6ea6a:l
'TOOV j3oVAEVIJ6:-rc..>v ovSels 'TOOV TI"CxV'TOOV tj3ov:Ae-r6 ye, ft 'TOV
CVIJj30VAeVOV'TOS oiiv.
70 XXIX . Se a:V-rois -ra 1rpoo-ra: rnl -ro yevos tKetvov
xoopeiv Ka:l 'TOVS O"EIJVOVS tKe{voov oiKOVS KCX'TCXO"'Tpe<pelv Ka:l
\rrrep6yKOVS, epyov -re eixov-ro, Ka:l 61.1ov 1rpoaej3a:AAOV, Ka:l 'TO
els eSa:<pOS Ka:-reppf}yvv-ro, Ka:l 'TOOV olKoSOI.lT)IJCrrOOV 'TCx
1.1ev rnlKEKCxAVTI"'TO, 'TCx S • CxVCXKEKCxAVTI"'TO • t(1re )Ka:AV1f-rov-ro 1.1ev
75 els yflv TI"f1t"'Tovaa:l, &veKa:AVTI"-rov-ro Se KpT)lTiSes yfl6ev
ava:ppT)yvVIJeVCXl, OOO'iT'ep a:V-roov -riisyfls-ro cX)(6os
Ka:l &1ToeP11t"'TOVO"T)S -rovs 6el.le:A{ovs · Ka:-rea-rpe<pov Se -ra TI"Aefoo ov
xeipes f)J3oov-roov f} &vSpoov, c!il\Aa Ka:l 1Je{pa:KeS Ka:l
ei ••s hepa: &TE:AT)s f):A1Kfa: yevovs, &rr6:0"T)s Ka:-ra:O"Kevfls
so &lToSlSOVO"T)S -ra:is 1rpoo-ra:1S e\JeVs rna:<pa:is • -ro Se S1a:ppa:yev ft
KCX'TCXO"'Tpa:<pev 61.lcxAOOS 6 KCX'TCXO"'TpE\I)CXS Ka:l els
&yopav 1rpoV-rf&r}, 1.11) S1a:l.l<p1j36:AAoov 1repl -rov TI"Ae{ovos.
60 Ka{ ye is scarcely found in
the classical language; Denniston, The Greek particles, 157. 67-69
'no one whatever wanted to check their behaviour or dissuade them from
their plans, nor would any of them have followed such advice'. The syn-
tax is difficult and the text not quite certain. 74 The anomalous
pluperfect forms may be due to Psellos' faulty Atticism. 75 yfj6ev:
'out of the ground'; in poetry and late prose. 76 c!rnocpopTtl;oJ.ltVT}s:
'unloading'; Hellenistic. But in 81 it means 'carry away'. 80 c!rno-
StSoVO'T}S: 'yielding to'. 81-82 els &yopav: 'for sale'. 82
'without argument about the price'; the compound verb is occasionally
found in patristic Greek. - In chapters 30-35 Psellos explains how the
emperor was temporarily saved by one of his officers.
72
MICHAEL PSELLOS
nepl Tfjs TOV ox/l.ov &Trayooyfis iTPOs -n)v c:xVyovo-rav
9eoSoopav
XXXVI. ·o To{vvv Sfillos, oos 1..101 !I.Ei\EJ<Tal, KaTa Toii
TVpavvevaaVTOS O'TCXO'lCxO'CXS Kal SeSlOOS J.li} TE &i\i\oos TCx r.pCxyJ.lCX-
5 TCX Kal TJ TVpaVVlKf) cx\rroii KaTlO"XVO'El XE{p, Kal ovSev Tl
;r/l.eov Toii 6opvl3ov yevi}aeTal, -n)v ;rpooTflV (3aali\{Sa
lliiv o\Jx oT6s TE i'jv, TOV TVpCxVVOV TaVTflV iTpOKaTCXO"XOVTOS
Kal oTov rnl -n)v &Sei\cpf)v TprnETal, oos Se\JTepov
aTJ.la I3aa{i\e1ov, ov TapaxooSoos ovSe ovyKEXVJ.lEVOOS, CiAi\' eva
10 TOOV a\JTfj 6epan6VToov ooa;rep TlVCx o-rpOTflyov Tfjs
eavToii ;rpoa--nlaas O:vSpa To 1..1ev yevos o\Jx ·Ei\i\T)va,
To Se i'j6os Toii Kai\i\{o-rov yevovs, itpooiKcw Se To eTSos, Kal To
ael3exaJ.11ov &pxatas e\JTVx{as KEKTflJ.levov, oi\a•s cruv
cpai\ayyexpXT) rnl Ti)v 9eoSoopav CrntJEl.
15 XXXVII. • H Se T't> KaTani\ayeiaa, TTJV TE
;rpooTflV ;reipav &vevSoTos SlaiJEJ.lEVtlKEl, Kal Tois O:S\JTo1s
eavTi)v KaTaaxoiiaa &vf)Koos iTpOS iTCXO'CXV SlCXJ.lEJ.lEvrlKEl cpoovf)v.
&:1\AO: To ;roi\lTlKov o-rp6:TevJ.1a, O:iToyv6VTes ;rpbs Ti)v ;re16oo, Tf)v
I3{av cx\rrfj, Ka{ Tl VES O'iTCXO'CxJ.lEVOl OOS cXVCXlpi)-
20 O'OVTES TaVTflV oopJ.lT)O'CXV, ehcx Sf) Kcxl TOAJ.li}O'CXVTES O:iToO'iTOOO'l
1..1ev Toii O:S\JTov, Se els TO \Frrcx16pov, Kcx{ Tlvcx TOOV
ACXIJiTpOTepoov o-roi\oov rnevSvaa:VTES i;r;rov TE Kal
;rpbs TOV J.lEYCXV vaov Tfjs TOV 8eoii KVKAOO'E ovyKlVOV-
J.lEVOl ayova1 v. o\Jx it Toii SfJJ.loV J.lOVT) J.1Ep{s, O:i\i\0: Kal
25 it EKKplTOS O'VVEiTl VEVEVKel Tfj eeoSoopc;x, KO:l iTCxVTES TOV
TVpexvvov iTCxVTfl KaTOAlyoopf]aaVTes I'cxal/I.{Sa -n)v 8eoSoopav
O'TOJ.laTl KaTOOVOJ.lCXO'CXV.
1 &-rrayc.>yfis: here 'approach', almost 'appeal'. 7 V.etv: i.e. obtain
the support of. 13 TO 'respect'; Hellenistic. e\rrvx{as:
'noble ancestry'. 14 (a technical term of Hellenistic military
writers) Sathas: 6Afl MS. 16 6:vivSoTos: 'without yielding';
Hellenistic. 19 a rare alternative in Attic for bn'Jyaye.
MICHAEL PSELLOS
73
Tiepl -rfis 'TOV (3aat:Mc.us Kal 'TOV 6dov cx\rrov c!rrrocpvyfls, Kal nepl
Tiis cx\rroov b<-rvcpA.waews
so XXXVIII. ·ns Se 'Toii'To tyvw"Ket o -rVpavvos, Se{aas J.l'l')
&ep6ov rneAT}Av66ns cx\rrov "TTOV 'TOiS &va'K'T6pots StCX)(Elp{aov-
'TOl, els VaVV 'TlVO 'TOOV (3aatAl'KOOV 'Kal 'TOV 6eiov
napaA.af3wv npbs 'TT)v lepav 'TOOV 'KO'Ta{pet J,lovf)v, 'T6 n
OXfiJ.la J.lE'Taj3cxA.wv l"Khov O')(f}J.la J.lE'TcxAOJ.l(3avet Kal np6acpvyos.
a5 ws Se SflA.ov tyey6ve1 'Toii'To 'Tij TI6A.et, eOOVs aipE'Tat naaa 'l'V)(T)
J.lExPl 'TOtrrOV TIE<p0(3T}J.lEVT} Kal cpp{'T'Tovaa · 'Kal ol J,leV O'OOO"Tpa
9e4' &vE'T{6ovv, ol Se &vev<pflJ.lOVV 'TT)v (3aatA.{Sa, 'TO s. oaov
ST}J.lOOSes Kal &yopaiov xopovs n avv{O"Taaav Kal
Sovv 'Tois yeyov6atv, aV'T66ev 'TCx J.lEAT} "TTOlOVJ.levot· ot Se ye
40 nA.e{ovs rn• aV'Tov Si} 'TOV -rVpavvov Co<a6E"K'l"<t> Sp6J.l<t> avve6eov,
WS 'KO'Ta'KO'f'OV'TES, WS
XXXIX. Kal ot J,lev o\i-rws· ot Se nepl 'TT)v (3aatA.{Sa 9eoSw-
pav cppovpav 'Ttva m-• aV'Tov &cptaat Kal cppovpapx6v 'Ttva 'Toov
yevva{wv, cp K&yw avvem6J.lT} v tyyVeev, cp{A.os 'Te oov Vet>, Kal els
45 J3ovA.T)v CXJ.lO 'Kal 'TOOV tyvwaJ,lEVWV "TTapcxAT}<p6ds· rnel Se
TIPOs 'Tais mJAalS 'TOV vew tyey6velJ,lEV, hepav aV'To'KEAEVO"TOV
opOOJ.lEV cppovpav, ST}J,lWST} cp&Aayya 'KV'KAoae 'TOV lepov TIEplElAT}-
cp6'Tas ol'KOV 'Kal J.lOVOVOV 'Toii'Tov WEAOV'TOS. oeev ovS.
c!rrrpcXyJ.lWV TtJ.liV Ti TIPOs 'TOV vaov tyeVE'TO eiaoSos· OJ.lOV Se 'Kal
50 noA.v 'Tl nA.fl6os avveppUT}aav, 'TOV <XAt'TT}p{ov 'KO'Ta(3oooV'TES Kal
naaav 'KO'T• aV'Tov cpwv'l')v acplEV'TES aO')(f}J.lOVa.
31-32
StCX)(Etp(aovrat: 'kill'; this sense is first found in Hellenistic writers. 33
The Stoudios monastery was one of the most important in the capital,
housing a community of several hundred monks. It had been a centre of
resistance against Iconoclasm, and for several centuries it ran a large
scriptorium, which may have been responsible for the change from uncial
to minuscule script c. 800. For a photograph of the impressive ruins see
S. Vryonis, Byzantium into Europe, London 1967, plate 73. 34 1Tp6a-
!pvyOS: 'fugitive'; the word is Hellenistic. 38-39 rnnpayc;>Sovv: 'com-
posed songs' (modern Greek TpayovSt 'song'). But at 77 it means 'bring
disaster on'. 40 'ungovernable'; Hellenistic. 41 Kcrra-
K6'+'0VTES, Sathas: the MS. has -avres in both cases. 44
Psellos unfortunately does not relate the manoeuvres which led to his
personal involvement in the following scenes; but evidently he was already
regarded as a person of considerable influence.
74
MICHAEL PSELLOS
XL. Teoos KCxl cx\rros ov ;ravv Tl OVVeA11AV6etv rnlElKOOs, ov
yap i'jv rnl Tij &vaA."YTlTOS, &XAO: TlS hr>
\rrreK{Vel rnel ;rpc)s TCi> lepc;> yeyovoos, OV
55 h&yxcxvev wv, TOO ;rp6acpvye, TOV
c::x\rrfls Tfis lepcxs TOV A.6yov Tpcx-
TOV Se ye rnl TOV
Kcxl TO Kcxl Tf}v
it'CXVTCrnCXO'l, ovS > OTIOVV ixvos Tij 'Yvxij.
60 ooa;rep TV<pOOVl cxVOS elO'Ti}KElV Kcxl Q:xcxvfts, ;rpos Tf}v
Tov ehcx Sf}
-ri}v 'YVXTJV Tfis St • f}v eiooee
VEl V TcX KCXl VeX TcxVTCX Kcxl c5:To;rcx· ehcx STJ ooa;rep Tl VOS EV-
So6ev &vcxppve{a'lls TI"'lYiis. SCXKpvoov povs &l<CXT6:0")(ETOS ;rpoexeTTo
65 Toov TEAeVTooVTt Se • Kcxl els To ;r6:6os
&it'ETeA-eVT11ae.
XLI. To ovv elaeA-11A.v6os ;rA.f16os Kln<Aoae ;reptO'TaVTes Too
c5:vSpe ooa;rep Si} Tl ves &f'lpes KCXTcxScx{acxa6cxt TOVTOVS
;rpos Tij TOV KlYKA{St TOV
10 6pflvov. oos Se eiSov ;repmcx6oos exoVTcx Kcxi ov ;raVT'Il
VOlS, &:A.A-0: SetKvVVTCX Tl TOV rnlEll<OVS axti-
;rp6s KOyOO Tl
AOOV, ;rpC:>Tcx Tov rn• &AA.ots
TE Sf} KCXi 5-n OVYKOl vooverv T'i> etAeTO rni Tij Tfis
75 Sos KCXKooaet, e;retTcx Kcxi cx\rrov Sf} Tov eiA-11cp6Tcx TO Kp6:Tos T)poo-
TTlCTcx o Tl Sft;roTe ;re;rov6oos ;rcxpO: TiiS Kcxi Sea;r6TtSos
TOlOVTOV ;r6:6os rneTpcxyci>STlCTE. Kcxl Si} &ire-
Kptva0'611v. 6 OOS o\/Te Tf}S rni TcxVT1J
TCi> cXVE\YlCi> OVT> aAAOOS ;rpol.JTpel..jiCXTO • ,rnlO")(ElV
so Se" cp11a{v ,ei ye KCXKov Ttvos ;rcxpcx;roA.eA.cxVl<Etv·
52 'TTOVV Tt tm-
EIK{;)s: 'with no very moderate feelings'. 57 The nobilissimus (a title
restricted to members of the imperial family) was the uncle who had
saved him so far. 59 is unexpected in this main clause and should
perhaps be deleted. 60 croos can mean 'trembling', but perhaps Psellos
intends 'horrified'. &)(avt,s: 'speechless'. 64 OKaTaO')(ETOS: 'uncon-
trollable'; Hellenistic. 70 'TTEpt"TTcx6oos: i. e. 'deeply moved'; Hellen-
istic. 74-75 Tfls Kurtz: MS. 78 Tcx\rnJ Renauld:
TOVTC¥ MS. - In chapter 42 Psellos digresses for a moment on the mis-
fortunes just alluded to. -
MICHAEL PSELLOS 75
oliToo yap i'jv &Kcrraoxe-ros ov-t-os" (1rpbs hna-rpacpels)
"1TP0s 0 j3oVAT}6e{T} Kai !cp. &rrep OPilflOElEV. el yap olos TE i'jv
Opllf}V cxV-rov OVK av s,; 1-\01 TO ytvos adl<o1TTO
Kai1TVpOs Kai 01ST]pov epyov iytve-ro. et
XLIII. ·o llev oov vooj3eAAiolllOS TOlOVT'!' llE AOY'I' 'lille{-
6 Se TVpavvevoas f}ptlla Tf}v KE<paAT'}v rnloe{oas Kai llOYlS
1TOV Kai SCa<pvov Tci)V 6cp6aAilOOV rnacpe{s ,&AA. OVK &SlKOS 6
9e6s" o\rroos el1rc.:w ,Ka{ llE f) S{Kfl Toov 1TE1Tpaylltvoov 1r01vas
s el01Tp6:TTe-ra1. et Kai ®61s Tiis aetas ·
rnElTa Si) Kai TT) V TOV O")(TJ llaTOS iVVOilOOS llE"Tallcp{aol V rn. cxV-rct:>
yeveo6a1 Ked TEAovVTal &llcpoo Tiis 1-\ETallcplaoeoos To
llVOTf}plOV · Kai f)OTT}V 01-\0V O'VVTETplllllEVOO Kai SelAlOOVTE Kai
TT)v Tov ST]Ilov 1TEcpoi3Tlllevoo cpopav. eyoo llev oov 4JilflV &xP•
10 TOVTOV Ta TapCX)(OOST} 1Tpoj3T]oeo6al, Kai TTJV ye OKT}vf}V OTrE-
Kai Tf}v TOOV 1Tcx6T}IlcXTOOV xope{av TO
Se i'jv &pa 13pcxxv Tl 1TpOO{IllOV xe•p6voov TPay'!'SlOOV. elpi)oe-ral
Se Kcrra llEpos TcxV-ra.
XLIV. "'HST} yap I<A•vovo'Tls f)I-\Epas !cp{a-rcrra{ TlS &ep6ov
15 TOOV apTl Tas apxas KAT}pOVIlEVOOV, oos &lro Tiis eeoSoopas
1TpOOTETayllEVOV cxV-rct:> !cp· rnp6v TlVa T01TOV llETaoTi;oal TOVS
1rp6ocpvyas. ei1re-ro Se cxV-rct:> Kai 1TAT}6Vs 1TOA1TlKTJ Te Kai a-rpa-
TlOOTlKfl. Kai 1Tp001TEACcOaS Tct' j3f}ll<rrl 00 iKeiVOl K<rralTE<pEVya-
OlV, cpoovfj Tf}v cxV-rois 1Tpo0TpE1Tev· ot St.
20 oos TO TE 1TAi;6os ST}Il{oov A6yovs rnexoVTas Kai TOV
&yoVTa TEeEaVTal 1rapaSe1KvVVTa Tl TOV Ka1pov Kai 1rapa To
2 -n'lv KecpW..T}v bncn{aa!;: in classical Greek
this might have been expressed by brtveVO'a!;. 3 1fOV Pantazidis: I.IOV
MS. &StKO!i Sathas: ftSfKT) MS. 6 JJETal.lcpfaatv: 'change of clothes',
the formal act of adopting the monk's habit, which would signify his
retirement from public life and perhaps preserve his life. 7
'asks'. 8 11V<TT1',ptov may be used of any form of initiation. 9-10
&){pt ToiTTov: i.e. only so far. 10 Ta Renauld: MS. aKT)vTJII:
here 'scene' 0 11 xopefav: 'circular movement'. hence perhaps 'evolu-
tion'. 15 &pxa!i Sathas: E\Jxa!i MS. 20 S1)11fwv A6yov!i is
obscure; perhaps 'holding conversation as if they were executioners'. 21
1rapaSefKW\ITa KTA.: if the text is sound this means 'signalling that this
was the moment'.
76
MICHAEL PSELLOS
i'}6os "'l'POS 'TO epaoVn:pov, OVK ecpacrav
a6al, Kal 'TOOV &VE)(6VTOOV -rftv lepav KlOVOOV
eva6eveO"Tepov • 6 Se 'TOV 6paaovs acpellEVOS rnlElKEO"TEpov aV'Tois
25 1Tpoaoo!l{Ael, Ka6' lepoov 'TE OllvVS Kal "'TcXVTa A6yov Klvoov, ws
oV.e KaKov 'Tlvos "'TElpcx&f}aoVTal o\rre aV'Tois 6
1TE!l<p6els yevf}ae-ral 'TOV Kalpov • ol S' &"JToSelAlcXO'aVTES Kal
"'TCXO'OV lK 'TOOV 1Tap6VTOOV OVIl<pOpav \rrro"'T'TEVO'OV'TES
<pElO'aV, lv 'TOiS aSV'TOlS 'TV6T)aea6a1 llCXAAOV V-61-lEVOl, f) Vrra16po1
so yeyov6'TES "'TOO'T')S alK{as -rvxeiv.
XLV. 'EVTEV6ev lKeivos 'Tf\S S1a 'TOOV A6yoov 1TE16ovs ernoy-
vovs rnl -n;v f3iav lAf}Av6ev· 00s Se xeipas rn'
aVLOVs 'TO 1TAfl6os avrn1vav, Kal i1S11 Kal1TapaVOilEiV rnexefpT'l-
crav, oos et;pes aV'Tovs 'TOOV lepoov &"JTeAaVVOV'TES, lVTeV6ev MiVOl
85 "'TCXO'aV yo11pav a<plEV'TES cpoovf}v 1Tpos -rftv lepav 1TOfllV11V &"JTe-
1TpocrAmapoVV'TES llf} 'TOOV lA"'T{Soov, ll11Se
1Tpo0'1Tecpevy6•as 9e'i) lKei6ev &1TeAa6fl va1 1T1Kpoos • Kal oi ye
"'TAe{ovs 1Tpos 'TO ru{voov 1TcXeos lSvaoo"JTft&r,aav, Kal lvaVT1006f}-
aea6al llev •ij •ov Kalpov 1TaVTernaa1v oln< h6i\ll110'av, Oll0-
40 Aoyfas Se 1Tapa •ov 1TAt16ovs 1TpoaelATl<p6'TES Kal •ois •ov &yoVTos
opKOlS "'TlO"'t'EVO'aVTES, OOO"''TEpel avveftKas "'TOlOVIlEVOl, ru{vovs 'TE
'TOVL<t> 1Tape6eaav Kal aV'Tol avve{"'ToVTo 'TOiS, iv' oV.oos ei1Too,
&"'TEATlAOilEVOlS rnlKovpt1croVTES • &AA, i'}v cS:pa ovSev 'TO f3o116fiaov
lKe{VOlS, OtrrOO 'TOOV 1TpayllcXLOOV aVT11TEplO"TOVTOOV Kal "'TCXO'OV
45 "JN)(f}V rn' lKe{VOVS lpe610'cXVTOOV.
22 Sathas: -!3aAJ.ovra MS. o\nc
Sathas: ou-r• MS. 24 rua6evt<Ttllpov: 'more firmly•; Hellenistic. 26
!3ap\nepos 'TOV Katpov: 'harsher than the circumstances warrant'. 28-29
'remained deaf'; Sophocles cites this usage from Synesius
only. 30 aiKICXS Renauld: hnetKelas MS. 31 'TOO V :A6yoov Sathas: 'TOV
;\6yov MS. 35 yoT)pav: 'distressed', a rare alternative form of yo-
ep6s. "TTOIJ.IVT)V: 'flock', which must here refer to the monks who will
have been watching the proceedings. 36 1rpoaAt1Tapovvoes: 'begging
fervently'; Hellenistic. 42 'TOiS MS. : 'TOVTOtS Sathas. - Psellos goes
on to narrate how the two victims, after being almost lynched by the
crowd, were blinded by the executioners.
MICHAEL PSELLOS
77
The empress Zoe (ibid., 6. 64-7}
LXIV. • EKE{ V11 yvvcm<e{oov J,leV "'TaVTarracn V epyoov arre{-
xe-ro, o\i-re yap Cx-rpCOC'rCf> 1To-re -ras XEipas 1iox6i\T)crev, oV-re
{cr-rovpyeiv rnej3cXi\i\e-ro, o\i-re &XJ...ov 'Tl VOs rnej3c:Xi\i\e-ro • Ka'TOO-
Alyoopel Se Kal j3acrli\e{oov t<cxi\i\OO"'TlCTJ.lOOV, el JJEV Kal oopq; -rfis
5 &i<JJiis oVt< oTSa, 1TapT)KJ.laKVia S • ovv -ro qni\6-rlJ.lOV &rrav Kcx-re-
i\vcrev. "'TEpl -ro\i-ro Se J.lOVOV rn6vel Kal -rftv "JTCi:crav 1TpayJJa-re{av
crvvhElVEV, -ras 'TOOV apooJ,lc:hoov <pVCTElS J,lE'Taj3aAAElV, Kal J.lVPE\J'EiV,
-ra Se 1Ti\c:h-re1 v -re Kal 'TV"'Tovv, -ra S • &XA.oos Kal 6
arrO'TE'TJ.lT)JJEVOS cx\rrfj o{KOS els ellvf}v 'Tl CTEJ.lVO'TEpOS fiv 'TOOV
10 rnl -rfis ayopO:s OOV at j3c:Xvavcrol 'TOOV -rexvoov
Kal EJ.l"'TVpol -rftv E)(ovcr1· 1TVpa yovv 1Toi\i\a • -rov
SooJJa-r{ov aV-rfis V"'Tavft"'T'TE'To, Kal -roov CxJ.l<pl1T6i\oov T) J,lev
-ra 'TOOV &pooJ,lc:hoov S11JpEl, T) Se -ra\i-ra crvvrni\a-r-rev, T) s.
&XA.o 'Tl -ro1oii-rov · -rov J,lev ovv XElJ.lOOVOS -r1
15 1Tpos El<e{VflS etva1 -ra V"'TovpyovJJEva, Kal -ro 1Toi\v "'Tlip -rov
\J'VXPOV El<e{VIJ &Spa Su'IJJE•J3e, 6epe{as Se OVCTT)S -rfis oopas, -rois
J.lev &i\i\o•s J3apv -r1 Kal &yxov 1Tap1eva• Et<eicre r, Se
ooCT"'Tep &va1cr&ti-roos -rov KaVJ.la-ros E)(ovcra V"'To "JToi\i\ois
cpopei-ro 1TVpcrois • &i\i\6t<o-ros yap cx\rrij -re Kal -rfj &Sei\cpfj 1i
20 cpvcr•s · 6i\1yoopoos etxov Kal eV"JTvovcr-repov &epos, Kal
olKTlJ.la-ros i\aJ.l1Tpo-repov, Kal AElJ.lOOVoov, Kal 1TapaSe{croov, Kal
ovSev cx\rras 'TOOV 'TOlOVTOOV e6ei\yev, el Se evSov etev 'TOOV <hro-re-r-
Zoe married three emperors, Romanus Argyrus (1028-1034), Michael the
Paphlagonian (1034-1041) and Constantine Monomachus (1042-1056);
for a short interlude before Constantine's reign she and her sister Theo-
dora had governed the empire. Psellos, who had already given a description
of her appearance (6. 6), adds a sketch of her character in old age. 2
f}ax,6Afl<nV: 'occupied'; in Attic this verb is rare, especially in the active
voice. 5 cpti.chtJ.L0\1: obscure, perhaps 'worthwhile interests' (in the
classical language it means 'ambition' in a bad sense, in the modern
'self-respect'). 7 J.LVPE'¥Eiv: 'to prepare perfumes'. 9 olKos: 'room',
a usage from classical poetry. 10 Sathas: MS. 11
(J.LTIVpot Wilson: !J.Lm1ptot MS. (which would mean 'empyrean'). Tr')v
fxovat: 'are performed', an unclassical periphrasis. 12 \rrr-
avrrtrTETO: 'were lit'; the preposition in the compound seems to have no
force. 16 'changed'. 6epelas: 6eptvas would be expected.
17 Pantazidis: MS. 19 TIVpaois: 'braziers'.
78
MICHAEL PSELLOS
1-1111-lEVOOV cxV-rais oiK'IlllCx-roov, Kcxi fJ lleV TO xpvaoiiv j!>eVIlCX hn-
fJ Se -n'\v 6Sov StaKa6a{pot Tct'> j!>ev1-1aT1, ToiiTo
25 cxV-rais &VTi "'TCxO"T)S &'Tt"o'Aa&aeoos i'}v.
LXV. TO: 1-1ev ovv OXA.a Tfjs TIPOOT'IlS j3cxat'A{8os ('Asyea6oo y6:p
Tl TI'Aeov Tiepl aVTfjs, &v Tij aej3cxaTij cxV-roKp<X-roop avvava-
"'TaVTlTcxl) OV 'A{av E"'TCXlVEiv exoov, TOVTO StaTEAOO,
oTl Sf} qn'Ao6etc;x 'Tt"exaas 1-1ev yvvaiKcxS, Ticxaav Se cpva1 v \rrrepej3a'A-
so AE'TO appeva· OOO"'Tt"Ep yap ol avaKpa6EVTES StO: 6eoop{as 9eCi),
!lCXAAOV Se ol Kcxi \rrrep TOVTO yeyov6TES Kcxi Cn<ptj3oos ev6e6:acxVTSS,
Toii TE'Ae{ov 1-16vov ecpeToii E)(oVTcxl, K&Kei6ev 1joop11VTcxl, o\hoo Sf}
Kcxi TO "'TEpi TO 6eiov eepllOTaTOV aej3as Tct'> "'TpOOTCf> Ked
Cn<pat<pveaTCx-r'f> cpooTi Cn<ptj3oos, tv • o\hoos eiTioo, avvEKepaaev ·
85 ovSev yap chl llfl TO TOV eeoii OVOilCX StO: "'TCXVTOS rnl YAOOTTTlS
EKE{VIJ.
Tlepl TOV • A VTl<pOOVTlTOV
LXVI. • AllfAel TOl Kcxi Tov EKE{V11S, tv• o\hoos ei'Tt"Oll-11,
• l11aoiiv Stcxllopcpooaaaa &Kptj3eaTepov, Kcxi 'Acxll"'TpoTepq: vi\1J
40 "'TOlK{i\aaa, lllKpoii Seiv Ell"'TVO'!V elpyexaaTo To eiK6vtallcx ·
rnearwa{veTO yap Tots XPOOilCXO"l TCx cxiTOVIlEVCX, Kcxi eSf)i\ov TCx
llEAAOVTCX 1i xpot6:• "'TOAACx yoiiv EKE{V'Il eVTeiieev TOOV EO"OilEVCUV
KCX'TEilCXVTEVETO. ei TE yovv Tl 6v1-1f\pes 'Tt"poaeyey6vel cxVrij, El TE
Svaxepes Tl 'Tt"poae"'TE'Tt"TOOKEl, evevs a<plKVEiTO 'Tt"pos Ti)v eiK6vcx,
45 TCx lleV &v60ilOAOYOVIlEVTJ, TCx Se eyoo yoiiv Eeeaa6:-
23-24 bn-
acppcxyll.;ot: 'sealed off' the flow of the golden stream. Psellos humorously
treats the process as if it were alchemy (of which he was not ignorant
himself). 27 "Tfj aej3aO""Tfj: 'his Augusta, empress', in fact his mistres!l
Skleraina, for whom he was building a special palace. Her attractions
are indicated by the fact that when she was first introduced to the court
someone observed ov llii.IE01S, an apposite quotation from Iliad 3. 156-157.
28 Stcrt'EAoo Sathas: Sta TEA(;)s MS. 29 cpt11.o6etq; is the patristic word
for 'piety'. 30 avaKpcx6tVTES: 'permeated by the Spirit Of, united with';
from the vocabulary of mysticism. 32 tcpe"Tov: 'desired object'. 37
The title of the new chapter means 'the icon which gave responses'. 39
'giving shape to'. Psellos may be trying to say 'having
made an icon which represented her conception of Jesus'. 43 &v1..1fipes:
'pleasant', a word from epic and late prose. 45
'returning thanks'. Hellenistic.
MICHAEL PSELLOS
79
\.l11V aV-niv irOAAcXKlS rnl Svoxepeo-repoov 'KO:tpoov, v\iv !lev 'TTtV
6e{a:v elK6va: Ka:l KCX'Ta:6eoopovaa:v Tc:x\rrr)v, Ka:l
oos Sta:Aeyo\.ltv,v Ka:l ('Ta) KCxAAto-ra: 'TOOV 6vo\.lerroov
avve{povaa:v' v\iv Se rn. 'KEl\.lEV11 V 'KO:l SOO<pvat \.le V 'T1'} V
so yf) v ;rta:{ vovaa:v, 'TVirE'Tois Se .. a: o-repva: Sta:a;ra:pex....ovaa:v ·
Ka:l ftv \.leV ooxptCXKO'TO: iSot, cm"IJEl elSe
Ka:l cpa:voTCx-n:l a:iyA1J KCX'TcxAO:\.lirO\.lEVOV, StiJyyeAAE 'TE a:\rriKa: .. c;;
J'a:atAE'i 'TO irpCXy\.10: Ka:l ;rpoKc::rrf}yyetAE 'TO
LXVII. OlSa: \.lEV &va:yvovs A6yovs oos 6 ava:;re\.l-
55 irO\.lEVOS els aepa: 'TOOV apc..>\.lCrrOOV &'T\.lOs CrnEAcxVVEl \.lEV 'TCx ;rov,pa
;rveV\.lCX'TO:, e;retaKp{vet Se Texis &rroKet\.ltva:ts \JAa:ts Tas Toov
KpEl'T'TOVOOV ;ra:pova{a:s, o;rep 51) rn' aAAOlS Ka:l A{6ot Ka:l ;r6a:t
Ka:l 'TEAE'Ta:l 'TCxS 6eocpa:v{a:s • oV..e Se ;rpooTov &va:y-
vovs ;rpoa,KCx\.l11V 'TOV A6yov, Ka:l \.lE'TCx 'TcxVTO: OVK epyots
60 irlO"'TEVO'O:S, &AAO: J3a:Aoov A{6ots erniJAO:O'O:. E'Ke{ V11 Se oV..e
A11Vl'KOO'TEpov ov'T' CXAAOOS ;reptepy6TEpov 'T1}v ;repl 'To 6eiov
'Tl\.lTtV, c:XAAO: 'TOV 'TTlS 't'VXTlS ;r66ov rntSetKVV\.lEV,, Ka:l
Ka:6oatovaa: Sec;> 'TOO V ;ra:p • f}\l'iv SoKovvToov &ya:eoov .. a: 'Tt-
\.llOO'Tepa: Ka:l O'E\.lVO'TEpa:.
His fame as a teacher (from a letter, ed. Sathas,
op. cit., V 508)
'TcxVTCx \.lOt Ka:l 'T1'}v KOl voov{a:v Ka:l 'T1'}v O'V\.lJ'{ooat v ;ra:pa:t'Tij,
Ka:l Tov A6yov, Ka:l KCX'Ta:cppoveis 'Tf)s ;ra:tSevaeoos, Ka:l
48 (-rO:) add. Sathas. 50 "TVTI'E'Tols:
Hellenistic. 51 <TTV)'Val;ovaa: 'with a gloomy look'; a word from
St. Mark 10. 22. 1ruppal;oVTa Kurtz: 1rupa MS.; the word is from
St. Matthew 16. 2. 52 aiyA1J is not found in classical prose. 54
'pagan'. 56 rnetaKp{vet: 'introduces instead'; common in
patristic Greek. 57 om:p: 'the same effect'. A{6ot: 'precious stones'.
58 6eocpav{as: 'visions of God'. - Psellos does his best to avoid the sug-
gestion that Zoe's dabbling in magic and the occult casts doubt on her
orthodoxy; he was himself well versed in these pseudo-sciences, but may
have been shy of admitting it in public. See further B. Tatakis, Histoire
de la philosophie byzantine, Paris 1959, 169ff.
1 O"VIJ.j3{c,)atv: 'companionship'; Hellenistic.
80
MICHAEL PSELLOS
ovSev ere 'TWV 6EAyetv SeSvVT)'Tal, ov yAooTra
'TOVS A6yovs, ov ov 'TpOlTOS rntElKf}S, OVK
5 ?jeos cplAOO'Ocpov, ov 'TO 'Tiis YVOOIJT)S Kal vrrnov. Cil\Aa KEA-
'TOVS Kal &Aoocr{IJOVS -ftiJiV lTrnotf}KaiJEv, Kal Kcrra-
lTEcpot'Tf}KaOl Kcrra M.Eos -ft!Jhepov K&K 'Tiis hepas i)lTefpov • Kal
6 1.1ev NeiAos -ri)v yfiv rnapSet 'Tois Alyvrrrfots, 'I'} Se yAooTra
-ri)v \JN)(T,v· Kav mJeoto 'TWV Tlepcroov, Kav 'TWV Al6t61roov,
10 oos icracr( IJE Kal 'TE6av1J&Kacrt Kal 'Teef}paV'Tat. Kal wv
Se 'TtS 'TWV 6ptoov 000'-re lTteiv 'TOOV vaiJc:hoov
&axhots 'Tais lTp06v1J{ats EAf}Av6e. Kal 'TO IJeV 'TOOV revoov AV){vov
crocptas KcxAei, 'TO Se cpoocr'Tfipa Kal &AAot &AAoos
IJE 'Tois KaAA{O"Tots 6v61.1acrt StTJpftKacrt· O"U Se !JOt 1.16vos Tiis Avpas
15 O:vf}KOOS, ;; rnf}KOOS IJeV &AA' oV)( 'I'} Spvs lTPOs -niv ·opcptKT,v
iva IJT)Sev lTAeov 'TOO'Oii'T6v O'Ol 'TO lTEptov 'TOV
O"Tacr{IJOV f}6ovs Kal Tiis \JNXfiS, iva IJfl Myoo TO
Kcrra1TecppoVT)KOs 'Tiis lTatSevcreoos.
Pagan and Christian culture (Opera minora I 456)
Taii'Ta Se StT)pt61JTJ0"6:1JTJV 61.1ov 1.1ev VIJas els lTOAVIJa6etav
&yoov, 61Jov Se Kal 'Tais v..AT)VtKais lTotov!JEvos
Kal olSa 00s ye 'TOV'Tc.>V aV'TllTEO'Ei'Tat 'TO -f}IJrnpa S6y1Jcrra.
eyoo yap oV)( OOO'TE TOV'Tc.>v
3 SeSvVTJTat : the perfect
tense has lost all temporal force. 5 TO KTi\.: 'prosaic and supine
character', an ironic self-description if ever there was one. 6 The
identity of these foreigners is a mystery, apart from John Italos. 8
rn6:pSet: 'irrigates'; Hellenistic. 11 Babylon may mean Bagh-
dad. va1J6:Toov: the metaphor goes back to Plato Tim. 76e. 12 trpo-
6v1J(ats: this strange plural is found at Eur. Or. 708. 12-13 i\V)(vov,
cpc.>O"Tiipa: both words mean 'luminary', and in this sense belong to
Biblical and patristic Greek. 14 StTJp{JKaat: 'exalted' (not St1Jp{JKaat,
as Sathas prints). 14---15 1.16vos KTi\.: compare the proverb ovos i\vpas
&Kovoov (Diogenian 7. 33). 17 'established, firm', hence
'stubborn, unmoved'; patristic examples of this usage of the participle
are cited in LexPatrGr.
Psellos has been citing Plato to prove a philosophical point.
maeiTat: 'will be opposed to'.
3 0\ITl-
MICHAEL PSELLOS
81
s 1rp0s VlJCXs (l-latvo{lJflV yap O:v), &XA.• tva To\rrots l.lev -ii-re Tipoa-
Ke{IJSVOl, oo{voov Se lJOVOV -n')v eiST)O'lV Exfl-rE. el St 1T1J t<al O"V\1-
epyolev VlJiV TIPOs 'TC>V &A116ii A6yov StCXKtvSvvruovra, t<al XPfJ-
aeo&. &XA.. 6 Tiepl 'Tfis OAT)6das A6yos aVaiJSlVcXTOO, t<al Om:l
oihos T't> 6Vpa6ev f3e(3of)6T)'Tal. &XA.O: l-lft AAA.flVlt<'t> AlTiav-
10 6e{fl1JSV l-lfls• oo0'1Tep 6 •Hpcxi<Afls aVlJlJOXOV 'TC>V •loAaov axo{-
fli-\SV, lv ols 1rp0s 'TC>V t<&pt<tvov
APPENDIX: some clauses from the decree of the synod
condemning John Italos for his Platonism and heresy (edited
by T. I. Uspensky, Zapiski imperatorskago novorossiskago
universiteta 69. 1893. 420-3). See further G. Buckler, Anna
Comnena, Oxford 1929, 166ff., 319ff.
1. Tots oAoos rntxetpovat vtav nvO: t<al StSaxf}v 'T4S
appfJT<t>lVaapt<<t> 'TOV fllJOOV t<al 9eov rnaye1v
t<al oi<t> Tp6TI<t> a\rrbs 6 9ebs A6yos 'T4S &vepooTI{V<t>
cpvpalJCXTl T\vOO'Tal, t<al -n')v TipoaAT)<p6eiaav a&pt<a t<CXTa T{va
5 Aoyov retooae, t<al A6yots SlcxAetcrll<OiS <pVO'lV t<al etalV rnl 'Tfis
V1Tep <pVO'lV t<alVO'TOlJ{as 'TOOV Svo cpvaeoov 'TOV 9eov t<al av6poo-
1TOV AoyolJaxeiv &v&eelJa.
2. Tois evaef3eiv lJeV 'TCx 'TOOV .EAAf)voov Se
Svaae(3t; S6ylJCXTa 'Tij t<al t<a60A11<ij TIEpl
10 'TOOV "VV)(OOV av6pooTI{voov t<al ovpavov t<al yfls t<al 'TOOV d:AAoov
l<'TlO'lJcXTOOV avatSoos f) lJCXAAOV aae(3oos mlO'CxyOVO'l, aVCxeelJa.
7-8 xa\ xpf!aea6e MS. Barocci 87:
xa-raxpf!aeaee MS. Paris. gr. 1182. 10 Herakles had the help of Iolaos
in fighting the Hydra and the crab (Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 2. 77-80);
the point of the analogy is presumably .that Herakles had found lolaos'
help indispensable.
2 lvaapKC1l olxovo1Jiq:: 'incarnation'; this and other phrases below are
drawn from the technical language that had been created to express the
concepts of Christian theology. 4 cpvpaiJ<XTt: 'human frame', regarded
as a mixture or compound (cpvpoo). 7 i\oyo1-1axetv: a word from II Ep.
Tim. 2. 14, subsequently used by patristic writers. 11 KTia1J6cToov:
'created objects'.
6 Wilson
82
MICHAEL PSELLOS
7. Tots 'Ta

Si) IJcx&fJIJCX'Ta Kal. 1Jfl S1a nai-
Sevcnv IJOVT)V 'Taii'Ta na1Sevoj.livo1s, &:1\Aa Kal. 'Tals cxV-roov
'Tals IJCX'Ta{alS hroj.livolS Kal. cbs aAT)6ecn 'TTlCTTeVovcn, Kal. o\Troos
1s cxV-rais oos 'TO ooCTTe Kal. hepovs
no'Te iJEv no'TE Se cpavepoos cxV-rais Kal. S1S6:aKE1v
avevSolcXO"'T(a)S, avCceej.la.
8. Tots IJE'Ta 'TOO V &XA.oov 1Jv61Koov nAacriJ<hoov &cp • tOV'Toov
Kai. -ri}v Ka6• f}IJOs 'TTAcXO'lV IJE'TO'TTACrrrOVO'lV Kai. 'TaS nACX'TOOVlKaS
20 tSeas oos &A116eis sexo!Jivo1s, Kal. cbs cxVevrr6CTTCX'Tov -rl}v VAT)V
napa 'Toov tSeoov 1Jopcpovcr6a1 Aeyovcrl, Kal. npocpavoos Slaj36:A-
AoVcrl 'TO 'Tov ST)IJlovpyov &no 'TOV IJfl OV'TOS ets
'TO elva1 napayay6V'Tos 'Ta naV'Ta Kal. cbs nolT)'TOV nO:cr1 &pxilv
Kal. 'TEAOS rnl6EV'TOS Kal. SeO"TTO'T\KOOS, &v6:6ej.la.
15 'supporting vehemently'. 19 7TAO:aw: 'creation'. 20
ali6vrr6o-rcx-rov: 'possessing independent existence'.
CECAUMENOS (11th century)
The author was a landowner in northern Greece who belonged to a
family of Armenian origin. He is often believed to be identical with a dis-
tinguished general called Catacalon Cecaumenos. To judge from historical
allusions the book was written c. 1076---8. Although it is entitled Stra-
tegicon it is not a military handbook of the type found in the Corpus
Tacticorum, but a miscellany of advice addressed largely to his children,
telling them how to conduct themselves not only as soldiers but in public
and private life; the book has been called the vademecum of an aristocrat
and country landowner. Throughout the text there is one dominating
principle: do not trust your neighbour. The advice given is often such as to
justify the modern impression of the Byzantine character as devious and
shifty. Among many details with historical significance Cecaumenos twice
lets slip (50, 68) the revealing fact that the level of taxation led to widespread
disaffection and revolt in the provinces; one cause of the empire's fall is
already visible.
Despite his statement that he did not have the traditional literary
education (191) he usually writes clearly and on occasion is capable of a
pithiness that raises him far above his sophisticated contemporaries. From
a linguistic point of view the text has the merit of showing the language at
a turning point between the ancient and modern forms.
Edition (from the unique MS., Moscow Synod gr. 436): B. Wassiliewsky-
V. Jernstedt, St. Petersburg 1896, reprinted 1965. See also P. Lemerle in
de I' royale de Belgique 64. 1960.
3. Et Se SovAe\Jets j3aatAei, 1Tp6aexe Kai -ri)v Staj3oAf)v aov
&Kptj3ws Kai -ri)v il"Twa{v aov 1Tpo aov Ka6eKCxCTT1"\V
E)(e. o\JK oTSas yap T{ o1T{aoo aov TEKTa{vovatv. Kai et !-LEv1TpWTOS
c5:v6poo1TOS eT TOV j3aatAtoos, Tarretvov aeavTov Kai 1TappT')-
1 Sovi.ruets: 'you are in the service of'. Like most of the linguistic features
annotated here, this is a usage found in the modern language. 2 xa&-
E'KcXO'TT\V: 'daily' has become a single word. 3 TEK-ralvovat: 'contrive';
in classical Greek the middle voice is used. 4 1TappT)atcXl,;1J : in classical
Greek the aorist subjunctive would have been required for this prohibi-
tion.
84
CECAUMENOS
5 • 1') yap Kat 1') TrappT}cr{a bncp66vovs TrOlei. el Se Kat
Kalpos erna1-riJ TrappT}crlacr6fival, -roV-ro Tro{T}crov Kat
Trp<ft67T}-ros. cp6ovft<71JS -r1vf • 6Seve1
yap 6 els 6ava-rov.
6. Tiapoo-rov Se -ro &-r6:K"Toov Kat Trp6crexe
10 cm6-rav -roov ovv-rp6cpoov CTOV ii CiJ\Aov "flv6s.
Kal eiTrep i\6yos S1a -rov J3acr1i\Ea f) -rl)v SeeTTro1vav, -ro
crVVOAOV CrnOKpl6iJS, CfAA. VrrOXOOPT}CTOV. Troi\i\ovs yap els
-roV-ro KlvSvvevcrav-ras elSov. i\ai\ei yap 6 O:cppoov 00s
ei-re Travovpyfas Kat cr-rpacpe\s Ka-rCX\f'Eltcre-ra{ crov oos crV
15 -raV-ra elTres. el Se K&t<eivos erni\6-rr}-rl CfA.Aos TlS
Travovpyos avayyei\1J -raV-ra, Kat eVevv&tlCT'IJ S16-r1
Trapevpe&r)s. Kat -rov i\eyov-ros Ka-racppovftcrovcrlv, -rl)v
Se ah{av rnt ere &va6{jcrovcn. Trp6crexe, TIKVOV, -ra e\n<a-ra-
cpp6VT}-r6: cro1 SoKovv-ra· -raV-ra KlvSvvoov elcrt
20 Troi\i\ovs yap elSov KlvSvve\Jcrav-ras -roV-ro1s.
31. 'Eav ere 1J 6 1') 1') ei-re
elpT}veVCTal ei-re Tr6:K"Ta Sovval ecro YlVOOCTKOOV 8-n
Tro6ev J3of}6e1av TrpocrSot<ei ehe J3ovi\e-ra1 crocp{cracr6a{ ere.
cro1 6:Trocr-refi\1J 6 Kal Soopa, el 6Ei\e1s, i\6:J3e
25 -raV-ra· Tri\i}v y{vooCTt<e o-r1 o\Jt< O:yaTroov ere -roV-ro TrOlei, &:Ai\a
S1' aV-roov &yopacroo -ro crov. Ka-racppoviJs
"fOOV OOS rnei i\oylKO{ elCTlV OOS Kat crV, Kat
cpvcrlKft crocp{a Virexpxe1 a\rrois Kat Travovpy{a. crV Se &t<ovcras
7-8 6Sruet yap 6 Lemerle: 6 St yap MS.
9 napatTov: 'give up, stop'. 10 6!-ltAeis: 'speak'; the meaning 'address'
is found as early as Polybius 4. 4. 7. 11 Sta: 'about'. See A. N. ]an-
naris, An historical Greek grammar, London 1897, para. 1534. 12-13
els ToiiTo: 'in this way'. 14 eiTe: 'or'; but elTa gives better sense. 16
&vayy0.1J: the subjunctive is intended as a future form, as seen elsewhere
in these extracts. 19 'causing'.
21 napaJ3tf36:l;1J: 'temporises' seems to be the meaning, though the lexica
suggest 'acts unjustly'. 22 n6:K-ra: originally 'terms, agreement', Latin
pactum, then 'tribute'. !ao ytvc:xncoov: the participial periphrasis is
extended from the indicative to the imperative. 23 npoaSoKEl shows
the form of contraction that this verb had in the Ionic dialect. 23, 29
eiTe: f). 27 levtKCOlv: 'foreigners'.
CECAUMENOS
85
'T1 'TOOV &SoKf)"Toov ehc Kal lSoov J.li) Se1A1Cx0'1JS, &XA.a J.lCiAAov
ao cnfj61 yevva{oos napa6apcruvoov 'TOVs \rrro at. lS6V"TEs yap ae 6
Aa6s O'OV aO'KVA'TOV &va6apaf)O'OV0'1V O'VVE)(OVO'TlS cxV-roVs"
Se1A{as Kal cp6!3ov, Kal el ov cpvp6ijs, O'OOO'lJS 'TOV Aa6v aov.
Se a\J Se1A1Cx0'1JS, 'T{S 6 1TapaJ.,lv6ovJ.,lEvos Kal 6apaono1oov 'TOV
Aa6v; [f)] TrCxV'TOOS Kal 'TO V Aaov Kal aeav"Tov npoaaTroAtae1s.
85 Tt'AflpOcpopfl&r)'T1 yap 8-r1 6 Se1A1CxO'aS ovSe cpvyeiv Svva"Ta1 Ka'Ta
'TOV · cpflalv yap ,&Tt'OOAE'TO cpvyeiv &Tr• J.li) 'TT)v
af}v aoo,.,p{av J.lEP1J.lv1'10'1JS J.l6vov, &XA.a npoo'Tov "Tov Aaov aov
Kal 'TO'TE 'Tf}v O'f)v, Kal 6 8eos lSoov ch1 ov ao\i J.lOVOV,
C:iJ\Aa "Toov noAAoov, !3o116f)ae1 ao1 S1a 'TT)v "Toov 1TOAAoov aoo,.,p{av.
40 'T{ yap 0'01 ocpeAOS cp\lyus Kal &Tt'oAtCTrJs 'TO V Aa6v; Tt'OAAOl yap
J.lflSev elS6'TES ecpvyov Kal &Tt'ooAeaav 'TO cpoa6:'Tov. Kal aV J.,leV 'TO
nav els "Tov 8eov &vcXeov Kal Svaoo1re1 aV'Tov Kal
'Tij lS{ct: yij Kal 'Tij &XA.oTp{c;x WKTOS Kal f)J.ltpas, Kal
ae Kal !3of16f)O'e1 0'01 Ka'Ta 'TOOV 1TAT)v Kal aV 'TO Ka6•
45 no{e1 Kal Kal J.li) Ka"TaTrtO'lJS· rnav St 'T1 Ka'TOp-
6000'E1S, 9eov Tt'CxV'TOOS EO"Ta1 Soopf1J.la· xoopls yap 8eov &SVVa'TOV
ml O"Tpov6{ov &r)pe0aa1.
50. •Ena1VE'TOV St iva els 1Taaav xoopav els ftv av
'TpaTrijS, evpf)ae1s aS1K{as ei'TE napa 'TOV SflJ.lOO'{ov ei'TE napa
50 'TOOV TrpaK'T6poov rn1yeyev,J.ltvas, 00<61T'T1JS aV'Tas, J.lCxA10"Ta Se
els "Tas &Kpas. el Se &Svv6:'Toos E)(e1s K6'J'a1 "TaV'Tas, yp6:cpe 'TCfl
!3aa1Aei &vevSo1CxO"TOOS. Tt'OAAal yap xoopa1 ac 'Ta\I'TflS 'Tfis al'T{as
&Tt'ooAoV'To Kal oln< 6A{yo1 flV'TOJ.lOAflaav els Eev, Kal
aV'Ta Ka"Ta 'TOOV •pooJ.la{oov. olov yeyovev "Tais f)J.ltpa1s 'ToO
31 &C'KVATOV: 'undisturbed'. 35
1TATJpocpopf}6TJT1: 'be fully assured', as in the N. T. 36 The reference
to the Psalms cannot be traced, and the sense is obscure; editors have
suggested the emendation cpvyoov. 41 cpoa&Tov: 'army', Latinfossatum,
'encampment'; this word has not survived to the present day. 42
Svaoo"TTet: 'beg', a Hellenistic usage. 47 laTt aTpov6fov Lemerle: rnl
aTpov6foov MS.
48 iva with the subjunctive ba<61TT1JS ('remove, abolish') replaces the
infinitive. 51 cSxpas: 'border territories'. c!a<pfTTJs, as in the title of
the Byzantine epic Digenes Akrites, means 'border guard'. 52 &vevSot-
&aTCA>S: 'without hesitation'; Hellenistic and modern. 53 f6VTJ: 'bar-
barians'; the usage is as early as Aristotle Politics 1324 b 10.
86
CECAUMENOS
55 e\Jacf3eCTT&Tov f3aatAtoos 'TOV chreA6oov ya:p els
t<al 'Tij a\rrov 6 :Upf3Aias
avayp6:\Jiaa6at t<al trn6elvat "liA11 & ovSrno-n: elSov els "'l"ftv
xoopav a\rroov ol tl<elac 6:v6poo1l'Ol (a t<al rno(,asv, i'jv ya:p Set-
VO'Ta'TOS els 1l'CxV'Ta), 'To\rrovs 1l'avott<el1l'ape0'1<E\Jaac
ao 1rp0s f3acnAta 'Toov Tlepaoov. ot t<al aV"Tov
1l'aVCTTpa'TEl t<a'Ta 'Ti;s • t<at<oov t<al
'TaV"T,V brnA11aav.
55 Movo-
the emperor Constantine IX. C. refers to events of 1044. See
Lemerle, op. cit. 70-71. 56 •JJ3flp(av: Georgia. The name is best known
from the formerly Georgian monastery on Athos, •JJ3f)poov. 61
1TaVOTpCXTEl: the lexica do not cite this word from any author before
Origen, but one would not expect it to be a late formation.
ANNA COMNENA (1083--c. 1153)
One of the greatest works of Byzantine literature is the Alexiad, a
history written in encomiastic style by the daughter of the emperor Alexios I
Comnenos (1081-1118). It is the account of an empire almost in a state of
collapse but saved by the energy and ability of an outstanding ruler. The
period was crucial for the survival of Byzantium, since apart from the tra-
ditional enemies, the Seljuks and Pechenegs, the empire had to face a new
threat, invasion by the Normans and Crusaders; the situation was much the
same as it had been in 626, when in the absence of the emperor Heraclius
hordes of enemies surrounded the capital, which seemed doomed to fall.
Despite a preoccupation with military affairs and theology, in which
her passion sometimes outruns her understanding, Anna's history gives
a fine panorama of the medieval world at a time when Byzantium was
still a power to be reckoned with; it is particularly valuable for its picture
of the Crusaders, which though biassed serves as a corrective to Western
accounts. The language is artificial, complicated and full of classical allu-
sions, especially to Homer, but Anna sometimes makes unexpected con-
cessions to the vernacular (e. g. : h { ~ t o s = liege, aepytVTtOS = serjeant),
and the power of the narrative is sufficient to carry the reader forward.
Anna drops mysterious hints about the misfortunes of her own career.
We know from other sources that she took part in a plot to prevent her
younger brother John from succeeding to the throne at their father's death
in 1118; her husband the historian Nicephorus Bryennius would have
become the new emperor. When the plot failed she was forced to retire to a
convent. This evidently did not deprive her of social contacts, since she was
able to accumulate the material for her history, and evidence has now
been found to suggest that she organised a kind of philosophical club. Its
main interest was in Aristotle, especially in some works which had not
previously received much attention from the commentators (see R. Brow-
ning, ProcCambPhilSoc 188. 1962. 1-12). Such a salon would seem to mark
a reaction against the extravagant Platonism which had caused so much
difficulty a generation earlier (see the introduction to Psellos above).
Edition: B. Leib, Paris 1937-46, with French translation. English trans-
lations by E. A. S. Dawes, London 1928, and E. R. A. Sewter, Penguin
Books 1969. See G. Buckler, Anna Comnena: a study, Oxford 1929, re-
printed 1968.
88
ANNA COMNENA
6.11 Foreign policy (c. A. D. 1086)
·o Se TTpoaoV)( Se1vos 1JS7a oos KCXTaAcx-
(3oov rnOAlOpKEl -n')v N{KCXlCXV, Kcx6cl>s 6 7Ci' TcxnK{'t' \Nl<"t'Qs
TrpOO'eAflAv600s 767e Kcxi rni 7plai J.lflO'l TrOAlOpKOOV 7o:V-rrtv
oln< <TTevCi' Se KOJ.llSij 7a Kcx-r" cx\rrovs ot Kcxl
5 cx\rros s,; 6 • ATrEAXCXaftJ.l loopCXK6ns Kcxl J.lft -rrhlov &nE){ El V
-rrpos 7ov TTpoaoV)( SlCXTrEJ.li.J'CxJ.lEVol -rrpes 7ov
f.l7ovno "'t'fls cx\rrov (3o116e£cxs ,-vxeiv, KpeiTTov Atyovns
f}yeta6cx1 SovA.ovs cx\rrov f) 7Ci'. TTpoao\fx Sovvcx1
xeipcxs. 6 Se -rrcxpcxxpfiJ.lcx 70VS 700V -rrcxpcx-rvx6noov OO<phovs
10 SleAOOV O'flJ.lCX{CXS 7E KCXi O'KfiTr7pCX &pyvp6flACX rnlSovs els apooYJiv
7o\rrovs 2 ov yap cS:vrlKpvs l30116oov 7Ci' • A-rreA.xcxa'liJ.l
<TTpcx-r1av e-rreJ.1-rrev, &XAa 7a "'t'fls (3ofl6e{cxs Kcx-ra 7ov vovv
7ov cx\rroKp6:-ropos els Kcx-r&Ava1v 70V • A-rre:Axcxa'liJ.l -rrepltO"Tcx-ro.
Svo yap -rrpos &7\Af)A.ovs "'t'fls 7oov • PooJ.1cx{oov
15 f}yeJ.loV{CXS eSe1 7Ci' avv6ea6oo, o\Jx tv•
anpos &Ar. • tvcx 7ov J.,lev &-rroKpoVO'fl7CXl, &cp • ov Se -n')v
-rr6A.1v Kal -n')v 7eoos J.lft ovacxv V-rro 70V KVKA.ov cx\rrov
IS{cxv -rrolf}O'fl7CXl, Kcxl Kcx-ra J.llKpov 7o:V-rrtS Kcxl J.lCxACX
CXAAflV l'A6J.1evos -n')v 7oov •pooiJ.cx{oov &pxf)v -rrolf}O'fl-
20 70:1, els O"TEVOV KOIJ.lSfl KCXTCXO"TCXO'CXV, KCXiiJ.CXAAOV chov 70 700V
TovpKOOV S6pv rnlKpCXTeO"Tepov yeyovev. 3 i'iv J.,lEv yap (he ot
8po1 "'t'fls 7oov • Poo!J.cx{oov f}ye!J.ov{cxs cxt Cx1J.<p6npcxl 0'7fi'Acx1 i'iaav
&vcx-ror.,;v Kcxl Sva1v la-rrepcxs IJ.ev cxt 7ov
1 Prosouch and Apelchasim, both enemies of the empire, were fighting
each other for control of the great city of Nicaea; the Byzantine general
Tatikios intervened as occasion offered. Setvbs (wv) was a more clas-
sical way of inserting the epithet. 3 hrl: Anna incorrectly uses the
dative to express duration of time. 8-9 Souvat xetpas: 'surrender',
Latin manus dare. 10 0111-1alas: 'standards', a Hellenistic word, whereas
&pyvp6T)Aa is taken from Homer. 12 'but this assistance according to
the emperor's intention was due to turn to Apelchasim's disadvantage'.
In the next sentence Anna states the principle of the balance of power,
which had been the basis of Byzantine diplomacy for centuries (the
invention of the concept is sometimes ascribed to Cosimo de Medici at
the peace of Lodi in 1464, but it is already clearly expressed in Demo-
sthenes 23.102). 16 &-rro!<poliOTJTat: the subject is now the emperor.
ou &n-o TOU htpou. 17 \rrro TOV i<VI<Aov: 'in the orbit of'. 20-21
TO ... S6pu: 'the armed advance'.
ANNA COMNENA
89
·HpCXI<Aeovs a:t &yxov 1rov tcrraJ,leva:t 7ov
25 •JvStKov 1repa:-ros a:t 7ov fltowo-ov. Ka:-ra yap 1TA<hos oVl< ecrrtv
el1reiv oo-ov fiv Tiis 7wv •pooJ.la:{oov (3a:o-tAe£a:s 7o Kp<hos, Aiyvn-ros
Ka:l Mep6fl Ka:l T pooyAoSV"Tt1<1) 1Tao-a: Ka:l 7Cx tyyVeev Tiis StCXKe-
KO:VJ.lEVf)S Ka:l 70: hepov J,lEpovs of) 1Tept6pvAAf170S 9ovAf1 Ka:l
00"0: eev,., f360"1<Et 70 l<A{J,la: 70 86petov, oTs l<CX7Cx Kopvcpf)v 6
30 86petos tcrra:-ra:t 1TOAOS. CiAA.. rn• M{V<f> ye 70V l<O:tpov
ava:-roAflS 6 yehoov 860"1Topos optov 7WV •pOOJ.lO:ll<WV O"Kf)1T7poov,
Se Tiis of) • ASpta:vov Ka:6£crra:-ro CiAA. • o ye (3a:o-t-
Aevs • OJ.l<p07Ep0:1S 000"1TEp 1TO:{oov xepo-l 70Vs
rnt716sl.lEVOVS f3a:pf3apovs KO:l Ka:6anep CrnO l<Ev-rpov Tiis
35 7£Sos 1Teptopxovl.lEvos 7ov 'l<VJ<Aov 7flS (3a:o-tAe!a:s Ka:l
J,lev 70V • ASp{a:v-ros 1TOV"t'OV e&-ro optov, Se Tiis
&va:-roAfls Ka:l T£ypf)7CX. Ka:l O::v ets -rf)v 1rpo7epa:v
-rf}v f3a:O"tAe{a:v aveveooo-a:-ro, el J.lf) ye ol rnaAAf)AOl
&ywves Ka:l ot 1TV1<vol 1r6vo1 Ka:lK!vSvvot (fiv yap Ka:l &l.lcp6-repa:
40 6 cx\rroKpO-roop J.leycxAoK£vSvv6s -re Ka:l 1TVKVOK£vSvvos) 700-rov
CrnEO""t'f)O"O:V 70V 6_pl.lf)J,la:-ros.
10. 2 The emperor plans to crush a rebellion (A.D. 1084)
Se 700-rov ot K61.lO:V011Tpos -rf)v tS{a:v ern1J-
eo-a:v xoopa:v. 70\1-rOtS • 1Ka:v6v, !s 700"0\i-rov
o-vvt)Aa:O"EV ws Ka:l f3a:o-tAEa: cx\rrov f}Sf). ol
a:tl.la:O"tv &v6poo1roov ll.lEtp61-\EVOt Ka:l Kpewv &v6poo1re£oov
25 The pillars of Dionysus were
mountains in India marking the limit of the god's progress in that coun-
try. 27-28 Tfis 'the torrid zone'. 28 SovA.11: Great
Britain. 30 rn• lt<elv(j) ye &oii Katpoii: an elaboration of various clas-
sical idioms, no more than &6-re. 35 'rotating'. 40
IJEYcxAOt<lvSvvos: LSJ cites this and the following compound (as a variant
reading) only from Aristotle's Ethics 1124 b 7-8, the description of the
1JEYcxA61JNX.OS· Anna's application of the words to her revered father is
a deliberate and very learned allusion.
1 The Comans, a Turkic tribe living in south Russia, support an impostor
claiming to be the son of the late emperor. 2 'having
dealings with'; Hellenistic. 3 avvt')A.aaev: 'he acquired influence'. 4
'gulp'; in classical poetry and late prose.
90
ANNA COMNENA
5 Kai i.e{av Tt'OAAftV Ti;S TJI..lEScrrriis
TTO:-rpol<Aov aipTJK6ns Toii-rov Trp6cpaaw KaTa Tiis "Pool..la{oov
xoopfiaat 00s Sfi6ev TctS Tt'aTpq,'i'
Toii-rov tyl<cx6tSpvaat 6p6v'i'. Kai c!rnatoopovl..lEVTJV eixov Teoos
TavTTJVi Tf}v j3ovAf!v· o\n< Taii-ra Tov mrroKpchopa.
10 TOl Kai TaS Svval..lElS 00s SVVaTOV TE Kai Trpos TftV
Twv l..lO:x'llv Ta yap TEI..lTt'TJ, &rrep l<Aet-
aovpas TJ lStOOTlS olSe yAooTTa KaAeiV, OOS cp66:aas T;ST]
KaTOOXVPOOO"aTO. Katpov Se TrapeAT]Av66TOS rnei TO Tlap{crrptov
Tous Kol..l6:vovs l..lETa Tov 'J'EVSoowl..lov KaTcxAaj3eiv l..lEI..la6f!Kot,
15 Tovs Ta TrpooTa Tov crrpaTtooTtKov ovVT6:yl..laTOS cpepoVTas Kai
aV-rous Sf} Tous Kcx6• all..la Kai &yxtcrre{as aV-rii> Trpoaf!KoVTas
ovvayaycbv, el XPTt KaT• aV-rwv Travres
Se TrPOs TOVTO aV-rov erneipyov. To{wv aV-ros Tt'laTEUElV
OVK etxev OVTs l..lft\1 Tois olKe{ots t;eei.e AOYlO"I..lOiS xpflaaa6at,
20 &i\Aa TO Trav TctS SectS 6:vcx6e1JEVOS Tf}v Kp{atv 'ljTEiTo.
Totyapovv &rravras l..lETaKai.ea6:1..levos Tov tepaTtKov Kai crrpa-
TtooTtKov KaTcxA6yov els Tf}v TOV eeov l..lEYcXATJV
Kai aV-rov s,; TOV Tt'aTptapxov NtKOAaov Tt'a-
p6vros. Svai Se Tt'VKT{OlS Tf}v rnpOOTf)O"l\1 Trepi TOV el Sei
25 TOiS Kol..l6:V01S rnteEa6at f) l..lTJ, TctS
Kopvcpa{'i' TrCxVToov TrapEKEAevaaTo KaTcx6ea6at els Tf}v tepav
TravvV)(ov Se Tfis Vl..lV'i'S{as TEAOVI..lEVTJS KaTa To
Trep{opepov eiaetO"l\1 6 Te&tKOOs Kai TOV xapTf)V
Kai Kai Avaas Tr6:vroov VTt"avey{ vooaKe. To
so ovv ooaTrEp b<:: 6e{as Ol..l<pfis 6 mrroKpchoop
5 is
Hellenistic. 6 Anna works in an allusion to Iliad 19. 302. 8 c!rrr-
'in suspense, in the air'. 11 'valleys', a usage of
the Atticists. Anna's definition by means of the ordinary spoken word
shows that she really meant 'mountain passes'. 12 lStwTts: here 'un-
learned'. 13 KaTooxvpiliaaTo is cited by LS J only from Paul of Ae-
gina (7th cent.). naplaTptov: 'the Danube district'. 18 6:-rreipyov.
Tolvvv Reifferscheid: Cxtn:tpy6VToov MSS. But since Tolvvv is so rarely
placed first in a sentence perhaps the MS. reading should be kept here,
with a change to il'Cx\IT00\1 in the previous line. 24 i!'VKTiots: here
'sheets of paper (or parchment)'; he wrote on one an affirmative answer
to his question. 30 'signal'.- The same means of reaching
a decision in difficult circumstances are mentioned at another time of
crisis in Alexiad 15. 4. 4.
ANNA COMNENA
91
:AaJ3oov o:Aos tyey6ve1 Tiis b<crrpcrrdas Kal SlCx ypaq>oov ernaVTa-
x66ev ava<cxAEiTO TO crrpO:Tevlla.
12. 9 Bohemond's invasion announced (A. D. 1107)
·o Ss J3aa1:Ae\Js, h1 els -rl}v J3aa1:Aruovaav
llEila&r}KOOs SlCx ypaq>oov Tov SoVJ<es -rl}v Tov Bat-
llOVVTOV SlCX1TEpa{ooalV rnETCx)(vve -rl}v OvVO'"t'aKTOS
yap oov 6 llTJ S1Sovs To 1rc:XpcX-rrav \hrvov Tois
5 6q>6cxAilOiS, 01TT'\V{Ka S1tyvoo SlCX1TAooaallevov TOV Ba\llOVVTov
1rapa Ttiv Tov •1A:Avp1Kov 1reS16:Sa Kal Tiis VT)Os chroJ3ei3TJK6Ta
Kal cx\n661 1TOV xapaKa, llETCX1TEil'¥CxllEVOS
\rrr61TTepov, (ToiiTo) Sf} TO Tov :A6yov, 1rpos Tov cx\noKpchopa
-rl}v TOVTOV Sla1TEpa{ooalV os rnavl6VTa TOV cxVTOKpa-
10 Topa Tov KVVT)yea{ov KaTcxAaJ3oov, Spo1-1aios elae:A6oov Kal
1TpoaovS{aas -rl}v Keq>cx:Aftv, TTJV TOV BaillOVVTOV S1a1TEpa£ooa1v
Tpavoos ernaVTES !lSv ovv ol TOTE 1Tap6VTES trray,aav,
oirrrep El<acrros E-rvxe, Kal1rpos llOVT)V -rl}v Tov BaillOVVTov K:Afia•v
chrovapKftaaVTEs. o Ss cx\noKpchoop, 1TATtPTJS 6v1-1ov Kal
15 q>povftllaTOS wv, :Avoov Tov lll6:VTa Tov \rrroSftllaTOS ,1rpos
cS:p1crrov" Eq>TJ , To 1rapov TpCX1Toolleea • Ta Se ye KaTa Tov Bai-
llOVVTov aVe1s KaTaaKS'¥61le6a".
1 els TflV 'in the imperial city'. The title had originally
been applied to Rome. els is here in its modern sense. 2 SoVKos:
'military commander', Latin dux. 3 S1crrrepalooa\V: this word for 'cross-
ing' is late. Bohemond, Prince of Antioch and a continuous source of
danger to the empire, had sailed from Bari to A vlona. avVaTCXKTOS:
'vigilant', a word much used by patristic authors. 5
the form is Ionic in origin. 7-8 \nr6-rt-npov: this messenger
described with the highly poetic epithet may have belonged to any nation
living north of the empire; 'Scythian' is a very imprecise term. 8
(Toirro) add. Reifferscheid. 'As the saying goes' was a favourite expres-
sion of the Atticists, but the earliest example seems to be Herodas 2. 45
(see Headlam's commentary). 11 TrpoaovSiaas: 'bowing'; the word is
Herodotean and originally meant 'dash against the ground, throw down'.
14 &TrovapKi}aaVTES: LSJ cite this word only from Plutarch. 15 The
emperor's calm recalls the story of Sir Francis Drake playing bowls when
news of the Spanish Armada. was brought; tradition has it that he re-
marked 'There's plenty of time to win this game and thrash the Spaniards
too'.
92
ANNA COMNENA
18. 10 A portrait of Bohemond
''Hv Se -ro1oiiTos 6 cnn)p otos, 00s J3pcxxei llev ehreiv, ouSels
t<cx-r' aceiVOV oocpSr} -rfj 700V •pc.:>jla{c.:>V yfj o\he (3ap(3apos o\he
"EAA11v· 66:1lJ30S yap fjv ocp6aAilWV 6poollEVOS t<al
t<cx-ra Se \nroyp6:'lJa1 -ro -rov j3apJ3apov etSos,
5 -ro16aSe llai<POs fiv -rl}v &vaSpOilfJV -rov O'OOilCX"rOS wa-re ets iTflXVV
eva ll11<pOV 70VS llal<p07cXTO\JS \nrepeAaVVE1V, -rl}v yarnpa
t<al -ras r.ay6vas. t<al -rovs oojlovs t<al -ra a-repva
1TAa-rVs t<al -rovs J3pcxxfovas t<apTEp6s, t<al -rl}v or.11v -rov
O'OOilCX"rOS o\he o<he iTEp1(3p166jlEVOS -rais
10 aAA' OOS ap1a-ra t<al o{ov et1Teiv I<CX"rCx -rov noAVI<Aef-
7E10V t<av6va • -ras XEipas &Spes t<al -roov iTOSoov
-ras J3aae1s a-reppos t<al -rov a\Jxeva t<al -ra 1-1e-r6:cppeva e\JiTay{Js.
wot<a<Vcpoos se !lE-rpfoos -r4l &t<p1J3oos aV-rov iTEp1epyasolltv'tl
ov -roov voo-r1afoov O'iTovSvr.oov -r1 iTEiTov66-roov -rfls
15 pCx)(eoos, &AA> o\i-rc.:> j.le-rpfoos ac yeve-rfls, oos lo1KE, -rl}v S1CrnA00'1V
lO"XTti<E· -ro XPWila t<cx-ra -ro &Aho llev aooj.la AEV1<6-rcx-ros, -ro Se
iTpooooTiov 1-1e-ra -rov Aevt<ov t<al f) t<61l11
&AA • ov 1-1ev oov llfxp1 -roov j.le-racppevoov atoopov!lev, t<cx-ra -rovs
&Ahovs J3apJ36:povs· ov yap hp1xoll6:ve1 6 &v{Jp, &Aha t<ovpfas
20 fiv llfxP1 -roov oo-rc.:>v. -ro Se yeve1ov ehe 1TVpaov ehe CXAAa -r1
XPWila etxev, oUt< S){c.:> Aeyl:1v · 6 yap aV-ro t<al
-r1-ravov 1Tav-ros &t<p1(3eO'Tepov • S • oov et va1 t<al -roiiTo
1TVpa6v. 70 (3AEilllO YAavt<OV t<al aj.la 6vj.lOV t<al
VTrOO'TtllOiVOV. t<al f) pis a\J-r4lt<al 6 llVl<"T'llp v..ev6epov rnve1 70V
5 &va6po1.11iv: 'stature'. 6 liTrepeA<xVvetv: 'exceed', a very rare and late
word. 9 'slender', as at Philostratus, Heroicus
3. 4. 1TEptJ3pt60ilEVOS is quoted by LSJ from Hellenistic poets only.
10-11 Polyclitus' canon, as seen in his Doryphoros, had no practical
influence on Byzantine aesthetics; but as a proverbial notion of fine
proportions it was probably known to Anna from Lucian, De saltatione
75. See E. Panofsky, Meaning in the visual arts, New York 1957, 65ff.
13 'looking at', without any of the pejorative overtones
that the word had in antiquity. 15 SterrrAaatv seems to be found first
in Galen. 19 hptxo1-16:vet: lexicis addendum. Kovp(as: 'shaved', a
word known from Lucian. 22 TtT6:vov: here apparently 'marble'. 23
'dignity'; a fairly common word in patristic Greek.
ANNA COMNENA
93
25 &Spa· O"VVT'}y6pel Se -rct> Sta "TOOV cnepvoov Kal Sta "TOV
-nlv -roov cnepvoov roplrrr}-ra. Tt yap cpvats
Sta -roov p1 voov -rov cbro Tfis KapS£as
T)Sv Se -r1 Kal -rct> &vSpl &XAa
-rots &rrav-rax66ev cpo{3epols Weepa<Je-ro. oAos yap St • oAov
80 -rov i'jv Kal &r)ptooST'IS 6 av6poo1TOS cbro -rov
cbr6 -re SoKei Kal 6 ytAoos cx\rrov -rots
&AAots i'jv. oliToos etxe -re Kcxl oos Kal
-rov 1<opvaaea6a1 Kal -rov epoo-:ra, Kal
6pav TIPOs -ro Se cx\rrct> Tiav-roSanov Kal
85 1Tavovpyov Kal 1Tpos cmaaav Aa{3f)v StaStSpCxO'KOV. ai yap
&Kp1{3els Kal -ras cbroKp{aets 1Tav-rax66ev
&1TeptSp&K'Tovs. Kal -rotoii-ros Kal -roaoii-ros -rct> cx\rro-
Kpchopt 1'j v Kal "t'Vx1J Kal A6yots Kal -rots &AAots -rots
cbro Tfis cpvaeoos
15. 7 Alexios' charitable foundation (A. D. 1116)
4 "Ev yap -rots 1Tpos -nlv &Kp61TOA1V ev6a Kai "TO
"TOV TI6v-rov &vo{ye-rat, vaov
rn• -rov -roov arrOCTT6Aoov TiaVAOV,
25 avVTly6pet: perhaps 'assisted', but the sentence is corrupt; Reifferscheid
marked a lacuna after llVl<'riiPOS· 27 originally used of
boiling liquids, the word was applied to Cleon's blustering (Ar. Knights
919). 29 V7re6pcx\JeTo: 'spoiled', a. word coming from Maccabees 2. 9. 11.
Anna regards Bohemond with a mixture of hatred and admiration. 32
'snort' (LSJ seem to be wrong in suggesting 'indignation').
33 t<opvaaea&at: 'rear its head', originally of waves. 35 StaStSp6:at<ov:
'darting in all directions'; the classical sense of 'running away' has been
lost. 36 OIJ.tA!at by this date can mean 'words'. 37
'slippery'; the LexPatrGr quotes a few cases of the word in the meaning
'incomprehensible', which will not do here.
1 Alexios' charitable foundation gives Anna the chance of an extended
description of a kind common in Byzantine literature. 1-2
-ro a-r61.1a -rov n6vrov (Leib wrongly prints Tr6v-rov) is Thucydides' descrip-
tion of the site of Chalcedon opposite Byzantium (4. 75). The acropolis
was the rising ground used as the centre of the original Megarian settle-
ment of Byzantium. St. Paul's church and its attached orphanage are
first heard of in the sixth century; the orphanage is the only one we can
identify in the great city, though very probably there were others.
94
ANNA COMNENA
,.6A.1v hepav 'Tfj j3acnA.{Sl 1T6A.s1 cx\rrbs J,.Ltv yap 6
5 vabs rn. &Kpo'Tch<{> 'TfjcrSe 'Tfis 'lTOAsOOS EO"TTll<EV oTov &Kp61TOA1S.
T) Se vea 1TOA1S b<a"Tepoo6ev yEypa'lT'Tal els CT'TaS{ovs, 61T6crovs O:v
eim;t 'TlS, l<a'TcX 'TE 1TAchOS 1<al IJi;l<OS. 'KVKAC{> Se 'TcxU-n)S
o[KTJIJO'TO 1TVJ<Va, J<a"t'OlJ<{al 1TEvf}'Toov J<a{, 'TO Sf} cp1Aav6poo-
1T6-repov, &v6pcb1Toov A.eA.ooj3f)IJEvoov ECT'Tl yap
10 lSelv 'TOV'Tovs 1<0'1'
0
cS:vSpa EKOCT'TOV rnepx61JEVOV, cmov
'TV<pAOVs, &rrov J<al xooA.o\is, 01TOV Se 'Tl Kal OXAo l<aJ<OV
E){oV'Tas. -nlv CT'Toav l:oAOIJOOV'TOS O:v el1TES lSoov IJEcr-nlv &v6poo-
1TOOV 1TE1Tf)pooiJEvoov 'Ta IJEAT) Kal 8A.a 'Ta CTOOIJO'Ta. 5 6 Se
J<VKAOS S11TA.ovs 'TE Kal S{SVIJOS. ol J,.Ltv yap cS:voo 1<al IJE'Teoopol
15 J<a"TOlJ<ovcrl 'TOOV 1TE1Tf)pooiJEvoov 'TOV'Toov &vSpoov 'TE J<al yvva11<oov,
ol Se J<choo J<al 1Tp6crye1o1 1TapaaVpoV'Tal. 'To Se 'TOV 'KVJ<Aov
1Jeye6os, ei 'TlS WEA.e1 'ToV'Tovs lSeiv, 1Tpoot6ev els
O:v 'TOV KVJ<Aov crvve&iAecre. 'TOlaU-rr} 1-1ev T) 1TOA1S,
'T01o\i'To1 Se Kal ol 'Tfis 1T6A.eoos 'TaU-rr}S oll<f}'Topes. oV'Te yf}1TeSa
20 exoV'TES oV'Te aiJ'lTEAoovas oV'Te 'Tl OXAo 'TOloO'Tov, 1TEpl o 'TOV
&v6pcb1T1vov j3{ov ftcrxoA.f}cr6al J<a'TaAa1Jj3avo1Jev, &AA.a J<a'Ta 'Tov
•Jooj3 El<aCT'TOS 1i b<6:0"1'1l -nlv 1-1ev Sf)1Jlovpyf)6eicrav cx\rrois o[J<{av
o[J<ei, cx\rr6J.la"Ta Se 'Ta 'lTPOs 'Tpocpf}v 'TE Kal CTJ<S1Tf)v 1Tapa 'Tf}s
j3acrlA11<f}S XElpos cxV-rois J<al yap 'TO
25 ol &J<-niJ.loves 00cnrep 'Tlves SeCT1T6'Tal l<'T'I'}IJO'Ta E}(OV'TES J<al
1Tpocr6Sovs 1TaV'ToSa1Tas cppoV'TlCT'TaS E)(ovcr1 J<al 'TOV j3{ov cxV-roov
rnliJeAT)'TOS cxV-r6v 'TE 'TOV aV'TOJ<pchopa J<al 'TOVs OIJ<pl 'TOV
cxV-ro1<pchopa CT'lTovSepyo\!s. o1Tov yap Si}1To'Te Yiis l<'Tf}IJa i'jv
J<ail.c;> J<E{IJEvov, 'Tcx\rrov Se ei'lTEp i'jv e\rrrp6croSov, 'Tois &SeA.cpois
6 ytyp<XTI"Tat: 'extends', literally 'is drawn on the map'. 9
'dwellings': Hellenistic. 12 Ann a recalls St. John 6. 1-4 and Acts
3. 1-11, combining the two scenes. 16 1rp6ayetot: 'near the ground',
a meaning first attested in Lucian. 1rapao\1poVTat: 'move painfully,
drag ves along'. 17 1rpc.>f6ev: 'in the morning'; the word is
from the LXX (despite its attestation in Herodian I. 501 L.). Attic 1rpc.>i.
22 Job 1. 4. 25 CocrTtiJOVES: 'poor', a word from poetry and Hellenistic
prose. 26 cppoVTtcrras: 'curators', part of the language of Hellenistic
officialdom. 28 a-rrovSepyovs: 'energetic'; lexicis addendum. 29
-ra\nov KTA.: 'and no less readily if it produced a good revenue' must
be the meaning with the reading ei1rep -ljv (Reifferscheid) for el1TEi\l of the
MS. But -ra\nov el1retv eV1fp6aoSov can be translated 'which is equi-
valent to saying "profitable"'. eV1TpoooSov: lexicis addendum (the
reference in Sophocles' Lexicon is false).
ANNA COMNENA
95
SO 'TOVTOlS <pepoov a<p • OOV olv6s 'TS cx\nois KCX'TCx 1TO'TOIJOVS
rn1ppet Kal ap'TOS Kal ooa rnl 'TOiS ap'TOlS O"l'TOVV'TOl av6p001TOl •
ot Se Vl'rep &pl61J6V. Kal •axa 'TOAIJOO Kal Akyoo, ei1T01
'TlS av, 1TP0s 'TO 'TOV croo'Tiipos 6a\i1Ja, 'To 'TOOV hrraKlO")(l'A{oov
cp111-1l Kal 1TEV'TaKlO")(l'A{oov, &vacpepe0"6a1 'To •ov cx\noKpCn-opos
85 epyov. &AA. 1TEV'TE ap'TOOV XlAlaSes, Ka6o
Kal 6 9eos 6 6av1JCX'Tovpyoov • Se •a 1-1ev 'Tiis cpl'Aav6poo-
1Tias 'Tiis 6e{as 'TO S • &A'Ao, ruicre IJEv 6a\i1Ja,
ooSe Se xopT)y{a 'TO aV-rapKES 'TOiS
6 eYSov eyoo Kal ypa\:iv yvvaiKa Vl'ro ve6:v1Sos ViTT)pE'ToviJEVT)v
40 Kal avSpa TV<pAOV VrrO &v6pC::mov XElpayooyOVIJEVOV
Kal crnoSa 1T6Sas EXOV'Ta ov 'TOVS &AAa 'TOVS &A'Ao'Tp{ovs
Kal axe1pa VrT' • &vSpoov hepoov xe1payooyov1Jevov Kal 'Tl-
61') vovj.leva 1rap • &AAo•p{oov IJfl'Tepoov Kal1Tapa'A\rrovs Vrr • &A'Aoov
av6poo1TOOV Sov'Aevo!JEvovs evpooO"'TOOV. Kal OAOOS Sm'Aovv 'TO
45 1r'Af)6os 'TOOV •pecpo!JEvoov, 'TOOV 1-1ev ets Sov'Aevo!Jevovs &pl61JOV-
IJEVoov, •oov Se ets Sov'AevoV'Tas. 1-1ev aV'ToKpCn-opl o\JK
el1Teiv ,Jye1pe Kal 1TEpl1T6:'Tel", ovSe
KEAe\icral 'TO V ovSe IJtl ExOV'Tl 1T6Sas rnl'Tprnel V 1TEpl-
1TCX'TeiV. 'Taii'Ta "1jv 'TOV IJOVOYEVOVS Kal S1• T)IJCXs yeyov6"t'os
so &v6poo1rov Kal Vl'rep &v6poo1roov 1T0Al'Tevcraj.levov. &
Se 7rpocrf)v,· 1To1ei, VrrT)phas S1S6va1
Kal 'Tt)v a\rrJiv 1rp6vo1av 'T16eva1 \ry1a{voV'T1·
OOO"'TE ei 'TlS 'Tt)v veav 1T6AlV KCX'TOIJa6eiv, f}v 6
1Tcx-ritp &veSe{IJCX'TO, 'TE'Tpan'Aflv av iSol -ri}v 1T6AlV Kai1TOA-
55 'Aan'Aflv 'TOOV KCrTOO, 'TOOV avoo, 'TOOV cXIJ<pOTEpOlS 'TOVTOlS
TOVIJEVOOV. 7 aAACx 'T{S Svvi}cralTO 'TOVS Ka6•
T)IJepav 11 -ri}v Ka6• San6:VT)v Kal-ri}v YlVOIJEVflV
ets EKOO"'TOV 1Tp6V010V; ets ruivov yap &vacpepoo Kal 'TCx IJE'T.
EKEiVOV. yap acpoop{crCX'TO TaS 6:1fo YflS Kai 6aA.Cn-'TT)s
33-35 Anna alludes to St.
Matthew 16. 9-10, where the number of those fed is in fact 4,000, not
7,000. 37 'adheres to', a Hellenistic word, as are also 40
") and 43 -rrap<XA\novs. 41 Reifferscheid:
MS. 44 'being served, assisted •; not a classical
use of the verb. 47f. St. Matthew 9. 1-8, 27-30 (and corresponding
passages in the 'other Gospels). 52 -rt6evat: the classical idiom is !)(etv
or -rroteia6at -rrp6votav. 55 -r(.;)v 'Kcrrc.>: the sense is clearer than the
syntax; perhaps -r(.;)v Kcrrc.>, 'consisting of'.
96
ANNA COMNENA
60 cx\rrois 1Tpo11oicxs • !Kei11os Se T1}11 Sv11cx-n't11 p<jX<TT0011T')11 cx\rrois
"'TEplE"'TOlftO'CX'TO. "'TpoKcXet')Ta£ yap avi)p 'TlS 'T0011
cppo11'Tla-ri}S 'Tfis '-'vp1<!x11Spov 'TCXV'T'I'lal "JT6i\eoos· opcpa11o"t'pocpeio11 Se
'Ta&n:l 'T0011o"'a. opcpa110'Tpocpeio11 Se "'TpoaayopeVE'Tal, chl 1i
"'Tpos 'TOVS 6pcpa110Vs Kal &"JTOO"TpCX'TeV'Tovs cplA.av6poo"'T{a 'TOV
65 cx\rroKpchopos • 0&11 Kal 'T0011o'-'a !"JTeKpO:n,ae 'TO &"JTo -rf\S 'T0011
opcpa110011 "'TPO'-'fl6das. ae-pE"t'a yap rnl 'TOVTOlS "'TCXO'l Kal Aoyo-
"'Tpay{al 'T0011 1Tp01100V'-'E110011 KCX'TCx 'Ta 'T0011 "'TEvft'T0011 K'Ti)'-'CX'Ta Kal
xpva6J3oVAAOl A6yol rnlf3paj3eV011'TES 'TOiS 'TO &11a-
cpa{pE"t'011. 8 T'i) Se 11a'i) ToO '-'ey<XAoKi)pVKos TicroAov KA.fipos
70 '-'eyas KaTEii\eK'To Kal "'TOAVs Kal cpcb'Too11 SCX\f'{i\ela. Kal 1Tapa-
ye116'-'e11os els 'TOV'T011l 'T011 11E0011 iSOlS 011 XOpOVS 8<CX'Tepoo6e11
a11"t'*So11'Tas. yap T'i) 'T0011 erno<TT6Aoo11 11e'i) Kal
c?:Sovaas KCX'Ta 'T011 rnl"'eAes yap Kal 'TO 'T0011
S1aK0111aaoo11 "'TE"'TO{flKE11 gpyo11. "'TOAAft11 Se cppo11"t'{Sa Kal 'T0011
75 'IJ3flp£Soo11 '-'0110X0011 rnE"'TO{fl'TO 6Vpa11 !1< 6\Jpas
'TO 1Tp6"t'Ep011, rna11 els TT} 11 Koo11<Trarn 110V rnlSfl '-'Tt-
aale11· &XA.a Kal TcxV"t'a•s 1i KflSE'-'o11{a Tov'-'ov "'TCX'Tpos &11eSei'-'CX'To
cpp011'TlO"Ti)pl011 'TCxS 'TE "t'pocpas Kal 'TaS "'TpOO'flKOVO'OS
o '-'e11 ov11 • !Kei11os o
80 MaKeSoo11 a\Jxei'Too rnl 'Tfj KCX'T. Aiyv"'T'T011 • rnl
'Tfj KCX'TCx Mi)Sovs BoVKE<pCxATJ, rnl 'Tfj KCX'T. Al6lo"JT{a11 J\va•'-'axic;x.
0 Se aVTOKp<hoop • ( OVK 011) oVI"ooal rnl 'Tais Cx11eyep-
6e£aalS "'Tap • a\rrov 1T6i\ea111 &s '1Ta11'Taxo0 ia'-'e11
Cx110lKOSO'-'fl6e{acxs a\rr'i), 6ao11 rnl 'Ta&n:l 'Tfj '1T6i\el '-'ey<XAavxei.9
85 &AA.a Taii"t'a '-'e11 Ta Te'-'e1111 Kal lepa cppo11'TlO"Ti)p•a ela1611'T1 cro1
60 -rrpovo(cxs : here
'resources, provisions'. 64 arroaTpcrrarrovs: 'disabled', a very rare and
late word. After 65 cxV-roKpO:Topos some words may have been lost. •o
lnro •fis Reifferscheid: ;fis lnro MS. 66 aacpe-rcx: 'offices for the ad-
ministrators', Latin secreta. Aoyo-rrpcxy(cxt: 'accounts'; lexicis adden-
dum. 67 KCXTa Reifferscheid: J<O:l MS. 68 xpva6J3ovAA01 A6yot:
'chrysobulls', documents issued and signed by the emperor conferring
rights or privileges. 69 lexicis addendum. I<Afipos:
'clergy'. 75 •IJ3TJp(Soov: 'Georgians', see above, p. 86. 79 StotKovo-
I-ITJC7CX!-1EVOV: 'provided for'; the compound is a Hellenistic formation. 81
Lysimachia was in Aetolia; is Anna wrong here or should the text be
emended? 82 (oVJ< O:v) add. Reifferscheid. 82-83 aveyep6e(acxts:
'raised' in the sense of founded and brought to greatness'. 83
vot<o: 'pride himself on', a Hellenistic word.
ANNA COMNENA
97
t<<XTa :ha1av chrav-n')ae1e • t<<XTa Se -rl)v 'Tov IJSY6Aov
vovs 1ra1Sev-rftp1ov !O'TT'It<e 'TOOV 1ra1oiv 6pcpavols At<
1t'aV'TOSa1rOV y!vovs b 4> 1ra1Sev-rfts 'TlS 1rpot<a-
6T)'Tal t<al 1raiSes 1rEpl a\rrov ol l.lEV 1repl tpoo-n'}ae1s
90 ypal.ll.l<XTlt<&s, ol Se 'TOOV axe-
Soov. t<all<TTlV ISeiv t<al A<XTlvov tnaiiea 1ra1So'Tp113ovl.lEvov t<al
l:t<Ve,v t<al •pool.lalov 'Ta 'TOOV •E:h11:ftvoov avyyp&l.l-
ll<XTa t<al 'TOV "EAhflVa 6p66')s
'To1aii'Ta t<al 1repl -rl)v :hoy1td}v_ 1ralSeva1v 'Ta 'TOV
95 • 0'1t'ovS&all<XTa.
90-91 axeSwv: 'exercises
of parsing and analysis'; see G. Buckler, op. cit. 176-181, N. G. Wilson,
Antike und Abendland 16. 1970. 74-75. 92 see above, p. 91.
94 71-oytKf)v: 'intellectual'. 95 At this point Anna digresses on the
inadequacy of ;modern education and the lack of interest in culture shown
by the younger generation (of whom she says 1TE"TTEfa TO a-rrovSaa11a Kal
l!iJV..a fpya and does not continue the description of the orphan-
age.
7 Wil.-
EUSTATHIUS (d. c. 1195)
Like a number of other churchmen of his day Eustathius made his
career as a lecturer at the patriarch's theological senlinary in Constanti-
nople before being promoted to a bishopric. To this period of his life belong
his works of classical scholarship, the commentaries on Homer, Pindar,
Aristophanes and Dionysius Periegetes. The commentary on Homer is of
phenomenal length, and preserves a certain amount of material not known
elsewhere. It survives in manuscripts which have been recognised since
the time of cardinal Bessarion as the author's autographs.
In 1175 Eustathius was appointed to the see of Thessalonike, where he
performed his duties conscientiously. When the city was attacked and
captured by the Normans in 1185 he refused to desert his post, and an
account of the siege which he wrote shortly afterwards shows his devotion
to duty and the extent of the sufferings he shared with the rest of the
population. His tenure of the see was notable for his attempt to reform the
monastic communities; he attacked the monks for their ignorance and
hypocrisy, contrasting them with the admirable communities in the capital.
As a result he made many enemies and had to leave the city for a time.
Editions: Homer commentaries, ed. G. Stallbaum, Leipzig 1822-30,
reprinted 1960. Opuscula, ed. T. F. L. Tafel, Frankfurt 1832, reprinted 1964.
Separate edition of The Sack of Thessalonike: S. Kyriakidis, Palermo
1961, with Italian translation. For a full list of his works seeR. Browning,
Byzantion 32. 1962. 186-93.
From his preface to the Iliad
Toov 'O!li}pov KaAov iaoos ei -rlS c!rn6CT)(ot-ro -rftv
&pxf}v ii KflPct> -ras &Koas &Aet'f.JO:Ilevos;; &:A:A' h£pav -rpCX'IT6JlEvos,
av c!rnocp\Jy1J 70 6eAYfl7pov. ll1l CrnOC7)(61lEVOS Se, &:A:Aa Sta
1 The Sirens soon became part of literary vocabulary: Alcman (fr. 30
Page) calls the Muse a Siren, and Aeschines (3. 228) says that his oratory
was so described by Demosthenes. lrn6a)(otTo Tl)v 'avoid alto-
gether'; perhaps the orthodox Byzantine here shows a qualm of con-
science about reading pagan poetry. 2 i\ &AA •: 'or at least', a slight
extension of classical usage. 3 ethytlTpov: 'spell', a word found in
poetry and late prose.
EUSTATHIUS
99
Tf'is ci>Sfls M{V11S omc O:v, olJ,1a1, o<Tre
5 el Kal 'TTOAAcX SeaJ,lcX o<rre '1Tape11.6oov et.., av e<i)(ap1s. el
yap 'TTOV, OOO"TTep ee6:J,l<X'T6: ·rwa, 6'1Toia -ra epvAAOVJ,lEVa hrra b
1l.6yo1s 1<eiv-ra1, &p16J,1f}ae1 -r1s Kal &KovaJ,l<X'Ta -nva hna-rpocpfls
et.., av b cx\rrois J.laA10'Ta Kal ..; ·oll11P1Kft 'TT0{110'1S, 'lis omc
olJ,la1 els T1S TOOV 'TTQA01 aocpoov omc ty'eVO'<X'TO Kal J.laA10'Ta TOOV
10 oao1 Tf'is aocplas i}pvaav-ro. ·nKEavov llEv yap 'TTOTaJ.lol
'TTav-res, 'TTT'lYal 'TTaaa1, cppe<X'Ta 'TTav-ra Ka-ra -rov 'TT6Aa1 11.6yov •
·oJ.lf}pov Se, el Kal ll'll 'TTaaa, 'TTOAAT} yovv -rois
aocpois 11.6yov rn1ppof}. ouSels yovv o<rre TOOV -ra O:voo 'TTEp1epya-
o\i-re TOOV 'TTEpl cpV0'1V o\i-re TOOV 'TTepl 'ljeos ova· c!rn11.(.;)s
15 TOOV 'TTEpl 11.6yovs 6'1To{ovs av et'TT01 T1S, '1Tapfl11.6e
-rf}v ·oll11P1Kftv aKTlvf}v &:JV..a 'TTav-res 'TTap•
cx\rrq> K<X'TEAvaav, ol J,lev oos Kal S16:ye1V 'TTap • cx\rrq> J,lE)(p1
Kal TOOV cx\rrov O'V0'0'1T{oov c!rno-rpecpea6a1, ol Se ooa-re xpelav
CrnO'TTATl0'01 T1VCx Kai O'VVE1aEVeyKEiV cx\rrov Tql T1
20 XPTJ0'1J.lOV. b ols Kal ..; nvela, 'TTOAAOVs TOOV XPT'lO'J.lOOV 'TTPOs
·oll11P1Kftv J,lffioSov cp11l.6aocpo1 'TTEpl cx\rrov, el Kal
•t'TT'TTapxos cpeovei, 00s- • 611.{ya la-rop116flae-ra1. 'TTEpl
cx\rr6v. ypaJ,1J,l<X'T1KOl Se omc &AAoos els el ll'll s1· cx\rrov.
00'01 Se cx\rrov 'TT0111Ta{, omc ea-nv os T1 TOOV cx\rrov
25 J,le66Soov J,l1J.lOVJ.lEVOS, 'TTEp1'TT0100V, 'TTav-ra 'TT0100V S1•
oov Svvf}ae-ra1. &yova1v cx\rrov Kal yeooyp6:cpo1 S1a
f}11.ov 'TTOAAov Kal 6aVJ.l<X'TOS. 6 'TTepl -rf}v • AO'KA11'1T1aSoov Sla1-rav
5 e<i)(ap1s: here 'thankful'. 8-10 'which I
think not one of the ancient sages, especially those who drew on pagan
culture, failed to savour'. 10-11 Iliad 21. 195-196, cited for a similar
purpose by Quintilian 10. 1. 46. 13 Ta &voo m:plepyal,;ol.ltvoov: 'study-
ing philosophy'. 15 'pagan'. 16 OKT!V'I'\v: 'habitation';
patristic. 'without receiving hospitality'. 21 lrno-
'polishing'. The metaphor is not found in classical Greek. m:pl:
i.e. 'concerned with, devoted to'. 22 Criticism of Homer by the
astronomer Hipparchus is recorded in Strabo 1. 2. 2. Many of Eustathius'
ideas in this preface derive from Strabo 1. 1-2. 23 ypaiJIJaTlKOl KTA.:
'in the same way students of literature do not achieve their aim except
through a reading of Homer'. 25 m:pl1TOloov: 'preserving'. 26 yeoo-
yp&cpol: in the opening chapters of his Geography Strabo defended Homer
at length against the scientific and rationalist criticisms of Eratosthenes;
see further R. Pfeiffer, History of classical scholarship, Oxford 1968,
164-166.
100
EUSTATHIUS
1<al Ta TPcxVIJCXTa !pav{ Kal cx\rros b<ei6ev &ycxea. !cptAKETal
To 1rpCiy1Ja Kal • Kal IJapTVpei 6 IJeyas •
so l<EliJT'\Atov eiTe Kal !cp6Stov Kal !v cx\rrais IJcXx,ats -n;v ·oiJTlP•l<Ttv
rnay61JEVOS, Kal -n;v 1<Ecpa11:J'Iv. che \nrvovv Seot, rnava-
1TcxVOOV cx\rrf.\, iva TcXxa !v VrrVOlS cx\rrov ernE){otTO, &J\Aa
Kal ei'Tl ru6vetpos. Kal EO'TlV OAT'\600s j3aatAtl<c!>V
1rpCiy1Ja ti ·o!Jf}pov 1TO{T'\ats, Kal IJcXAtaTa ti IAtas. Kal 1Tapot1J{a
85 iJEv 'TlS l<al<OOV 'IAtaSa <pT'\a{v· cx\rn'l l<aAOV 1TaVT6s laTtV
'IAtcXs • SpaiJCXTtKooTepov Sta Tiis IJOvoetSovs
1TOAV1Tp00'001TOV acpT'\yf}aeoos. YEIJOVO'a IJVp{oov oov av
TtS ei1ro1 KaAoov, cptAoaocptas, PT'\Topetas, aTPaTT'\YtKflS e&rexvtas,
StSaO'l<aA{as Tiis 1Tepl f}6tl<OOV ape-roov, Texvoov OAOOS 1TaVTo{oov
40 Kal WlO'TT'\IJOOV. E){et TlS Kal S6Aovs rnatVETOVS b<ei6ev j.lcx6eiv Kal
'J'EVSoov KepSaA.eoov avv6eaets Kal O'l<OOIJIJcXToov SptiJ\nr}Tas Kal
j.le66Sovs. cppOVT'\O'lV OVK EO'TlV el1Teiv OO'T'\ 1TEpl-
1T01EiTal T(j) 1TpoaE){etV letAOVTl. Kal OO'a 'Tij Elrt-
6eoopoVVTal O'EIJvcX, OVK av -n;v ·oiJf}pov TExVT'\V TOOV
45 Toto&roov ernOaTepf}cn;t TtS, Tfis 1TOAV1Tetptas, Tov Tas &Koas
f}Svvetv, TOV TCxS '¥V)(CxS 1TatSruetv, 'TOV els apET1'}v rna{petv, TOOV
&XA.oov ols laTopoov !vevSoKtiJEi.
28 'draws a contribution'. It is not clear which
doctors are being referred to; Galen occasionally cites Homer, but that
is not a sufficient explanation. 28-29 Cf. Odyssey 16. 294 aUTOs yap
lq>V.KETat cS:vSpa afSTJpos. Perhaps 1TO(TJ1Ja should be read instead of 1TpCiy1Ja.
29 It was a well known part of the tradition about Alexander that he
admired Achilles and always had a text of Homer with him (see Plutarch's
life, cc. 8, 26). 33 KTA.: 'imagined as enjoying pleasant
dreams'; the adjective is cited by LSJ from Strabo 16. 2. 35. 34-35
The proverb is well attested in ancient collections (Diogenian 5. 26 etc.).
37 1TOAV1Tpoaoo1Tov: 'with many characters'. 38 Homer occupied a
dominant position in Greek culture; Socrates said {Plat. Rep. 606e) -n'!v
'EAAaSa 1T£1Taf5EVK£v oirros 6 1Tonrn'ls. He was regarded as the father of
rhetoric and many other branches of knowledge by Hellenistic scholars,
and especially by Stoics such as Strabo (1. 2. 3, 1. 2. 6). See also L. Rader-
macher, Artium scriptores, Vienna 1951, 9-10. e\m:)(vfas: cited by
LSJ from Strabo 1. 2. 33. 42 001}: in Stallbaum's edition OO'Tl\1 may
be a misprint. 43--44 lm&eoopovVTat: 'are observed in'; this meaning
of the verb is post-classical. 45 lnroCTrEpfa01J: i. e. 'deny'. 47
Eustathius goes on to discuss Homeric mythology, much of which should
in his view be interpreted allegorically, and then outlines the scope of
his commentary.
EUSTATHIUS
101
Monastic reform: an example of generosity
66. Me1-nn'u.u:&cx ToO &ycx&ots f3aatA.eiiat 1Teptl<AV'Tov
Mavovt'tA. • oiSallEV Kal 'TO lleycxAo1TOAl'TlKov TlpoSpolltKov O'Eil-
veiov, 'Tftv Tlhpav, -l}s 'J'cxAillKOOs Kal 'liSCX'Ta aoo'Ti}-
pta 'Tots ruayyeAlKOOS 1Tfvetv Kal &r)A.a,OVO'lV ol
s 1T1Kpfas f3too'TtKfiS cx\rrfj 1TeA6:,ovres· ets f)v ol KCX'TacpruyoVTES
Tots SatllOVtooSem &r)pfots Mtvos
Sft 6 j.laKCXplO"TQs f3aa1AeVs, llVpfalS 1TEplEO"T01XlO'J,1Evos cppoV'TfO'lV,
als ,.a: KCX'Ta K6a1-1ov lleyO:Aa StotKOVOilOVIlEVOS 1Tapa<:povETo,
eO"Tl v oo 'TCXXV Kal 'TOO V O'll1Kpo'T6:'Toov hnllEA.ea&at, &vcxA.af361lEv6s
10 1TO'TE els vovv &oopl VVK'TOs y6:1-1ov ruyevfi (ovSe yap
ovSe WKTES &vrnavov t)'pT)yop6'Ta wep 'TOV K60'1lOV, Kal
yvllv6:,oVTa lllKpov Kal ets &vrrvov), TeA.ea&fivat
,.ov ya1-1ov. -l}v Se ,.61ros ,.4' yall<t> To BA.axepvats 1To:A6:'Tlov,
owep OVK els llCXKpav f) Tlhpa StEO"TCX'TCXl. KCXlpOs Se f) 'Tfis
15 lley6:AT)S VT)O"TEfas 1Tp6SpOilOS 'TVpocpO:yos. oos Se ol rnl 'Tfis
6epCX1TefCXS l6aVj.lCXO'CXV, et lv oopc;c 'TOla\m;l rnt'TaO'O'OV'TCXl 1Tp6:y-
1 mpn<AVTOV: an adjective common in Homer. The emperor in question
is Manuel I Comnenos (1143-1180), on whom Eustathius wrote a long
funeral oration. 2 'in the metropolis'; lexicis adden-
dum. 2-3 a rare Hellenistic word for temple. E. refers here
to the monastery of St. John the Baptist (6 otherwise known
as f) 1rhpa to distinguish it from 33 other monasteries in the capital
dedicated to the same saint. John Mauropous was a member of this
community before being raised to the see of Euchaita. 3 Psalm 104.
41. 4 e\iayyU.tKoos: 'in the spirit of the Gospels'. Much of the vocab-
ulary here is biblical, e. g. 5 lt'lKpla, 6 (from Ep. J ac.
3. 15). 7 mptECTTOlXtal!ivos: 'surrounded'; Hellenistic. 8 IJEY6Aa:
'the great affairs of the world' (Tafel's !liya is a misreading of the
MSS). StolKOVOilOVIlEVQS: a rare alternative to StotKoov. 9 Taxv is
difficult; perhaps TaxVs. 'on occasion quick to attend even to the smallest
details'. 11 avbravov: 'gave rest to'. The construction of the verb
with vVI<TEs as the subject is contrary to classical idiom. 13 The palace
at Blachernae had been an imperial residence since the end of the eleventh
century. lt'cxAanov: Latin palatium, borrowed as early as the first
century by writers such as Dionysius of Halicarnassus. 15
'preceding', a typically Byzantine pun on the name of the monas-
tery. TVpocpayos: the week before Quinquagesima; the strict Lenten
fast had not begun and cheese could still be eaten. 15-16 ol rnl Tils
&pamlas: 'the servants'.
102
EUSTATHIUS
llcrn Seo!lEv<t> Katpov IKavfjs, Kal brVeono "t'OV hn-
CMT'tllOV6:pxov 1T00s 1TO"t'E apa Kai "t'O
rnhay(.la, 6-re ovSe!l{a yallftA105 xopfly{a V1T6Ket"t'at, o'Tl IJfJ
20 llOVOV "t'cX "t'fi5 eVAOyftC'EOOS • CxVa1TOAft0'05 ets VOVV Cxy-
XlVO{OS AOY't'· Kai aStaO'"t'Ccr<t> XPOV<t> "t'f)v TIE-rpav
lcp'T) yevf)aea&al av "t'O 1TCXV "t'OV lpyov. Kal e\16Vs
Kai ol Sovi.ev"t'ai "t'axvSp6!lOl aV"t'{l(a rni "t'f)v TIE-rpav·
Kai at rnJAal 6ep!l6"t'epov, 005 OVK av elval SoKeiV "t'O
25 KpoVIla e\11Ta{SeV"t'ov. Kai i)v o\i-roo Kai 6 6vpoopbs
O'l<OO'J-'05, eha ""ro ahtov ""rov "t'apexxov !la6c.Ov,
avcrrptxet, Kai "t'ql 1TpoEO'"t'OO"t'l CxyyEAAel "t'O O'VIl1TEO'OV. Kai
Cx0'1Taafoos rnt"t'CxO'C'El &1To"t"ei.ea6fjvat "t'O apeaav ""rij
Kai &1-1a :A6yos ov-ros, &1-1a lpyov E"t'Oll-105
80 ap"t'05 1Tanoios· 6 SfKflV acppov Kai O'O!l<p6s, V1TepAevK05. 6 lle-T'
o\i-re "t'Otoii"'ros, &XA.a Kai vaO'"t'65· ,; 1TOAvetSf)s
olvos 1Tp6xe•pos, ov 1-16vov 6 crr\Jcpoov, &XA.a Kai 6
,; 1Tapa!lEilEVflKVia 61roopa. ,; &A!las "t'Vpos SO'Jit:A{]s.
txeves ""raptxev""ro{ • ""rtves Se Kai 1rpoacpchov &Af1TaO'"t'ot,
85 1TOAAOi Se Kai OVK ovSe ooa txevoov "t'E"t'apl-
· yevos a\J"t'a b:Cx"t'epov, ooa ""re ets Sv6:Sa 1TAaKooS11
1Tap6:KetV"t'al ets \rrrepv6pov, Kai OO'a rni app{-
XCA>V !lEAava J<txvnat aoop'T)S6v • c'rlv XOPflYOs "t'OOV
1rpbs &AAo15 "t"61Tots Kai 6 ets ""rov vov T 6:va1s.
40 i16polO'"t'O "t"aii"t'a 6!lOV · Kai CxVcxAflcpeEna "t'E 'l')lllOVCA>V Kai
:Aomov &1Tftx61'). Kai ets O'f'lV 1rea6na ""rql
17-18 rntC7TT}I!O\Iapxov: 'master'; originally
'disciplinarian in a monastery'. 20 EVAoyi}aeCI)S: 'consecration'. 21
aStaOTCrrct3: 'immediately following'; the word is cited from Philo and
patristic texts. 23 Sovhe\rral TCX){VSp6I!01: both words are extremely
rare. 26 can hardly be right; O"KE\VOIJE\IOS, 'looking round',
gives the required sense. 28-29 Tij 'his majesty', as in LXX
1 Mace. 6. 47 and elsewhere. 30 ao1-1cp6s: 'spongy'. 31 vaOT6s:
'cheese-cake'. 32 a"TVq>(.o)\1: 'astringent'. 33 &).l!as: 'salted'. 34
TapfxEVTot: 'salted, pickled'; Hellenistic. 35 'pickled'. 36
Sv&Sa: unintelligible, but it is the reading of the MSS.
should mean 'flaky'. 37 1rapavya/',;oVTa: 'with the colour of'. 37-38
app(X(.o)\1: 'wicker baskets'. 41 'pack animals'; this sense
is not attested in LS J.
EUSTATHIUS
103
J3aa1Aei, h<e{VCf' be&r)acx\1ptaav eVAOYTlTOV, Kal
fty<XAAtaO"CXTO. Tct' O:rrav TO 1Tpoacpopov.
reepane\J&r) 6 J3aa1A£Vs h<etvos, Kal 6
45 6e6s. Kal 6 aytcbTCXTOS
cpt:Ai}aas, &Xnrep -n;v 1TcxAalT&-n)v cxVTov, o'li-roo Kal To
OO"TEpoV s.· cxVTOV I<TT)TlKOV Ti'is tm,Ko-
AOV6el TOVTolS cxVT{Ka Kal J3aa1A1K1'} OVTlai}KOOO"lS St. rntKTT}-
aeoos. Kap1TOs cx\iTrt Kal StaKp{aeoos •
50 el Kal 1rp0s 1TEVTJTas, &'AA. • oeiv els Seov
&A:hoos Kal 6e4' ruanoSEKTov. Kal lSov tnrepi<TT)ats Kal cxVrrt
1TOAVV ree:Aovaa TOV rnatvov. I<TT)TEOV oeiv, Kal rnl-
I<TT)TEOV, Kal \rrrepi<TT)TEOV TOVS oos Seov ronv.
&A:hoos KaAAlOV eavetv cxVTOVS oiKTlO"Ta 1'1 1TEplKEla6at
55 l<Tfiatv &Kav6vtO"Tov.
An encounter with an abbot
144. Olov yap, c1) Yii Kal ovpave, :A6yov avSpos TOlOVTOV
cp6aaas fJKovaa. KCXTaKeTa6a{ 1rov J3tJ3:Aov lepav, flv
rnovi}O"CXTO r P1lYOPlOS, 6 Kal 6eo:A6yos, 'Tt'\ip 1TveVaas Kal KcxAAl-
Aoy{c;x Kal 'ri J3{J3:Aos etxe 1TOAV TO
5 Kal TO KCXT
0
cxVT'I')v KAEOS els 1TOAAOVS, Kal TOVs
42 fve&TJacxVptaav KTA.: 'caused the emperor great
surprise'. The verb is lexicis addendum; EVAOYTJT6v in biblical Greek
usually means 'blessed'. 45--47 The ascetic ,saint will have approved
of the generous self-sacrifice of the monks in his own monastery. 48
&VTlai)K(o)aJS: 'compensation'. 50 here probably 'spend-
ing all one's resources'. The next clause is a tacit admission that his
example of generosity is not the best that might have been chosen. 51
e\icrrr6SEKTov: 'acceptable', a coinage of Hellenistic or later date.
2 cp6aaas: in late writers this verb is simply an auxiliary to indicate that
a certain action has already taken place. 3 rnovi)aaTo: 'composed'
(the classical meaning was 'work hard'). 6Eo).6yos is the regular epithet
of St. Gregory of Nazianzus. "Triip 1rvruaas is a phrase derived ulti-
mately from Hesiod's description of the chimaera, Theogony 319. KcxAAl-
AOyf<jt: 'elegance of language'; Hellenistic. 4 1t'OAO TO 1t'apaafJI.IOV:
'many beautiful features', i.e. of illumination and binding. Eustathius
uses an adjective which in the classical language meant originally 'marked
falsely, counterfeited', then 'marked, notorious'. 5 almost as
we might say 'the boak declared its glories'.
104
EUSTATHIUS
&l<poCXTas OVTOOS 8<£{ VT}, t<al l&WVTO a\rn1 V trpbs • t<al -ii V
tVTpvcpav -rovs j3AkrroVTas -rols -re tVTbs t<al -r'fl trpocpa1
els t<al 'f'VX.iiS t<al O'f'EWS. OQV t<al tyoo CTITOV-
S'Ilv tVTV)(elv -rq:, t<aA'fl fpT}yop{Cf> "TOVTCf>, oUt< evcrr6xT}cra·
10 yap TrWS, -ra ye els t<al
"TOV ('ijv tvape-ros 0 aVJip, t<al
TrOi TrO"TE "TOTrOV "TO l<aAOV j31j3A{ov tcrr{ V; 0
"TO V -riis A1xavov l<CXTaae{cras oos els KVKAOV,
O:Tret<p{VCXTO. t<al IA.apws rnavepw-rWVTOS,
15 eltre Tt)v j3{J3A.ov. ,-r{s yap" cpT}cr{ ,t<al xpe{a -ijv
aV-rfls ;" tv-raiiea Vrrav&'f'aVTOS,
-fiST} t<al trpocpi)vaVTOS ttri)yaye t<al al-r{av tl<elvos o
S1&Aevt<ov -ro ,els -r{ yap t<al j31j3A.twv
"T010VTWV ;" OOS S • tyoo -rov els j3apvv
20 yeA.(A)"Ta Vrremcbv ,-r{vos yap t<al Se1tcrea6e ot
A.6yov texv -ra -ro1a0Ta j31j3A{a trap• Tr01fla6e ;''
trapi;A.6e 6 O:v6pwtros tVTpatre{s, t<al o\n<h1 S1a j3{ov els O'f'1 v
-ijA.6e J3apvv6els -ro tv o\Trw cp1A.6j31J3A.ov.
Thessalonike captured (pp. 460-4)
Kal -ijv lSeiv -r'llv -r6-re o\n<Ee• O:AAa \l\IK"Tl
toncviav t<al olov t<al tcp • ols
yap a\rnlv J3a6ela rnaxvvev ooaelt<al tt< l<OV10p-
-rov, ov i\ -rvcpoos aipe1 f) tr6Ses &rrep
5 6:Tre1potrAT}ei)S, 005 elva1 eltreiv ot<veiv .Ov i}A.1ov ols at
6 &Kpocrras continues the
metaphor: 'admirers'. 8 ay<V.A{aiJa: 'delight', a word taken from LXX
Psalm 31. 7. 9 roo-r6x11aa: 'succeed'; Hellenistic. 11 tccx6TJyov1Jivov:
'abbot'. bapETos is Hellenistic, il)IJOOV (12) a still later coinage. 14
tAap(;.)s if correct means 'good-humouredly', but I should prefer to read
Anrap(;.)s, 'insistently'. 16 b561JUXOV: 'lying within'; rare and mainly
poetic. wavlt\flaVTos: see above on Psellos, p. 77. 18 StaAevl<ov:
perhaps 'explanatory', but this meaning is not attested elsewhere. 22
fVTpcxm;{s: 'ashamed'; this meaning of the verb is not classical. 23
according to LS J this word is first found in Strabo 13. 1. 64.
2 'full of emotion'; the word is first found in Menander
Epitrepontes 687. 5 6:1Tetp01TAT'I&fJ5: 'infinitely great'.
EUSTATHIUS
105
-roov 6-rrAoov cx\nov AaiJ1Tp6-n,-res, Se
Kal b< 1TcxAa1as MoVO'T)S ,6K-rooKa{SEKa 1-lSv 1TAtev f}!Ja-ra 1Tov-ro-
1TOpe0ov" -ro -rfis 1T6Aeoos aKacpos, .. s •
o\Jpea O'Kl6ev-ra", s.· c'r>v 6 -rfis 'I')IJiV i'}AlOS
10 O'KlCxV rnlKcxA\J\vovaav 'I')IJCXS \YcxAIJlK&)s. ot Se xees Kal
1TPcfl1l v &Acx'Aay!Jol Kal at Ka-ra 1T6Ae1JOV J3oal Kal 6
epovs oVKtr· fjaav, &AA. avna-rpt\Yav-ra -ro \YcxAIJlK6v, OVK fiv
&Acx'AayiJOs -rois 1')1Joov 1TAi}6ea1v. eiSes S • O:v Kal 6pvtoov
"JTe-roJ,ltvoov KEvev -rov atpa, o\n< oiS • ei-re S1a -re -rov atpos
15 cnvyvev ehe Kal o-r1 cpplK-rev -?jv Kal b<e{vo•s -ro 1Tp0:y1Ja. 'I')IJtpal
yovv lKaval Kal ovSaiJOV o\1-re a-rpov6ol o\1-re o\1-re
K6paKES, ot -rij Ka6• 'I')IJCXS 1TpcflT)V o\1-re OAAOS "l'lS
opVlS -rev atpa Slevi}xov-ro, &AA. Kal
'I') IJiV O:cpav-ra. &AAa -ro\i-ro j.lev Kal IJE-rCx -rr'} v &Aooa1 v • lKav6v,
20 ola -rov Stovs Kal -rois &A6yo1s 1Tapa1Jtvov-ros.
·H Se "JT6AlS, elO'"ITT)ST)O'CxV"l'OOV -roov OV"l'liJCxxOOV, rnaaxev
oaa <plAei Spav &yplOS "JT6Ae1JOS. Kal ot j.leV T!IJrnpol, o\Jx 6 IJEv
6 s· ov, OAACx 1TCxV"l'ES ecpevyov Oj.le-raa-rpE"IT"l'l Kae·
ruapl61Ji}-roov "l'lVOOV, 01TEp ecpajJEv· ols Ka{ "l'lS BoAtas -roov -rfis
25 b<KAT)O'laO'"l'lKf\S Os tyyVs !s -rplclKOV"l'a "l'OVs j.leV
S•xaaas, -ro\is Se Kal O:AAoos els -re Q:xpe1ooaas, "JToAAij 0'1TovSij
-roov 1TOAe1J{oov -rr'}v IJT)-rtpa yfiv i}0'1Taaa-ro. alaxvVTl Kal cx\no
-rov os IJfl cS:v 1TO"l'E cpvyeiv OOTOIJvVs, &AA. rnl -rct> cx\nov
"JTeaeiv, eha 1TpoV-rpcl"JTe-ro aoo6i)va1 Q:xpav-ros. Kal
5--6 'on those
whose brilliant armour outshone his light'; Vrt'epavyal,;(l) is a fairly common
word in patristic Greek. 8-10 Homer Odyssey 7. 267-268, slightly
misquoted. 10 'in the words of the Psalm' (43. 19). The
mixture of classical and biblical quotations within the same sentence
exemplifies perfectly the fusion of Christian and classical culture. 10£f.
Psalm 88. 15. 15 'awful'; Hellenistic. 18 8tevflxoVTo:
literally 'swim' (Attic 8ta\lt(l)); this metaphor is not classical. 20 A
few sentences forming a digression are omitted here. 21
'enemies', 23 'exception'; both Hellenistic. 25 fs: in
classical Greek is constructed with a genitive. 26 Stxaaas: 'cut
in two'. originally a technical term of logic and mathematics. axpet-
'made useless'; Hellenistic. 27 cnno: 'this'. David was the
military governor of the city, whom Eustathius criticises very severely
for incompetence.
106
EUSTATHIUS
80 1i Ka6tcrropov1JtVT') cpvyi) omc aaVVTCXl<'TQ5, &AA,• bS6vros,
apxas, 00s 1Tpoet<"deerral, 'TOV Kopvcpa{ov CTTpCX"n'}yov· Os einep
1Tp00001TOV 'TOiS 00s ol 'TOOV
y6vroov yevvat6-repot, avvovl.ooaev &v 'Ta:x_v 'To Tf}s
n6t.eoos. ol Se 'Tov crr{cpovs Kal p{1TTOVTES
85 'TOVs cproyovras Kal l.acpvpa. Kal
'TOV'TOlS aJ?IAfl'TOV 'TlVa Kal avoV'Tcx-rov 1T06EV -ri}v
aKE1rrea6at Kal 'TOV 9eov (3ei.Eoov
anepVKOVTOS av6poo1TOS yap, -rotOV'TCf> KaKCf> Kal
1TpOs 'TO -rov vovv @xoov, omc O:v axo£11 &1<pt(3oos
40 'To 1rav avyypcl\j.laa6a1, 1TAftV ets &rov 'Ta Ka{pta, oov 'TE
Kal o!s cxV70s 1TOAv-rp61TOOS rnEo-n,aev.
ovv Tfis &Kpo1T61.eoos &noyv6VTEs Sta -rl}v -rov
\iScx-ros oSflYOs 0 CTTPa-rflYOS yeyove, Kal -ri}v
avcxyKa{av O:rroaJ<evftv, T;v Te cxV-roov
45 xaptv Kal 'TOOV nepl oos Kal 1Tp01Ttcppacrrat,
Se Kal -ri}v ets 'TOV cXylOV 'TO<pOV 'TOV Mvpo-
J?II.V'Tov l<CXTacpvyf)v, rn Se Kal -ri}v ets htpovs 6e{ovs vao\ls (ov
yap Sf}1rov6ev oos, 1ravroov -roov cpevy6vroov
'TOiS 'TOtoV'Tots 1TOAAol napaavpf1aovrat 'TOV
50 Kal 'To is Kal 'TCf> oiK<t> vaVTEs,
Os 'TOV cXylOV, Kal 1TOAAa Kal
1<01<0 Kal Kal 1TE1TOv60TES, • o{s 1TEp{et-
atV 01TOOS 'TOV 1Tooyoovos, o ·cpaatv,
Sta Kal
55 <pptaa6vroov &lael Kal Af}iov 1TE1TV1<Voo1Jtvov acrra:x_Veal. Kal
Kal Kal \i(3pe1s ov 'TOS e6e1
30 'observed (by me)', a word
mainly used in patristic Greek. 33 avvovA<Alaev: 'healed the wound
of', a medical term. 36-38 6:j3ATITO\I KTA.: quotations from Iliad 4. 640
and 642. 41 ols KTA.: 'in which he was somehow involved'. 43
'absence, failure of the supply', a strange metaphorical usage.
Equally unexpected is 6811y6s in the sense of 'cause'. 44 &-rrocncevi)v:
'baggage'; Hellenistic. the classical form of the verb
is 46--47 'giving forth perfume', of a saint's
relics; they gave up the idea of taking refuge in the basilica of St. Demet-
rius, the city's patron. 49 a rare word, here 'stream-
ing'. 51 1TEpt*SETcxt: 'is famous for'. 55 cpptaa6VT<Al\l: 'bristling'; the
phrase is culled from Iliad 23. 698--699.
EUSTATHIUS
107
"t'O 1TCx60S !v "t'010lrr01S
elva1· 6-n: Se Kal CTJTCxet) Kcx6" !yavpoliTo Kal
oos els 0'1TACxxVCX f3mvovaa J<CXl Sopch1a -ra Av&ev
60 -ra s• h<ei6ev -roov 1TAevpoov eOO\Jvovro OOrE1Afl"t'1KOOs, &:AA • !vrcxiiea
eV)(al Kal &vrrnpCXT"t"ov f3V61a1. 1Tpoeveyt<eiv yap a\rras
1T00s 1TOTe DV;
Kai Kal -rov 1TOA1"r1Kov 1<cx6.
"t'01alrrfl S1Cxeea1s e<ievvev· h<ei Se -rov ftSfl arro-n:6evra els
65 l:1cpCxVTOV ropOV'TES, e011T1TOV j.lE"TCx ye Kal "t'OV
Kal -r{ av v,.•
a\rrov, AOY't' -re;> rnl 1TAEOV 1(01TOV axeiv "t'OV &px1-
E1T{O'K01TOV, aAfl600s Se Yva SEV"t'Epoov xe1p6voov
f3paxv yap h<eiae -ra y6vcrra Av -r1v1 Kal
10 O:p-rov arroScxt<6v-n:s, tva \IScrros fiv yap f)
KapS{a !v 00s Kal 1TCxVTa -ra !vr6s, eha
KCX'Ta 1<EAEVa6EV'TES rn1f3f}va1 yap ov "t'010VTOV
h<eivo -ro l1T1TapiS1ov ;) , 1Te1a6eV'TEs -re;> Kal &va-n:6ev-
-n:s els h<eivo, Av&a -ro j.le"Ta Kal yoopVTov
75 Kal cpaphpas, &rrep f} O"EAAls hv)(e cpepovaa.
"'Q "t'OOV !vre\ieev Kcxt<OOV. OOS yap apKEO'CxVTOOV "t'OOV
VEKpoov, S1" c'r>v ooSevaa S1a
aoope{as hepoov l1T1T6"t'fls c'r>v ot 1TAeiovs Ka-n:-
1Tpo -rov -n:txovs o\1-roo 00s
80 -ro l1T1TiS1ov i\ E){e1v 011"01 yfls ef}ae1 1T6Sa i\ &XA.a -roov
-re 1Tpoa6{oov Kal (-roov 61na6{oov} ,.osoov Svo i\ -rpeis A){e1v
VEKPOVs.
58 a;rc!teTJ KTi\.: 'swords were
brandished and daggers waved'; the vocabulary here is almost entirely
post-classical. 61 i. e. 'silent'. 65--66 Siphantos was a pirate
who had joined forces with the Normans, Maurozomes an imperial military
officer from the Peloponnese. eOnrrrov: here 'on a fine horse'. Tl av
D.ot: i.e. what booty. 69 'tiny hut'; lexicis addendum.
72 73 hrrrap18tov: the indignity of the treatment causes
Eustathius to· coin contemptuous diminutives. 75 cni\i\ls: normally
the form used is the Latin sella. 77 &TJ,ltl;6vroov: 'exuding'. 78
aoopelas: 'pile'; Hellenistic. 81 (TCi.>v 6ma6foov) add. Kyriakidis. 82
The account of his sufferings continues for several pages.
MICHAEL CHONIATES (c. 1138-c.1222)
Michael Choniates (incorrectly known as Acominatos) was a pupil of
Eustathius who became a member of the patriarch's staff and in 1182 was
advanced to the see of Athens. To him promotion was a mixed blessing:
he had failed to foresee the complete absence of intellectual life in the
once-famous city; his inaugural sermon in high-flown Atticist Greek proved
to be incomprehensible to the congregation; the beauties of the still intact
Parthenon, which was his cathedral, moved him very little; and in con-
fessing that after three years he had scarcely been able to master the local
patois he bitterly misquoted Euripides Orestes 485 in the form
Nevertheless he continued to perform his pastoral duties conscientiously,
defending the oppressed population from tax-collectors and pirates; and
after the Latin invaders of 1204 had expelled him he attempted to manage
his diocese from the nearby island of Ceos. He carried on an active cor-
respondence with Eustathius and others; his letters are full of classical
tags, a number of them from Callimachus' poem Hekale; he was presumably
the last person to own a text of this work, and it was doubtless a prize
piece in the large library that he had brought with him from the capital.
In his old age he had time once again to study classical authors and we
find him in letter 102 making arrangements to dissect pigs in order to
follow anatomical descriptions by Galen and Aristotle.
Edition: S. P. Lambros, Athens 1879-80, reprinted 1968. See also G.
StadtmOller, Michael Choniates, Metropolit von Athen, Vatican City 1934.
Letter 8 (to Michael Autoreianos)
1. • Aef}VT)6ev To ypex!J!Ja, &:A.A • ov napa To\iTo neptcrcr6n-
pov 1<al crocpcbnpov, 0:yCX1TT)Tov 5e IJCXAAOV el!Jf) Kal Afav O:ypot-
l<ll<oonpov. o\rroos ov JJ6vov oVl< !JOt Ta Tov A6yov,
els Tf)v IJT)npa Toov crocpoov IJETaVaCTTEvcraVTl, &:A.Aa 1<6"Trl To
3 -ra -rov ?.6yov: 'my stylistic ability'. 4 'having
removed, departed'; the word is first used in the LXX.
MICHAEL CHONIATES
109
5 xeipov 1Tpoxoopeiv KEKlVSV\IEV'KEV, OTl TOO'OVTOV 0'1Tav{,el ov M-
yoo <p1Aoa6cpoov &vSpoov, &AA • ftSTl t<al j3ava\laoov a\.JToov, Ws
Sot<eiv -rl}v 1TaAa1av tl<e{VTlv •JepovaaATll.l
1Tapa TOOV Baj3VAOOV{oov t<al cpaVTa,ea6al,
a\.JTov C!iJ..Aov •JepeiJ{av Aoy{,ea6al, TetxTl t<al
10 Aeoocp6povs opooVTa t<al Sat<pvoov 1T010VIJEVOV 1Tp6-
cpa0'1V. TOVs yVVala t<al 1Tal5Cxpla t<al -rl}v
'liAlt<{av 1..\ETCx TOOV 'liAlt<{CjX 1<01..\lSij evapl61.1flTOOV,
To\!Tovs yoiiv l.llt<pov 1Tapa1.1V61ov &n .1..\Tt t<al1Tpocr6ft1<11 v
TOV 1Tev6ovs l.lEYiO'TTlV, 1Tapa TOO'OVTOV oUt< rn{1Tav
15 yv1.1vovs &TraVTas 1Tap• oaov p&t<1& Tlva 1TaAa1a t<al aanpa
oaa 6E1.11S a\.JTois t<pV1l'Tea6a1 o\.Jt< &t<p1j300s ovS" aVTCx t<pVnTOVO'l,
1Tapa TOO'OVTOV All..\4' eaveiv OVTlj3a{voVTas 1Tap· OO'OV 0
t<p{61VOS apTOS avvexe• TCx All.lTlPCx TOOV TaAal1Toopoov \f/V)(Cxpla,
oUt< els t<6pov Tpecpoov, &AA" ooov 1.11) Tov &vayt<aiov S1eppooyeva1
20 Sea1.1ov Tfis cpvaeoos, oos ot ye t<pl6ocpayovVTEs t<6pov e\.JSai1.1oves
o\ho1 t<al 1Tioves Tiis yfis tva l.lft AF:yoo Tovs
aTeap 1TVpov, Svo 1Tov ii t<al Tpeis, &AAa 1TTOOXlt<ois Kal Toii-ro
1Je1.1ay1.1evov ai1.1aa1v. ots KpeiTTov i'jv KaTCx Tov ocp1v yfiv
S1a j3{ov 1TaVTbs ii Tov Aaov Kvp{ov v j3pooe1 cS:pTov Kal
25 TOV 6eov l.lft rnlKaAeia6al, 00s etval TOVS 1TeVeO'Tepovs fuel-
vovs, TOVS s· eV"ITopooTepovs 1..\lO'TlTOVS, 0 &1TaVTas SvaTVXeis.
2. "Eyoo oov 6 1.16:-ra•os c:t'>1.111V, 00s el l.lft Kal
'TlAOOTCxS TOVS ru{vov 1TOAhas evpOll..\1, &AA& ye TOV Kpl6{vov
1TcXVTOOS, otSas ST)1TOV TOV ot ov
80 IJOVOV AliJOV TOV &Kovaal A6yov, &AAa Kal AliJOV apTOV Kpl6{vov
5 a'!Tav(l;et :
impersonal, 'there is a lack of'. 6 j3avaVac.>v: Athens was no longer a
centre of trade or industry; Thebes and Corinth were both much more
important. 13 oTt Kal: 'but rather'. 14-15 1rapa ToaoiiTov
KTA.: 'who are seen to avoid complete nudity only in so far as ... '. 18
Al1111Pc!c first used apparently in Theocritus 10. 57. 20-22 005 KTA.:
'because these eaters of barley are the rich and the fat of this land, if I
am not to mention the two or three who eat the luxury of wheat, wheat
kneaded in the blood of the poor' ; 22 map 1TVpov is a reminiscence of
Psalm 147. 4. 23 KaTa TOV 6cptv: cf. Isaiah 65. 25 T6TE Mn<ot Kal &pliES
j3oaKt;O,aoVTat &11a, Kal ).ioov 00s j3ovs cpaycrat &){vpa, 6cpts S£ yfjv 00s
&PTOV. 24-25 ft KTA.: 'than that they should devour Christ's flock by
eating (all the good) bread and not invoking the help of the Lord'. 30
This description of Deinarchus is recorded in Hermogenes De ideis 2. 11
110
MICHAEL CHONIATES
sva-rvxovcnv ot -rAT}I..loves. S. -i}v Se &pa K&l<elvo -rov •EKKA11-
cnaaaov crocpov .,yevea ;ropeVe-rat Kal yevea 'I') Se yt; ets
-rov aloova fCT711KEV." 'I') 1-1ev yap xaplS -ri;S yi;s 'I') cx\rni, -ro
eVI<paes, -ro 61Toopocp6pov, -ro 1Ta!lcp6pov, 6 lleAlXPOs •yl-111-r-ros,
85 6 eVycXA11VOS TietpaleVS, 'I') llVCT711PlOO"rlS •EAevms -i}v o-re, 'I') -roov
Mapcx6oovo1-10:xoov hrm't:ha-ros 1TeStas ..; -re • AKp61TOAlS cxv-r,, •
'lis v\iv Kcx&JlllEvos cx\rniv SoKoo 1Ta-relv T'ftv &Kpav -rov
ovpavov· 'I') Se <plAOAOYOS M{V, yevea Kal 1Tept-rT'ft T'ftv crocp{av
oixe-rat, Se 'I') &llovcros, 1T"t'oox'li -rov vovv, 1T"roox'li -ro
40 croo1-1a, KOV<p11 llE-ravaoae\icrat Kal &AAo-re &AA11s -rpocpt'tv
llaa&evovcra, K&i<ei6ev cxVets &va"JT7i;va1 Ka-ra -rovs &(3e(3a{ovs Kal
1T:h6:v,-ras opvt6as.
4. K&VTE\iesv 'I') llEYcXA11 1TOA1S tpe{1Ttov 1-1eya Kal &AAoos 6pv-
AOVIlevov. Kal cpva,-n'tp, ov crtS,prus 1Tap • ftlliV, ov
45 xa:AKe\Js, ov llOXOlp01TOlOS, -ra\i-ra Si} -ra xees Kal 1Tp0 -rp{711S
E-r1 elSes -r'i) T'ftv -rov 'I'JilE-repov :hQ:xovs Ka-r6:-
oaacrtv· T'ftv KA1lpovoll{av TtllOOV, T'ftv Kpa-r{CT71lv oVI<
ots• o-re, v\iv s· E)(ovcrav OVTOOS 00s &1To:yyeA:h6v-roov TtllOOV
f}Kovcras. 5. oaepyoo llEV"t'Ol 00s 1Tapa 6eov -re 1Tla&evoov
50 Kal oos 1T6Aat 1Tpos &rrav -rotoO-rov -rapaxooSes Kal
6v1-1a:hyes eappoov Se Kal &A:hoos -rais -roov
<plAOVV"t'OOV VllOOV 1Tpocrevxais, oov 'I') oaep,crts 1Te{6el -roov &AAoov
O:vtapoov cpe\i, cpe\i · apa 1Tpocr6Ttcroo -rov hn-
(3:he'+'al 1-1e 1TpOs -rov cXylOV -ri;S -ro\i 6eo\i {as va6v; apa -ra
55 cp{:h-ra-ra VllOOV O'+IOilal 1Tp6croo1Ta, Kal 1T6-re -ra\i-ra;
1-1ev -rois cpacr{v, &:AA•..; ye Ka-roo-rCx-r, av-r, lKavT)
Stacr-rt;crat llaKp6-repov ft 1Tep 6 66:va-ros. &Ma -r{ -ra\i-ra cp{:hos
1-101 6vll6s, eeov -ra Kcx6°1'JilCXS 00s (3ovAe-ral
vcp. ov StacpvACrrt-010 \iyn'ls -re Kal eOOvllOS·
(one of the standard textbooks on rhetoric which well-educated Byzantines
were familiar with). 32-34 Ecclesiastes 1. 4. 35 6-rroopoq>6pov: first
in Anth. Pal. 7. 321 (date uncertain). 36 i'jv 6n: 'of former times', an
extension of the Attic adverbial idiom (o-nv m. 45 q>VO'T\TrlP: 'one
who works the bellows'; a reminiscence of Jeremiah 6. 29 q>VO'T\TrlP
c!rno -rrvpos 'KTA. 53 o-ripTtats: 'deprivation' seems wrong in sense; it
should be the continuation of his friend's prayers which helps him to
forget his troubles; anptooats 'firmness' would perhaps be better. 54-55
apa KTA.: 'shall I mention also my hope of living to see again ... ?'.
56-57 cf. Theocritus 4. 42.
TIMARION (twelfth century)
Timarion is the main speaker in the anonymous dialogue which bears
his name. It is a satire in the manner of Lucian, a popular and much
imitated author. In this case the linguistic competence of the imitation
must be rated a little above the average, at least in 'the syntax and the
general construction of the sentences. There is a freshness about the work
which makes it one of the most attractive pieces of Byzantine writing; in
the extract which follows the author has the distinction of describing a
scene of some interest which he had witnessed himself.
The hero makes a journey to Thessalonike, where he describes the
fair and religious festival held on October 26 in honour of St. Demetrius,
the patron of the city. On the way home he falls ill, dies and makes a descent
to the underworld. The main event there is his trial before the judges of
Hades, who surprisingly include Asklepios and Hippokrates. Timarion's
former tutor Theodore of Smyrna successfully pleads on his behalf that he
was brought down to Hades before his destined time; after an adjournment
the court upholds this view and Timarion is allowed to return to the world.
The book contains a. good deal of satire on medical theory. Some
irreverent remarks provoked a sharp comment from Constantine Acropolites
(see M. Treu in BZ 1. 1892. 361-6). There is only one MS. (Vaticanus gr.
87). A rather similar but inferior satire called the Maza.ris was composed in
the early fifteenth century; for a general account of the two see H. F.
Tozer, JHS 2. 1881. 233-70.
Edition with German translation and notes: A. Ellissen, Analekta der
mittel- und Literatur IV, Leipzig 1860.
3-10 The festival of St. Demetrius
TIMAPIQN. KCX"t"{}EtlJEV ovv els Tt)v 1TEphTVO"TOV eeaacxAoV{KT)V,
1Tplv il Tt)v hncrri'jvat.6T)lJT)Tpfov TOV lJOPTVPOS • Kal etxev
1 m:phruo-rov: according to LSJ the first occurrence of this word is a.t
Ap. Rhod. 4. 213. Like Lucian the author uses many words foreign to
Attic prose. 2 J.LCrpTVpos: according to tradition he was a proconsul
martyred in 306; the festival in his honour lasted three days.
112
TIMARION
i;IJlV -r6 -re l..jiV)(iSlOV eV6VIJoos. -r6 -re O'OOIJCrt'lOV \ryu:;>s. rnel Se
-ra\rrov fJIJlV -re apyeiv Kal 'JovSa{OlS avocpayeiv, ch1 lltl -rrepl
5 i\6yovs -rroveiv eixoiJEv, Kal &lla -rov Katpov -rov
-rro-ra!Jov &Jipas evEKEv -rro-ra1J6'>V Se oV.os -roov
Ka-ra MaKES6va 6 lleyta-ros· 0s -roov Bovi\yaptKoov 6poov
Kat'Cx IJlKpCx Kal SteO'TT)K6-ra peVIJCx-rla, eha Kal els
IJlaycXyKelaV -rrpc)s -rij Kcx66Sct> avvay61JeVOS, "01-lflPOS av eT-rrev,
10 ,...;vs -re IJ€yas -re", -rrapa -rf)v -rrai\atav MaKESov{av Kal TIEAi\av
KcX-relCTl, Kal Kat'Cx -rf)v EyyVS -rrapai\ov eOOVs El<StSoi. ea-rl Se 6
-r6-rros i\6yov rntelKOOS · yeoopyois -rraVTo{oov a-rrepiJCx-roov
&vaSo-rtKOs &lla Kal -rei\ea1ovpy6s · a-rpa-rtOO.ats f)Svs
aa0"6at, a-rpa7flyois f)Sioov cp&Aayyas,
15 Kal 6-rri\tTayooyflaat, llflSev •• Staa-rrooiJEVflS -rfls cp&Aay-
yos· OlrrOOS 6:At66s E0'71V ,; xoopa Kal 6:6a1JVOS Kal 61Jai\f) -ra
IJCxAlCT-ra. el Se Kal SflpevelV (3ovi\fl6e{flS, cpa{flS O:v, 00s ev-raVea
Kal llfl epooaa -rov •t-rr-rroi\V.ov fJ <l>a{Spa (av)
eVcpVOOS, Kal KVO'l Kal (3ai\{alS ty){phyano.
20 4. OCrroo IJeV 6 Kat'Cx -rov • S){el xoopos. Kal OlrrOO Kal fJIJeis
KaT • -rois -re TJIJE-repots Kal-rra-rpci>o•s f)Seoos avvSta-
yay6v-res Kal avvSflpevaav-res 70V -rrpo -rf)S top-rf)S Katp6v, rnl-
0'7CxO'flS els -rf)v -rr6i\1v aVets av-rEifavi}i\6o1Jev· Kal -rots
25 6eio1s -rEIJEVeat Kal lepois -rrpoaei\66v-res, Kal -rf)v 6cpeti\oiJEVflV
711JtlV &-rrove{IJav-res, -rrapa -rf)v -rrvi\oov lrflYVVIJEVflV -rravf}-
3 'f'VX.-
IStov: from Lucian Nav. 26; is classical. 4 avocpcxyetv: lexicis
addendum. 6 the Vardar. Here and in the next line the author
uses classical names, but he does not attempt to find a substitute for
'Bulgarian' in 7. Even Anna Comnena permitted herself the use of the
name Vardar (1. 7. 3), despite her anxiety to preserve stylistic purity.
7 KCXTa MCXK£Sova: se. yi'jv. as in Anth. Pal. 7. 45. 9 Iliad
4. 453; not in classical prose. 10 Iliad 2. 653 etc. 11 fi<StSoi: a form
known from Hdt.l. 80.1 etc. 12--13 &vaSOTtKos: quoted by
LSJ only from Cornutus ND 28. 13-14 first in Plut.
Marius 25. 3. 15 6"1t'AtTaywyi'jaat, 16 lexicis addenda.
18-19 Eur. Hipp. 215ff. (av) is to be inserted, on the assumption that
the author had a sufficient command of the syntax of the optative, an
assumption which cannot be made in the case of most Byzantine authors,
since the optative had long since disappeared from the living language.
24 aVTE"'t'aV1'}A60IJEV: lexicis addendum. 26 either 'estab-
lished, traditional', or referring to the erection of tents and stalls at the
fair, as at 61.
TIMARION
113
yvp1v • apxE"Ta1 1rpo 'Tiis Aop'Tfis Ai}ye1
Ka'TCx ,.,"' SEV"lipav 'Tiis KVpfas eOOVs.
KY/liQN. TI<XA1v 6 cpfAos 'I'}J.loov T1J,1apfoov A<XV"Tov eytVE'To,
80 K&1Te1Sav Aa61;J, 1TpQs 'TO olKEtov aVE101\I ?j6os. eloo6e1 yap •Cil
S11'}yeia6a1 J.lOV1'}S &pxfis Kal •tAovs J.1EJ.1vf\a6a1, •a J,ltact>
1Tapefs· Ka6a s,; Kal W\1, OOa-rrep hla66J,1EVOS 'Tiis
Kal 'Tiis aV-rov \rrroaxtaeoos, llf}Stv '1'1 Ka.a J,ltpos 1repl 'Tfis
1TaV1'}y\tpeoos S11'}yf}0"6:J.levos, J.1EYt6ovs "Te cxV-rfis Kal AaJ.11Tp6'T1'}-
as 'TOS, 1TAf}6ovs 'TE Kal 1TAOVTOV Kal oovfoov 1TOv:-t"OOV, aV-rfKa 1Tepl
&pxfis Kal •tAovs cxV-rfis cbs f}Sf} 1TEp1ypmvoov
mrrfKa Kal ,.,"' S1f}y1)0"1\l. &XA.. ,OVK D.a&s ·A•ptos vlov,
&pf}tqllA0\1 MevtAaov".
TIMAPIQN. /ltSo1Ka, cpfAE KvSfoov, ei ao1 1TE16ofJ.lf}V, cbs Kal
40 S1aVVK'TEpe\iaa1 O"VJ.11Teaei'Ta1 'I'}J.liV, Ka"Ta 'T1lv aft"' yvooJ.lf}V
'T1lv Sn)Y11a1v. &XA.O: Tf 1r6:6oo; •a •oov cpfAoov
'T01a\i'Ta, oos eo1Kev, &-rrapaf'Tf}'Ta Kal 'TVpavvfSos Eyy\ts· Kal oVI<
1Tapa1'Tf}aaa6a1 'TO brhayJ,la, 61Toi6v 1TO'T• O:v eif}. Atyoo-
OV\1
45 5. • Eop'T1l Si} "Ta ilf}J.li}'Tp1a, ooCTrrep • Tiava-
ef}va1a, Kal M1Af}O"f01S 'Ta TiaV100\11a· yfvE"Ta1 Kal 1Tap0:
MaKeS6a1 J.lEYfO"'Tf} "Toov 1TaV1'}y\tpeoov. avppet yap rn• alrrft"' ov
J,l0\10\1 mrr6x6oov OXAOS Kal l6ayevf}s, &XA.O: 1TcX\I'T06e\l Kal
1Ta\I'Toios, • EAAT)voov 'TOO V &iraV'Taxov, Mvaoov "Toov 1rapo1-
so KOV\I'Toov yt\11'} 1Ta\I'ToSana .,IO""Tpov J,ltxp1 Kal KaJ,11Ta-
27 'six days before the festival'; this use of 'Tl'po is
common in Hellenistic Greek. 28 -n'!v 6EV"dpav Tfls 1<Vplas: 'Monday'
(cf. 1'! 6E\rdpa in Modern Greek); 6EV"dpa in LXX Psalm 47
(title). 1<Vpla: modern 1<Vptcoc:f}. 32 LSJ quote only
from poetry. 37-38 Iliad 17.1. 41 6tacncev&Z;ovm: the active is not
classical; it recurs at 107. 43 an extension of the accusative
absolute, which has now become the main verb; but we should almost
certainly read (Winterbottom), 'it is not for me to ... '. efTJ:
classical syntax but the author's mistake need not be corrected.
45 6-la Hase: MS., which is unsatisfactory at the beginning of a nar-
rative. probably be deleted. 48 l6ayevf}s: found in Homer
and Ionic prose, not Attic. 49 Mvawv: originally of Mysia, but in
late Greek applied to the Roman province Moesia. S0-52 The names
are expressed in as classical a manner as possible; hence here
means 'Spaniards', whereas in ordinary Byzantine usage it meant 'Geor-
gians'.
8 Wilsoa
114
TIMARION
vwv, 'l'TcxAWV, .,J31}pwv, Avat'TCXVWV KCXl KeA'TWV 'TWV rnEKelVCX
"'AA-rrewv· Kcxl avAA.f}j3ST)v el-rreiv, ooKE6:vetot 6ives tmcxs Kcxl
6ewpovs rnl 'TOV IJcXp'TVpCX TrtiJTrOVO"l" 'TOao\i-rov cx\rr(.j) Tiis
KCX'Ta "'I'ftv E\/pwTrT)v -rrep{ea'Ttv. eyoo Se, &re KCXTrTrcxS6KflS
55 8< 'TflS Vl'repop{ov, Kcxl 'TOV -rrpcXyiJCX'TOS IJi}Trw
&:1\A • &Koij IJ6V'Q -rrcxpetA.T)cpws, oA.ov yevta6cxt 'TOV
6e6:'TpOV KCX'TCx 'Tcx\rrOV 6eCX'Tf}s, WS CXV IJf} 'Tl -riJv 01.1'1 V 8<cp\ryr:\
&6ECX'TOV. • 4) KCXl avt)et V rnl -riJv avyKEliJEVT)V 'Tij TrCXVT)yVpEl
&Kpwpetcxv, KCXl Tr<XV'TCX Kcx6{acxs KCX'TCx O)(OAf}V. 'ljv Se 'TCx
60 cx\rrij 'TotaSe · aKT) vcxl aVTmp6aw-rrot, O"'TOtXT)Sov 8<
-rrcxpcxAA.f}A.ov TrT)YvVIJEVCXl. rni IJCXKpov ot O"'TOiXOl Sn1KOV'TES,
OV'TlTrAeVp'fl 'TlVl StCXO"'TOO"El IJtO"'fl TrACX'TEicxv rup\/vov-
'TES, Kcxl 'Tij 'TOV -rrA.it6ovs "'I'ftv -rrapoSov Vl'rcxvo{yoV'TEs.
eT-rres cS:v, .,.o TrVKvov cx\rrwv 0:-rrtSoov Kcxl To Tiis -rrapt-
65 aov, YPCXIJIJCxS eTvcxt 'TOVTOVS OV'Tt6hwv O"'TlYIJWV pvefacxs rnl
1JCXKp6v. TrOV 'TWV O"'TO{XWV rnpcx1 aKT)VCXl TrCXpe-
-rrf}yVVV'TO, KCXl cxV'TCXl IJeV O"'T01XT)S6v, rnl IJCXKpov s' o\IK ETl,
&:1\A, wa-rrepel O"IJlKpO'TCX'TOl -rr6Ses OAKOiS -rrcxpecpVOV'TO.
Kcxl -ljv 'TO TrPCXyiJCX rnlElKWS Svo IJeV 'TOVS O"'Tofxovs
70 eTvcxt 'T(.j) TrPcXyiJCX'Tl, ev Se 'Tij eec;x SoKeiv Kcxl 'T(.j) TrVKVCj) KCXt
Tiis O"'Taaews· OAKOV yap -ljv lSea6cxt aKT)VWV, rnl
-rroal 'Texis TrCXPflP'TfliJtVCXlS wa-rrep rnepetSOIJEVOV.
vfl "'I'ftv o-ftv 6:y6:Tr'T')v, Tiis &Kpwpefcxs aKOTrOVIJEVCfl 'TO
St6:ypCXIJIJCX Tiis O"KT)Vwaews, 'TO -rrpay!Jcx hnjet,
52 OOKeavetos: post-classical. etves: not in classical prose.
54-55 This may be an indication of the writer's own origin, but it does
not enable us to identify him. 57 etcrrpov: 'spectacle' as at I Ep. Cor.
4. 9. 58 &etcrrov: post-classical in this intransitive sense. 62 &vn-
'between the parallel lines'. The usual meaning is 'parallel';
LS J cite from prose only Heliodorus 10. 29. 65 To\rrovs Hase: TOVTO\S
MS. 66 eyxapcnai Hase: eyxapata MS. 68 6A.Kois: the coils of a
serpent, Nicander Theriaca 266 etc. is found at Aristotle
Hist. An. 487b21. 69 quoted by LSJ only from Alciphron
3. 66 (3. 19. 10 Benner-Fobes), where it is a variant reading. 71 'Tt'ap-
first in Polybius in this non-rhetorical sense. rnl Hase: '\rrro
MS. 72 'Tt'apT)PTflpJ,.Itvats: this compound of &PTaoo is post-classical, but
Hdt. uses the Ionic form in a different sense. 73 vi} -n;v crljv
the noun is post-classical, and the oath belongs strictly to a Christian
context. 74 'centipede' or 'wood-louse'.
TIMARION
115
75 Os oi\KCj) ;rep•J.lflKel O"J.llKpcnerrovs Viro yaO"Tepa Kal TI"VKvovs
\nrocpa{ve• Tovs ;r6Scxs.
6. Et Se Kal Ta lvSov oo cpli\o;rpayJ.lOV haipe,
\!O"TEpov KaTlO.w Tiis &Kpoope{cxs !eeaa6:J.lflV, ;raVToiov eiSos,
oaa V<pCxO'J.lOOl Kal vflJ.laO'lV avSpoov TE Kal yvvalKOOV, Kal
80 oaa BolOOT{CXS Kal nei\o;rovvflaov, Kal ooa 'JTai\{cxs els
•Ei\i\flVOS vf}es ai\i\a Kal <l>OlV{Kfl ;roi\i\a
avve1acpepe1, Kal Aiyv;rTOS, •ta;rav{a Kal •HpcXKi\e1o1 a-riii\a1,
lO'Tovpyovaal TOOV rn{;ri\oov TO KO:i\i\lO'Ta .. &i\i\a TaVTa J.lEV
OJ.lEO'OOS TOOV xoopoov ;rpc)s -ri}v ;rai\al MaKESov{av Kal Seaaa-
85 i\ov{Kflv • eJJ;ropo•· Se ;rpc)s To
Ta SlairEJ.lirOOV Kal oihos KOO'J.lEl -ri}v ;ravf)yvp1v,
;roi\i\oov t;r;roov, ;roi\i\oov flJ.llovoov ery6VToov Ta eryooytJ.la.
Kal TaVTa J.,lev \!O'TEpov KaTloov hrfli\6ov Kal SleaK6irflaa · ETl
Se ;repl -ri}v aKpoope•av Ta Toov yeVfl Kal
90 ;ri\fl6fl rn1jel J.lOl, Kal OirOOS ti TOVTOOV J3oti O'VJ.l-
J.llYflS TOTS ooa{ J.lOl ;rpoarnlil"TEV" t;r;rol
j36es J.lVKOOJ.lEVOl, ;rp6j3aTa j3AflXOOJ.lEVa, XOlpol Kal
KVVES rnoVTal yap Kal OVTOl TOiS Sea;r6TalS, OTE
J.lev i\VI<oov, 6Te Se Kal cpoopoov ;roi\EJ.llOl. Se TaVTa o\!Too
95 KaTO axoi\t;v !eeaO'CxJ.lflV Kal 6eaJ.lCrrOOV EJ.lirAeOOS yeyova, irCxAlV
rnl -ri}v irOAlV i}yOJ.lflV, epOOTl 6eaJ.,lCrrOOV hepoov Kal TTlS lepe(s
Sfli\aSti y{VETal s· rnl Tpeis a\1Tfl ;ravvV)(ovs Sla-
78 1raVTotov eiSos:
the verb in this main clause is omitted by a simple ellipse; supply
J.IT)V. 79 vn11aaw: originally 'threads', here 'cloth'. In the next phrase
the reference is probably to the manufacture of silk in Thebes and Corinth
in the middle ages. 82 Note the classical names again, to avoid using
non-Greek words. avvetacptpew in classical Greek means 'to join in
paying monetary contributions'. 83 la-rovpyovaat: Soph. OC 340 is
the only classical example. rn(lTAc.>v: the Byzantine meaning is 'cloth
for decoration of an altar'. 84 6:1-\tac..>s: first cited by LSJ from Alex-
ander of Aphrodisias in Metaph. 162. 19. 87 Russian furs and caviar
are meant. 88 KCXTtC:.,v: more accurate would be Ka-reA6oov. 89 fiSpa-
al-\tv(t): post-classical. 91 Hase: MS. 94 rnel
Hase: rnetS"i) MS. 95 ytyova: a pluperfect would have been in order,
and Byzantine authors often use the tense, e. g. 112. 97
post-classical for 'gathering of people', usually for a religious service.
97-98 Sta\IVKOEpeVaets: 'vigils'; an alternative technical term is ayp-
\llTV(a. 'Nazirite', hence 'ascetic, monk'.
116
TIMARION
\1\IK"lCpeVOClS, 1TOAAOOV teptoov, 1TOAAOOV VrrO Svo
xopois t<al Tt)v VIJ.V'i>S{av 1TAflpoVVTOOV T4S
100 !J.CcpTVpl. 'TOVTOlS 6 apxtepe\Js tcrraTal apxt6toopos, o{6: 'TlS
Tt)v !opT1}v t<a6tcrroov 00s elt<bs t<al nepl 'TOOV 1Tpat<Ttoov StaTaTT6-
IJ.EVOS. fvvvxa Srt Taii-ra t<al V1To cpoo'Tl t<al AaiJ.1T6:St 'TE-
AOVIJ.Eva.
'"H!los S • 'l'}ptytveta cp6:Vf1 poSoS6:t<TVA.os • Hcbs,
105 ·ollflPOS av el1TEV, 6 'Tfls xoopas rnl TOV veoov 1Tapay{ve-
Ta1, IJ.ETCx Sopvcpop{as 1TOAAf\S 1Tpoioov t<al Aa!l1Tp6Tfl'Tos, 1ToA-
A.oov 11T1Ttoov, OVK OA{yoov -rltv 1TOIJ.T1TJV
t<al T1} v 1rpotAevow.
7. •E1rel 1rpo 'Tfls elcr6Sov 1jv 6 Sf\!los, t<apa-
110 Sot<ovVTes ocrov o\Trroo T1}v 1Tapovcr{av aV-rov, T10'1
'TWV TOV Sf}!J.OV cptAo6ecbpoov· t<al ocrov crraStaiov StCcO'Tfl!J.a,
t<al Tatrn:l O'VVT)v-nit<ElV 'T'ij t<al yfl6os ov 'TO "t'VXOV
€crxov 'To\!Tov Srt 'Tov 6e6:!laTOS. 'To oi5v cS:O'fl!J.OV &AAo
1TAf\6os, ooov &ypott<ias, t<al ocrov 'TOV Sf}!J.oV 1Tape{1TETO,
115 'T{ av l<aTcxAEyOliJ.l; ot St ye Aoy6:Ses aV-rov crricpos av el1T01 TlS
1TEAaTWV, 6av!J.aaT1}v T1}v 1Tp6oSov, 1TOVTES 6:t<!l6:-
1TOV'TES crcpptyooV'TES, cS:vSpes "'Apeos IJ.VCTTat t<al
'Tp6cpt!J.01, O'flptt<ais t<al t<aTacrr{t<Tots 6:1J.cp{ots -rltv 1Teptj3oAft v
t<cxAAVVOIJ.EVOl, oi5Ao1 'TcXS t<o!J.as, 'TcXS t<6!las • elnes av 'TO
120 'TOV 1T01f1TOV, 1TEptepyo'Ttpoos 'TCxs t<6!las [Scbv • t<6:S • t<CxpflTOS 1i
cpvcrts aV'Tois
OOA.as 1jt<e t<6!las, vat<1 v6{ v'i> cS:v6et 61J.o{as.
1oo &pxt-
etc.>pos: 'in charge of the ceremony'; the classical meaning was 'chief of
an embassy to a shrine'. This and a few other words in the passage occur
also in Heliodorus' description of a procession at Delphi (Aethiop. 2.
35-3. 4), which may well have been in the author's mind (H. Tode, de
Timarione dialogo byzantino, Diss. Greifswald 1912, 36f.). 101-102
Sta-rcrTT61JEvos: active in classical Greek. 104 Iliad. 1. 477, quoted also
in Heliodorus 3. 4.1. 108 1rpotAevaw: post-classical. 109-110 Kapa-
SoKovvns: common in Hdt. and late prose. 111 CTTaStalov: post-
classical. 112 6eoop(<jt: 'procession' or perhaps 'spectacle'. yijeos
first in Epicurus fr. 423. 114 &ypotK(a: 'country', first in Herodas
1. 2. 117 He cannot resist allusions to Homer; another is in 119.
118 not in classical prose, first in Soph. fr. 420. 120-122
Odyssey 6. 230f., 23. 167f.
TIMARION
117
•hnro1 Se 'TOVT01S • ApaJ311<ol yavp1ooV'1Cs \nreCTTpoovro,
IJS'TCcpcno1 'TOO 1r6Se Kal 'Tois cXAj.lacn Se1KWV'1CS 00s &tpos
125 Kal -n;v yiiv OOrOCTTpecpoVTa1· OVV1EV01 Kal 'Ti'js 1TEp11<E1-
ilfVTJS AOil1t'PO'TTl'TOS, OOT} xpvac;, Kal apyVpct> 'TOVS XaA1 vovs
1t'Ep1EAOil1TEV, oo(T1t'ep \nro-rep1r6!lEvo1 'Tij -rf\s 1TEp1J3oAiiS cpaVT)'T{Cj(,
Kal 1t'Vl<VCx 'TOVS 'TPOXfJAOVS 1t'Ep1eA{'T'TOVTES 'TOiS (T'TlAJ3001lO<T1V.
oV'ro1 !lSv o\1-roo 1t'poa{aa1v, b e\rt'Ccl<'Tct> 1<1vf)ae1 Kal cXAilO'T1
1ao a-rpa"T100'T1K4) -rltv 1ropetav 1T010V!lEVo1· Kal S1CcAe11llla 1-111<pov
'TOVT01S, Kal 6 bnJe1 YaAflV4l 'T4) 1<1111'llla'T1. epoo-res Se
aV'Tov Kal j.lOVO"a1 Kal XCcP1TES 1rpohpexov Kal
1t'OOS cS:v ao1 S1flYfl<Ta{j.lflV, KvS{oov cp{A'TaTe, "'ritv
xapj.lOvfJV 'Tij \IN)(ij llOV 'TO'TE, Kal 'TO -rf\S cXyaAA1Cc<Te(A)S 1TA{Ja-
185 j.l10V;
KY LllQN. El1re oo KaAA1a-re T11-1aptoov, 'T{S -re oV'ros
Kal 'T{VOOV Kal 01TOOS 0"01 l<O'TCx "'ritv oSov 'Tij 6eCjC 1rpoamae,
Kal 'TaAAa l<O'TCx !lEpos S1fJYfl0"01, -rltv apxiis 'l)llOOV

140 8. TIMAPIQN. To 1-1ev yevos cxV-rq>, 1<a6oos 'TOOV elS6'Toov
1t'OAV1Tpay!lov{Jaas &KftKoa, 'l)pooiKov Kal eOSa11-10V
·o 'TE yap 1TO'TpOs 1t'Cc1t'1TOS aV'Tq> 'TCx 1TpOO'Ta cpepoov 'TOOV 'Tij
!leyCcA1J <l>pvy{CjC 1TpOO'TOOV, Kal1t'AOVT<:t> Koj.loov, Kal J3pev6v6-
llEVOS • Kal yovv cxV-rov ii 1repl cxV-rov 1TaAa1ol A6yo1 cpep6!lEV01
123 A very contorted expression for 'they
were riding on'. 124 the correct Attic is as at
109. 125 iS6KOVV: Heliodorus a. a. 7 ehres O:v Kal -rcw flnrov cxVrOV
avvttvat 'Tfis oopat&n,-ros -rov Sea-rr6-rov. The genitive of the object after
is rare; LSJ cite Iliad 1. 273. 126 almost instrumental, as
is normal in Byzantine Greek. 127 wo-rep"tr6(.1Evot: lexicis adden-
dum. cpavrrrfGt: first in Moschos, Pratum spirituale, PG 87. a065a.
128 Kal "trVKVa K-rA.: does it mean 'arching their necks frequently to
display their decorated harness' ? 129 &AJ,lan: not in classical prose.
131 many administrative terms were borrowed from Latin. 131-
132 K-rA.: the ultimate origin of this encomiastic topos may be Eu-
polis' famous words about Pericles as an orator (fr. 94) "trEt6oo 'TIS
rnl -roTs xetAt:atv. 133 rare, first as a variant reading
at LXX Genesis 1a. 12. 134 aycxA).taaeoos: another word from the
LXX, very common in Byzantine authors. 139 the com-
pound is post-classical. 141 'by inquiry', without
any of the pejorative sense found in Attic. 143 (rnl) "trAOVr'!l KOJ,l(i)v
would be the Attic idiom. 144--145 This is a typically enigmatic way
118
TIMARION
145 rn(KAT}V a\rr(i) -n'}v apxcnoi\oy{av i)vtyKav-ro. o Se ye 1Tcx-ri}p
ov jlOVOV ,"'TaAOlCx TS "'TOi\i\a TS elSOOs,'' OJ\A.a Kai 'KCXTO xeipa
yevvaios, Kai CTTpCXTT}yeiv -roov &Ai\oov E\JSot<lllOO"TCXTOS, -rcxU-r•
O:pa Kai Tl'}v 1<ai\T)v OIJ.EVVhw a6i\ov &pe-riis CTTpCXTloo-rlKf}s
&"JTT}vtyKCXTo, -ra 1Tpoo-ra K&l<eiVT}v -roov 1Tpoo-r(CTToov yevoov
150 cpepo!leVT}V, Kai J3acni\eoov aillCXTOS 'KCXTlovcrav, Kai -roov 6pvi\-
i\ov!lEvoov l::.oVKoov ovcrav ern6yovov. (f)pooiKov Se, oos oTCT6a,
-ro yevos -roV-ro, Kai 005 •1-rai\fas Kai -roov Alve1aSoov j.le-raJ3av
1Tpos Tl'}v KoovCTTav-r(vov "'Toi\i\ois -rov Se ye
-raV"TT}s "'TCXTepa -r(s &yvoei -roov "'Tav-roov, \rrra-reia1s tll"'TPei.J'aVTa
155 Kai CTTpa"TT}y(als -rais 1-leyfCTTals Kai -rij 6vyCXTpi
"'TCxVT06ev "TO acr\ry'Kp170V m • eVyeve(q: J3paJ3eVCTaVTa; -rcxU-ra j.lEV
ovv i')KT}K6e1v -roov -r6-re 1Tap6v-roov Kai elS6-roov -ri}v Ka-r•
aV-rov apxaloi\oy(av· oi\(ya fCTOOS "'TOi\i\OOV, Kai j.ll'Kpa j.lE-
yCxi\oov, 00s 0 'KOlpOs tS(Sov -r6-n:, lCTTOpT}eEVTa j.lOl. ai\i\ •
160 rnav(ooj.leV aV61s rni -rov -rov i\6yov elpllOV, Kai -rf}s 1Tpo6Sov

9. npo'ljel llEV ovv, 00s ecpT}V, CTTicpos "'TeACXTOOV, -rf}s oSov
npOT}yovj.levov • Ka(, ooCT"'Tep &"JToppayev-ros 1<Cxi\oo, KCXTa -r1
SlCxCT"TT}j.lO -riis crvvexefas -rov Sp61lOV Stai\el"'TOVCTT}S, 0 'KaAOs
165 &vecpaVT} Kai ooe· ECT"'Tepos ove· o\i-roo 6avj.lacrt'Os
oos 'lilliv -r(i) -r6-n: "'Tapava-rhai\KE· , ,xapO"'Toloi ol 6cp6ai\!loi
of indicating that he belonged to the famous family of the Palaeologoi.
He can be identified as Michael Palaeologus, who had a distinguished
career as a general. 146 Odyssey 2. 188 etc. 148-149 Michael's
father George married Anna Dukaina; for that family see D. I. Polemis,
The Doukai, London 1968. Anna Comnena belonged to it through her
mother Eirene Dukaina. 152 AlvetaSc.>v Rase: Alvetavc.>v MS. Byzan-
tine noble families claimed Roman origin. For this case see Nicephorus
Bryennius p. 13, for others Polemis pp. 3-4. 153 VrrO'f't6vpil;E'Tcxt:
literally 'whisper softly', quoted by LSJ only from Achilles Tatius 1. 6;
a strangely inappropriate use of a rare word. 154 wcrrdcns: 'high
government offices'; the word had earlier been used to translate the
Latin consulship. 156 aaVy1cptTOV: Hellenistic. 'guar-
antee'? 158 apxcno:Aoy{av: here no more than 'history', but with a
play again on the family's name. 6:Atya KTA.: perhaps reminiscence
of Lucian Demonax 67. 164 'the continuity of the procession being
broken'. 165 Ka\ ... 6av'-'aaT6s: quoted from Aristotle Eth. Nic.
1129 b 28. 166-167 xap01t'OtO\ KTA.: Genesis 49. 12.
TIMARION
119
o\rrov, oos &iro oivov, t<ol Aevt<ol ol 6S6v-res cx\nov ft ya:ho·"
Slflp6poo1JEVOS 'TO aoo!Jo, -ri}v &voSpo!Jf)V rnliJTJl<flS, cx\nc)s
-rrpes -rrexvro ,.a IJEAfl t<a:hoos t<ol aVIJIJctpos, ooa"T'
170 elvo1 'TO 6pVAAOVIJEVOV el-rreiv rn' cx\n4), 00s ,o'lit< ga'Tl -rrpo-
a6eiVOl, ovS • &cpt:Aeiv." 'TO ye J,lev aoo!JCx ol ooael KV7rCxpl'T'TOS
op610V OVlOV, !t<ei -rrov hrl -ri}v Selpf}v t<ol Vn'et<A(vcro,
'TO aiJE'Tpov ooa-rrep Tfis cpvaeoos, t<ol -rrpc)s -rrav
eva"Tp6cpoos gxe•v 'TO -rrpoa7VXov olt<ovo!JOVaf}S -ri}v Tfis Se•pfls
175 t<OIJ7fVAO'Tfl'Tc:!. -rrpoo'Tfl cx\hT') 'TOOV OIJIJCx'Toov hnJ3o:hi), t<ol 00s 8<
IJTJKOVS t<ol SlOa"TTJIJO'TOS. 07rflV(t<o S • 1'\JJiV t<ol -rrpoaea'TT}
-rrpoala'TOIJEVOlS, t<Ol OOS elt<Qs 'Tf}v av\I'TVX(OV acpoatOVJJEVOlS,
-rroV'ToSa-rr6v 'Tl XPfi!Jo t<ol &'Texv(;)s Svat<O'TaAfl7r'TOV.
olov yap TlS t<Vt<eoov ,cpexp!Jat<O -rroA:ha 1-1ev IJEJ.ll-
180 YIJEVO, 7fOAACx Se t<ol :hvypex, .. 'TO 'Tiis OI.J'EOOS cx\n4) rnolt<LAAE'To
Sla'TV-rrOOIJO, vVV J,leV 'TO 'Tiis • AcppoS('TT}S xop(ev -rrpoJ3aA:h6J,lEVOV.
t<ol IJlt<pov ao1 'TO 'TOV "'Apeoos aVV'Tovov 8< 'TOO V
6cp6aAIJOOV &ve-rraAAE'To, t<ol tubs IJE'T' 6:h(yov 'TO IJEYaAo-rrpe-rres
&vecpo{vcro, •EpJJfis Se t<ol t<O'T' o'+'1v S1eSdt<VV'To,
185 yopyov t<ol &yxia"Tpocpov Vn-of3M-rroov, t<ol J,lrnoopos &el 'To
f3AEIJIJO, t<ol 'Tois -rrpoa-rr{7t"'Toval v ELOliJOS avvSlO'TE( vea6o1
-rrpexy!Joal, t<ol 'TOV :h6yov 'Tpovoov t<ol SlO'Tl6EIJEVOS els -rre16oo.
oos yovv 'TOTE -rropflv, eTxev oO'Toos cx\n4) Tfis 'INXi'iS 'TO
t<O'TCxa'TfliJO • t<OIJfl Se cx\n4) IJEAOl vo ovSo!JOOs, Se ov
190 -rrexvv· Tfis &t<p6'Tfl'TOS Se 'ToV'Toov l<El<poJ,lEvov &AAo
.,.. J3ex1J1Jo 6av1Jexa1ov -ri}v 'Tpixo Vn-ef307r'TE. 'TOTE yap J,lEAov
168 avaSpollt'IV
brtllTJKT)s: neither word is used of a person's height in Attic. 169 aVIl-
MS.: Hase altered to avllllhPc..lS against the clausula. 170-171
Aristotle Eth. Nic. 1106b10. 173 KOAa/;ov<TI'\s: 'correcting', again at
190; LSJ cite Hippocrates Acut. 69, Xen. Oecon. 20. 12. 175 Kall1TV-
A6T1'\Ta: a technical term in Hippocra tes and Gal en. 176-177 The play
on words is a normal rhetorical device. 177 Tt'tv C7VVTV)((av aq>OCTtOV-
j.ltVOtS: 'make a formal recognition of his presence'; this must be the
sense, however strange it seems, since the phrase is borrowed from Gregory
of Nyssa, epistle 1. 13. 178 SvaKaTaAfi1TTOV: Hellenistic. 179-180
Odyssey 4. 230. 181 Stcrnnrooj.la: DuCange cites this rarity from a
legal text, but here the meaning must be 'appearance'. 183 &ve-rr&A-
A&To: not in classical prose. 186 avvStCX'TE(vea6cn: 'extend over', first
in Plutarch. 187 TOV ).6yov Tpavoov: obscure, perhaps 'displaying clearly
his intelligence'.
120
TIMARION
cxVxllflPOV Kal -r6-re yvvcnKooSes Kal cS:vav-
Spov. "TO aJ,lcponpoov &vSpetq: T0\1
lpooTa. l:crrrcpoo ns cx\rrc{) Tft\1 6J,l1A{av h6pevs,
195 1TE160VS Kal xapfToov Kal J.lOVO'lKfiS • el"'TES 0\1 ayaa6els
acp6Spa -ro /\aKoov1Kov -roiiTo • BaJ3a{, ae'ios &VJip •
S • &Ko\nn v 1To&f)ae1as.
10. Kal yoiiv 6 yevvaSas "'TPOs Tc{) lepc{) yev6J,lEvos
-n;v Tc{) J.lOP"TVP1 eeoi<A\rrr}a1V eVcpflJ,l{a
200 TE t;p6fl 1Tapa TOV 1TAT)6ovs, Eeovs Tc{) f}yeJ,l0\11.
Kal KaTCx -n;v VOJ.l1J.lOV J3aa1v EO'Tfl, Kal -rov 1Tape'iva{ ol
S1EKEA.eVacrro, VOJ.llJ.lOV iaoos Kal ToiiTo ii EelJ.lOV. ToTe yovv Toov
KaTCx -ri}v J.lCXAA0\1 (ola TOVTOVS axoVTCo>V
TOVS eeoopovs) T1S pv6J.lc{) Kal
205 Kal aJ,lo1J3ij "'TPOs TO
nv OVK &vSpoov J.lOVOV VJ.lVOS cXVa"'TEJ.l"'TOJ.lEVOS, O:AAa Sf} Kal
yvva'iKES &na1 Kal 1Tepl TO 1TTEp\ry1ov, eVOOVVJ.la
"'TOV TOV lepov, "'TPOs Svo xopovs aVT1cpoovovs S1a1pe6e'iaa1, Kal
cxiha1 TO 00'10\1 O:"JTeS{Sovv Tc{) J.lCxp-rvp1. 1) 6eoop{a Kal TO
210 TOV aVJ,l"'TaVTa VOJ.l1J,la, eeoi<AvTT)aaVTES
f}J,le'is oos e[KOs Kal TfiS rnav6Sov Tf}v eVKOA{av 1Tapa TOV J.lCxpTV-
pos a[TflO"OJ.lEV01, Tc{) "'TaVTl Kal Tc{) .6.oVKl Tov lepov
• Kal CrntiA60J,lEV ou KaTEAVOJ.lEV.
192 not in classical prose. 193 pro-
bably instrumental. 194 h6peve: h6pveve would also be possible; both
words were transferred from crafts to literary criticism. 196 aeios
Hase: I<EliiOS MS. The phrase comes from Plato Meno 99d, where Casaubon
emended 9etos to aetos. 199 9eoi<Aii-rT}ow: first in Polybius 23. 10. 7,
but the verb (210) is earlier. The description of the liturgy gives less
opportunity for rhetorical display, so the author deals with it briefly.
201 j36:ow: 'position'. 203 llaAAOII 'who had specially
practised'. 207 1TTEpVylOII : this adaptation of 'wing' to architecture
seems to be rare. 210 in classical times this would have
referred to a sacrifice to the dead. 211 -ri}v: otiose.
GEORGE ACROPOLITES (1217-82)
Constantinople was captured and sacked by the Fourth Crusade in
1204. That was the end of the Byzantine empire proper, but a government in
exile was set up in Nicaea and lasted until1261, when it was able to return
to the former capital, but not to recover very much of the territories that
had belonged to the empire. Owing to the encouragement of the emperors
literary and cultural life flourished to a much greater degree than might
have been expected in a defeated nation. Some credit for this is due also to
Acropolites and Nicephorus Blemm.ydes. Acropolites was an administrator
and diplomat, who acted as tutor to the future emperor Theodore !.ascaris.
In 1261 he became rector of the restored imperial university and later wrote
a history of events 1230-61.
Edition: A. Heisenberg, Teubner 1903.
Chapter 39: a conversation at court in 1238
9vf}C1<el Se Kal 'I') (3aa-11l.ls ElpftVfl, yvvi) a-oocppov1Kf) TE Kal
apXlKfJ Kal 1TOAV -ro IJeyaAsiov hnSelKVVIJEVT'} -ro (3aa-{AelOV.
E)(a1pe Se Kal 1l.6yo1s Kal a-ocpoov i}Kpocrro IJE"l"Cx 'I')Sovfls · hi1.1a Se
-ro<rrovs \nrep(3c:xAA6v-roos, 00s ea--r1v tK -ro<rrov yvoova1. Kal yap
5 tt<Adi.J.IEOOS YlVOIJEVT'}S. 1')11.{ov -rov KapK{vov S1oSe\1ov-ros lTEpl
IJEOT)IJ(3p{av, rne{1Tep a\rros o\i-roo O"VIJ(3av -rois (3aa-1Ae{OlS
&1Tfl11.6ov - Se 1repl -rovs -r61rovs ovs
Ilep{KA.va--rpa cruv -rij (3aa-1AiS1 o (3aa-1AeVS - f}poo711Ke IJE -rf}v
-rt;s ah{av. Kal a\rrbs 1.1ev &Kp1(3oos o\n< etxov -
10 ap-rl Kal yap -roov -ri;S cplAOO"ocp{as opy{oov 1Tapa -rov
a-ocpov 8AeiJIJVSov S1Sa01<61JEvos - OIJOOS 1.1Ev-ro1 1rap • a\rrov -r(f>
6 o\i-rcu av11f!!av: this verb is not used in the accusative absolute in clas-
sical Greek, but "TV)(OV is very similar. 7 &trij1.6ov: perhaps tnij1.6ov
is better (Heisenberg). 9 the future form is used by mistake
for the present. 10 The natural order of words is Kal yap c5:pn. 11
Blemmydes (c. 1272) was the leading scholar and teacher of his
day; among his writings is a lively autobiography (ed. A. Heisenberg,
Teubner 1896).
122
GEORGE ACROPOLITES
•6-re ooov i'jv elKOs trnyvovs -rl)v 'TE Ti)s C"EATJV11S trn1Tp6a6r}ow
al'T{av •iis rnlO'KlcXC"EOOS EAeyov etval, Kal SoKelV j.leV b<Ae{1Te1V
•ov ilA•ov, o\n< &Afl6ii Se dva1 -ri)v Ti)s cpcrucreoos O"'TEpflcrlv,
15 j.lCXAAOV !lEV'TOl 'TO\i-ro 'T'f)v O"eA{}V11V 1TcXO")(ElV, rnav 'T'f) O'KlcXO"j.laTl
Ti)s yi;s, S1<x 'To ftA{ov 'To cpeyyos cruxeiv. rnel Se 6
A6yos rnl ll{}KlO"'TOV 1Tape'TE{VE'TO, CxV'TEAeye Se 'TOiS Aeyo!lEVOlS 6
larpos NlKoAaos, 0:\rltp ilKlO"'Ta 1-1ev cp1Aocrocp£as llE'Tacrxoov,
&Kpos Se -ri)v olKe{av •exVTlv Kal llcXAlO"'Ta -ri)v 81<x 1Te{pas y•voo-
20 O"KO!lEVTlv · 1Tavv Se oV.os i}yan&ro •fj j3acr1MS1, &tcrovap{ov
Se etxe 'TlllTJV. rnel yovv OV'TEAeyEV oV.os. cx\rres Se 1TAEOV
'T'f) 'TOOV Aeyo!lEvoov CxneKcXAeO"E j.lE ft
J3acr1Als j.1oop6v • eha Sil oo0"1Tep 'Tl ov 1Tpocri;Kov
1Tpos 'TOV j3acr1Ata O"'Tpacpeicra ,&1TpE1TooS O:pa elp{}KElV" ecpfl
25 ,Kc:xAEcracra 'Toii'Tov llOOp6v". Kal 6 j3acrlAeVs ,ov Ka1v6v· llElpa-
Klov yap eiKocr• yap crVv •6-re \rrriipxov hoov, Kal ov
1TcXj.11TaV &1T*Se1 'To\rrov 'TO 1Tp6crp'Tllla. &AA' ft j3acrlAlS ;,ov
xpeoov" cpflCT{ , 'TO V cplAOCT6cpovs A6yovs 1TpocpepoV'Ta o\rroocr{ ye
1Tpocrayopev&i'jva1 1Tap • ftllOOV".
12 'interposition'. 13 hrtoxtaaec.>s:
'over-shadowing', a post-classical word. 14 IJiaVaEc.>s: 'illumination';
first in LXX Gen. 1. 15. 16 cxV)(elv with an accusative is found in
Aristides 13. p. 164D and Josephus in Apionem 1. 22; here the meaning
seems to have gone beyond 'boast of', and is almost 'derive'. 18 Niko-
laos was the author of a work on materia medica; a Latin translation of
it was used as a textbook by the medical faculty at Paris in the Renais-
sance. 20 &K-Tovap(ov: originally 'paymaster, accountant', eventually
became a title of physicians to the royal family. 26---27 ov TraiJTrCX\1
'is not entirely ofi the mark'; this meaning of the verb is post-
classical.
THEODOROS LASCARIS (1222-68)
Theodore, who became ruler of the Nicaean empire in 1254, followed
the enlightened traditions of his father. He founded a school at Nicaea, and
his correspondence with the masters, who were paid by him, makes it
clear that the curriculum was literary and philosophical (see especially
letter 217, pp. 271-6 in Festa). He continued to build up good libraries in
the empire; the chronicler Scutariota goes so far as to say (p. 297) Kal
j3!j3AOVS Se OVVT'IYcXyETO, ovs· 6aas (sic: ooas ovs· Wilson) 6 rnl 'TOVT(j) j..IE-
yaAVV6j..IEVOS n'TOAEj..laiOS, TraV'TO{OOV 'TE)(V(.;)v 'TE Kal {1T\O"TT''I..I(.;)V. The long-
term results of his activities can be seen in the years following the resto-
ration of the government to the old capital, which witnessed a considerable
literary and intellectual revival.
Edition: Theodori Ducae Lascaris epistulae, ed. N. Festa, Florence 1898.
Letter 32 (to George Acropolites)
TlepyaJJOS "'TOAlS olov OV "'TVEVJ.lcXTOOV K<XTOll<T)T'f}plOV,
&J.J..• &v6poo1Toov els Sa{JJovas cpvA.CXI<"'ri}ptov (ovo-nvas ST} Tov-
Tovs, VrrOATl"'TTEOV)' TtllOS Sva6ecbp11TOS ova-a, o\Jx
i}TTOV Se Svaavexj3<XTOS, 6ecnpoov ova-a !lEa-n'}, Kal TOVTOOV
5 olov YEY11PaK6Toov Kal JJapav6eVToov T't> xp6vct> Kal ooO""'TEp
\JO...ct> Ttvl T'f}v "'TOTE SetKVVIJEVc..:>v AaJ.l"'TPOTTlTa Kal To IJEYaAO"'Tpe-
1 {vcxr:p!a: 'in the air', a Hellenistic alternative for j..IE"T{oopos, suitable to
describe an acropolis. TT\Ie\/l..lcrroov: apart from the pun on TrveVj..la,
'wind' and 'spirit', the reference is to the fall of Babylon in Apocalypse
18. 2 Baj3vAG.lv {yiVETo Ka'TOtKTl'TliPtOV Satj..lov{oov Kal cpvACXKt') 1raV'T6s 1TveV-
I..Ia'TOS &Ka6ap'TOV K'TA.; the intention is doubtless to compare the ruins of
Pergamum with the fall of Babylon, and the allusion to this book of
scripture is all the more appropriate since Pergamum is represented in it
as the throne of Satan. 4 Svaavaj3aTOS seems not to be attested earlier
than Cornutus ND 14. 6ecrrpoov: 'impressive sights' lin fact there was
one large theatre near the summit, another at the Asklepieion). 5-6
{v vliA(j) 'Tlvf: literally 'in a glass'; the idea must be that of distortion or
faint reflection.
124 THEODOROS LASCARlS
;res Twv Setll6:VTwv cx\rra. • EAATlvtKfis yap IJEYcxf.ovo{as \rrrapxet
TcxiiTa llECTTa, Kal aocp{as Tcx\rrt)S lvSO:AilaTa · SetKvvet Se Tcrii-ra
;rpbs TJilCXS ..; ;r6A.ts w0'1TEp &-rroy6vovs Ttv6:s,
10 Tov 1TaTpc1>ov l<Atovs T4) IJEYcxAe{'1'· allepScxt.ea yap elat Tcrii-ra
;rpos Tas viiv &votKoSo1-16:s, Kav • AptCTToTeA.et SoKij ;raVTa
O'lllKpCx eavj.laO"j.lOV 1TpOs TO aVj.11TaV. &veye{poVTal Se Kal
TdXTl XcxAKWV ovpavwv 1T01K{ATlV olKoSoj.li)V 1TOTaj.1Qs
Se 1-1eaov StepxETat 6:\y{Seat ;rpollTlKECTTepots KaTayecpvpov!lEvos.
15 ov, 1-10 Tov ;r6A.ov Soll{}Topa, avv6hovs ei;rot TlS eTva1 TaVTOS,
&AA. oTov a\JTocpveis TE Kal j.lOVOA{6ovs. a0'1Tep, ei;rep YS1J Kal
Cl>etS{as &AAos A.t6oK6;ros, tea\Jilaae To KaTa CTT6:ellTlV taov
TOVTWV Kal &KA.t ves. !lEaov Se TWV olKoSOj.lWV KEAAVSpta xeaj.lcxACx
Kal oTov Ad\Vava Twv Te6vewTwv otKwv ;ro:AAT)v
20 Tij eec;c Ti)v &A.YTlS6va. ws yap els TOVS vVV otKOVS
at TWV j.lVWV TpwyA.at, OVTWS av ei1T01 TlS Kal Tcrii-ra
;rpos TOVS et Se Kal ..; TWV olKTlT6pwv avcx!.oy{a
TOlaVTTl, cpeii Tiis TWV KaKOTVX{as. 1TOO"OV eaxov TO
KaT• EA.aTTov &vtaov. 8<aTepots !lEpeat Se Twv Tov 1-1ey6A.ov
25 &chpov 1TEplTE1X1C"IlCrrWV KVA1 vSpcbSets tCTTaVTat wpyot, oTov
taov Tovs A.{6ovs E)(etv Te Ttvas
8 lvScXAIJCX'Ta: here 'signs, manifestations'. 9 KCX'T-
ovetSfl,;ovaa: this compound is first found in Hellenistic writers. 10
aiJEpSaMa: 'awe-inspiring', an epithet from Homer, but not thereby
excluded from Byzantine prose vocabulary. T. notes the same contrast
between present misery and past glory that Michael Choniates had seen
in Athens (see above, p. 110). 11 avotKoSollc!xs: a rare word, which in
the papyri means 'rebuilding'. • Aptcrro-rfut: [Arist.] nepl K6aiJOV
39lal8-b3. The text is defective here; a word governing is
required. 13 XaAKoov ovpavoov KTA.: the walls are compared to those
of Zeus' palace as described by Homer - XaAKoJ3crds Soo. 14 KCX'Ta-
lexicis addendum. 15 'builder', a very rare
word. 16 iS1J Festa: 'CSe MS. 17 t6aV1Jaae: a future or optative
would be expected. 18 KU.AvSpta: perhaps 'huts'. rather than 'monas-
tic cells' as DuCange defines it; cella = 'room' had already been borrowed
from Latin by the second century. 23 faxov should be taken as per-
fect, not aorist, since the Byzantines no longer made the distinction;
the sense is 'how much inferior is the city that they have inherited'. 25
The towers are mysterious; they are not marked on modern plans of the
site. For an account of the present remains see G. E. Bean, Aegean Tur-
key, London 1966, 68ff. 26 l,;oovas: 'friezes'.
THEODOROS LASCARIS
125
vVJJSVOl. o\i-re xe1p0s o\i-re voc)s v6t)1Ja ToiiTo TOOV viiv •
bmAf}TTEl yap 1<ai J3krr6JJSVOV. ol iJ!CToV TfJV avoSov
S1CX1Top6j.1E\}ov01 1rp0s TCx IJET• cxV-ro\is TI'EplTElX{CTIJaTa -rl)v
80 avvavacpa{VETal Tij TI'OAel 1<ai 6cxVj.la 1<a1v6v·
oopoo6Tepa yap el01 TCx 1rp01r0Sa TfiS l<Opvcpfjs 1<ai TCx TOOV
Te6vec.::m:..:>v (Toov) TOOV Talrn)v opOOVTES T)JJSis TI'OOS
&eviJOVIJEV, TI'OOS CTl<lpTOOj.lEV, Kal OOCTTI'Ep xapj.loAVrn:l Kal
TlVl SlCxyOJJSV. TTalOOVElOV Tl OO<rrrep TOV TOV
35 ra'AT)VOV o[l<OV opoov-res. &pv6j.le6a -rl)v oocpfulav, TOV T)IJ!Tepov
XplCTTocp6pov, ii KVPTocp6pov, \rrrovpy6v.
28-30 ol SA JCTA.: 'the
towers stand on either side of the ascent, and guide the visitor to the
buildings beyond them'. 32 {T(;.)v) add. Festa. 33 xapJ,lOA\rm;J: the
LexPatrGr cites this word only from Ioannes Climax, scala paradisi 7.
34 I<Aavcnyt}.c.Yt1 (I<Aavao- MS.: corr. Festa) is apparently lexicis adden-
dum, but exists in the modern language. Both these words are dvandra
compounds of a type much more common in the modern than the clas-
sical language. ncn&>l/et0\1: literally 'hospital', but he must be referring
to the famous temple of Asclepios. 35 Galen (129-199) practised
medicine in his native city Pergamum and was for a time physician to
Marcus Aurelius. 36 St. Christopher is the patron of travellers; he
used to carry them across a river, and was once bowed down (KVpTocp6pov)
by the weight of a child, who turned out to be Christ and his weight
that of the whole world. -The last few lines of the letter, here omitted,
deal briefly with other topics.
MAXIMOS PLANUDES (c. 1255---c. 1305)
Planudes was an exceptionally versatile man. His work on classical
texts included important contributions to Plutarch and the Greek Antho-
logy, and his interest in mathematics and astronomy led him to edit Dio-
phantus and revise some sections of Aratus' Phaenomena that had been
proved inaccurate. He served as ambassador to Venice, and is the first
known Byzantine scholar to possess a really good knowledge of Latin,
which he used to translate Ovid, Cicero, Augustine, Boethius and Donatus.
The following extract is from a pamphlet on Arabic numerals, which
were slowly coming into use. They are found occasionally in earlier sources,
such as Arethas' copy of Euclid written in 888 (MS. D'Orville 301). but the
importance of the cipher was not always appreciated (see K. Vogel, Akten
des XI. internationalen Byzantinisten-Kongresses zu Mtlnchen 1958,
Munich 1960, 660--4). Planudes may have derived some of his knowledge
from a. pamphlet written in 1262, which P. Tannery found in MS. Paris
suppl. gr. 387, foil. 163--80, but the text has never been printed. Planudes
is in any case independent of his alleged source in using the Persian rather
than the Western forms of the numerals and in adding a section on the
.extraction of square roots. After explaining the new numerals in the in-
troduction printed below he goes on to demonstrate their application in
performing the operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication, division,
sexagesimal fractions and extraction of square roots.
Edition: C. J. Gerhardt, Halle 1865. On Planudes in general see C. Wendel
in Pauly-Wissowa.
A description of Arabic numerals
Ol TOOV <plAOCTO<pW"TEpOl, rnel 0 c:Xpt6llOS
EXEl TO &rretpov, TOV arrdpov yvooCTlS OVK EOTIV,
TlVa Kal St' cx\rroov, 00s av TCx TOOV XPTtCTEl
rocruv01TT6-rep6v TE ·KCXTavof}Tal Kal elcrl
5 SeTa & Kal elcrl TcxiiTa· I }J J..U C.V 4 V J\ 9
Tt6eacrl Se Kal rnpov Tl o KaAOVCTl KCXT' 'JvSo\Js
6 KTA.: the etymology is Arabic cifr, 'zero'.
MAXIMOS PLANUDES
127
ovSev· Kal TCx Se Kal aVTCx 'lvSlKO
tcrnv· ,; Se ypacpETal oll"roos o.
ToU,.oov TOOV 6' El<aO"Tov Ka6' a\JTo
10 f}TOl KaTCx -rl}v iTpOOTT)V xoopav CrnO Tiis XElpOs
TO 1 ev, TO Se p Svo, TO Se J...V Tp{a, TO
TEa-crapa, To se WiTeVTE, To se 4 To se v trn-a, To Se
AoKTOO, TO Se 9 tvvea· KaTCx Se -ri}v Sev-dpav xoopav TO lleV 1
SEKa, To Se p eiKOO'l, To J-U TplcXKoVTa, Kal · KaTa Se -ri}v
15 Tp{TT)V xoopav TO I h<aT6v, TO Se p SlaK60'1a, TO Se J..U
TplaKOO'la, Kal Kal KaTCx TCxs AOl"lTCxS Se xoopas WO'aVTOOS
y{vETal. Ws KaTCx -ri}v iTpOOTT)V xoopav WS TCx
0: TOOV tvvea iTpo(3a{vovcrlv erno
&px61.1eva (Kal yap Kal Ta Svo, Kal Tp{a, Kal Tecrcrapa,
20 Kal TOOV tvvea, ot iTCxVTES
S1a To mxVTas a\JTovs tVTbs Tfls SEK6:Sos Keicr6al Kai
aVTflS E<plKVEicr6al \rrrep aV-ri}v tKiT{iTTElV), WS TO{VVV KaTCx
-rl}v iTpOOTT)V xoopav TO TVXOV tv a\JTfj ws
To S' tv Tij SeVTepcr SeKaS1K65, ToVTe<rTl v
25 &iTo Toov SEKa Toov tvvevi}KoVTa, TO S' tv Tij TPlTTJ
TaS1K6s, TOVTEO'TlV &iTo TOOV b<aTOV TOOV ov-
TOOS TO KaTCx -rit V TETapTT)V xoopav TOOV Xli\16:Soov TO
Se KaTa -rftv Toov llVplaSoov, To Se KaTa -rl}v EK-n,v Toov
SEKaS1Koov To Se KaTa -rl}v Toov b<aToVTaSlKoov
ao To Se KaTa -rftv 6yS6T)v Toov XlAlaSlKoov To
Se KaTa -rl}v tvv&TT)v Toov Kal ei iTpof3a!-
vel Kal rn' b:eiva, TO KaTCx -rl}v SeKO:TT)V TOOV
KOOV, To Se KOTO -rftv Toov
To Se KaTa -rl}v SooSEKO:TT)v Toov
a5 S1Koov To Se KaTa -rl}v Tpl<rKalSEK&TT)v Toov
• Kal ei TlS rn\ iTAeiOV xoopoov
SvvalTO. tva Se Kai rnl cracpes yeVT)TOl TO Aey6-
EKKe{cr6oocrav ot TVX6VTES fJ) 4 V elcriv
oov ot TOlOVTOl SEKa xoopas KaTExOVTES. &XAa 6 rnl Tfis
4:0 iTpOOTT)S xoopas, ws eipT)TOl, &iTo Tfis xelpos O:pxo!J.EVOOV
10 i\T01 (or Eh. oov) Wilson: ft TOOV (sic) Gerhardt. x&lpav: 'position·.
or as we should say 'column'. 20 ol seems otiose.
128 MAXIMOS PLANUDES
T)l.lOOV, 6 y ST}AO! Svo, Os lO"Tl IJ.OVaSucas apl61.16s· 6 Se rnl Tfis
SEVTtpas xoopas 6 9 tvvevf}KOVTa, Os lO"Tl Set<aSli<Qs apl61.lbs
f}Tol S1a Set<aSCA>v avv10"T6:1J.Evos 1.16vCA>v, oo0"1Tep 6 1Tpo a\rrov 6
Svo l.lOVaSli<Qs SlCx IJ.OVcXSCA>V IJ.6VCA>v· 6 Se rnl Tfis Tp(TT}s
45 xoopas 6 w 1TEVTaK6cna, Os lO"Tl V bcaTOVTaSlKOS apl61.16s. 6 Se
rnl Tfis TETapTT}S 6 3 TETpaKlO")(iAla, Os lO"Tl XlAlaSli<Qs &pl61.16s·
6 Se rnl Tfis 1TEIJ.1TTT}S 6 V hrrai<lO"IJ.Vpla, os lO"Tl IJ.VplaSli<Qs
apl61.16s. 6 Se rnl Tfis EKTT}S 6 y elKOO"aKtO"IJ.Vpla, Os lO"Tl SeKa-
KlO"IJ.VplaSlK6s &pl61.16S. 6 Se rnl Tfis 6 4 IJ.Vpla-
50 Sas, os EO"TlV bcaTOVTaKlO"IJ.VplaSlKOS apl61.16s· 0 Se rnl Tfls
6yS611s 6 }-V TPlO"XlAias IJ.VplaSas, os lO"Tl XlAloVTaJ<laiJ.vpla-
&pl61.16s. 6 Se rnl Tfis evv6:TT}s 6 I IJ.Vp(as IJ.VplaSas, os EO"Tl
&p161.16s · 6 Se rnl Tfis 6 A
6ySoflKov-r6:Kls IJ.Vpias 1J.Vpl6:Sas, os EO"Tl SeKaKlO"IJ.VploVTaKlaiJ.v-
55 ptaS11<os &p161.16s. eaTl Se oos ehreiv aVIJ.1TaS 6 1TpoTe6els ap161.10s
6ySoflKoVT6:Kts IJ.Vplal 1J.vp16:Ses Kal h1 IJ.Vplal IJ.VplaSes Kal
TPlO")(iAlal ei1<oa1 Kal hrra IJ.VplaSes Kal TETpaKlO")(iAla
1TEVTaK6ala evvevi)KOVTa Svo.
·EVEKev Se 1TAe(ovos Kal oliTCA>s· 6 1.1ev
60 l<aTCx TT}v 1TpOOTT}V xoopav KE(IJ.EVOS ap161.10s TOO"OVTCA>V IJ.OVOSCA>V
ecrrlv OO"CA>V a\rros 6 apl61.lOS SflAOi, 6 Se Sewpos TOO"OVTCA>V
Kal 6 Tphos Toao\JTCA>v bcaToVTaSCA>v, Kal 6 ThapTos
XlAlaSCA>v, Kal OO"fl1Tep f) 1Toa6TT}s a\rrov Tov &p161.1ov
ecrr1v.
65 'IO"Ttov Se Kal ToGTo, 00s l.lExPl Toov -reaaapCA>v O"fliJ.E(CA>v
1Tp6elO"lV &pl61J.Os OIJ.e((3CA>V TCxS olKE(as 6VOIJ.aa(as· eha 1TaAlV ev
T't> TO TOV 1TpcbTov Aal.l(36:vCA>v ovo1.1a, ov l.ltVTol CX".iTQs
&AAO: crVV T't> apl61.l't> ov e\lp(aKETal EXCA>V, 1Tp6elO"l l.lExPl
TOV 6yS6ov' ev a\nc;> TO TOV TeTapTOV Aal.l(36:VCA>V OVOIJ.a. Kal
70 oliTCA>s e9;s 1Tpo(3a(vel· oTov rn) TOV 1Tpo-re6tVTos \nroSe(yiJ.aTOS
CXVCA>6ev TO y O'T}IJ.a(vel Kal Svo, TO Se 9 evvevft-
I<OVTa, -ro CJJ To Se TETpaKlO")(iAla· Kal EO"Tl To
1.1ev V hn-0: IJ.VplaSes, oo0"1Tep tv T't> Svo,
o\JT(A)s Kat eVTaOOa hrra 1TAT}v IJ.VplaSlKoos, To Se V ei1<oa1
75 IJ.VplaSes, 000"1Tep tv T't> evvevf}KOVTa, oliTCA>S lVTaVea
25 lvvevf}KoVTa, this seems to be normal Byzantine ortho-
graphy, whereas classical inscriptions have forms in lve-.
MAXIMOS PLANUDES
129
eft<oa1, Set<aS1t<ol yap t<al a!lcpoo ol ap161lo(, ooO'"Tl'Ep t<al ol 1rpo
cxV-roov llovaS1t<ol, t<al 6!-loioos • '!') T'(cppa, t<aTa J.t!v
66:Tepov rnl TCi) TOOV ap161lOOV TCi) 1rp0s -ri)v apl-
a-repav 'l')llOOV xeipa ovSrnoTE T(6eTal, t<aTa Se TO TOOV
80 ap161lOOV t<al 66:Tepov lltpos TO 1rPOs -rl)v TO
TOOV V..aTT6VOOV ap16j.looV, rnl Tql &l<pql T(6£Tal· t<al T(6£Tal
t<aTCc Te TO t<al TO hepov ov Ilia ll6vov,
O:AAa t<al Svo t<al Tpeis t<al t<al 6aov cxv stt;t·
00a1rep Se at xoopal TOVs ap16j.lOVS, o\JToo t<al at
85 T'(cppal rnl TOOV xoopoov t<eij.lEVal • olov 00s rnl woSe(yllaTOS j.l(a
T'(cppa rnl TOV &t<pov Set<aSlt<OV 1T'01Ei TOV ap161lOV, WO
1T'evrftt<ovra yovv, Svo A1<aTovraS1t<6v, TETpat<6ala yovv,
t<al 6j.lo(oos. rnl Se TOV el j.leV j.l(a t<eiTal, 1rp0 cx\rrils
t<al ev ll6VOV O'flllEiOV' Al<aTOvraSlt<OV 1T'01Ei TOV ap161l6V' J.L'O 11
90 Tp1at<6a1a Svo yovv · el Se Svo t<etvra1, X1AlaS1t<6v, lfOOW
• yovv· el Se Ilia j.lev t<eiTa1,, 1rpo cx\rrils Se Svo,
O'flllaive1 • naaap6:t<ovra Tp(a
yovv, el Se Svo, 1lVp1aS1t<6V, 400 J.O naaap6:t<ovra
Tp(a yovv, t<al 6j.lo(oos· t<al arrA(;)s elmtv t<aTa -rl)v
95 Tfls xoopas, 15 t<eiTal TO O'flllEiOV, Aaj.lj3CcVETa1 t<al 6 ap161l6s.
"Ev TOTS ap16j.lois To(wv TlVOOV Se6j.lE6a
'l')lliV els Tf)v aO'TpoVOj.l(av, cilv TO J.t!v l<aAOVO'l O'flll£ia TlTOl
axitllaTa, TO Se O'Vv6t0'1V, TO Se acpa(pealV, TO Se 1T'OAAa1t'Aa-
O'laO'j.l6V, TO Se llEP10'1l6V, TO Se mov e\/pealV Tfls 1t'Aevp(Xs
100 1t'avrbs ap161lOV &ls TETpayoovov. t<al mpl j.leV TOOV O'flj.lE(oov
ftSfl elpflTal, -rl)v Se O'Vv6ea1v ll£Taxe•pftaoll£v ToiiTov Tov
Tp61t'ov.
94 Elm:lv Wilson: Ehr6lv Gerhardt.
THEODOROS METOCHITES (c. 1260-1332)
Metochites was the chief minister of the emperor Andronikos 11 Pa-
laiologos, and when his master was dethroned in 1328 he was at first exiled,
then later allowed to end his days in the seclusion of the Chora monastery
in the capital (now the Kariye Cami). Earlier in his career Metochites had
been responsible for the redecoration of its church with new mosaics and
frescoes, which are regarded as one of the great achievements of late By-
zantine art; they include a portrait of Metochites himself kneeling before
the enthroned Christ with a model of the church in his hand.
He was a man of encyclopaedic knowledge and fluent pen; for a
description by his pupil Nicephorus Gregoras see below, pp.136f. His most
important book is the Miscellanea, a series of 120 chapters on various
subjects ranging from the difficulty of achieving originality in literature to
the constitution of Genoa; they tell us a great deal about the outlook and
mental processes of an able and not entirely conventional Byzantine in-
tellectual. There are also poems, paraphrases of Aristotle, an introduction
to astronomy and a series of essays, one of which compares Demosthenes
and Aristides.
Editions: Miscellanea, ed. M. C. G. Mtlller-Th. Kiessling, Leipzig 1821,
reprinted 1966; Saggio critico su Demostene e Aristide, ed. M. Gigante,
Milan 1969. See also H. G. Beck, Theodoros Metochites, die Krise des
byzantinischen Weltbildes im 14. Jahrhundert, Munich 1962, I.
Etudes sur la entre et Choumnos,
Brussels 1962.
On Demosthenes and Aristides 8, 34, 35
VIII. •Erre1ST) Kai VrrECTT'I)J.lEV TT'}v Kp{cnv OAOOS -re Kai Tovp-
yov, cptpe XPT'IO"a{I..\E6• OlnJOVV wv elva1 S1a1povvTes. lo1KE
To{wv, KaTCx TOV "'Tapa TOV xp6vov "'TpVTavevetVTa
1-2 61-"'S -re 1<al To\:ipyov; an obscure phrase, but the idea must be 'in a
full and serious manner'. 2 viiv elvat: TO viiv elvat is an Attic pleonasm,
e. g. Plat. Rep. 606e. 3 1<crra appears to govern all the nominal phrases
as far as 7 cpvcnv. 1t'pVTa\le\J6WTa: 'controlled, regulated', as at
Dem. 6. 6.
THEODOROS METOCHITES
131
Kal J3iov Kal TJiv T)All<l&rrlv Kal TJiv 'TOOV 1Tpay-
5 J.,lchOOV, ols apa 'TTlVll<cxii'Ta, Kal Ti;S 'TVx.flS Kal Ti;S
1TOAl'TE{as &yooyf}v 1<00 i\V afpecnv 'TOVrOlS efAOV'TO, Kal J.lftV
n-• aJ.,lO.el Kal 'TO 1}6os cx\rro Kal TJiv of1<o6ev <pVO'lV, [Kal] TJiv
'TOV Aty'elV Kal 'TO Kpchos &nflV"t'TlJdVal acp{O'l, Kal1TpOO'O')(C.:lV
'TlS ev J.laA • 0\I'E'Tal. 'T(i) yap yov{(.lct' Ti;S cpvaeoos Kal 'Tais
10 1TEpl vo{alS • 8<CxO"TTlS 8<CxO"TO'TE Kal 'TOV
0'1<01TOV Kal Ti;s xpe{as, lcpaJ.l{:hhoo 'TOO avSpe Kal &"Texvoos &na-
paJ.l{:hhoo 1TCXO'l oxeSov 'TOOV erno 'TOV 1TaV'TOs atoovos avSpoov •
oOKovv ye EO"TlV O'Tct' 'TlS av 1TAe'iov lV'TaVea So{fl 1rpo 'ToivSe
'TOiV avSpoiv. J.lEV'TOl rnl l<OlV6'TTl'TOS Kal fuv6ep{as
15 Sf]J.lOV J31ovs Kal 1Tpa.,..,.oov Kal 1TOAl'TEV6J.lEVOS Kal 1TOAV J.laAlO"T•
rnlJ.,lEAftS 'TfjSe Kal SpaO"Tl1<6s 'TE Kal qnAepy6s, et 51] 'TlS Kal
&AAos, 1<al qnA6'Tl(.lOS rnlEll<OOS 1TCXO'l 1TpCxyJ.laO'l 1TapaJ3&AAe0"6a1
'Tfj 1TCX'Tp{Sl Kal 'TO'iS l<OlVOOVO'iS 'TOV J3{ov, Kal <plA6VEll<OS Kal l<CX'TcX
<pVO'lV OVK EVKOA{<iX &AA. Vrr61TlKpos Kal J.lflSEV ev 'TE 'TOTS
20 l<OlVO'iS Kal 'TOiS tS{<iX SlacpepoVO'l, TJiv 'TOV AEyElV xpflcnv rna-
Af16evovaav 'ToTs 1TpCxyJ.laO'l Kal &vayKa{av oVl< &l<{vSvvov eixev,
ooe· oos av EVO"TOJ.l{as 'TOV'To OO'l<flO'lV oll<OVO(.leiV, 'TOV'To
s. 1TOlei0"6al, oos apa l<CX'T. • AplO"TE{SflV cx\rrov eixev,
rnl J.lOVapx{as aveve\ivov Kal cx\rro1<pchopos J310VV'Ta Kal Ti;S
25 l<CX'Ta 1TCxV'TOOV O)(eSov av6p001TOOV 'TTlVll<cxii'Ta KpCX'TOVO'flS 'TOOV
Ka1aapoov •pooJ.laiKiiS ityeJ.lov{as, ooO"Te Kal 81• &1TpayJ.1ov Kcx-r•
4 'I'!AtKt(;htv: 'contemporary'. 5 'to which
they were assigned by the lottery of fate'. The concept of fortune is much
in evidence in M.'s writings; see Beck, op. cit. 96ff. 7 ofKo&v: i.e.
'innate', a usage found as early as Euripides. Kal MS.: del. Wilson;
some such correction is needed in order to end the chain of nouns governed
by J<CXTa. 10 mptvofats: 'flashes of ability'. 'situation'.
12 1TCX01 axeSov Ta,v: this kind of partitive genitive seems very common
in Byzantine Greek. 14 J<Otvchr}Tos: 'in a time of equal political
rights', as in Andocides 4. 13. 17 J<TA. : 'ready to expose him-
self to danger at all times in the interests of his country and his fellow-
citizens'. 20--21 hraATJ6eVovaav Tots 'appropriate to the
situation' seems to be the meaning, but the lexica scarcely offer a par-
allel. 22 oOO' MS.: strict Atticism would require o6S'. av seems
to be a mistake for perhaps av should be transferred to the next
clause, where the sense should be 'as he would have in Aristides' own
day'. 25 J<CXTcX would not be needed in correct Attic. , 26-27 J<CXT'
a6Tov is obscure, perhaps equivalent to a6Tov.
9•
132
THEODOROS METOCHITES
cx\rrov f)6os Kal cpuow lSloTpcrrrfcrt Kal e\n<o).fcrt xafpovaav, IJOAlO'TCc
ol Kal Tov Ka1pov nacn;t 1TOAlTEfcrt, naaa1s
0'1TovSapxfalS', ncxa1 npay&JaO'lV cbrefnaa6a1 Kal alpeia6a1
80 IJOV'i' Kal Tais Tiis pflTOplKi;S' Xap1a1 Kal 6e6:Tpo1s bnSef-
00s av J30VA01TO (Kal yap St;T• m-·
av etxeJ.
XXXIV. naVTa s• 61J010S' •AplaTE{SflS' ols cxv
cp6eyyo1To ToTs Te aUTOs cxVTov Kal Tois Afl&JOaeEvovs ea-r1v ov
85 KCXTa xpefav rnlAEKTOlS' Kal 1TCxVTa 1TOAV IJOAlO'Ta
KCXTa AfliJOa6EVflV Kaf, el o{6v T
0
1jV Ta olKEi• 0:AAf}A01S'
Kcx-ra avvef}Kas naVT6:naa1v
Kal OVK av IJ1}1TOTE PcrtSfoos f)v e\Tpeiv 6T'i' ye
a&Jcpoiv n).Eov Tl yeyovev fl TovvaVTfov. el Se Sei Tl Kal TOAIJfl-
40 p6npov nepafvoVTa ).omov TT)v nepl TOO pf}Tope Tc.bSe
j36:aaVOV, acpelSftO'aVTa 6pCxO'OVS' Kal 1TCxO'flS' OyaVOKTf}O'E(A)S'
iaoos O:KpoCXTOOV Kalncxaav Sev-rep'i' VEIJEO'lV 6e&JEVOV,
&JEv \rrrep(3cx).A6VToos eyooy• Tov Afl&Joa6evovs ).6yov, To
1TaVTEAelOV Kal 'liKplj300lJEVOV TOiS' 1TpCcy1JaO'lV rnl T(i)
45 Kalpf'i' TOOV AeyOlJEVOOV, 1TCXO'aV ape-ritv Kal 1TCxVTa Tp01TOV Ti;S'
TOV AEyElV xpf}aeoos - Kal 1TAeiV ii KCXT
0
'AplaTE{SflV iaoos,
SoKE'iv, - Kal Tov T6vov cx\rrov Kal To Sfap&Ja Tiis cpoovfls
cbrp60'K01TOV naVTCxnaO'lV lov avev56Toos OlT1JOVV, Kae· 0 s,; Kal
27 IStOTpomG': prob-
ably a mistake for IStc.:m:(G', 'private station in life'. 31 a\1
'just as he pleased', a faulty attempt to manufacture an indefinite clause
as in the classical language; another example occurs at 33-4.
'simply, absolutely'. Kal yap KTA.: 'as indeed was within his power';
av is a mistaken insertion. - The influence of social and historical factors
on classical authors is very rarely appreciated by Byzantine scholars.
whose notions of ancient history are normally rudimentary at best. The
argument of this chapter has some affinity with the views expressed in
Tacitus' Dialogus de oratoribus and Longinus On the Sublime (of which
the former certainly and the latter probably was unknown to M.). 33
1t'Cx\1Ta KTA. : 'in all respects Aristides is similar to Demosthenes'. 35
trrtAmots: i. e. choice expressions and ideas. 1t'OAV a variant
of the classical and the like. 40 Aonrov: 'finally'. 41
in the literary sense of 'examination' is not classical. 44 1t'av-
-riAEtov: 'pure perfection'. lVEpyov: 'having effect upon'. 47 T6vov:
'intensity', 'elevation'; both words are terms from Hellenistic
literary criticism. 48 Cnrp60'K01t'OV: 'unerring', aVEv66Tc..>S: 'unremit-
tingly'; neither word is classical.
THEODOROS METOCHITES
133
Aeooa6eve1 acpvpft:Acx-ros 6 :A6yos 6 LlfllloaeEvovs eipfl'Tal rrpo-
50 acpv(;)s, i5rrep [fol. 864r] eipfl'Ta{ J.lOl rrpo (3paxeos, &cpopoovn,
SoKOO J.lOl, 'TTPOs 'TO aVV'TOVOV o\hoo s,; Kal ae{ TTOOS rnllleAOOs 'TOV
Sp6J,10V Tfis YAOO'T'TflS Kal OOO'TTEp av el Ka6. 6J,1aAOV Sft 'Tl vos
'TTES{ov peiiJ,1a 'TTflYaiov, ae{povv, cSJ,10lOV cpepol'TO •
&-rap Sfi'T' aV 'AplO"Te{SflV 'TOiS 'Tci> vVV ye eTval 'TOV xp6vov
55 Kal 'TOOVSe Ka6''1illCXs 'TOOV 'TTpayJ,16:Toov AVO'lTeAEO"TEpov CxJ.lflybnJ
'TOiS ruoy{J.lOlS Kal cSao1 'TTepl TftV cS:O'KflO'lV 'TOV :Aeye1V O'TTOV-
eTva1 Kal TfjSe Kcx-r.• aV-rov 'TTE1paa6a1
Kal Tp{(3e1V Kal rrapa(3CxA:Aea6a1.
XXXV. 'A'Texvoos yap rnl Tfis aV-rfis OVO'lV 1'JiliV &yooYfis
60 Tov (3{ov Kal 'TOOV 'TTpay!lO:Toov Kcx-r' aV-rov Kal Tfis aV-rfis Tov
AEyelv xpftaeoos 00s aAfl6oos, 'TC1l Tfis TExVflS
rn1Se1K'TlKC1l 'TTAeiV f) KCXTCx 'TaAAa 'TOOV aV-rfiS eiSfl Kal
'TTPOs 'Tf}v cpopav, 'T{S av yevol'TO Kcx-r' 'AplO"TE{SflV 6VflO'lJ.lOO'TCXTOS
'TOiS 'TTelpOOJ.lEVOlS Kal avvaaKovJ,1Evo15, eV J,1CxAa 'TOV VOVV 'TTpoa-
65 exova1 'Tfj 'TTo:Avcpop{(\X TOV &vSp()s Kal P<\XO"TOOVTJ IJE'T' eVxPT'l-
O"T{CXS CxTTCxO'flS Kal &Kpl(3e{as aV; LlflJ,10a6EVflS yap, a:AAOlS
rrpayllaa1 Kal 'TO llEylO"Tov 'TTepl aV-rov Kal Tfis
cpvaeoos 6aVJ,1a Kal TftV 'TEAel6'l'fl'Ta Tfis KaAA{O"TflS
'TC1l :AeyelV ov TTOAV XOPflYOVO'aV Kal Kcx-r' • AplO"TE{SflV
70 'TOiS vVV XPOOJ.lEVOlS 6peye1 'Tf}v 'Tt"flya{av avaSoalV. ev J.lEV'TOl ye
Kal 'TOVT
0
aV oTSa, oos 6TT6Tepov cS:v TlS 'TOiV Svoiv eanpov
'TTpOO'EAOl'TO, oos av Sft TlVOS aVCxyKflS rnlKElJ.lEVflS tvc)s TVXeiv
J,16vov llft Sfi'T' aJ,1cpoiv, KaAA{O"TolS 'TE O:v ei11 Kal 'TTOAVKEp-
SeO"Tcx-ros TC1l O'KO'TTC1l Kal 'Tfj xpftael, &AAa Kal aV oos av llCxAlO"Ta
49 Leosthenes' dictum comes from
Lucian, Demosthenis encomion. acpvpf)).crros: 'wrought as if of iron'.
57 'to come into the hands of'. 58 -rrapaj3tcAAea6cxt:
'approach', i.e. compete with him. 62-63 Kal V.ev6Eplq> -rrpes TI'Jv cpopav:
'and in the bounty of its crop'. 63 Kcrr' • AptCTTE{ST)V 6VT)atl.lc.lrrcrros:
'as beneficial as Aristides' is almost certainly the sense. 66 <XV: the
position of the particle is suspicious, but since M.'s command of the
language is so uncertain one should probably not try to emend. 69-70
Kal KTA.: 'to those who are exactly in Aristides' position'. One might
expect Tots Kal KCXT' • A. vVV xpoo!livots.
134
THEODOROS METOCHITES
75 S1a 6Cx-repov IJ.aAlc-r' O:v elK6TOOS &yavaKTo£11
"JTpOs TJiv afpeaw Kal XcxAErrOOS
76 xcxM-rr&>s ..• q>ipEl\1 Gigante:
xcxM-rras •.. MS. - M.'s devotion to Attic models does not seem
to help him construct clear and easy periods, and his contemporaries
found much to criticise in his writing; see the notes on Nicephorus Gre-
goras below, p. 136. Part of M.'s reply was that the obscurity and diffi-
culty of Thucydides' style had not impaired his fame.
NICEPHORUS GREGORAS (c.1295-1359/60)
Gregoras, like his tutor Metochites, was a polymath. He was brought
up in Heraclea and came as a young man to the capital, where he was
introduced to the emperor, who sent him on a diplomatic mission to Serbia
in 1326. Much of his later life was occupied by the bitter and prolonged
ecclesiastical controversies of the day; as a result of his firm stand against
the doctrines of Gregory Palamas he was virtually imprisoned for a while in
the Chora monastery. Among his writings is a treatise on the construction
of the astrolabe, but his main work is an enormous history of the years
1204--1369; it gives a full and vivid account of the weakened empire of
his own time, which was afflicted by great poverty (even the royal family
used imitation jewellery, 16. 11. 4) and such natural disasters as the Black
Death (16. 1. 6). The longer of the two specimens below outlines a proposal
for changes in the calendar which would have anticipated the Gregorian
reform.
Edition: L. Schopen-1. Bekker, Bonn 1829-65. See also R. Guilland,
Essai sur Nic6phore Gr6goras, Paris 1926.
History 7. 11. 2-3 Theodorus Metochites
l:ooiJ.crros yap !J.EYEeel Kal J.lSAoov Kal llSpoov <rVIJ.IJSTP{GX Kal ocp-
ecxA.IJ.oov tA.ap6TT)"Tl 1TCxV'TCXS elAKE 1TP0s lCX\fToV ocp6cxAIJ.OVS. cpvaeoos
S • EVIJ.Olp{GX 1rp0s A.6yovs Kal Kap-rep{GX 1rp0s 1r6vovs Kal IJ.Vftll11S
\ryle{GX Kal Ka6ap6TT)-rl aocp{as arrexa,s is "TO &Kp6-ra-rov 1'\A.aaev.
s o\i-roo S • e\hropos 'i'}v &rraVTa -rois 1TcxAalCx -re Kal
00s 8< j3lj3A.{ov -rf\s YAOOTTT)S, ooa-re IJ.lKpcX i\ eSel
J3•j3A.{oov -rois OIJ.lAOVO"l. j3lj3Al0eftK11 yap 'i'}v eiJ.I.fiV)(OS oihos Kal
2 V..ap6-rrrn: a Hellenistic coinage. 3 'excellence', another
Hellenistic word. 4 Oytefc;c is not the most obvious noun to apply
to memory, and Oytefa !ppevCZ,v at Aesch. Eum. 535 is scarcely ana-
logous. Kcx6ap6-nrn: perhaps 'lucidity' (of style), which is not the
classical meaning. 7 J3tJ3Ato&f}KTI a phrase used by Eunapius,
Vitae sophistarum 4. 1. 3 (p. 362 Wright), to describe Longinus (the
third-century professor of rhetoric).
136
NICEPHORUS GREGORAS
,.c;::w -rrp6xe1pos e\mop{a· oV'Too -rr6:V'Tas \lCXKP4> ,.4>
1-lhP"'' 0001 -rro'Te A6yoov 11'4-'aV'To. lv 'T1 \lOVOV
10 faoos cxU-rov 'T1S, ch1 -rrpbs ovStva 'TOOV -rr6:Aa1
&vacptpe1 V (3ej30VAT)'Ta1 'TOV 'Tiis cxU-rov ypacpiis xapCXK'Ti)-
pos -n;v l.l{\lfla1V, ovS. 'T1V1 Kal YAOOa01J 'TO 'Tiis
S1avotas -rrapal.lv6eia6oo ovSe 'TO 'Ti\S cpvaeoos -rr6:vv 'T01
y6V1\lOV XaA1 v4> 'T1 v1 1<ati)(e1 v 1TpO"l'C6V\lfl'Ta1 • CiJV\ • lS1o'TpolT{Cj(
15 'T1vl Kal cxU-rovol.ltc;x cpvaeoos Ka'TCXKOAov&f}aas XE1\loov6: 'T1Va Kal
66:Aa'T'TaV YAOO'T'TflS -rrpotaxE'Ta1· l<aV"T'Eiieev aj.lvaae1 l<al
'TOOV bn6V'TOOV -niv O:l<of)v, 1<a66:1fep -niv 'TOOV 'TpvyooV'TOOV 1TaACxj.lflV
ft 1repl 'TO &l<av6a. Se Kal -rraa1 'Tois
'TE1<l.lflp1ova6a1 -n;v 'TOV O:vSpbs 'Tois A6yo1s Svva&..nv, c'r:>v
20 avVE'TE'TQ:xe1 -rroi.Aoov 'TE Kal -rroi.Afis Kal -rro11<fAflS yel.l6V'Toov 'Tiis
oocpeAe{as j31j3A{oov. 0 Se 1l"CxV'TOOV \laAAOV £xo1 'T1S &v
'TOV avSp6s, ch1 'TOaoV'Tov -rrpbs 'TOO V 1<01 voov -rrpay\l6:'TOOV
eopvj3ov Kal l<AvSoovos l<al cppoV'T{Soov CXAAO'TE
CiAAoov cxU-rov -niv S1CxV01aV, ovSev -?iv 0 'TOV
25 O:vay1 v Kal yp6:cpe1 v O:-rrflax6Aflae -rroolTO'TE • CiJV\ • oV'Toos
eTxe -rrpbs CX\lcpc..> OOa'T' -rrpootas \lEV
(3aa1Aefo1s 'TCx 1<o1va S1011<oov -?iv oV'Toos oAOC')(EPOOs Kal ye
1TOAA ij l<al 'Tij -rrpo6vj.l{Cj(, ooamp &v el 'TOO V A6yoov
-rraV'T6:1Taa1v h'Vyxavev · 6'4Je S' a061s ooi6ev 0:-rraAAa'T'T0-
80 \lEVOS oV'Toos OAOOS 'TOOV A6yoov ey{yVE'To, ooa1rep av el axoAaa'T1-
l<Os 'T1S -?iv Kal 'TOOV -rrpay\l6:'TOOV 1TaV'T6:1faa1v m6s.
9 1raptSpa1JEv: 'excelled', a usage
seen in Polybius. 9ff. The criticism is typically Byzantine, but
Metochites perhaps did not subscribe to the usual views (cf. his Miscel-
lanea, pp. 13-18). As a stylist he was attacked also by an important
contemporary, Nicephorus Chumnos, who was like himself an imperial
administrator (Keeper of the Inkstand) and man of letters (see Sev<!enko,
op. cit., 35--41). 12 'genial', a sense not cited by LSJ, but
see Demetrius De elocutione 128, 132, 134. IJEl5tcb01J: 'graceful'. 13
1rapa11v6ela6at: 'soften'. 14 l8tOTp01T{Cjt: post-classical. 15 cxV-ro-
VOil{Cjt: in classical Greek usually applied to states. 16 1rpofO')(E"TCX1:
'offers', i. e. to the reader. 24 hni<Avl,;6VTc:..>V: for the gender see note
on Photius above, p. 41. 25 c!rrn)0')(6ATJOE: post-classical. 30 oxo-
Aacrrnc6s: 'scholar'.
NICEPHORUS GREGORAS
137
History 8. 13 Calendar reform (A. D.1324)
0\n< e<IK:a1pov Se IJ.Ol SoKEi a1oo1rij 1TapeA.6eiv J<al &ra Ka-ra
70VTOV 70V xp6vov 1Tepl 70V ITaaxa AaA116flVal l<aTa
yap 70 elooec)s 7a j3aaiAela 7olcx\rn.l 71 vl 7ij oJ.nAfc;t
J<al 7a l!iAAa 1rapefa6oo ye 7EOOS, 1ToAAa -re
5 ov-ra Kal OV 1TaVV 701 1TCxVV 701
&J<oij, J<a{1TEp ov-ra J<&J<eiva aej.lVa J<al O'OIJ>OOV &J<oals • 70 S •
oov Tfis TJIJiV OIJlA{as 1<al f)s O:v 715 &l<ovaas
f}a6e{11 7a IJaAlCTra · A6yov KEI<{ VT'll<ev o J3aa1AEV5 1Tep{ ye &a-rpo-
VOIJ{as 1<al acpa1poov ovpav{oov J<al 1<1vi}aeoos 1TAavoo!JEvoov J<al
10 ernAavoov, 1<al 70la\i-ra 0:-rra J<cx6viroj36:AAoov 1rp6cpaa1v 70V
AEyelv. 1TOAAftV yap 1TP0s fliJCXS -rl)v ru!JEvelav E-rpecpev. eyoo s.
VrrOAaj3oov rnalVOV 1TOAVV TOV IJaei}IJaTOS. 70VTO J<al
yap IJ.Ol 70 61TT11<6v, 005 el1reiv, Tfis S1avofas Kal 1rp0s
7EAElOV otovel XPOOIJaTlO'IJOV 7aAAa 1J011TCxv-ra 1Ja6'1i1Ja-ra f)yaye.
IS O'l<laypaq>{c;t yap 00s OA11600S 70VTOV xoop{s, oaa1 J<a-r•
&v6pcb1Tovs elal Texva1 1<al 0'1TovSaaiJa-ra. 1JE7a 1Jtv-ro1 ye 700V
CiAAoov 1<al o 70V ITaaxa Aoyos &vEI<v\jJev, 7o\i-rov
00s iJEpos ov-ra J<al 70VTOV 70V 7010VTOV IJaei}-
IJaTOS. 1<al l!iAAoos 071Kal cbS{voov f)v S1a IJaKpov 1rp0s j3aa1Ae{ovs
20 7o 1rpay1Ja &l<oas, ov, 005 &i<p•l31is IJOl 7o
1TpCXy1Ja 1TapeO'TT'laev epevva, 1TAftV i) 00'01 700V Tfis &a-rpovoj.l{as
1<pa-ri}poov 7a\h• apa J<alJ<alpOVAaj361Jevos, 00s E<p11V,
pi}yVVIJl -rl)v ooSiva, OVK &)(efiJaO'TOS IJEV ovSe 76-r.
f)aav yap ot 76-re 1TOAACx IJOl 1rapeaxov 1Tpay1Ja-ra, IJft
1 The text of this passage is found in almost identical wording in a letter
of Gregoras and as a separate treatise. 3 Tlvt Tij: one or other of the
articles would have to be deleted if this were a classical text. 4 Tic:.lS:
'for a while', i. e. 'for the time being'; in classical Attic the reference is
usually to time in the past. 5 (ov) 1ravv TOt Wolf; the expression
recurs below at 62, 77. 9-10 Kal arri\avG'>v: 'planets and
fixed stars'. 10 J<cx6vtro(3CUV.oov: 'laying before me', a sense not attested
in the lexica. 12-13 ToiiTo J<al yap 1.101: for another example of this
strange word order see the excerpt from George Acropolites, line 10. 13
TO o1TT11<ov Tiis Stavo(as: 'the visual powers of the mind'. 14 XPOOI.ta-
TtaJlOV: 'colouring', first in Dioscorides. 19 oo8(voov for the con-
struction see the note on Photius above, p. 42. 21 1ri\'i!v ft &rot:
'except to those who'. 24--25 the lexica do not suggest
138
NICEPHORUS GREGORAS
25 11.ox6Tes a< Tov TC>V Tov 11.6yov O"K01T6v. Kal el ll'l't 6
j3aatAEVS (a<eivos yap IJ.OVOS 'ijv avvtels a SteWetv aV-r6s· &cpop-
ll'l'tv yap eiATl<pOOs elleVs KCxKeiVOS rneSe{KVV'TO Kal 'Tiis
aV'Tov avveaeoos TOVS &,aavpovs) el IJ.TJ oov a<eivos 1TAeia-
TOV TO 1TP00'11Ves S{oSov T(i) AOY'i'· TcXx.
80 O:v To TeAev'Taiov Toii'To 1rovf)poos Kal &yevvoos a<eteev Cnn111.AaT-
Tov, O:StKOV T1Va -nlv Ka'TaS{KTlV 6 S{Katos 6cpe{11.oov. rnel oov
1TCXO'aV, oos E<pTlV, 'l'tlliV 6 j3a0'1AeVS -nlv Ka'TCxO"TaO'tV rnou')O'a'TO
Tov 1-1ev 11.eyetv Tov S • &Kovetv Tois O'VIJ.1Tapovat, 1TpooTov
IJ.EV 000'1Tep Ttvas opovs Kal Kp,rriSas \nro6els Ta Ka{pta, eha St'
85 alrrOOV Tas rnotOVIJ.TlV. Kal Si) Seov eTvat 1TpOOTOV
'T1"}v lO'TliJ.EP{av T&Kptj3es Toii'To yap
aiTtov errraO'Tls 'Tiis \nro6eaeoos, cbs 1Tpoi6VTES • eha
-nlv IJ.ET' lO'TliJ.EP{av 1Tava€A11vov. 1Tava€A11vov Se cpaiJ.Ev,
6rr6Te 1TATlO't<paEs ei11 TO 1TpOs 'l'tllCis 'l'tlltO'<pa{ptov 'Tiis ae11.1')v,.,s.
40 TOVTO Se y{yvotT' av, 61T6TE j3paxv T11TAEOV i1 'TEO'O'apeO"KatSEKa-
Ta{av 1't aEAi)VTl -nlv 1'!1-1epav &yot, 1Tepl -nlv alrr'l'}v
Tmrr(i) avv€A6ot T(i) IJ.Oipav 'Tiis Toov acpa{pas, IJ.lCXS
myaiJ.eVT'ls &iJ.<pO"t'Epoov Ka6hov. rnel oov T(i) VOIJ.tK(i) IJ.eV mETal TO
1'!1-lhepov naaxa, a<eivo Se Tij IJ.ET' lO'TliJ.EP{av Seov
45 SteVKptvfjaat 1Tp{v· eha Tois &rraatv euS,AOV O:v ei, TO
Ka6' 'l'tllCis. &Kptj31'}s To{vvv yivETat lO'TliJ.EP{a IJ.OVots Sval Tov
VVX&rtiJ.Epots, 1-1ev &pxo!J.Evov T;S11 cp6tV01Toopov,
S • &pxo!J.Evov eapos eVeVs. Kal1Tepl 1-1ev 'Ti;S <p6tV01TOOptvfiS
lO'TliJ.EP{as ouSels 'l'tlliV T(i) 1Tap6VTt 11.6yos. 1Tep{ ye IJ.'I'}V 'TfiS
so flptvfis Kal IJ.CxAa ye Tot 1TAeia-ros. yiVETat To{vvv &Kptj3'1is 10'11-
IJ.EP{a eapos oop<;t, 61TOTE 1Tepl IJ.Oipav 1TPOO'T11V 6 TJAlOS yevotTO
that can mean 'understand', but the semantic shift seems likely
in view of Latin colligen. 25 tK TOV this alternative to
is found in Dion. H., De comp. verb. 25. 27 lST}IlOa(EVe: 'dis-
played', a usage common in patristic Greek. 29 SloSov: 'safe-conduct'.
34 Kp111TlSas: 'foundations'. 36 the form is not found in clas-
sical prose. laT}IJEp(av: 'equinox'. 39 1ThT}atcpcxls: post-classical. 40
ylyvotT' av: a misplaced optative; understand as ylyVETat. 43 Kcx6-
trov: 'perpendicular'. Tlf> VOiltKCj): 'deriving from the Law of Moses'.
On naaxa as Passover and date of Crucifixion see the material assembled
in LexPatrGr s. v. 45 StEVKptvi'jaat: 'examine thoroughly'. 47 wx.&-
T}!lipots: a Hellenistic technical term. 'autumn'.
NICEPHORUS GREGORAS
139
Tov Kptov · oTn'l Kai 6 laru.tept ves Tois aaTpo6ea1.1oat Staypa<pETat
KVI<Aos. y{ VeTat oVx. 61Jo{oos tv &rraat V heat V. &AA. tv
Tois TOV Naj3ovaaapov 'Tt'epl Tiis Tov IJapT{ov
55 it'EI.liTTT)S Kai elKoaTt;s. tv To is <l>tA.{it'it'OV TOV • AptSa{ov 'Tt'epl
1.1EO'Tll.li3Pfav Tiis elKoaTt;s TETcXPTTlS cx\nov • tv als S • T)l.lEpats 6
XptaTOs T}IJOOV teava-roiiTo Tp{T'Tlv Kai elKocrniv StavVOVTOS
cx\nov, 'Tt'oAA.c;> iTp6TEpov iTplv 11 &va-reiAat Tov f)A.tov, 11 IJCXAAOV
el'Tt'eiv 'Tt'epl IJEO'T}V b<e{VT)V TT)v vVK-ra· v\iv S • t<p • T)1.1oov brraKat-
60 &vlloVTos cx\nov. otn< &Kpti3oA.oyov1.1at S • o<rre IJTJV TT)v
Tiis TJI.lEpas oopav, o\he l.lTJV ovSe ye TO Tt;s oopas l.lEpos. ov yap
&vayKaiov v\iv, c5Tt 1.1'11 Stcx-Tpti31l 1.1'11 'Tt'aw TOt 'Tt'pocrl}Kovaa Tij
xpe{<j(. OOO'T. TT)v TOOV xp6voov
Sta<popexv KCxVTeV6eV Kai St. oaoov hoov 6'Tt'ta66'Tt'OVS 6 xp6vos
65 T)l.lEpc;.c y{veTat Kai St. oaoov aVets hep<j( l.lt<;i Kai 61Jo{oos &eL
TOVTO s· ov 'Tt'apex TT)v TOV T)A.{ov y{veTat K{VT)atv. 61.1cxATJV yap
b<eiVOS aei Ta\rrr) V it'OteiTat Kai Cxit'apEyKAtTOV • OJ\Aex 'Tt'apex TT) V TOOV
lvtava{oov T)IJEpoov Cxit'ap{61JT'l<7tV, i\v a<pcxA.epoos cx\nol it'OtOVIJe6a.
'TTPOs yap Tois TptaKoa{ots 'TTEVTE Tf6e1.1ev
70 Kai 6A.6KA.11pov ThapTov otn< 6<pe{A.ovns
o\hoo. oos yap 6 1.1eyas <p11al TlToA.eiJaios, TptaKoatoaTov SeoVTos
T)1.1epas 1.1epovs Sei ToiiTo 'Tt'poaT{6ea6at Kai oVx. 6A.6KA.11pov· 00$
S • eyooye cxVTQs evpov, Kai TJKtaTa Tpta-
KOO'tOO'TOV TEA.eoos, et 1.1ev &a<pcxA.oos ftKpti3ooaaiJT'lV • et Se 1.11},
52 &a-rpo6eaJ,loat: a word not found before the fifth century. 54 Nabo-
nassar was an obscure king of Babylon; some event in his reign on 26
February 747 B. C. was used as a convenient basis for calculation, as is
seen from chronological tables found in Ptolemy and elsewhere.
'late evening'. 55 Another ancient era was based on the
date 12 November 324 B. C., which fell in the reign of Philip Arrhidaeus.
61 o<iTe 111'tv o\tSt ye: these particles are either corrupt or testify to Gre-
goras' inability to handle this feature of the classical language. 62
&n 111'! must here be taken as equivalent to &AAO:. 64 6moe61t'ous: 'in
arrear', a rare word from classical tragedy, where it meant 'attendant
on'. 66 1rapa: 'because of'; LSJ s. v. C Ill 7. 71 Ptolemy
(.Almagest 7. 2) reports that Hipparchus discovered the precession of the
equinoxes and calculated the length of the year as 365 +
1
/,-
1
/
800
days
(= 366 ·days + 6h. 55 m. 12s.). The calendar was not revised to allow
for this refinement. Gregoras himself made still more refined calculations;
a marginal note in one MS. gives the figure of 365 +
1
/,-
1
/
280
• The
modern estimate is shorter (366 days 5h. 48m. 46s.).
140
NICEPHORUS GREGORAS
75 'TOVTO 'TOiS ml'T• aCM"poA.6yo1s. eyoo yap ov
'TOVTO vVV SlaO'a<peiv. fCM"oo l<a'T
0
fj'T'TOV
yap 'T(j) A.6yct> npbs ov n6:w 'TOl noAAovs 'Tovs
xp6vovs S1a'Tpfl3oV'T1. napCX'TTlPTl-riov o\5v, 00s l<a'T" 'TOV
s,A.aST} Sl. OAOOV 'TplaKOO'{oov
80 OAOV avv6:ye-ral. 'TO s.
'Tfis 'TOO'OVTOlS rna1 1<al rn{S1)AOV f}S1)
Ka6{CM"a'Tal · 'Tpun 1<al mpaa1 1<al 'Tt'EV'Tl: 1<al SEJ<a 1<al 'Tpls
'Toao\rro1s, oVI< O:v Si}nov, S1a 'TO n6:vv J3pax\rra'Tov 'Tfis npoaeft-
KfiS· O'Tt'ep Si} Kal l<a'T • 'Toaoln'oov ol npo
85 'Ta <ppOV'TlCM"al 1<a\
aa<paAOOS 'TO 'Tfis evplO'I<OV · 1<avreV6ev
ye cXO'<paAfl Kal 'Tf}v 'TOV TI6:oxa Sl6p6000'1V rnolOVV'TO"
1<al 'TO 'Tfis S1op6ooaeoos 'Ta\rrfiS ey{ve-ro 'Tov •
'TplaKOO'lOCJ'TOV E'Tovs Eyyl<Tt"a. 'TO S •
90 • oVI< oTS • onoos 'TO
1<a\ aS16p600'TOV 1<a\ vVV o<pefAOV'TeS ol 'TfiS 1<a6"
O:v6pOO'Tt'Ol 'Tf}v apxf\v 'Tfis 'TOV TI6:oxa napa-
'T1)pi}aeoos npo 'Tfis 'TOV Eyyl<TTa no1eia6a1 ol
s· 'Tfis aV'Tov Sev-ripas Kal elKoO"Ti)s 'Tt'OlOVV'Tal, OVK 6p6oos ye
95 'Tt'OlOVV'TeS 'TOV'TL rnel yap OVK O:AAoeEv no6ev il 'Tfis npbs
1<p1ov ela6Sov 'Ta 'Tfis 'Tf}v Se
ye navo-EA,vov oVI< O:AAoeEv no6ev f) 'Tfis 'TOV 'I')A.{ov
• O:'Tt'o<TT6:aeoos Kal E'T1 ye 'TO TI6:oxa 'TO oVI<
O:AAo6ev no6ev ii 'Tfis naVO'EAi}vov· ruS1)A.ov cS:pa, oos 'Tfis
100 1<al 'Ta 'Tfis navaeA.i}vov· Kal 'Ta\rn;t ye
Kal 'TO 'TOOV "lovSa{oov TI6:oxa. l<cX-
Ke{VCj> S • a\5 Si}nov xpeoov 1<al 'TO
npas yap ye a<pop<;i 'TO l<cXKdVCj> 'Thal<'Tal
rnea6a1 olove{ 'TlVl 1<p1)'Tt'iSl 1<al S • av ei11 J3ovA.o-
105 • no•i}aaa6a1 'Tf}v S16p6ooa1v, J3paxv 'Tl nMov ii Svo
V<pa{peaw o\i'Too yap avi}I<ElV 'TOTS
80 'Tt'Oi\AOOTT)-
'fraction'. 84 'passing'. 85
'subtracting'. 89 fyytcrra ICTA.: 'round about the year 6300' (A. D.
792). 90 fppCjl9\111flllivov: 'neglected'; the sense is post-classical. 98
StaiJETptKf'iS' lmcxrracn(o)S': 'diametrically opposed position'. 106 avf!ta:t\1:
'to be right', a usage found in the N. T.
NICEPHORUS GREGORAS
141
-roaOVTOlS hsow 1'! -rf\S a<TTpOVOJ.l{as J.li&oSos.
-ro\rrov JJ'Ii YlYVOJJSVOV "t'O acpaAspov ov J.llKp6v. O"VJ.lll'hrtcl yap
O-re, Kcx6a Kal noAA.C:a<1s ftSfl oiea6a1 elva1
110 ll'aVcnAT)VOV -rf}v KVplaKf}V Kal ll'pOO"ff)V 'l'liJSpav -rf\S JJEAAOVO"f)S
oiea6a{ ye JJi}v -ro\i-ro yeyevi)a6a1 yap ftSfl
npo Svo vvx6fliJSpoov Ka-ra -rf}v EK-n,v Sf)AaSf} -rils napeAT)AV-
6v{as 'l'liJSpav • Kavre\ieev acpaAA.oJ.,lSvovs aAAflV &v-r•
aAAflS ll'Ep1J.,lSve1v KVplaKf}v Kal no1eiv -rf}v &va<TTaO"lJ.lOV
115 JJcXSa, -roov -rov Xpl<TTOV ncx6f)JJ6:-roov. Kal -ra -rov
acpO:AJJa-ros yvooplJJa -rots &rraa1v.
114
'the week of the Resurrection'. - The chapter continues with observa-
tions about the Jewish Passover and the celebration of Easter on 25
March, which is the change recommended by Gregoras. The emperor
liked the idea but hesitated to implement it owing to the difficulty of
persuading all his subjects to understand and accept the reform.
MANUEL II PALAEOLOGOS (1350-1425)
The situation of the empire was so grave that in 1899 the emperor
Manuel II sent a letter to Venice asking that he and other members of the
imperial family might take refuge there if the Turks captured Constanti-
nople. A few months later, to raise financial and military help against the
invaders, he began a long journey to Western Europe, travelling through
Italy to Paris, where the king set aside part of the Louvre for his use. At
the end of 1400 he paid a short visit to the English king Henry IV, who
entertained him to a feast on Christmas Day. The rulers of Spain (i. e.
Aragon, Castile and Navarre) and Portugal also received appeals for aid,
backed up with offers of precious relics from the Crucifixion that had been
brought from Constantinople. Manuel's character and ability, and the mere
fact that the head of a once great empire was so desperately in need of aid,
made a deep impression in Western Europe, but little was done to help
him.
Among the emperor's many writings are letters which portray a
conscientious and cultivated ruler. The following specimen describes his
experiences in England and is addressed to Manuel Chrysoloras, who had
recently begun to give lectures on Greek in Florence.
Edition: E. Legrand, Paris 1893, reprinted 1962. See J. W. Barker, Manuel II
Palaeologus (1391-1425): a study in late Byzantine statesmanship, New
Brunswick, 1969.
Letter 38
'Hyovj.la{ ae -rT}v rnlCTTOAf}v, ..; 0"01 Tt)v KaAftV
b<6j.llaev &yyeft.tav, j.le&eoop6v -re eOOVs Kal SeV'Tepav j.lE"T •
b<e{VT)V 1Tpoa5oK0:V, xoopeiv T&ycx66v, Kal
Tp{TT)V aWlS htpav aj.lE{voo Ti'\s SEV'Tepas Kal ETl ye
s htpav Kpe{TToo "'Taawv, iaoos Se Kal ilaKpOTepas Kal "'T:he{ovs,
ae{ Tl "'TAEOV Tf\S VECA>Tepas • &AAa 51} Kal TOVVaVT{ov
OVK &-rr€1KOS. j.lETa yap -rT}v "'TPWTflV b<e{VflV, ov "'TOAACxs, ovSe
6 Tfis 'IIEc.>Tipcxs: 'the latest, last'; a superlative, as in Modern Greek.
MANUEL II PALAELOGOS
143
J.laKpas bncrro:Aas 6"1'ea&al, &M. cx\rrov TOV rneCTTaAK6Ta, ov-
Kt-n ere ;rapaJ,1v60VJ.1EVOV Tais CiA}.. • cx\rrfj Tfj 6t<j( TOOV
10 e\Jcppa{voVTa.
·Hs, St TlVOS xp6vov ;rapaSpaJ,lOVTOS Kal ifOAAOOV erol ;rap·
"JiJ.lOOV ypaJ,lJ,lclTOOV rnp6: TlVa
ov5aJ,lOV Se crrpaTlCXS J.lEJ.lVTlJ.ltvoov Kal htpoov, als
T"Jiv ifOAlV "JiJ.liV erooefival, cptpelV rnl CTTOJ.laTOS ere
15 T"Jiv ;rapOlJ,l{av ,cS:v6paKES ot e,eravpo{"· Kal TO era J,leV ieroos
TOlaVTa. tyoo Se cS:pa o\Jx <h1 Toov
&XJ... • apKOVJ.lEVOS ols rntCTTaAKa, Kal Tfj er1yfj ere 5l5CxCTKOOV
J.111Sev Kal vov v el;reiv. Tfis J,lEv ovv er1yiis ,; ;rp6cpaer•s f) Se·
Tfis Se wv rnlCTTOAiiS ;roA:Aal J,lEv rnlCTTOAal ;roA:Aax66ev els
20 i}J.lCXS acp1yJ,ltvm, KaAOS TE ;raw Kal &ya6as KOJ,l{-
J.lW\lcrra Se ;raVToov 6 cS:pxoov ;rap• eT> Tawv 5laTp{j3oJ,1Ev,
0 Tfis BpETav{as Tfis J.lEYCxATlS. Tfis SEVTtpas. oos av eiit'Ol TlS,
olKoVJ,ltVTlS, o ifOAAOiS iT'EplppEOJ.lEVOS 6:ya6ois Kal ifaVTo5a;rais
KOJ.lOOV apeTais, Kal TOiS J,lEv cx\rrov OVK el56erl Tfj cpTJJ.11J 6avJ,la-
25 ;rpc)s 5 • a\5 Tovs l56VTas :AaJ.lifPOOs -nlv cpTJJ.l'llV
J.l115aJ,lOOS eeov overav, &-re 51) 1-lft SvvaJ,ltVTlV TOV
cS:v5pa "Ji:A{KOV i} iT'Eipa ;rap{CTTTlerlV.
Oi5Tos 0 AaJ.lifPOTaTOS J,leV TO crxiiJ.la, AaJ.lifPOTaTOS Se T"Jiv
yvooJ.l'llV, Kal Tij J,lev pOOJ.11J ;raVTas Tij Se avvtae1
SO cp{AOVS iT'OlOVJ.lEVOS, Kal XEipa ifCXerlV opeyoov, Kal ;rav-
TOSa;rov rn{Kovpov ;rapE)(OJ.lEVOS Tois l30116e{as. Kal
v\iv, Tij cpvere1 XP1ler6:J.1Evos, aVTl :A1J,ltvos "JiJ.liv KaTtCTTTl J.lETCx
Slit'AOV TOV XElJ.lOOVOS, TOV TE Tfis oopas TOV TE Tfis TVx'llS. els
cx\rr6v TE Kal Tovs Tp6;rovs Tovs cx\rrov KaT1JpK6er•v· ,;svs Se
85 J,16:Aa cpalv6J.1Evos Tais crvvover{a•s. Kal S1a ;raVToov 'lil-lO:s e\Jcppaf-
voov Kal TlJ.lOOV OOS J.lCxAlCTTa Kal cplAOOV o\fx i')KlCTTa, Kal \rrrepj3o-
:Aais c!rnaer1 KE)(PTlJ.ltvos Tois elpyaerJ,ltvo•s. J.llKpov SoKEi Kal
ifOAV TOV StoVTOS J.lOVOS crrraVTOOV ol6J,1EVOS,
8 hrecrr<XAx6Ta: 'the writer'. 12 'discuss, deal
with'. 13 instrumental. 15 Zenobius II. 1: 6:v6paJ<£S 6 &{Jaavpos
-rricpT}vev: brl Toov • ols f\Amaav StCX\fiEVoelvroov. 23 mptppe61JEvos:
'surrounded by'. 25-27 Hesiod, Works and Days 763-764: cpTU.ITl s•
oO ns -rral.l-rrav &1T6AA\Tl"at, flvrtva -rroAAoi / Aao\ · 6e6s w TIS (an
xa\ cnrn'). 32 J.IETa: he means 'after', despite the genitive; perhaps
emendation is required.
144
MANUEL II PALAELOGOS
OVrOO IJEYcxAO'JNXOS 6 avi)p. xal el Sei avcneiAal "t'OV A.oyov
40 'Tf\POVV"t"as rnlCTTOAOOV, &ycxees OVroS Av
&ycx6es xal -rov awoov xal xcxe• f)&Jtpav xpeh-roov
YlYVOJJEVOS, xal <plAOVEll<OOV cxV-rov xcxe· oopav xpa-reiv -rots 1TPOs
1roA.v -ro1 yevva16-repos mpl -ro -reA.os 1rpoa6els
xal xopoov{Sa -rois v xal -rolho1s •
45 1rapE){e1 yap s1• o1TA.1-roov xal xal
xal veoov, at -rl)v crrpa-rlaV ev6a Seov.
40 'TTpOOIIJ.(OtS: the metaphorical use is com-
mon in classical poetry. 44 1<opoovlSa: 'end, completion', first found
in this sense in Plutarch. 45---46 In fact the king did nothing; his
predecessor Richard II had granted Manuel a subsidy of £ 2,000 in May
1399.
CARDINAL BESSARION (1403-72)
Though he is best known for his activity at the Council of Ferrara
and Florence (1438-9), where his skilled diplomacy and theological
learning led to the short-lived Union of the Greek· and Roman churches,
Bessarion should not be regarded as solely a theologian. Rewarded with a
cardinal's hat for his part in the Council, he spent the rest of his life almost
entirely in Italy in the service oftheCuria,andmorethanoncecamenearto
being elected Pope. In Rome his house was frequented by the leading Greek
and Italian scholars of the day. His most substantial book was Adversus
Platonis calumniatores, but two of his opuscula mark significant advances
in the history of philological method applied to scripture and theology,
and the annotations in his manuscripts (donated to the Marciana Library
in Venice in 1468) are sometimes valuable indications of his wide reading
in classical literature; a letter of his written after the disaster of 1463
outlines the idea of forming a complete library of Greek literature.
The following specimen is from a letter sent in 1444 to Constantine,
then ruler of the Morea with his capital at Mistra near Sparta, later the
last emperor of Byzantium.
Editions (based on Bessarion's autograph, MS. Marc. gr. 633): S. P. Lambros,
neAOlrOVVfiO"ICXJ<cX J<al ncV.ato1..6yeta IV, Athens 1930, 32--45; L. Mohler,
Kardinal Bessarion als Theologe, Humanist und Staatsmann Ill, Paderborn
1942, 439-49. See also A. G. Keller, Cambridge Historical Journalll. 1956.
343-8. On Bessarion in general see L. Labowsky's article in Dizionario
biografico degli I taliani.
Defence policy
Telxiaas jlEV ovv -rev fa6!l6V, (3aa1An<oo-ra-re O:vep, apla-ra t<al
CTCX\J'TOV llft llexpl Se -ro\rrov SlaVOT)6els
1 After a fulsome preface B. begins his advice to Constantine: careful
military policy will reduce the Turkish power in Europe. -retxfaas:
a wall had been built across the isthmus at Corinth in 1415. It stood on
the site of previous fortifications against the invasions of Xerxes, the
Goths in the third century and the Huns and Slavs in the sixth century;
10 Wilaon
146
CARDINAL BESSARION
a-rfjva1, (f)..Aa 'Tt"poahl Kal 'Tt"6i\lV ISpvaaa6a1, h1 j..lai\i\ov
6aVIlCX'TOS Kai yap cS:vev cpvi\OO<oov cS:v
5 'TfO'TS SvVfl6eiev j..lOVa -ra n{xT), cpvi\CXKES cS:vev
'TfOAeOOS 'TS Kal 'TfOAl'TS{OS o<h' av lKavo{, o<:h' av j..lOVlj..lO{ 'TS Kal
J3eJ3a101 eJev, o(h' av lv OOrOO"l Kai "TOiS OVcxyt<O{OlS KalpOiS
Svvoov-r' av "TOV 'Trpoxetpov 'Tt"apeival. Kal -roV-rov j..lap-rvs 6
XPOVOS Kai "TO 'Trpoi\aJ36v-ra 'Tfcx&tlllCX'TO. 06eV el yEyOVEV
10 ehe Kal y{ve-ral, -ra\i-ra ytve-ra1 Chrsp fSe1 yevea6a1· el S • o<rrroo
Kai vVV apxf}v fAaJ3e, l<aAOOS av €){01 Kai Kai -rei\EO"al,
j..lai\i\ov Se ye Kal &vcxyt<a{oos Kal ov xoopls OVK cS:v 'TfO'TS axo{T}
l<aAOOS ovS' av epyov -re-rei\eO"j..lEVOV pT}6e{T). 1<aho1, Kai -ro\1-rov
yeyEVflllEVov, el llft Kal -ra J3aati\e1a lSpv6e{T} Kal 'TrpoKa6T}-
15 j..lEVfl -roov cS:i\i\oov yeVOl"TO 'TfOAlS, OVK av SvVfl6dT} -roaoV-rov.
-roov yap lv-rbs Tfls nei\o'Tt"ovvf}aov c:nJv 6e4' SeS16-roov,
'Tt"Epl -rov la61lOV oos rnl -ro 'Tt"oi\v Sei -rov cS:pxov-ra -ra
rnlKOVpf)aov-ra -rois lS{OlS, ef "TlS rnEi\601 "TOOV 'TfOAej..l{oov, -ra
S • lv -rois 'TrpocniKoval xp6vo1s Kcrra -roov 'Tfapa-
20 1<e1!-lEvoov l)(6poov Kal llft -rovs 1<a1povs &'Tt"oi\i\vv-ra -rij &'Tt"ova{<iX·
li\'TfiS yap la-rl cnJV eec;> -re;> 'TS Sla 6ai\6:0"0"T}S -re;> 'TS
VllOOV "TS Kal -roov cS:i\i\oov Xp1a-r1avoov a-rpcrrc;>, ot m:Xv-res -rav\iv
oocrrrep 6e{ov avvef)j..lCX'TOS KCX'Ta "TOOV aaeJ3oov a<1vf)6T}aav,
-rei\eoos aV-rovs Tf\s Evpcb'TfT}s &'Tfei\a&i;va1 Kal tillO:s lv 'Tfav-rei\ei
25 eaea6a1 SeS16-ras, lliJ-re -roaaV-rT}s cpvi\aKf\S
Seo!lEvovs. lKEiva !lEv-rol J3ovi\eVea6a1 Kal 'Tt"poKcrrai\allJ36:velv
&v6:yl<T}, & Kal &'Tt"o-rvxova1v, o'Tt"Ep &'Tt"dT}, avvo{ael -re lv -re;>
j..lEAAOV"Tl Kal -ra yovv ov-ra aooa Sla"TT}pf)ael, cS:i\i\oos 'TS Ka{, "TOOV
v\iv l)(6poov &'Tt"olKla6ev-roov, o\11< &vEi\'Tf1a-rov 00s cS:i\i\ovs faoos
80 6j..lopovv-ras, &vepoo'Tt"OVS 'Tf6:v-roos ov-ras Kal -rois &vepoo-
it was overrun in 1422 and did not prevent the Morea from falling in
1462. 2--3 ... Tolhov .•. aTiivat: 'stop at this point'; the usage
does not seem to be classical. 8 b: TOV -rrpoxdpov = -rrpoxdpoos:
-rrpoxdpov (without the article) is found in authors of the second century.
9 -rra6{UlaTa: the wall had already been destroyed once by the Turks
and evidently Constantine was trying to strengthen the defences by
founding a large town nearby to help man it. 22 T<i:>V &AAc.>v Xpto-n-
av&v: various unsuccessful attempts were made to raise armies from
Western Europe, but although the Union of the churches gave some
hopes of beginning a new crusade, B.'s expectations were too optimistic.
CARDINAL BESSARION
147
1ri vo1s 1rcXeecn v lnrOKEliJEVovs, &<p • d>v <pvA.6:rreaea1 Kat Tas
b<e{ VOOV 1TpOKaTcxAaiJJ3CxVEl V rnlXElpf}O'ElS VOVV CcV EfT)
av6p001TOOV.
Economic policy
Tiep{ ye l.lftV TftV TfiS xoopas rnll.leAslcXV TE Kat TftV TOOV Kap1TOOV
<pvA.aKf}v Kat TOOV 1.1ev 1TEplTToov S166eaw, Toov
S • &vayKa{oov Te Kat ov 1TCxW &<p66voov avVTf}pT)OW, OVTElCTa-
yooyf}v Te Toov Ta IJCxAlCTTa 1.1ev &vayKaloTc:XTT)v
5 ovcrav, KCXKOOS Se Kat a\JTftv E)(ovcrav, <ppon{O'ElS, 00s OliJal,
Kat Tf} v Tov crhov IJCxAlCTTa KOOAVCTElS v· Kat il
1rept TaVTa, 00s o\JK 6'><pe1:.\ev, TT)peiTal, 15 1TE1VOOCT1 1.1ev ol
it1.1hepo1, Se ot &AA6Tp1o1, Ta\JTT)v 00s J3:haj3epav
SlcxAVO'ElS. Kat TOVTO yap ovSe!J{a OVT(A) CTIJlKpa 1T6AlS
10 'hcxA{Cf:, ovSets OVTOOS &aeevf}s &pxoov Kat Ta1TE1V6S, 00s l.lft
<pv:hc:XTTE1v Tij lS{Cj( &pxij. Seflcrav. Kaho1 T{ A.eyoo Tov crlTov,
OVT(A)S cXVayKal6TaTOV oVTa Kat ov avev OVK ECTTl; TOS
a'VTas Kat To\rroov ov Tas 1rp0s T&vayKaia, 1rpos Se
1 B. has dwelt on a variety of themes such as the glorious past of Sparta,
the prospect of a great new kingdom developing in the Morea, the lasting
fame that Constantine may ensure for himself as an enlightened legis-
lator; the last and most interesting part of his letter indicates his aware-
ness of Italian superiority in understanding of economics and technol-
ogy. TI)v Tfjs Wilson: TI)v aiis Mohler: Tfis Lambros. 2
the economic concepts that follow not original, but had been put
forward by B.'s teacher, the philosopher Gemistos Plethon (1355-1452),
in an address to the ruling faiQily in 1415; see especially the passage in
s. P. Lambros' edition nU.01TOIIIIT)O"ICXKa Kal III 263-264
(English translation by Sir Ernest Barker, Social and political thought in
Byzantium, Oxford 1957, 205-206). The Morea was economically very
much under the influence of Venice at the time. &vTEtaayooYI'lv -re:
'and correspondingly the import'; the word is not found elsewhere in this
meaning. 5 KCXK(i.)s 'badly managed' rather than 'an unfor-
tunate necessity'. 7 TTIPEiTat: the sense might be 'is observed' or
'continuous', neither being strictly classical. 11 Sefiaav: 'if need be',
yet another example of the accusative absolute so popular with Byzantine
authors; the position of the participle at the end of the period is idio-
syncratic. 13-14 ov TQs KTA.: a more natural expression would be ov
"TQS 1TpOs "TOvayKaia jl6vov, "TQS (or &Aha "TcXS) ICTA.
148
CARDINAL BESSARION
S1ayoo'Y1iv il XP111J<XTlO'IJC>V J,l6vov cpepovaas 6poo1JEV IJE'TcX -rraO'T}s
15 rnlJ,leAE{as -rrapa<pVACrrrOVO'lV Kal OOcrre IJft hepOlS
S1aSo&i}va1 ovSev o 'Tl ov IJT}XOVOOV'Tal. fil-lETS Si, aV'Tol
AliJOOTTOV'TES, 'TCW cri'TOV 'TC{) -rrav-rl avyxoopov!JEV
&Aoy{o-roos
'E-rrl 'TOVTOlS Kal 'TO XPfiiJa Toov A6yoov, 4> J,l6vos 'TOOV 6r)p{oov
20 c5:v6poo-rros S1acpipe1 Kal 'TOOV j3apj3apoov ·EAAT}ves SlaKp{vov-ral,
!v ols -rt'O'TE 'TO TtKIJaKE yivos OOV -rr5:cra rnlCTT{}IJT}
Kal yvooO'lS Kal 'TixVTl 'TE Kal f)v6T}crev, emoScbcrelS
cxOOls 'Tctl yivel, 6elO'TO'TE Sia-rro'Ta, Kal OVK 'TOO'aVTIJ
&Aoy{<jX avvixe0'6al, oos ana1SeV'Tovs Kal aJ,la6eTs -rrapa 'TOTS
25 CXAAOlS Kal Taii'Ta 'TOTS -rrap • fJIJooV -rraV'Ta -rrapcxA.a-
j3ovalv, Kal SlSacrKCxAOOV J,leV oie0'6al xoopav, TliJCXS Se
!Ja&r,'TooV Seiv rnE){elV, K&l<e{vovs J,leV 'TOV \nrepixoV'TOS ooa-rrep
VOj.l06E'TeTv, f!IJO:s Se oos avSp<hroSa rne0'6al, Kal 'Taii'Ta OVK apx-
T}yovs IJOVOV Kal. eVpE'TCxs, CiJV.. • T\ST} Kal 'TEAelOO'TCxS -rt'CxO'T}S crocp{as
80 yeyeVT}J,liVOVS, IJCxp'TVO'lV aVTOTS 'TOVTOlS 'TOTS WV
fJIJOOV. IJlKpois -rr6VOlS, ov -rTOAAOTS aVcxAOOIJOO"l V anoAOOAO'TOS
aVaKcxAiC71J 'TOVS i\6yovs, 'T1') V crocp{av rnavacrcbC71J 'TC{) yivel •
IJEYCxAT}S yap e\lcpvtas. elcrlv e·n Kal viiv Slavo{as ol TtiJi-
'TEpol viol, OOO"TE, el K<XTa Tp6-rrov S1SCxcrKOlV'TO, IJeyCxAT}
85 aV'Tovs j3paxeT rnlScbcrel V els 1-lEyO aocp{as. SlSCxcrKOl V'TO s. O:v
005 Sei, el Tovs 'TE -rrapa /\aT{vo•s -niv ftiJETipav SeS•Say!Jivovs
S1SacrKO:Aovs 'TlS aV'ToTs E-rna-n)cre1ev, elal S • oVt-o1 -rro7\Ao{ Te
KalKcxAOl veav{al, CXAA.ovs TE rn{'TT}Ses els 'I'Tai\{av SlSCx-
el'Ta, rnaveA60V'TOOV els -ri}v -rraTp{Sa, S1' a1hoov Kal
40 Tovs CXAA.ovs -rra1Srucre1ev. -rrapa yap /\aT{voov Tl)v -rro'Te, cpe\i,
fJIJETipav -rrapcxA.aj36VTes aocp{av ii Kal o\i-roo -rrapa-
14 S1ayooyr)V:
'everyday life'; but at 101 below the idea is rather 'amusement'. (005)
op&!JEV would make the construction a regular parenthesis. 20 T&v
J3apJ3apoov •f:AATtVES: B. slips into a traditional Greek prejudice; Lorenzo
Valla called him GYaeccwum Latinissimus, LatinoYUm Gyaecissimus, which
gives a better idea of his more considered views. 24 aAoyic;c: here
apparently 'lack of culture'; the lexica fail to record this sense. 29
"TEMtOOTas: first found in Ep. Hebr. 12. 2. 30 'who
are arrogant towards us'; the verb is known in patristic texts. 32
rnavaaooO'TJ: this compound is apparently first found in Gregory of
Nyssa.
CARDINAL BESSARION
149
Aal36vns 00s cx\no£ 'TTO'TS ot f)!Jhepo1 aV-ri}v 1TapeS£Sovv, b<avo£
elcn t<a\ &AAovs t<a\ Olloiovs arrOTSAtO'a1, c:xrr• omc b
'TTOAACfl 'TOVs 1TapaS6vras vu<i'iaal. ov Set S • alCT){VV1J -n;v 'TOV
45 l<cxAOV 'TOVTOV &1;pav arrOAl'TTEiV, trre£, elt<al/\cxTivol '()CT){Vv&r}CTav
'TTap• •f:AAi}vc ... :w 0: llfl cx\nol etxov omc O:v els "T6Se
aocp£as 1Tpoi}x6ftaav. 1'!1-lEiS St ovSt 'Tl A1l'fJ61-1E6a,
'TO cx\noov 'TTapa 'TOOV 6cpelA6vroov arrOA1l\fJ61lE6a· 6cpe£-
AOVCT1 yap OVTOOS 'TOV arralTOVVTOS arroSovvoo 0: llfl c!nriAal3ov,
50 1Aa!3ov.
Omc &S,Aov St, 00s "Toov A6yoov rnavaaooeivroov 1'!1-liV t<al at
13AaCTTi}CTaCTal nxval t<al OCTal 1Tp6s 'TE 'TO 1Tp6s 'TE
cpvAat<f}v Ti &llvvav 6:vcxyt<ala1, oaa1 'TTPOs 'Tf'is aocp£as t<al "Toov
cx\nij Slal3oi}'TOOV 'TE t<al •fAAi}voov rupe6el-
55 CTal 'l')lliV 1TapeS66r}aav, cxVelS rnaveAeVCTOVTal 'TTPOs 'l')llCXs a1-1a
llETCx aocp£as, OOCT'TTEp acp. f) !lOO V CTVVCXlTOOAOVTO 'Tij
aocp£c;x· OOV OllOOS omc 6A£yal 'TTapa 1\aTiVOlS rn t<al wv CTOO-

• E'TTel l<EXOOPlCTTal Tiis ala&1;aeoos 6 A6yos t<al f) arro
60 'TOOV V01l'TOOV rnl 'TO CTOOilaTll<Cx 'Tpomi 'TOOV "TEXVOOV OVTOO Slc:;>t<l-
CTTal, 00s Sot<elv arr· t<al 'TTOAAOVs 'TOOV
A6yoov. rnlCTTi}llovas ovras ovStv elStva1 'Tf'is 'TOVS St
1Tp6:TTe1v elS6Tas t<al t<aTa A6yov 'TTOlovvras c!cyvoeiv OllOOS "Tov
A6yov, t<c:xAov O:v ei11 t<al 'TOVTOOV 1T01i}aaa6a1 A6yov t<a£ 'TlVOS
65 vtovs els "I'TcxA£av 'TTtll\f}al, 'TOOV 7EXVOOV lla6ftCTo-
TCxS avcxyt<a£as, rnel Sla A6yov 'TTPOs 'TaVTa
'TOOV CT'TTavLoo"T6:Toov 'TE t<al llOVaStt<oov, St" ala&1;aeoos St ye t<al
'TE t<al ov 'TTOAA4) xp6VCf> gCTTlV cx\nas StSax&i'i-
vat• cx\n£t<a -n;v 6pyavtt<i}v 'TE t<al llTlXOVtt<i}v, ii !36:p11 'TE !AJ<ETal
70 t<al t<aTacpepo!lEVO 'TTAi}'TTEt 'TE t<al Aea{vel 'TO 'TOVTOOV
48-50 'they are obliged to return at our request the superior-
ity of knowledge which they did not recover, but simply gained from us':
note the assonance of the compound verbs. 56 a' • f!J.l&')ll: fllll\1 would
be expected, but the prepositional construction is induced by the anti-
thesis with 1TpOs flllCXs· 62 classical syntax requires llTJSiv. 64
T1\ICXS Lambros: Tl\la MS. 67 O"Tra\llc.naroov n J<alJ.lova6tKoov: 'men of
rare or unique ability': J.lOva6tK6s in this sense is usually applied to the
divine nature. 69 6pya\11Kflv: 'the construction and use of tools'. 70
1TAftTTE1 ..• i\eahiEl: obscure, since the second verb can mean 'grind' or
'polish': but B. is probably referring to rotary grindstones.
150
CARDINAL BESSARION
Se61JEVO:. O:VTOIJCrrc..:>S, IJVAc..:>VES 'TcX)(tcrra 'TE Kcx1
00s KlVOVV'TO:l, oi 'TE <pVOT}TfipES 'TOOV Xc..:>Ve{O:lS
KO:l StaKp{crecn IJETaAAc..:>V aO"Kol 'TE Kcxl aVlEIJEVOl,
IJTlSEIJlCXS xetpos \nrovpyoVOT}S, 'TcX IJhaAAcx Tfis IJOX&r,pas
75 'TE Kcxl yeooSovs StaKp{vovcrtv VATlS· •f}v 'TE no{Tlcrtv •ov crtS{}pov,
oV'Tc..:> j.leV OVO"O:V xpf}crlj..\OV, oV'Tc..:> Se aVayKO:{av &v6pOO'TTOlS, oos
avev aVTOV IJTJ 'TCx 'TTOAej.llKa, IJTJ 'TCx elp'llVlKO 'TE KO:l 'TTOAl'TlKCx
Svvacr6cx1 KaAOOs E){e1 V, 'TlS av e\Jxepc;)s Kcx-rcxjJCxeOl.
i')Kovov Se Kcxl "1'1}v TleAon6vV'Ilcrov, Kcxl IJaAtcrro: 'TcX nepl "1'1}v
80 l:nap'T'Ilv o:VT,;v eiva1 nA{}PTl IJETaAAc..:>v crtS{}pov, 'ToV'Tov Se
j.16vov 'TOOV OVayKO:{c..:>v o:VT,;v oiSa O"'TEpO!lEV11V Kcxl
hepoo6ev. 'Tf}v ye IJTJV 'Toov onAc..:>v Kcx-rcxaKEvi)v 'Te Kcxl no{,atv,
'TOOV 'TE cpVACXK'TlKOOV 'TOOV 'TE OIJVV'T'IlP{c..:>v, ci>v &vev OVK av 'TcX
'TTOAeiJlKcX KaAOOS y{yvolV'TO, KaAOOS 'TTOlf}O"elS O"CXV'T(f> KO:l 'TOiS
85 ·EAA,at nepmol'llO"OIJEVOS, Kcxl IJaAlCTTO: el crtS{}pov IJhaAAcx
'Tij XOOP<\X E){ets Kcxl 'TOVS 'ToV'Tov npoO"K'T{}O"lJ.
Ov IJftV &AAa KO:l "1'1}v VCXV'TT'IlYlK{}V, oa, 'TE nepl 'TcXS IJaKPcXs
KO:l 'Tplf}pets, oa, 'TE 'TTEpl 'TcXS <pOP'T'IlYOVs Kcxl crrpoyyVAO:S
Kcx-rcxy{VE'TO:l vf\O:S, OOV 'TTAe{O"TTJV fleAO'TTOVvf}O"Cf> KO:i KaAA{O"TTJV
90 E)(ETe VATlV, 00s 'TcX IJEylCTTO: C:,cpeA{}crovcrav oVl< &netK6'Tc..:>S nepl
'TTAe{crrov rt'Y1i0"1J·
To:V'Tas 'Tmcxpas •exvas, aplO"'TE SeO"'TTO'TO:, IJTlXO:VlK{}v,
crtSTlpo'TTOl'll'TlK{}v, cmAO'TTOl'll'TlKTJV Kcxl VCXV'TT'IlYlK{}v, oos &vayKa{-
O:S 'TE Kcxl XPTlO"{iJovs 'Tois eV reEAovcrtv, Sta 'TE'T'Tapoov il
95 6K'Too vec..:>v IJETCx 'TOV npocrf}KOV'TOS 'Tp6nov Kcxl 00s av
IJTJ noAAois eiev Kcx-racpaveis no:payevo!lEvoov •EAAaSa IJE-
71 Saws
driven by water power are attested by Villard de Honnecourt c. 1235;
the reference to them in Ausonius Mosella 362-864 is regarded sceptically
by some historians of science (Lynn White Jr., Medieval technology and
social change, Oxford 1962, 82---83). Water-driven grain mills existed
in antiquity; see Anth. Pal. 9. 418, but the application of the idea to
other processes seems to belong to the Western Middle Ages. 72-73
X(A)VE{CX1S T1l Kal 8tCXJ<p(aecn 'smelting and refining of metals'.
(In classical Greek is always 'mine, quarry'). Steam-bellows are
described by Vitruvius 1. 6, but not recorded again until the thirteenth
century. 79-80, 106-107 In antiquity iron ore deposits had been
exploited in the region between Asopos and Boiai, in the extreme south-
east of Lakonia, and not near Taygetos.
CARDINAL BESSARION
151
Tayayeiv SvVT)ei}01J t<al S1a8cbacls Tois f!IJE"ripols. elal
t<al CXAAal Tmapes A.6yov. fl TOV v€Aov, fl TOOV O'TlPll<OOV,
fl TOOV TrO{flO'lS hlcrr{oov t<al Trpoaen fl Tolr-roov &!.!<pOTS-
lOO poov Trepl c'r>v OllOOS, oos ov TrpOs &vCxyi<T)v. &AA.a TrPOs
Tpvcpf]v t<al S1ayooyf]v llaAAOV &v6pcb1To1s ov
TroA.vv A.6yov TrOlOVIlal Trpo TOV TOOV &vayt<a{oov 'TV)(eiV. lKav&)s
TO wv ru{vas TCxS ,.S,.,.apas l<"r'f)aa0'6al, Trepl c'r>v acp6Spa
O'OV Seol.lal t<al TOV Trprnov-ra A.6yov 1TOl{)O'a0'6al.
105 &vepevv{)aas To{vvv TO TrpooTov t<al eiTrep
c3-rrep i;Kovaa TroAA.6:t<1s, a1S{)pov l.lkaAA.a Trepl Tf]v
l:TrCxPTflV Kal TO TaOye-rov evp{O'KE0'6al, Tf]v aV-rov
TrO{flO'lV TOVS IS{ovs, Trpos 6eov t<al Tiis afls veovs
TlVCxS ll1JTE TrapflKilat<OTas ll1JTE acp6Spa CrnaAOVs, &AA.a
uo Tlvas, oi t<al -nlv yA.ooaaav lla61Jaov-ral 00s avveivoo TOOV A.eyo-
llEVoov, ev-raVea TrPOs o oVt< oA.{yov t<al 'fl
Trapova{a avvo{<rel.
97 StaSooae15 Lambros: StKatooaets MS.
DUCAS (c. 1470)
The fall of Constantinople had been foreseen by intelligent men already
in the fourteenth century (see further I. DOP 15. 1961. 169-86);
but when the city finally passed into the hands of the Turks in 1463 a great
era of Greek history ended, and the peoples of Western Europe had to
recognise the presence of the Turks in Europe as a permanent feature of
their world. Several Greek accounts of the fall survive. An extract is here
given from the one by Ducas, who was employed by the Gattilusi family,
then In control of Lesbos; he wrote a history of events in 1341-1462.
Edition: V. Grecu, Bukarest 1968.
The Turks enter Hagia Sophia (39. 18-20)
'Eyeve-ro wp<iX o tKETvos vaas 1t'AtiP11S
avSpwv TE Kal yvva1KWV Kal KCrtOO Kal avoo Kallv TO'iS 1t'Ep1cxVA01S
Kal lv 1t'OVTl oxt.os l<As{craV't'SS Se TCxS evpcxs
elO'Tf}Kecrav -rltv 1rap • cx\noii crooTT}p{av w SvO'TT}V01
5 • W 6:6!.101, va6v, OV lKcxAe'iTE X6Es Kal1rpo TTtV X6£s
crrn')l.a1ov Kal alpe-r1Kwv Kal 6:v6poo1ros oln< elaf}pxe-ro
lVT6S, tva 51Cx TO lepovpyiicra1 evSov TOVs -rltv
evoocr1v Tiis lKKAT}cr{as viiv eva<a Tiis rne1.6ovO'T}s
6pyfls oos crooTT)p10V AVTpoV lvSveaee. &AA. ovSe Tiis 51Ka{cx5
2 mptaVAOtS MS., a rare and late word for 'courtyards'; perhaps 1Tpo-
avAtots, 'vestibules' would be better. 5 1rpo -ri)v: note the breakdown
of classical syntax. 6 etaitpxn-o Bullialdus: etaipxn-o MS. 7
the preposition is characteristic of N. T. Greek; in classical Greek
the clause would have begun 8 -ri)v fv(A)O'l\1: the Union of
the Greek and Roman churches made at the Council of Ferrara and
Florence in 1438-1439 was rejected by most of the Greeks; but Ducas
himself was a warm supporter of the new Uniate church, and in the next
few lines bitterly reproaches his fellow countrymen. 9 6pyi]s: cf.
below ot l!<StiCTITal TOV eeoii. here 'means of deliverance'. tv-
SVEaee: 'cling to', see LexPatrGr s. v., 4.
DU CAS
153
10 opyfjs rneA60VCT)S &v 'TcX C'"TTAcX)(vcx 1TP0s elpi}VT\V.
1<00 yap 'ToacxVn:l 1TEplCTTCxOCl el ayyeAOS l<CX'Tf}pxe-ro 6.-rr •
ovpcxvov ,el St)(ea6e -n;v l<CXi -n;v elpTIV11<1}V
l<CXTCxCTTCXO"lV Tfis 'TOVS Tfis 1T6A.eoos,''
OVK &v ovve-r{6ea6e. el l<CXi ovve-rteeaee, 'f'eVSOS &v fjv TO
15 {O"CXO"lV o{ AkyOVTES 1Tp0 oi\{yoov ,,l<pEiTTOV
els xeipcxs TOOV Tovpl<OOV i1 <l>pcXyl<oov". TOTE ot Tovpl<Ol
l<OVpaeVOVTES, O"<pCxTTOVTES, 'TCfl
vcx(i) o\i-rroo 1TPOOTTIS oopcxs 1TCXpeA6oVCT)S 1<cxi 'TOS "'TVi\cxs
o-Vv 'To is 1TEAE1<ea1 v 1<Cx'Too J3pcxSvvcxVTEs.
20 l<CXi lS6VTES 'TOV
El<CXCTTOS TOV iSlOV ov yap fiv 6 OVTlAE-
yoov ft 6 1TpoS1Sovs 00s 1TpoJ3CXTov. Tis 8s SlT'IYi)-
ae-rcxl -niv T{S Tovs yeyovoTcxs TOTE
1<cxi ,.a:s cpoovas Toov V111Tioov 1<cxi Ta o-Vv J3oij SC:cl<pvcx Toov
25 1<cxi Toov 1Tc:xTEpoov Tovs 'TiS SlT'IYi)O"E"Tcxl; 6 7VXOOV
Tovpl<OS -n;v TpvcpepooTepcxv T'ijv oopcx{cxv
1TpoKCXTetxe ets, &:Ai\os svvaO"'TT'Is • f}
Tfis 6:p1TcxyfiS 1<cxi Tov cxlT{cx Tplxoov, O"TTI-
6eoov Keel emoKai\\1\yels, J3pcxx1ovoov acraac1s. TOTE
30 Sovi\1'1 aVV Tij SeC'"TTOTTIS aVV 'TCfl &pyvpoovi}T'!',
aVV TCfl 6vpoop(i), Tpvcpepoi VEOl aVV 1TCXp6eVOlS,
1Tcxp6evovs as o\fx f}i\1os, 1Tcxp6evovs as 6 yevvf}acxs
el 1<ai OVT0060VVTO, 1<ai
'liJ3ovi\e-ro yap 6 O"l<VAeVO"CXS els T01TOV CXyElV l<CXi
35 vos ev &acpa:Ae{C\( CTTpcxcpfival l<CXi Sevnpcxv 1TpcxiScxv 1TOlfiO"CXl l<CXi
10 bdVT')aev av can scarcely
be translated; perhaps b<nn'}6T). 11 Trepta-raaet: 'predicament', Hellen-
istic in this sense. 14 'J'eVSos: this almost adjectival use is classical
(see LSJ s. v., Ill). 17 J<OVpaeVOVTES: 'seize, ravage', from late Latin
cur sus, 'plunder', which is also the ultimate source of English 'cor-
sair'. gcpeaaav: 'arrived', a usage found as early as the N. T. 20
11Vptapt61lov: first in Ps.-Callisthenes 1. 19 (MS. C). 26 -n;v Tpvcpepoo-
Tepav: Ducas lapses into modern Greek, which expresses the superlative
in this way. 27 SvvaaTT)S MS.: the sense would be much improved by
SvvaaTT)V. 29 llaaeoov: post-classical spelling of llaCTrooV. 33
Bullialdus: yap MS. 35 TTpatSav: the lexica cite this Latin loan from
the fourth century onwards.
154
DU CAS
'Tp{'TT)V. ot apncxyes, ot 8<StKT}'Tal 'TOV &ov, Kal
naV"Tas -i}v ISeiv oop<iX SeaJ,loo6eV"Tas, 'TOVs IJEV O:ppevas cruv
KcxAooS{ots, 'TCxS Se yvvaiKas cruv "Tois aovSap{ots cx\rroov • Kal -i} v
lSeiv opJ,la60Vs &-rrdpovs 8< 'TOV vaov Kal 8< 'TOOV
40 &S\rroov 'TOV vaov OOO"'Tt'Ep &yO.as Kal 'Tt'O{IJVla npof3Cx-roov. KA.a{-
OV'TES, oSvp61JEVOl Kal 6 Vl.eoov OVK -i}v.
36 b<StKT}Tal: the word is found at LXX
Psalms 8. 2. 37 Bekker: 8EO'IJ006t\ITCXS: the verb is a late
alternative for Sea!Jtoof-rooo. 38 aovSap(ots: a Latin loan found al-
ready in the N. T.; perhaps 'scarf' is the best translation. 40 wO"TTEp
Bullialdus: MS., which is perhaps right ('more numerous than').

KLEINB TEXTE FOR VORLESUNGEN UND 0BUNGEN
BEGRONDET VON HANS LIBTZMANN HBRAUSGEGEBEN VON KURT ALAND

189

AN ANTHOLOGY OF BYZANTINE PROSE
BY

NIGEL G. WILSON

\\'ALTER DE GR UYTER · BERLIN · NEW YORK 1971

diaca Bach oclcr Tcllc daraua auf pbotomcchaniKbcm Wcgc (Photoi:Dplc.. TtllbGer. Bcrlla.. Vcrlagobnchbwndbmg.orma1a G.W. imbc.Vclt & Comp.ISBN 3 11 001898 5 © 1971 b1 Waiter de Gm. du dcr 'Obc:ractzuag lA fraDdc SPftCbco. (Prlaud ill Gamlm1) Satz uad Druck: Waiter de Gm. Gaucmas.. ~ Ohac aUidztJcldicbe Geachmisuag des V crlaga bt eo aach Dlcht gcat11UCt.tet & Co. ....Gcoq Relmu -Kad J.tet & Co. J. -... Milaokoplc) Z1l ~.. ~·oche V~J. Bcrlla. 30 Allc Rcchtc.

have missed that fame and immortality which they had fondly arrogated to themselves? How many Greek authors. now rest either not printed. who wrote at that period when Constantinople was the refined mistress of the empire. in the libraries of Europe? GOLDSMITH The citizen of the world. or not read. .What numbers of fine writers in the later empire of Rome. when refinement was carried to the highest pitch.

.

. 63 68 68 83 87 98 108 111 121 123 126 130 136 142 146 162 . . . Michael Choniates . . Procopius . Anna Comnena Eustathius . Maximos Planudes Theodoros Metochites Nicephorus Gregoras Manuel II Bessarion Ducas . . . . . . Ioannes Malalas Ioannes Moschos Theophanes the confessor Methodios . . . . . . . . Abbreviations Cosmas Indicopleustes . 1 5 6 11 22 26 28 32 36 40 . . . . . Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus Ioannes Mauropous Michael Psellos Cecaumenos . Photius . . . . Timarion .CONTENTS Page Introduction . . . . . . . . . Georgios Acropolites Theodoros Lascaris . Agathias . ..

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the Cappadocian Fathers and Athanasius' Life of St. Byzantine literature is so vast in bulk . whereas nothing has been done to obscure or minimise the pervasive influence of the church in every sphere of life. Byzantinische Geschichtsschreiber. It has been designed mainly for those who already know some classical Greek. The task of an anthologist is not easy.INTRODUCTION This book is intended for students and scholars who would like to learn about the Byzantine world from primary sources. The writings of John Chrysostom. Soyter. My object has been to select from prose writers a number of representative extracts which will give a general picture of Byzantine life and culture. which seems to me too short and limited in scope to be satisfactory. mys1 Wilson . some kinds of theological literature. The most practicable solution led to two restrictions in the choice of passages. and consequently no fully representative selection can be compiled without exceeding the limits of space that must be observed in a book designed as an introduction.Migne's Patrologia Graeca consists of a hundred and sixty one volumes-that no one can read more than a fraction of it. In order to stay within these limits I had to take difficult decisions. Antony are the most obvious omissions. but I hope that it may also tempt medieval historians and students of modern Greek literature to make their first direct acquaintance with an unusually fascinating period of history. The first is chronological: following the example of Beck and Krumbacher I have assumed that Byzantine literature began in the reign of Justinian. especially sermons. Heidelberg 1929. The second restriction is that. As a result some authors of the fourth and fifth centuries who are important in themselves and were influential in Byzantium have been left out. The only existing anthology of this kind is a little book by G.

seemed justifiable on two grounds. The story of Barlaam and Joasaph. particularly in view of the emphasis given to matters connected with the survival and study of classical antiquity throughout the book. BSOAS 17. Penguin Books 1967.2 INTRODUCTION ticism and philosophical theology. has been omitted. In the selection here offered to the reader the historians claim the lion's share. and would refer the reader to E. Perhaps! should anticipate criticism by saying that the decision. John Damascene. since I am inclined to share the view of D. 244-6. second edition. This is deliberate. usually ascribed to St. 312---8. . since the proper appraisal of his philosophical position is not yet agreed among scholars. The pagan mysteries of the Renaissance. That is only to be expected. designed to strengthen the Morea. Lang. statesmen and even emperors. The absence of two authors requires explanation. Wind. though not easy or welcome. bishops. have been excluded. Of the other literary forms the letter is best represented. 2. In addition it is a tenable proposition that the Byzantine contribution to theology is less important for the history of European culture than the preservation and study of classical Greek texts. they permitted themselves digressions from the main theme which are admirably suited for inclusion here. are reflected in the extract given from Bessarion's letter. Only their works can stand the test of being translated into a modern language for the benefit of a wider audience than professional scholars. I suspect that the revolutionary nature of his ideas has been exaggerated. however. that it is a translation from the Ge9rgian and not an original work of Byzantine literature. M. This may be thought a shortcoming. His economic ideas. and throughout the period it was practised with success by schoolmasters. Although they mostly set to work with the narrow aim of writing military and political history. 1955. And there is no specimen from the works of Plethon. There is also little doubt that the historians are the best writers of medieval Greece. My purpose has been not so much to give examples of every class of prose writing as to offer a panorama of Byzantine life.

The development of the Greek language and the importance of Atticism are described by R. This modified or impure Atticism lasted as long as the empire. The highest praise that a Byzantine author is likely to receive from· a critic is that he writes a smooth pastiche. are the furthest removed from the models they affect to emulate'. Untersuchungen zum rhetorischen Sprachgebrauch der Byzantiner. most eloquent in their own conceit. Medieval and modern Greek. especially chapters 2--4. philosophy or literature has been saved from oblivion by the intrinsic beauties of style or sentiment. Even when allowance is made for the slow pace of linguistic change in Greek. But that did not prevent them from borrowing Ionic expressions from Herodotus. Gibbon roundly condemned Byzantine literature: 'Not a single composition of history. Bohlig. Yet it is hard to withhold a certain admiration for a man who handles the classical language a millennium after its maturity as well as Procopius does. and few could resist the temptation of drawing on the large additional resources of vocabulary offered by Hellenistic Greek. so as not to offend the reader by linguistic incongruity. who was also read and respected as a model.INTRODUCTION 3 Most Byzantine prose was written with the object of imitating the language and style of the great Athenian writers of the fifth and fourth centuries B. this degree of archaism limited freedom of expression so much that the result could not often be more than mediocrity of literary achievement. and at the same time offers thought or narrative worthy of attention. Browning. and led to excesses of virtuosity that were scarcely equalled by the most dedicated practitioners of Ciceronianism in the Italian Renaissance. but the orators. London 1969. Advanced students may like to consult G. . The historians for example attempted frequently and with varying degrees of success to model their style on that of Thucydides. In prose the least offensive of the Byzantine writers are absolved from censure by their naked and unpresuming simplicity. C. Most writers permitted themselves to use the vocabulary of the Septuagint and New Testament. of original fancy or even of successful imitation.

216ff. Maas. Learned allusions to classical authors are traced wherever possible. In conclusion I record with pleasure my debt to two friends. The accent had changed from pitch to stress by the fourth century. 1-17. The earliest practitioner of this type of rule is Himerius (Wilamowitz. . Oxford 1962. in each clause the last two stressed syllables should if possible be separated by an even number of unstressed syllables.W. 1889.= Hermes 34. so that it can be employed as a criterion for assessing the authenticity of disputed works such as Procopius' Secret History (P.). and most of the changes in the values of vowels and consonants were complete by the tenth century. 52). the closer the superficial resemblance to classical Greek the more necessary it becomes to note the differences. Dr. N. 1912-3. In the commentary a large proportion of the notes are linguistic. 23). M. 17 para.G. Winterbottom read a set of proofs and drew my attention to other points in need of correction.4 INTRODUCTION Berlin 1956. usually two or four (P. Byzantine Greek should be pronounced in the same way as the modern language. Kassel read the manuscript and suggested many improvements in the commentary. who have helped to make this book less imperfect than it would otherwise have been. A very important feature in late Greek prose is that writers attempt to follow a rule regulating the clausula. who shows that authorities did not always agree in their definition of strict Attic practice. R. Greek metre. BZ 21. Different authors apply it in different ways. the educated Byzantine reader was expected to be able to follow them. Kleine Schriften IV 56ft. Prof. Maas. I have not assumed that the extracts will necessarily be read in the chronological order in which they are given. because it is important to show in detail how the Byzantine authors deviated from the usage of their models and what the components of their vocabulary are. and for that reason notes are occasionally repeated.

Liddell. Lampe A Greek-English lexicon. G. H. by G. W. Realencyklopadie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft TAPA Transactions of the American Philological Association BSOAS . Scott. LSJ R. by H. Stuart J ones LXX The Septuagint OrChrPer Orientalia Christiana Periodica ProcCambPhilSoc Proceedings of the Cambridge Philological Society Pauly-Wissowa Pauly-Wissowa-Kroll.ABBREVIATIONS Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African studies BZ Byzantinische Zeitschrift DOP Dumbarton Oaks Papers EHR English Historical Review GRBS Greek Roman and Byzantine Studies Journal of Hellenic Studies JHS Jahrbuch der Oesterreichischen byzantiJOBG nischen Gesellschaft LexPatrGr A patristic Greek lexicon. H.

&XA.T)5ev 'Aoy1~6JJ.~CxVOVO'lV. The name is found in only one of the three manuscripts. and there is a fascinating series of miniatures in the manuscripts. c. but translations of it were made into several Slavonic languages. in progress(= Sources Chretiennes 141). 000). 6 Titvre: there are now twelve books. Photius' summary and co=ents are printed below (pp.COSMAS INDICOPLEUSTES (fl. the world is shown to be shaped like the tabernacle of Moses. The polemic is directed at least in part against his contemporary John Philoponos. here it may include heretics as well. is intended to refute Ptolemaic theories of geography and astronomy. it is clear that he was a merchant trading in the Red Sea and Ethiopia (see especially 2.fJEc. the Bible is the only accurate source of knowledge. the last seven being subsequent additions by the author. both are open to doubt.Itl. it could have been given to the author because of his description of the cosmos.Evo•. but what he says of India and Ceylon does not prove conclusively that he had been there himself. Winstedt. which are often valuable sources for the history of trade between Byzantium and the Orient.61JSVOt: i. 520-550) Although the name and epithet are traditional. b< T6>V 'liAlCX'K&>V 'KO:l O'eAT)VlCX'K6>V b<Af{l. The author arranged for his work to be profusely illustrated.lCX TOV ovpa:vov VTrOACXIJ. The combination of bigotry and naivete is unattractive but revealing. for books V-XII text by E.e. Edition with French translation and commentary: W. The book's popularity in Byzantium is difficult to estimate.a Treplcppovovv-res Ka:l \rrrepcppovovv-res. Wolska-Conus.EVOl. There are many digressions. Paris 1968-. and was unknown to Photius in the ninth century. the commentator on Aristotle. TrCXO'CXV To{vvv Tf\S ~{~AOV Tf}v \nr66ea1v els TrEVTE TlVES 2 VOI. •yTr66ecns 'KO:l T'l')v 6e{a:v rpa:cpf}v IJ. As to his travels. Cambridge 1909. 4 TOVs ~~oo6ev: usually 'pagans'. Ka:-ra TOVS e~ooeev <plAOO'O<pOVS acpa:lpl'KC>V elva:l TO OXflJ. the Christian Topography.:>V TrACXVOOIJ. His work. 0. 66).EV01 5 .l~6JJ. Christians who are acquainted with Greek scientific theory. Xplcrrla:V{~ElV VOIJ.

10 lav . 21 lAO:AT)aav: 'spoke'.To\rrwv &vatpov"'-~vwv. Ntq: i. 78-80 in support of his thesis. first in Dion. ~~yov~vos TCxS XptO"TtavtKCxS \rrro6~0"E1S ~ Tiis 6e{as rpacpfls 7rpoepx6~vos. Kal SoKt"'-ao-WVTes epyCf> Kal TrPcXy"'-aTl. Kal OTl TlV~S TWV e~weev TraAOlWV TotaVTT}s S6~s ty~voVTo." o Se\JTepos A.Tr66ev Sf}A. Kal Tr66ev &cpop""l)v Kal &pxl)v eaxev Tiis acpa{pas ti \rrr6vota. 13 ).a(3eiv TCx O"Xi!"'-aTa. i.oVTa Myet V . Kal Sf}AWV TT'OVTOS TOV KOO"""OV TO O"Xfl"'-a. 24. 23 1Tpo6eoopiJaaVTES: 'having considered these things in advance'.at<.. p. &AA. eeAiJOl:te: the optative is incorrect. Kal OTl ovK &cp• tavTwv ~AcXAT}O"av.COSMAS INDICOPLEUSTES 7 10 15 20 25 ao &p"'-oS{ws StetA. Kal Tiis acpa{pas Kal TWV CxVT1Tr6Swv ti avaTpoTri}." 6 TpiTos A. . a Hellenistic usage common in late and modern Greek. xPilatiJ0\1: because it conforms to a certain eschatology.. aVVTO"'-OS &vaKecpaA. e. StaypcxcpiJ. 32 SteypO:\jlcxiJE\1: the diagrams are clearly intended as an integral part of the book.. llta6iJK1J. TrAaO""'-aTa TrOVTc.. 2.wv 00s o\Jx tavTois TrAaaa"'-evot.avw"'-~vovs TrpwTos A. 1. TrpwTov mxVTwv TrPOs Tovs elpfl"'-~vovs o SvvaTov Tov TWV e~weev yap ~av TlS 6eA. • eK 6e{as &TroKaAV'f'EWS e"'-Trveva6~VTES. 00s ov Xptcrnav{~etv W~AOVTa chrayea6at Tij Trt6avij TrAcXVTJ. compare Photius' comment below. SflA.~oVTEs . 42. Tro{as XPTt &VTEtaayetv \rrro6~aets &A116eis .e. Kal T{ TO XPTJO"l""OV TWV O"Xfl"'-OT(A)V TOV KOO"""OV. 17 Cosmas permits himself to quote Ephorus.ov et CxAfl6eVet MwOO"f}s Kal ol Trpocpf}Tat TotaiiTa A. in Attic usually derogatory. elpi}Ka~v ii SteypcX\f'a~v. Pytheas of Massilia and Xenophanes at 2. o\rre v~ovs ""veovs ecpevpf}K6TES. TO\/ ••• AtyEtv: 'the Christian who must necessarily ask'. eha AOlTT'OV TrPOs TOV alTT}O"a""evov XptO"Tlavov ocpe{A. as outlined below.6yos ty~vETo.i}aetev (3aaav{aat TCxS • EAA11 vtKCxS \rrroWaets. Trpoeewpi}aaVTES aVTCx OVTc.onrov reinforces eha. 28 avaKEcpCIAafooats: 'summary'. e~ chroTrA. 'chatter'.6"'-flV.. to LSJ. 24 nC~Aatq. LSJ quote this sense first from Longinus 16. Kal "'-~Pfl Kal 7 apiJoSfoos: first in Plut.:IS e~eiTrOV Kal oi ev Tij TTaA. eha TrcXAt v Trepl TWV Tro6ovVTwv O'f'El TrapaA. eha TrcXAlV Trpos Tov alTT}o-6:'-'-evov TCxS XptO"TtavtKCxS \rrroe~aets 6 Tr~"'-TrTos A. Arist.6yos ty~veTo. 22 liJ1TliEVa6tVTEs: 'inspired'. E-repa Tfis 6e{as fpa<pf}S VrrOT16e~Vf)S. ace. &AA.6yos ty~vETo.:IS ropf]aet Kal ""veooST} aocp{a""aTa Kal &SvvaTa TraVTEAWS. H. 0 TETapTOS AOYOS ey~VETO.a{wats Kal Staypacpl) Twv Trpoetpfl"'-~vwv \rrrapxwv. eha TrcXAtv ooaavel Ttvos chropovVTos Kal A~OVTOS .X Kal ol ev Tij Ne((:.6yos To &~t6TrtO"Tov chroSe{Kvvatv Mc. by revelation. 90.:~Oa~ws Kal TWV TrpO<pflTWV.

"TOS Svo ~J. 45 6-n: '(note) that'. f)v Kal f) Nia O'VIJ.: 'establishment in the promised land'.6vas Ka"TOCTl'CxO'SlS t~si1TOV. Kal "Tf\S 01<flViiS -ri)v S1aypacpf)v. 37 KCXTCX'ITETaaJJCXTOS: 'veil'.-4) eSsl~S\1 1TCXO'l\l f)~J.1TVSVa6iv.<pOOVOOS acrvrroo~J.os.a"TO "TOV 1TOV"T0s KOO'IJ. ev6a Kal 6 AE0'1TO"TflS XplCTTOs Ka"TO aapKa tK VSKpoov O:vaCTTCxS.-ss "Tij 6s£q: OV"TOOS rpacpij.iv. Kal &1To 'looavvov 1TaV"Tss ot &1T6CTToi\ol Kal svcxyysAlCTTa{. o\i-rs ~a -rl}v SEV"Tipav .-ss. f)v Kal 1Tapaysv6~J..-oov &vsi\T)i\v6sv.{av ds Svo 1TS1TO{flKSV. as in the LXX.Jcxydov: 'model'. Kal &1To Moova~oos ~oos 'looavvov. t. Ka"Tsyp<X\va~J. &oopf)aav. Kal chl ouSels aV"Toov SlS<pOOVflO'SV.a"T05. t~oo. oesv eappf)aav.eA:hovaav SSV"Tepav Ka"TaCTTaalv. . originally 'impress. 40 crrepeooJ.OV tyypacpoos tS~~aV"TO.6:7oov Ti}v 1Tsipav ~SlSQ:xSflaav. Kal -ri)v Ka"TcXO"XSO'lV aV"Too\1 Ti}v tv "Tij yij "Tf\S rncxyysA{as. &XAa 1TcXV"TES oos t~ ~vbs 6s{ov n VEVIJ-0705 t~J. o\i-rs 1Tp0 7aV"TflS d1TOOV h~pav. &)(p•s av 6 1TpoaSoKoo~J. Hellenistic.ipa Kal ~aoo"Tipa.. Kal aV"TOVS Kal "TOVS "T01TOVS tv ols ropf)as1s Kal -ri}v e~oSov aV"Toov "TOOV 'lapOflAl"T00\1.OV.v Kal S1EA. &vaSslKvvoov -rl)v ~J. llixP• Moova~oos.oov 6 Moovafis Sul: "TOV Ka"Ta1TS"TCxaiJ.OV cxV-rTtv E<pflO'SV dva1. a technical term in the civil service.. av~J. Hellenistic.JcxTos: 'firmament'.­ ~J. dO'sA6oov ds "Tft\1 34 b<J. 44 1TaAtv: 'in their turn'.aysiov "TOV 1TOV"T0s KOO'IJ.eV05 S1<x 1TCxV"TOOV "TOOV apxa£00\1 av6poo1TOO\I Kal 1TpO<pfl"TOOV 1Tapsy~\IS"TO.OV.a"TOS Slsi'Asv ds Svo xoopovs· tv "Tij 01<flVij . Ka66:1Tsp Kal 6 esos t~ &pxiis "TOV xoopov "TOV ~va "TOV &1To "Tf\S yfls ~OOS "TOV ovpavov Sul: "TOV CTTSpSOOIJ. Kal chl &1To "TOV •ASa~J.p{"Tflv \nro6i~J.-a\i6a Ka"TOO"TSpOS Kal avoonp05 xoopos. 57 Kcrraoxeatv KTA. Kal "TOOV ypa~J. imprint'. 35 cn<TlviJv: 'tabernacle'. Kal S1a i\6yoov Kal Sla "TV1Toov t~si1TOV 1TEpl "TOOV Svo "TOV"Toov Ka"TaCTTaaeoov.SV05.svos tv ~av. 55 A common theme of early Christian polemic is that the Jews achieved a concept of law and knowledge of writing earlier than the Greeks.cpoovoos 1TCxV"TES..OV SfliJ. 60 avcxSetKvVOOV: 'proclaiming'. alternatively 'written pronouncements'. 6 Ka7007Sp05 ~v tCTTL v 6 Koa~J-05 o\Fr05.8 COSMAS INDICOPLEUSTES as 40 45 so 55 60 KcxAU\vsoos Kal 1TpOCTTa~soos esov "TOV "TC>V KOO'IJ.lOVpYI'lO'OV"T05.svos t~ aV"Toov Kal 1TPOKflpV7761J.-a 1TOA1V aVSAEVO'OV"Tal.SV Kal "TO axT!IJ. 48 T{nroov: perhaps 'images'. -rl)v 01<flvf}V "Akyoo -rl)v \nro Moovaioos Ka"Ta01<svaa&iaav. Cosmas returns to the topic in book XII. 6 &voonpos Se 6 ~A:Aoov K6a~J. 36 The quotation is not accurate.a 1TOV"TOs "TOV KOO'IJ. Kal "TO opos tv 4> "TOV VOIJ. tv. 1rpOO"Tos 1Tav.-ss "To ti<~J.aV. -rl)v ~J. Kal ot S£Ka1o1 ~a .

~V Tij yap •pooiJa{oov yij TrpOOTOV rnl TOOV CxlfOO'T6AOOV Sl~SpallEV TO XplO'TlOVlKOV K{]pvyl.ov S1acp6ap-ftaETa1. S6~a els Tovs aloovas.Cx-r-re1 6 Toov OAOOV LleO'Tf6TT')s eeos CxTtTTfiTOV ~pl Tfjs O'VVTEAe{as. 19 The apostle Thomas was believed to have sent Thaddeus to Edessa in the reign of king Abgar (Eusebius hist. 11 •pw11avlq. .LSv TOV ~eO'Tf6TOV XplO'TOV els TOV aloova TO Cm:A.fis K6a1.oyt)I-\Evo1 ToO TiaTp6s IJOVI l<AT')povol.lal Kal eVe~oos TfCxAlV ~V Tiepa{S1 Sla eas20 Sa{ov Tov &TfoO"T6A.e{al rnl TO l." a\JT4> t.: 'the Roman empire'. 64-65 Cosmas surveys the diffusion of Christianity. Kal yap Kal TrpOOTOV j3aa{Ae10V rn{O"TEVO'EV 15 Xp10'T4l Trapa Ta A.etas Tov ~eO"Tr6Tov XplO'TOV Traaas V1fepa{povaa oaov ~vS~ETa1 KaTa TOV J3{ov TOVTOV CxTtTTfiTOS S1aJ. 1..1-ftv.1~p1 Tfjs avVTeA. 1 2.eye1 . Hellenistic. 33. 75 77 The eternity and primacy of the Roman empire 1 IJET~E1 ovv ti j3aa1A. ~aaf'-etov: 'empire'.\CxTOOV Tfis J3aa1A. 16 olKOVOI!twv: 'dispensations'. Hellenistic in this sense. 6 Luke 1.KalJ3aalA. Tij Tiap6~Vct> A..eta TOOV •poo1Ja{oov TOOV &~1001.eta Vlff)ph1s ~O"Tlv Toov TOV XplO"Tov olKovo1JlOOV ilv S1a Taii-ra cpvA. eccl. a sense not attested in LSJ. 34.e&rr}TOV O'T')IJa{vE1 Ka6a Kal 6 faJ3pn'}A.Se0-re ol e\JA.els Tov aloova yap" cpf)aiv . 17 2.1Kais y~paTrTa1 I 1 1 I 1 63 Matthew 25.ov.COSMAS INDICOPLEUSTES 9 65 ~O'(A)T~pav O"KT')vflVI els TOV &voo-rspov ovpCxV10V xoopovl els ov TrpocrKaAEiTa1 Tovs SlKa{ovs ~v Tij SEVT~PCit TrapovaiCit Myoov . 4 avVTEA£1as: 'the end' (of time). &1. Daniel 2.{yov ~epol J3apJ3apol Tij •PooiJaV{Cit rnav{O'TaVTall C:il\Aa Tij SvvaiJEl Tov SlaKpaToVVTOS CxTtTTfiTOS SlaiJ~VEl ti J3aalA. 8 avvavcrretACtOTIS: 'rise together with'.lrnpas cXIJapT{as lfPOs TfalSe{av 6A." 5 Kal rnl J. 44.omal Kal ~ ti j3aa1A.l-ftaa-rs -rl}v f)T011Jaai-\Evf)v VIJiv j3aa1A. 76 (here omitted) describes the Persian empire as second in importance to the Roman. &~1 Kal ~v Tais Ka6oA.lfJ O'TEVOV0"6al Ta TOOV XplO'T1avoovl C:il\Aa TfAcrrVVE0"6a1.1ov.etav &Tro KaTaj3oA. 14 1rAcrrVvea6at: at 3. 10 eappoov yap &Trocpa{VOIJOll OTl el Kal S1a Tas til. 13).\Evovaa 1.eVae1 rnl TOV o{KOV •taKooj3 els TOVS aloovasl Kal Tfjs f3a0'1Ae{as aVTOV OVK EO'T01 T~AOS" rnl Se Tfjs • Poo1Ja{oov j3a0'1Ae{as oos O'VVOVaTElACxO'T')S T't> Xp10'T4l els Tov aloova Toii-rov ov Slacp6ap-ftO"ETal.e{as· .

6aviJa~61JEvov "'TapO: "'Tav-ros &vepoo"'Tov Kal "'TOO'flS f3aat:Aefas. first in the LXX.a ~f}v -ro -roov • PooiJa{oov f3aaf:Aetov "!To:AAO: 1Tpo:A1)~1Ja-ra Ex.&crrra~ETaf COSMAS INDICOPLEUSTES 25 ae oft tv Baf3v:Aoov1 ~11afa".x (3aat:Aefc. &XA. 00$ Kal 1Tpoo-rov ov Kal 1Tp00-rov "'Ttcneiiaav els Xpta-rov Kal \rm')pe-rovv tv '1T00'1J -rfj Ka"TCx Xpta-rov olKovo~fc. .10 . Hellenistic.> vo~{a~a-rl aV-roov t~"!Tope\Jov-ral "'TOV"Ta -ra reVT). 21 I Peter 5. 13.et tv -roV-rq>. 27 SEKTov: 'acceptable'.x.x o\Jx Vn-apxet -ro -rotoV-ro. Akyoo Sf} 8-rl tv -re. rnpov s~ O'T)~Eiov Svvaa-refas -roov •Poo~afoov o aV-rois KE)(O:pta-rat 6 9e6s. Kal tv "!Tarn -r6'1Tq> &"!T• &Kpov yi)s eoos &Kpov yfls SEK-r6v ta-rtv. o"'Tep hepc. 22 -rrpoAftllllaTa: 'advantages'.

Having become a staff officer or private secretary to Belisarius at an early age. which describes elegantly and with much praise of the emperor such monuments as Hagia Sophia. has all the advantages that would be expected in an eye-witness account. JOBG 14. Africa and Italy (627-40). See also P. Editions: J. Rubin's article in Pauly-Wissowa. On P. N. There are many interesting digressions. c. Loeb series. B. English translation of the Secret History by G. including one on the Nika riots of 632. where modern research is able to verify his statements they are found to be accurate (see R. saying 'her murmurs. for modern taste its one failing is the inclusion of numerous speeches in the manner of Thucydides. 61-78). Procopius composed his Secret History. which has enjoyed a certain notoriety ever since Gibbon relegated some of the more scabrous passages about Theodora to his footnotes. Armenian and Persian). At much the same time as he was writing the history which treats Belisarius as a hero and is no more than moderately critical of imperial policy. Ure. Burn. . in general see B. and very probably Gothic. Penguin books 1966. Justinian and his age. a ferocious invective against Justinian and his wife Theodora. There is also a monograph on various buildings constructed in Justinian's reign. EHR 70.1966. Penguin books 1961. as a result of which the territories of the Roman empire were very greatly extended for a short while.ic state of mind. Benedicty. It is not known what provoked Procopius to this apparently schizophreD. Haury. he accompanied him on his campaigns in Persia. Williamson. A. Teubner 1905-13. Dewing and G. 500) Of all Byzantine historians Procopius is the best from a stylistic point of view (within his self-imposed limits). 's account of England see A. and he is equal to any of his rivals in the interest of the story he has to recount. Downey. the accounts he gives of the various races he came into contact with are sources of unique value for the early history of central and northern Europe. H. reprinted with additions 1963--4. For an interesting note on P.PROCOPIUS (b. His main work. R. a history of the wars of Justinian in eight books. Since Procopius possessed great linguistic ability as well as intellectual curiosity (he knew Syriac and Latin. 1965. her pleasures and her arts must be veiled in the obscurity of a learned language'. 268-61.

1-5 Proem TlpoK6'Tt'tOS Kcoacxprus 'TOVs 'Tt'Oi\t!Jovs ~veypCX\fJEV. 8 This is reminiscent of Thuc. Belisarius' exploits make the claim moderately plausible. ehe e\5 ehe it'fl &AAT) cxV-rois elpyaa6cxt ~vvef3fl. &AAa •a 'Tt'cxat ~vevex6eVTcx El<cxcrrcx &Kpt(3oAoyov1JEvos ~veypa­ \f-ICX'TO. depends more on Thucydides. •ois 'TE yap 'Tt'OAE~Jflae{ovat 10 Kcxi &AAc. •cxii'Ta •o• 20 ovSe 'TOV 'TWV ol ~S &ycxv rnt'TflSe{c. 6 IJE)'cxs cxlwv A6yov EPfliJCX 5 xetpc. Already in the second century Lucian (De historia conscribenda 16) had poured scorn on facile imitation of this kind.lq>EpOV!): a favourite word of Herodotus. Thuc. when it is found in Laonikos and Kritobulos.lcpepovs lcrrop{cxs rn{Set~lS.::movs &v(xyKflv StCxeol'To. cf. 11 il. ovs 'Iovcrrtvtcxvbs 6 •pc.12 PROCOPIUS History 1. 2.. oos 'TO elK6s.'TCXl.l. oos l-l1'l epycx VrrEp!JeyEer. ~pcxcpij Se &A{}6etcxv. . oos 'TtTl cxV-rwv ~6crrct> ~VI'lv£x6r) yevea6cxt. cht Se cxVT~ ~VIJ(30VA<t> ~Pfll-lEV<t> BeAtacxp{ct> 'T~ O"TPCX'TflY~ axeS6v 'Tl &ircxa1 'Tt'cxpcxyevea6cxt 'TOiS 'Tt'E'Tt'pcxyIJEV01S ~vvrnae.oaCxj. 11-12. 'Tt'Olfl'TtKij Se 1Jv6o'Tt'ottcxv. 48 (on the plague) ef 'TT'O'TE Kal aV61!) bnmao1. Studien zu den Pro~mien in der griechischen und byzantinischen Geschichtsschreibung. OOV'Tt'Ep 'Tf}v 1-lvi}l-lfl\1 cxVTOs ~E'TO IJEyCX 'Tl eaea6cxt Kcxl ~voiaov ~s •a IJCxAtcrrcx Tois 'TE viiv ovat Kcxi Tots ~s 'TO E'Tt'El'TCX YEVTlO'OIJEVOlS. 19 TcxVTa: 'for this reason'.os &yc. a less epigrammatic but otherwise similar idea is seen in Polybios 2. 18-19 An elaborate profession of veracity.lEVOS 'Tij 'TE A{}&t:l cxVTCx KCX'TCX'Tt'pOfl'TCXl Kcxl 'Tt'CXV'TCx'Tt'CXO'l\1 ~~{'TflACX &i. 15 ~VVTJ'TT'IaTcrro was used by Xenophon and Gorgias for the Attic ~VIjST}.In the remainder of the proem P. 5 In this passage P.lo{cxv 'Tl\1Cx •ovs &vepc.ov{cxs £xcbpflaev. is no exception. cxlvtaao!JEVI'l Se 6'Tt'o{cxv 'Tl\1Cx 'TEAEV'Tf}v 'TOiS ye oos aplO"TCX (3ovAevo!JEvots 'TCx 'Tt'cxp6VTcx.o!Jcx{c. 1. Lieberich. but the habit remained unaltered until the fifteenth century. ei 'Tt'O'TE KCXi cxVets 6 xp6vos ~s 6j. Munich 1899-1900. and P. Kcx{ ot cxV-r~ 15 ~VI'l'Tt'{crrCX'To 'Tt'CxV'TC. but l~ITTJAa is Herodotean. 56.OV IJCxAtcrrcx SvVCX'TOs wv TaSe ~vyypQ\vcxt KCX'T' &AAo !-LEv ovSev. e~t.:>ovs Kcxl ~O"Tt'ep{ovs.l.ov (3cxatAe\Js 'Tt'pos (3cxp(3apovs Snivcyt<e 'TOVS 'TE ~c.ovtov!JEvots OVI'la{v 'Ttvcx ~op{~ea6cxt oicx 'TE ~crrtv . 1 As a rule historians began with a statement of principle more or less closely derived from their great models Herodotus and Thucydides. 'Tiis ~j.ov 'TCx 1JOX6r)pCx &'Tt'eKp\1\yCX'To. See H. argues that the war in question was more important than any previous one. CrnOKcxAV'Tl"Tovacx IJEv O'Tt'Ol 'Tt'O'Te Tois 'Tt'poyeyeV111JEvo•s •a 'Tiis 6~Jo{cxs &yc. 'Tt'prnetv 'TE -i}yei'To Pfl'TOptKij IJEv SetVO'Tfl'TCX.

ola 'TroA:Aa <p1:Aova1v ot 5 -ra\i-ra Selvol al-r{as -repcx-reVea6al ovSaJ.lev OOV TOiS ~~ ovpavov rnl<n<ft'TT"TOVO'l V iaoos cXV Kal AEyOlTO TlS \rrr• &vSpoov -roAJ...l{a ~a-r{.lEVOl acp{alv. ~v -rcxV-nJ Sf) J.> KaKc.. ei-re yap xoop{oov EVOlKf)O'el ei-re VOJ.lOOVl. P. o6ev cXV Kal aocp{aJ.. but not the construction.l't> Sla{'TT}s. 6 cpvatoi\oy(as: apparently 'scientific explanation' rather than 'investigation'.111Toov al-r{ov :A6yos. .leV OOP<f: eepovs. eyoo Se o6ev -re ftp~a-ro 1'1 1 Thucydides' description of the plague at Athens was so famous that later historians almost always took the opportunity of imitating it. <pVO'lOAoy{as -re OVO'TrACxO'O"ElV \rrrepop{ovs. ~~ 00 Sf) &rrav-ra 6:A{yov ~Sbtae -ra &v6pooirEla ~~{'TT}Aa elva1.it:Aoov ~s -rovvav-r{ov irapa iro:Av S1a:AA6:aaov-ras. \nrepop(ovs: 'outlandish'.nd Nicephorus Gregoras (16. :Aeyhoo J. 2 ~~('TT'Ii\a elvat: P.. Stal'TT'Is: 'diet'. f)v ye -roov ~v-rvyxav6v-roov -r1vas -re.l'Traaav.ovJ.. 8) describing the Black Death in terms which owe something to Thucydides (in striking contrast to the prologue of Boccaccio's Decameron).lOO'lV.lOV'Q -rij VOO<t> TO SlaAACxO'O'OV ovSev OOVTlO'eV. it is not clear against whom this polemic is directed. is obviously fond of this adjective. 1.lEVTOl -re. rnEOl<Tl't'e Se -rois 20 J.leVOl J. which he used in his proem. 15 Ka{irep r!:iAA. &iroxpfiv Se 'l'ly... f3iovs Se &v6pcbiroov &rrav-ras ~f3:ACX\J'e.'> irp6cpaa{v -r1va ii :A6y<t> el'Treiv ii 10 SlaVO{<f: :Aoy{aaa6al J.leV oos AEyOVO'lV ovSev VylES. -roV-r<t> J. &rraa1 J.lETeoopo:A6yos.lEpovs -rfis yfjs ovSe &v6pcbirOOV TlO'l yEyOVEV ovSe TlVO oopav TOV hovs eaxev.. ov yap rnl J. 17 v611ct': in its early sense of 'custom'. 1-17 The plague •y'TrO Se -rovs xp6vovs -roV-rovs AOlJ. 10 Tl5 is otiose. 'TrATtV ye Sf) oaa ~s TOV eeov &vacpepea6al.... ~~e'TrlO'TCxJ.lTlXOvTt TlS ovSeJ.> :A6y<t> ~~O'Trcx-niaav-res 'TT"Eiaooa1. ii &AA<t> 8-r<t> &v6pclnroov O:v6pooirol S1acpepova1v. scarcely different from ah(a.. ii rnl'TT}SeVJ. -rois Se xelJ. more usual would have been &cpavta6fivat. &AAa irep•ef36:AAE-ro J.lEVOV. ooa: the general sense is clear. 22.la-ra al-r{as e\Jpea6a1 Svva-ra ei11.. P. was not alone. in the fourteenth century we fi..lOS yeyovev... 4 ah(ov i\6yos: 'account of the cause'.lfj &v6poom:t> KOTaATl'TT"TaS ovaas.lev oov oos 'Tr1l !Kaa-ros irepl aV-roov y•vooaKEl Kal O'O<pla-rf)S Kal J. ii cpvaeoos -rp6ir<t>. €!3i\mye: there does not seem to be much point in the variation of the tenses. 5) and John Cantacuzene (4. here deals with the outbreak of bubonic plague in 542. 13-14 m:ptel30i\i\ETo . OVTE <pVO'EOOS TlVOS OVTE f}AlK{as <pelO'CcJ. -rois Se KOTa TOVS O:AAovs Kalpovs.lev -rf)v yfjv ~J.PROCOPIUS 13 2.

but probably no emendation is needed. P.. 3. ovSallOOs ii"J'aTO. 23 . 1 it means 'number'. 25 Tp6lT~ PROCOPIUS Sf} 6-T~ Tovs &v6pooTiovs Stecp6etpev ~poov "'Hp~aTO ll~V ~~ Alyvrrr{oov ot q>Kf}VTal ~V rr.Opetav e'A{lTETO 85 &v6poolTOVS oiKf}Topas E)(ovaav· f)v Se lTOV Ttva Kal Tiapf)'Aaae xoop~v. 29ff. oSc. ending with the personification ooCTTTEp SeSoncvla:. Tia{ea6at q>oVTo lTpos Tov ~VTVX6VTos ~pG>v fpXOIJO:l: a Herodotean phrase. 41 ooCTTTEp MSS."Aova{~.. 47 1TO:pcrrr11TTotev: here and at 60 below the compound in 1rep1. rnl ~T)TOlS: 'at a steady pace'..Aa xp6v~ Tt.may be a better reading. 42 he Tiis 1Ta:pa:Aia:s: because it was spread by rats in ships. lTf} s~ rnl ITcx'AataT{ vovs TOVS Alyvrrr{ots OIJOpovs fj'A6ev. a usage which seems foreign to classical prose idiom. o\hoo Si] ~S Tf}v J. Thuc.> lTpoTep~ Stecp66:p6at TETVx11Kev.14 v6aos f)Se Ked epxo!Jal. 38-39 Areas which had once suffered were not subject to reinfection.: 61TEp Haury. makes an autobiographical statement here. 2.1Ea6yetov &vej3atve xoopav. Ti.lEO'OVVTOS TOV fipos a<p{KETO. 46 Sa:tJ. <pCxO'IJaTa Satll6voov lTOAAois ~s lTCXO'aV O:v6poolTOV ISeav oocpe. ey{veTO S~ ooSe. OVTE yap vfia6v TlVa i1 CTTT"ft'AalOV i1 &Kpc. 00'01 TE a\JTois lTapaTI{TITotev. ~VTEGeev TE KaTSAaj3e Tf}v yiiv aVIJlTaaav. ooO'lTep SeSotKVia ll'li TlS aVTT}v Tiis yiis Sta'ACxeot llVX6s. ~CxTepa llSxPl ~s Tas Tiis oiKOVIlEVTlS ~O"XaTlCxS. OOO'lTEp Kal TOiS O:ll<p. 25 IJ~V ovv or ~v yap might be expected. 40 TO IJErpov: 'the due measure'. 45 q>etO"IJCXTO: JCTA.. evea 45 Kal ~llOi rntSTlllEiV T'llVlKaVTa ~vvej311. perhaps because Thucydides had permitted himself one (a:VT6s TE vocn1aa:s). &:A. 23. 44 Theophanes says that the outbreak began in October.> VO'Tep~ miSts ~VTaGea rnaVlOVO'a TOOV llEV lTEpto{Koov. O:p~allEV'Il Se O:el ~ Ti. 48. aVTT}v t.: the description begins without a connecting particle. oTs Sf} lT1Kp6TaTa rnEO'KTl"J'E lTpoTEpov.l &v6poolTOOV i1 O:llooayelTOOS aVTOOV O:"J'allEV.l6voov in this pejorative sense is not classical. at 2.s Tiapa'A{as Tj v6aos f)Se. s~ Stxa lTf} ll~V rn{ TE •A'Ae~avSpe{as Kal Tiis CXAATlS Aly&rr-rov ~OOPTlOC.> TE ael lTpoiovaa Kal XP6V01S j3aS{~ovaa TOiS Kcx&f)KOVO'lV. a fine point of Atticism well observed by P. The v6aos is made the subject of numerous verbs. O'KeSaVVVIJEVTl s~ ~<p.>KTliJEVOlS xp6v~ Tt. rnl so PTlTOiS yap ~S6KE1 xoopeiv Kal xp6vov TCXKTOV ~V XOOP<iC ~KCxO"TTJ StaTptj3f}v E)(etv. SEVTep~ s~ ETEl ~ Bv~CxVTlOV J. but for thegeneral sense cf. ll"Ti "J'aVO'aaa TOOV Tcx\m.. ~s ovSevas ll~V &v6poolTOOV lTapepyoos TW cp66p~ XPOOilEV. yeVOIJEV. which is unlikely.S S~ xoopas ~e{VTlS ov lTpOTepov 40 CxlTEO'Tfl eoos TO llhpov 6p6oos Kal StKa{oos TOOV TETEAEVTfiKOTOOV arreSooKEV. .

KaT• &pxexs J.laT{OlS.li)Te laTpCi) Crn-roJ. &-re "'TVpETOV rnl"'TEO'OVTOS.levots Tov ecroJ.lcx ToiiTo Kcxl Tij v6a~ cx\rr{Kcx f}A. 75 The rest of the chapter. Tois Se "'TAe{CYTots o<rre V"'Tcxp o\ITe ovcxp cxlcr6oJ. Kcx{"'Tep &pcxcrcroJ.lTlPOOV ETVXE.levot.laTOS J. oos ~o:CYT6S "'TTl ~SvvaTo.lOV ?lv.levov ehcx Tij v6cr~ ~vej311 &Aoovcx1.laATlS ~VTos. evecx Kcxl TO TOV O'OOJ. ot Se &:AA.levoov Tov O:pt6J.lOs rney{vETo. . O"'TTl "'T<:xp<X'T\ixot Tov crooJ.cx ~~ocrtov­ J.lcx o<ITe Tl Stf)i\Acxcrae Tiis 1TpoTepcxs XPOlCXS OVTE eepJ.oVTES: 'reciting'. SetJ. ov J. but he means 'reciting prayers and crossing themselves'.. 69 ov yap oi:iv ovSe: Denniston. Tois Se Tij rntyevoJ. 53 lepols: 'churches'.l6voov TtS o Ko:A.\Sv oov ot 50 "'TO:pCX"'TE"'TTOOKOTES &"JTOTprne0'6cxl cx\rrex rnetpOOVTO.lev Tij cx\rrij.lEVTot To "'Tcxperncxv ovSev. OVTOOS aj3A11XPOs TlS ~~ O:pxfls TE Kcxl &x. OI. f}J. Ttcrl Se OtJx OVTOOS 0 AOlJ.lcx{voVTEs S11A-ov6Tt J.lEVOl. P. Oxford 19542 .levot.lev aooJ. rnvpecrcrov &cpvoo.lOplOV. ot J. does not list this collocation. &J\A. ot Se "'Tept"'T<hovs "'TotovJ. ilvvov J. f}A{O'KOVTO Se TPO"'T~ TOtCi)Se.eyoVTos acp{crtv oTt Si) ~s Toov Te6VTJ~OJ. ~v{ots Se Kcxl "'TcxpO: TO: ooTcx 75 Kcxl O"JTov "'TOTe TOOV J. TOOV TE ovoJ. 55 Cil\AO: Kcx6e{p~CXVTES cx\rrovs ~V Tois SooJ.PROCOPIUS 15 O:vSpas.l<hoov &"JToCYTOJ.o o Tl Sf} 65 1Tp6:aaoVTes. Cil\AO: Kcxl Tiis J. &!lex Te To cp6:crJ. omitted here.{CYKoVTo.lep<(: Se Tois J. j3ovj3oov KeKATlTcxt.6yov 60 &Kovetv 1TpoA. hepots Se ov "'TOAAcxis VO'Tepov j3ovj3oov rnflpTo. rnel KCxV Tois tepois ot "'TAeiO'TOl KaTCX<pEVyOVTES Stecp6e{poVTO.li)TE Tois voaoiiatv cx\rrois J.lev1J.lEvoov cx&:rois Toov 6vpoov. a meaning first found in post-classical Greek. OVK ~VTo:Vecx JlOVOV. VO'TEpov Se ovSe TOiS cp{AOlS KcxAOVO'lV rnCXKOVElV i)~{ovv.PtS ~O"''Tepcxs o 1TVpeT6s ?lv ooCYTE J.laT{~oVTES TCx 6et6TOTCX Kcxl Ta &XA. 0 Si) TOV i1Tpov evepeev ~O'Tl. ccVTOV eSo~ev. describes the various ways that the disease affected individuals.J'lV 6ve{pov IS6VTES TcxVTO TOVTO 1Tpos TOV rnlO'TCxVTOS "'TOCYXEl V ~SOKOVV' 11 A.oov ei11. ov yap 70 oov ovSe TlS TEAEVTCXV TOOV "'TEpl"'TE"'TTOOKOTOOV &"'T. OTl Si) OVK rncxtotev 1TpocrE"'TotovVTo.leV ~~ V"'Tvov ~yepJ.lfl ScxtJ.I<XT(l. Kcxl To J.lftV ovSe cpA.6yoocrts rney{vETO.lev~ S6K11crtv KtvSvvov 1Tcxpexecr6cxt. ~oopoov 51 01TOCTTOj.laTOS.lov &vecypCX"'TTol elev.. avoids specifically Christian terms. The Greek Particles. CiAA.

know? Presumably from the offices of the city prefect or the heads of the fourteen city districts. (The new capital was divided into the same number of districts as Rome). rnel 5~ Tas &f}Kas Crn-acras. &el TCfl ~acr1MT TCxS Twv lKETwv 6ef}cre1s OyyEAAWV. pecpepev6ap1ov Tij AaT{vwv cpwvij TT)v T1~f}v Ta\rrT}v K<XAovcr1 • Pw~aio1. f)K~aCTE 5~ ~V Tp1cri ~aA1CTTa. Kal aV 1TaA1V ~s ~vp{ovs TE Kal To\rrwv h1 1TAe{ovs -?iA6e.5pos 5~ TcX TE ~aCT1AECo:IS 616o\ls XPTt~aTa Kal Ta olKEia 1TpocravcxP.{CTKwv TOVS &1Tfl~eAfl­ ~evovs TWV VEKpwv e6a"TTTEV. eha E-n ~CXAA.) Maltretus: el1rov V: om. os 51'} &1ToKp{crecr1 TaTs ~acr1A1Kais ~cpe1CJ"TT)Ke1.000'. ai 1Tp6Tepov -?icrav. ~~1T{1TAacr6a1 TWV VEKpwv ETVXEV. -?iA6e. TCx ~~V ovv 1TpWTa Tfjs Tacpfjs aUTOs EKOCTTOS rne~AeiTO Twv KaTa -rljv olK{dv veKpwv.ov TO KaK~>V fjpETo. o\is 51'} Kal ~s &AA. 5ovAot Te yap ~~1vav 5eCT1ToTwv ~Pfl~o1. ols ~~v ovv o\hrw 1ravrernacr1 v ~ ~Pfl~{av ~~1TE1TTW­ K6Ta Ta KaTa -rljv o[K{av hVyxavev. 10 15 20 25 .X f)~epcxs 1TOAACxS O:Tacp01S etva1. 2. ot 5~ 6pvcrcrov4 'The number of deaths each day reached 5. 20 OWe. 1TOAAa{ -re olK{al 1Tavr<X1Tacr1V ~Pfl~o1 &v6p&11rwv eyevovro. CTfl~a{vwv TE aVe1s cera av aVTCfl ~OVAO~V~ eifl. cnnol EKaCTT01 Tas TWV 1TpOCTT}KOVTCo:IV rno10VVTO Tacpas.16 PROCOPIUS 2.eve TOV ~pyov TOVTOV rn1~EAEicr6a1. cS:v5pes TE Ta 1Tp6TEpa A{av ev5a{~oves Tfjs TWV o[KETWV \rrrovpy{as i1 vocrovvrwv 11 TETEAEVTflK6Twv ~CTTEPflVTO. G: the cause of the corruption is not obvious. 4 in an almost identical context. 16 &lroKpfaeat KTA. ~a 5~ ~s 1TEVTaK1CTX1Atovs f)~ep~ ~acrn. ~s Te ~acr1Ma '~'} TOV 1TpcXy~aTOS 1rp6vo1a. who must have had to keep statistics of the population for tax purposes. 23 •H ~~v ovv v6aos ~v Bv~avr{~ ~ Tecrcrapcxs 5lf'jA6e ~fj vas. 610 51'} ~ve~11 T1CTi TWV yvwp{~wv Tij ernop{<. perhaps ol s~ (25) should be taken as 'some people'. How did P.t ~~1KveiTo To Twv vEKpwv 5 ~hpov. 52. Kai KaT • apxas ~~V ~6VT)CTKOV TWV elw66Twv 6A{y~ 1TAe{ovs. rne1Ta 5~ 1TcXVTa ~V ernacr1 ~vvETapax&r}. A period with anacolouthon. 18 ooa av ell'\: wrong syntax with the optative. 14 1rp6vota: 'provisions to be made for a contingency'. 9 ~ve-rapaxel'l occurs in Thuc. 24ff.oTptas &f}Kas ~pphTTOVV i1 Aav6avovres 11 ~1d~6~V01. CTTpaT1WTCXS ovv ~ 1TaAaT{ov Kal XPTt~aTa ve{~as 9e65wpov ~O. 9e65c. so that the Latin loan-word of the spoken language need be used only in parenthesis. ws TO elK6s.: a long explanation of his duties is given in the best Attic terms.

rne1'Tex Se ol 'TCxS KCX'TOOpV)(CXS 'TcxV'TCXS 1T010VJJEV01 1TP0s 'TOOV &1To6VT)O"K6vroov 'TO JJhpov o\n<h1 &vrexoVTEs ls 'TOVS 80 wpyovs 'TOV 1TEp1(36Aov &vef3ex1vov..lEAOVTO 45 Kexi q>EpOVTES a\rrol 'TOVS o\J 1Tpoaf}KOVTexS aq>{a1 YeKpOVs E6CX1T'TOV. Kexl ~vvflaexVTEs. for a modern treatment of the theme see Manzoni.lCX'Tex o\JSevl KOO"J.. ov Si} 'Texis OKCxT01S lJJ(3cxAA6JJEV01 aoopT)Sov EIJEAAOV 01TT} 1TexpCX'TVxo1 KOJ.lEv 'Tois ~J.l{~ea6ex1. lvrcrii66: TE 'TOVS 6vf}O'KOVTCXS KCX'TCX'T16EJ.lq>l -ri}v 1TOA1\1 xoop{ex.. OAAOOS TE i')v Kexi CXVEJ. . 'Te6vf}~ea6ex1 Se a\rr{Kex Si} JJaAex ol6JJEV01.11crrex1 ol veKpol lKoJJ{~ovro oV'Te KCX'Tex\l}cxAAOJ. Os tv l:VKexis m{· 'TCxs TE opoq>CxS 1TEp1eA6VTES lvrcriieex lpp{1T'TOVV 'TCx O'OOJ.leTexf36:AAea6ex1 aSvvCX'Ta lcrr1v. especially the breakdown of law and order. rnel 'TOiS &v6poo1T01S oaex lJJ1TEit'T}ye q>VO"e1 .l1J. &XA.l1T{1T'Tova1. 49 IJETalla66VTEs: i.AAaaaovro.levo1 15 vev6J.. are emphasised in Thucydides. &v6:yt<1J.S TE oa{exs 'T00\1 ~KOT00\1 K01Vij ElrEJ. rightly follows his model. 'TOTe Kexl 'TOV Si)JJov oao1 crrexa1ooTex1 1Tp6TEpov i'jaexv. &-rn. 3.lCXAA0\1 EAV1TE1 'TOVS 'Tcx\rn:l av6poo1TOVS. as in Hdt. O'T1 JJf} 6e{ov 'T1VOs &y~ov rnmvevaexvros· &XA. o\J -rl}v aooq>poa-VVT)v J. 44 oo(as: funeral rites'.lEvo1 1TexpexvoJJ{exv -ri}v e6aef3e1exv &Kp1(3oos i\aKovv. 2 Wibon . and P. aAA • lKexV0\1 i'j V el q>epoov T1S rnl 40 T00\1 OOJ.lE\101 'Ti. 43 crracnooTat: a reference to the circus factions. i)(6ovs 'TOV ls &AAi}Aovs aq>EJ.a TOTE oos el1Tetv &rrexVTEs KCX'TCX1TE1TAT)yJ. 27. 'learning something new in place of the old'. oiSe -ri}v ts -ri}v S{ex1'Texv ernoae1a6:J. oos 36 cS:vellos hr(cpopos is a phrase in Thuc. L S J cite this meaning only from Iamblichus.lETexJJcx6oVTEs o6Se 'Ti.s &pe'Ti.. oos 1TT} ~6:crrct> 1Texph\J)(ev. see below on Malalas.lOOV 'T00\1 TETEAevTT}KOT00\1 T1\1Cx ES TE 'Tfls 1TOAeOOS TCx rn16cxA6:aa1ex tA6oov epp1\I}EV.lEvo1 J. 57.lex SvqooSes ls -ri}v 1TOA1\1 85 lov E'l'1 J. oV'Te yap 1TexpCX1TeJ.lex.s lpexcrrex{ 'T1VES tK 'TOV exlq>v1S{ov 50 yeyEVT)JJE\101.. e. 74.lOs 'T1S lKei6ev rn{q>opos rn11TveVO'E1E.l1TOJ. lJJ1TAT)aaJJEVO{ TE 'T00\1 YeKpOOV OOS el1TeiV OOrexVTCXS.lE\101 i51Tep eloo6e1.l't>. ' xp6vov J. e!'Tex 'TexiS opoq>exis cxV61S lKcXAV1T'TOV.a Kexl oao1 1Tp6:yJJexa1 Ta 1Tprnpex 1Texp1crr6:JJEvo1 exlaxpois TE Kexl 1TOVT)pois i){ex1pov. 00s Ei<excrr6s iTT} lSvvCX'To.PROCOPIUS 17 TES &rrexvrex lq>e~iis 'TCx OJ. Kexl ern· a\rrov 1TVEVJ.. p. I promessi sposi. 46 The psychological effects of the disaster on the population. TT6:vrex Te \nrepcbq>61') 'TOTE 'TCx 1Tepl TCxS 'Texq>Cxs VOJ.lEV01.lCXKpov S1SexaKcxA{<iX p~crrex Si} o\hoo J. 1..

like the toga in Rome. Ta !le" o~v &~q>l Tc. i')v Se T1S Keel 1Tpoi6VT1 T1\ll ~VTVXEi\1 70 iaxvo-ev.. Keei TO ~VJ. ii TOVS \IOO"OV\/TeeS reepemevov. epyee TE &AA.:> yap ~vvrneae !3ovJ3wvee 80 rnfjp6ee1•. . fvStSuaK61lfvov is not Attic. &y)({o-rpoq>0\1 cniEhs Tfis YVOOJ. &i\Aoos Te T)v{Kee J3eea1A.ei voafjaee1 ~vel311 {Keel c:xVTc.1evov. EKeeO'T01 ~\/ xepalv eTxov. ~pyeea{ee TE ~V~"'TeeO"ee TlPYE1 Keel TCxS Texvees ol TSX\IiTee1 ~E&iiKee\1 ern6:aees. ii TOVS TETEAeVTflKOTeeS rep{JVOV\1. the Attic meaning of the word. Ci:pT0\1 CxJ.c ~s TO &Kp1!3es &iro'Ae~ee~EVfl TOVS "'TO\/TlPOTCxTOVS &q>fiKE\1. oSe TW\1 T1\lee \IEKpwv eq>epev. ~\/ 1TOAe1 yov\1 ayee6ois &rree0'1\l &Texvws eV&r)\IOVO"'IJ A11l6s T1S &Kp1J3i)s rneKOOJ.l"'Tee\1 el"'TEi\1. rnel Keel Crn10"XVP10"Cx~E\IOS a\1 T1S OV TCx 'f'EVSfi ei1To1 oos T) v6aos f)Se ehe TVx'IJ Ttvl eiTE 1Tpovo{c. 77 XAa~o~uSa: 'formal dress'. TcxVTCx T01.1EAe1 ii &AA.:> ev Te Tfj &i\A1J • Poo~ee{oov yfj Keel ~\/ Bv~ee\IT{~ TcxVT1J 1TTl eaxev.. aq>O:s c:xVTovs ~6A1o-ree Tfj Te "'TO\/Tlp{cte Keel Tfj &i\A1J 1Teepeevo~{<t'C \IE\11K11KOTES. T6Te Se ayop6:~o\/Ta T1\lee ovK eV"'TETes ~S6Ke1 eTvee1 ev ye Bv~eeVT{~ tSeiv.o OT10V\I S1eepK6)s ExE1\I xeeAe"'T6v TE ~S6KE1 75 Keel A.:> 65 vrnp~ &iroSeSe1KTee1 xp6v~. &i\AO: TcxVTee ~e\1 Tc.ovs &vepoo"'T00\1 T1\/Ccs KE)(OOP11K6TOS.ovs crnee\/Tcxs.J'E Se Keel ~s Tl)v Tiepaw\1 yfiv Keel ~s J3eepJ3apovs TOVS &AA.lee{oov &pxiis lllCxT1ee ~" tS1ooT&v A. but found in the LXX and N. not military uniform. rne1Si) TCxx10'Tee Tfis \IOO"OV CrncxAAcxyEVTES ~aoo&r)aee\1 E\1 TE Tc. &i\i\ • ~\/ 1T6'Ae1 j3eea1'Ae{eev ~OVO"'IJ ~ll"'TCxO"flS Tfis • PooJ. rnEO"KTli.:> 'Ao1~c.lee~E\1. oao1s ~vvej3ee1ve TO aw~ee ~ppwaeee1. 82 a~o~cpl with the dative ( = 1rEpl with the genitive) is not Attic usage.ee~vSee OVK i'jv ~\IS1Sva­ KO~\IO\I T1\lee ~" Bv~eeVT{~ To 1Teeperneev tSeiv.:> &aq>ee'Aei yeyevfjaeee1 i1S11 \rneT61Teeaeev. T. xA. "'TCxO"'IJ Tl)v hne{KE1ee\l rnl Kee1pov ~ETE~aveee\/0\1.111S Tl)v ~eeJ3oi\f}v rnl TCx xe{poo 1TE"'T01flllE\101 ~Cii\i\0\1 ii 60 1Tp6TEpov Tl)v TW\1 rn1TflSev~cXToov &To"'T{eev ~vSe{KvvVTee1.ee oaee s. OM· oiKo1 Kcx&r.~vo1 &ireeVTES.6y~ &rree\I"Tes O:ll1TEX6~evo1 'liavxfi eJ.6yov 'TTOi\i\ov 0:~10\1 eTvee1" ooo-re Keel TW\1 \/OO"OV\/T00\1 T10"l\l cS:oopov ~~!3fi \lee1 SoKEi\1 ernop{cte TW\1 O:vcxyKee{oo\1 T1) \1 TOV J3{ov KCXTeeo-rpoq>{J\1. Cm: Tov KCXKov m-· &AA.18 55 PROCOPIUS TO elK6S.

l{oov ft &XA. a loan-word of unknown origin. 1-7 The secret of silk 'Y-rro Toihov TCW xp6vov Tc.>a xp6v~ -rroi\i\4) Tiis yovfls vcrrepov KOTrp~ Kai\V'J'aVTES O:v6pc.IO\ICX)(00\1: note the Herodotean word-order.>a J.>Tr01 Tcx\rn. ~s CTKooi\11K6:s n a\n-0: Tp6-rr~ c. Kal ern· a\nov y{vea6a1 J.tha~aV ooveia6a1 •pc..tha~av TO i\omov 25 KaTEaTTJCTaVTO ~V •pOOJ. 4 J3aatAia (without the definite article) usually meant the king of Persia in classical Greek.1ev CTKOOATlKas ~v66:Se ~ooVTas SlaKOJ. II 769-73) where Nestorian missionaries were active.1ha~av ~v yij 10 Tij •poo!Ja{oov SvvaTa ei11.lOVCX)(OOV ~~ ·rvsoov f}KOVTES.>V Tij yij. ~~ 'lvSoov: in fact from Sogdiana (E. &XAO: Tovs 1.>a ~CxC'TOV &vap16J. in a hollow baton.ex~crraTa Se S1epevvoojJSv~ TCi) ~aCTlAEi Kai ava-rrvv6aVOlJEV~ el 6 i\6yos aATl6flS ei11 ecpaCTKOV ol !Jovcxxol CTKooi\TlKCxS Tlvas Tiis IJETCx~S S'll!Jlovpyovs etva1.':>V TlVES J.1ha~ts.l TE SlapKii eepJ.la{OVS. according to him it was not monks but a Persian who brought silk-worms to Byzantium.la TOiho TrOlTJCTOOVTal. Tcx\rn. Tov Se a\noov y6vov eV-rrop6v TE Kal p~S1ov oi\oos.loi\6yovv. 00s IJTlKhl •pooJ. For another account see Theophanes (not to be confused with the chronicler) in Photius Bibliotheca 64. yv6VTes Te oos ·rovcrr1v1av4) ~acn'Aei S1a cnrovSfls ei11 J.>J. etval Se TWV CTKOOATJKOOV TwvSe TOV y6vov c.li)VaVTES XPOVOV ~Ci)a Tr010VCT1.l{~elv 15 CxiJTJxava etva1.l~~va1 6-rro{<jX -rroT€ ll'llXavij yfvea6a1 Tf)v 1. f}-rrep ~Tlp{vSa oVOIJCx~eTal.ov TOV e6vovs TO ~IJTrOATlJ. Taiha Se Ta c.. rarely discusses economic questions.la.l'llK~"Tl TrpOS TlepCTOOV -ri}v J.lcpl Tij IJETCx~ S1o1t<tiaea6a1 5 OOJ. although he evidently understood that the empire's financial situation was difficult. Stein. XPOVOV yap KaTaTpi'J'al llflKOS ~V XOOP<jX \rrrep •1 vSwv E6v11 Ta -rroi\i\0: OVO"'). ~vSeft. 3 IJha~a: 'silk'. . ~S ~aa1Ata yev6J. Taiha el-rr6VTaS 6 ~aCTlAEVS J.lETTJVeyKav ~s Bv~O:VT1ov. 5-6 Like his classical predecessors P. Histoire du Bas-empire.PROCOPIUS 19 8. 1 TOO\/ Tl\IES I. ol Se yeVOIJEVOl ~V ~Tlp{VS1J cx061S T6: TE c.laiol ~ Tlepaoov Toov acpfa1 -rroi\eJ.oo Sf) Ta CxJ.leyCxAolS 20 TOVS cS:vSpas &ya6ois Soopf}aaa6a1 61Joi\oyf}aas TCi) epy~ -rre{6e1 rnlppoocral TOV i\6yov. Tfls cpvaeoos a\nois S1SaCTKCxi\ov TE ovCTTls Kal S111veKoos &vayKa~oVCTTlS ~py6:~ea6a1. 17.la{c.1EV01 oV.l TE ~ TO &Kpl~Es ~1JEJ. other writers use the form 1. Paris 1949.>-rrep ~ppf}~ IJETaTrEcp~val S1a-rrpa~Cx1JEVOl Tp~cpova{ TE avKa!J{vov cpvi\i\OlS.

lov. 5-6 •AXAa t<al \rrrep aj. who misreports events so grossly that he fails to mention the new convent. t<al 'TTOAAais ll~V XPflll<hOOV 1Tpoo-6S01S ot f3a0"1AeiS oV-ro1 -ro j.lap-r6:Sas Svva-ral elev -rfis ~v j. 7 V. S1o Sfl t<al Me-r6:vo1av 15 -roV.lE"t'a!leA. 9. ~cp.lEVTJ 'TTEplt<aefjpal TCxS aj. Tt ~o--r1v ~v Se~•ciC elO""TTAEovn -rov Ev~e1vov t<aAovj.lao--rpo"TTe{oov ayovs b<Cxer)pav. 5-10 A convent is founded Bac:TlAeVS s~ ·loVO'"t'lVlavbs t<al f3acnAls 9eoSoopa (-ri)v yap eVO"ej3elaV OAA:t')AOlS rnlt<Ol VOVj. P. ~Aeveep{av s~ -rl}v o-oocppo<7VV11V 'TTE1T0plo-!lfvol.la t<oA6:<7ElS -rfj 9eoSoopGX rn1voeiv rnlllEAES i'jv. 10 f3ao-{Aela 1Tp6-repov 6VTa j. Ws llT)Sevl &vay20 t<ao-6eio-al "TTPOs -ra -rfis o-oocppo<7VV11S rnlTT}SeV!la-ra -rp6"TTCf1 O"t'CfiOVV ernot<vf)O"OVO"l.lOOWilOOS ·~ epy'fl rnOVOj.lovaO'"t'T)plov llEYaAO'TTpcrr~s t<a-reO'"t'T)o-aVTo t<a-rayooy1ov -rais j.6:o-av-res -ro -roov 'TTOpvof3oO"t<OOV OVOj.v s~ -rov 'TTOp6!lOV -rl}v &l<"r'l']v.20 PROCOPIUS Buildings 1.>t<oSollT.ev6epfav: 'fit for a freeman' is contrasted with SovAo1t'pE"Trovs. -rl}v ~v "TTOAl-re{av -rov -roov j.1ap"Tcis is used instead of the Attic a1. .levov Tl6VTov. 11 KCXTay&lytoV: 'refuge'.evetpav is unnecessary.O"aVTo. ~~eA.lovaO'"t'TJp•ov SeSoopf1VTal -roV-ro. gives another version of the events mentioned in the preceding extract. f3£o-rov ~v o-cp{cnv a\rr6voj.lCx~OVO"l. c.la. had seen it in Herodotus. Haury's emendation P. Yet a third account exists in Malalas 440-441. 4> -rfj ~VTaVea 'TTEp{ -re TOV eeov t<al -rl}v eVo-ef3elaV CtO)(OA{GX YEV110"0j. 'TTapa -rcx&n. "TTOAAa Se olt<{a t<CxAAel -re t<al 'TTOAv-reAe{GX S1acpep6VToos ~~afo-1a. olK(a in 18 below is a similar phenomenon. but in later Greek adverbial phrases are less often placed between the definite article and a participle.lao--rpO"TTE{Cfl S1ahT}s.o Sfl TOOV yvvalt<OOV -ro SlalTT}TftplOV Oj.1EVOV. 2 a~et: 'for instance'. -roov s~ 5 yvva1t<oov -ras "TTEV{GX -raAal"TToopovllfvas "TTOAAfj &t<oAao-fas -rfis SovAo"TTpcrrovs i}Aeveepooo-av. Secret History 17.ovllfvalS yvva1~lv rnl T~ 'TTpo-repCfl f3£ct~ ~O"Oj.lap-r6:Soov -roov ~ -ro o-ooj.1EVOl CrnaVTa frrpao-o-ov) rnev6ovv -r6:Se. "TT6pvas &ilEAe1 'TTAeov 'fi 'TTEVTa3 ~acnpom:((A)v: 'brothels'.1ap"Tfa. -raii-ra ll~V OVV SlCflt<i}O"aVTO -rfjSe. -rais yvva1~l "TTapCX'JN)(flV ~O"OilEVa. "Tals rnl "T{i) 1rpO'rip(j) J3f(j) !lE"Ta~ovlltvats yvvat~l would have been the normal classical word-order. 13 a1. the word is not in LSJ.1ap"T6:Sas: the Ionic a1. doubtless because P.

. and the mention of obols is an anachronism.. 3 Is 'Tptoo~oAov: 'at the rate of three obols'.lcpttaaa6at OVayKCx~ovaa.ov OO'OV erno~flv . hence 'take up. adopt'.. ~flAOV lM<Toop. es TE -rl}v OVT11Ttpas T. JJtar. <XVras Alemannus: a\rro\ls MSS.1TEtpov aTE{Aaaa ~V TCfl s KcxAovJ. &v SfJ TlVES ~pp{1TTOVV mrras &cp. 6 !ppbt'Tovv: j!mrdoo existed alongside j!)I1T'Tc. 5 IJE'Ta~cpttaaa6cn: literally 'to put on a new dress'.exaaoVTo. TaV-n:l TE Tfls &Kovaiov !lETa(3oA.AA. the prepositional usage does not seem to be classical. see LS J s. as they were no longer a unit of currency.ltv~ METavo{Cj( llOVaO'TT)p{~ Kcx6eip~e T~>V j3{ov j. .fls &"JT.PROCOPIUS 21 KOO'{as &ye{paaa ~V &yopC?. . for the origin of the byform.na6apvovaas. v.lETaj.>.t ~ Tptoo(3oA.

.llywvcxl. TOVTO Sf} TO J. 6 The notion is reminiscent of Horace's qtti miscuit utile dulci. . v61ltlla: the last ten chapters of book II are taken up with an excursus on Persian history and customs. Kcxl 1Tepl 1TAe{crTOV TIOlOVJ. Berlin 1967. Agathias.v 1 "TcX .. 3. el KCXl J. el rn· EJ. J. it is also found in Lucian De historia conscribenda 8-9. By profession he was a lawyer and there is no evidence that he had any experience of military affairs.lOl ~pcx<pft. and the literary merit of the work cannot be rated very high. Kcxl rnOJ.. Here. 2 !etAoo yap.lEV ovv Kcxl TO eEAyov. His style is more laboured than that of Procopius.lCXAAOV J. Keydell.1eTcx(30Aft KCXl cm6crcx XPfiVCXl 1Tepl Xocrp6ov Kcxl Tov KCXT" cx\rrov yevovs elpficr6cxl. <pcxcr{. but it is an important source for the campaigns of the outstandingly brilliant Armenian general Narses. ed.. The pedestrian narrative is enlivened by digressions such as the following. See also Averil Cameron.lEV ovv 1TCXpa TiepcrCXlS v6J. 1 A self-portrait 1. covering the years 662-9. As a young man he wrote poetry..yeicr6cxl.lat "Tcls Xapt"T~ Mo\Jaats avyKa"TaiJEty\IUs. R.lEylcrT6v TE Kcxl crEJ.lE . a large part of which has been preserved in the Greek Anthology.lCX{ ye 10 ov·n ~oov elvcxl Tij 1TeplcxyOV01J OVCxyK1J. 673 o\J ncniaoj. Fur. CxAA • OV 1TeplTTCx ye icroos 86~eleV CXV ov8e CXxPTlcrTCX.AGATHIAS (c.lV6TCXTOV epyov KCXl 1TCxCTTlS c. . cbs EJ.. Edition: Agathiae Myrinaei historiarum libri quinque.lOl ei'tl. Ta:VTcx 81) ovv erncxVTcx. T a J. Oxford 1970. 8 Eur. 580) His main work was a continuation of Procopius' history of the wars against the Goths and the Persians. acpoov: the Atticists were not all capable of observing the Attic rules for the use of this pronoun.lCXKPOTEP<t> e~{pycxcrTCXl A6Yct> Kcxl OV A{cxv ExETCXl TOOV 5 1TpOTepoov.. Tas X6:plTCXS KCXTCXJ.lCXl Texis Movcrcx1s. 3 KCXfTOl hepoo6{ J. and in addition compiled an anthology of epigrams by recent poets.le KcxeeAKOVC"lV ex{ <ppoVT{8es.er. y6:p J. ~V T(i) oo<peA{J. 530 -c.lq:> CrnelATl<p6Tcx.lCX KCXl TJ 1TOlK{ATl Tfis cr<poov 1TOA1Tdcxs J.llJ.

&i\i\ • eywye T\!J.Ieva are Attic words and idioms.repat-repw ~Spo!Jas .Ol. TcX bcacrraxov ~1Jcpep6J. . oSov -re Kal (3fov . Study'. 65). ws ov ws ws 5.Ol -rwv &vayKa{wv &iroxpoov-rws ~IJ.Ol T\Stcrra ~IJ(31WO'a1 -rois . ~v .r{6<t> cpti\epyovv-rt -rfJv KEpa!JE{av.Evov.eveepov.ftO"ews ~a-rt &rrav-ra -re -ra ~acrrcxxov ~v1Jcpe­ p61J.ri\eicrra IJEPl~OIJEVTlS J<V1i1Ja-ra.av-rov yovv io-ws &peO"Kot!Jt O:v.roi\i\0: StKWV &vCciri\ea Kal . 2 aoxoi.rvv6ave0'6at &vet!Jevov -re &!Jcpl -ra\i-ra E)(etv -rov vovv Kal v. one of the architects of Hagia Sophia.ra6e(as. &i\i\0: yap chov eveKa -rovSe -rov avSpc)s rne1Jvft0'611V..:l: 'meditate. 6 et yap -r<t> Kal S6~etev elvat -r&!Jex v66a ye &i\116ws Kal &ve!Jtaia Kai ola \fNXTlS ~S . ovS. 7 O:v Se IJTJ .Ie(av 1Jav6avoo (Zenobius 3.ri\a0'6at O:vev . a\J-r{Ka i\ei\e~e-rat. avtooiJat: this ought to be optative.ri\T!v CiAi\.rpay1J6:-rwv ~~ ~wet vov !J. 5 Anthemius of Tralles. demonstrates an application of steam power. 4 Seov ya:p -rovs . ~eiv6 IJ. not the content of the books.eO'f}o-eteV WS Vrrep-repwv ~cple!JEV<t> Ka{. Both words are Hellenistic. El.liJ. 7-7.ro60VIJEV01S.rpo-repov i\6yov IJE7cxi\Tl.rO:i\at O'Ocpovs axoi\af'TEpov O:vai\Eye0'6at IJ.Evos Kal IJE-ra(36:o-ets ~s &iretpoKcxi\{av ~cpepe0'6a1 S6~at1Jt. ehrot av Tt i\vpa Tt Botw·rta. applied to beginners who attempt something beyond their powers. Eur.Evos ~v -rij (3ao-ti\ef<t> crro<.. &vf}p 71S ~V Bv~av-rf<t> Zf}vwv 12 Pind. 3. comparative and superlative are often confused by scribes.. in this sense also at 1. O:v 0 epws 1JE CXylJ. 509 1r6:pepy' 6Sov. 15 IJliJi)CTEOOS kern: he is quite explicit about his purpose in reading classical Greek. 20 aveAfTTc.r{.AGATHIAS 23 15 20 25 ao &axoi\{as VrrEp'TEpov. he means 'I should be in difficulties'.(as &rrip-repov.r6vov Kal Sv11. 2 i.i~at L. 1.rotov!J. 5 . 6. 20.r-rea. &vtw!Jat Se aVets et IJTJ ~voxi\oiev. aVets ST! e!Jotye -rwv Koi\xtKwv O:yoovwv Kal -rov .IEv &)(6o1Jat -rois ~voxi\ovo-tv.rapepyov yfyve-rat. -ro i\ey61J. Kal OVK evecrr{ IJ.Ei\e-rw Kal O:vei\h-rw · Kal i\fav J. ECTT. Ws o\Jx ol6v -rE IJ. 22 SVT)mx6e(as is the reading of what appears to be a short quotation in an etymologikon. &i\i\ • ~IJ. the manuscripts have Sva.ra6efas.X (3t(3i\{Sta . et Ka{ IJO{ 715 VEIJ. oos CxvftO'W 70VIJOV ovSe &it"OiraVO'OIJ.Ol Kal sr.Eva yvw!Ja"TEVetv ~s -ro &Kpt(3es Kal &va. 25 An adaptation of the proverb lv1rl6ct~ Tl'!vt<epaJ.Expt Kal ~ T)i\tov Ka-raSvv-ra ~IJ. lsthm. 28 OIJOVa6-repot VbL: -6TaTot WPRO. Ka66:irep -rwv ~S6v-rwv ol a1Jovo-6'TEpot. which gives a better clausula.

lEVOV... 12 &-re Sfl 'KaTTly6pov L. a:V:Aovs Se cx\rrois e~oo6ev aKV-r{VOVS 'TTEpl(3cxAOOV. 2 S6j.llOS \rrro -rov ~vav-r{ov &-re SlKT}y6pov KCXTappT}-ropev6j.ov -rov 'TTEpl..24 AGATHIAS c5voj.l{ov ov-ra hVyxave j. va \rrrep(j)ov 0 Zi}voov ~EK'LT}-ro. : this clause is typical of Byzantine affectation.Vrrr}ae . 18 lvStarn'liJaTa: 'rooms'. .lE-r<X~V 20 -reyos -r(j) j. 'TTPOs -r(j) ~Saq>el ~vS•a•-riJ1-lCXTa: Tfis •Av6ej. o Se ~ Tfis olKe{as cx\rrov 15 &v-reA. 3 ~v-ra:V­ ea s. 15 Vn-epCf>ov: 'in the upper part of the building'. ~~iis St Kcx66:irep a6:A'TT1yya \rrroa. 00s 70 j. 14 6 St: anacolouthon. ft veoo-repas olKoSol-l{as 'TTepa -rov j.i (3VpOlJ 'TTEplEXOI-lEVOV.i opoq>f...leV eVpVVOj. a technical term from mathematics.SXVflS -rp6'TTC{> 't"Ol(j)Se.lCXT{ov. ovv 0 •A v6Ej. 7. 24 OTEcpc!nn)v: 'rim'.lo{pas.l'TTAf)aas Sl<XKplSov EO"LT}O'E 'TTOAACXXOV -rov Sooj. 21 Sta'KptSov: here 'in several places'..lj. [Kal] -rf. 25 ls TO avaAoyovv: 'proportionately'.•• Too St VbO: TO JJtv ••.lqllAOXOOPEiV e[oo6El KCXl ~a-r1Ci:v -rovs q>1:A-r&-rovs. with its dual and oxymoron 'to be united and divided by a single boundary'. -roV.lOV . 3 TCf'> ••• &vo:yeypaiJ~vos: this probably means that he belonged to the official guild of advocates: cf. ~vE'TTT}~e -rais SoKois Kal -rais aavia1 -ra &-rro:Ai}yov-ra Kal ~s -ro &Kp1(3es ~VE'TTep6VflaeV. T 6-re s. -r(j) St ~s (36:alV 'TT<Xpa-re-. -r(j) 1-lEv -roov pT}-r6poov KCXTc:xA6yC{> &vayeypaj.lE-rp{ov ~s V\J'OS &p6e{O'T}S Kcxl -r(j) q>oo-rl AVj. 29 Tij J3vp171J TrEP1E)(61JEVOV should probably be transposed after Vm'Kcptpeaeoo (Keydell). CiJ\J\. e\Jpvv -re :A{av Kcxl Sl<X'Tt'pe-rrfj Kal 'TTEplepy6-rCXTa: 'TTE'TTOlKlAj. 10 cmota 'TTOAACx -rois 'TTAT}O'l<XhCXT<X 'TTpOO'OlKOVO'l Sl<XqllAOVElKEicr6cXl &v(xyKT}..a. 5 005 So"Keiv 'KTA.oos St Slaq>avf}s Kal (3aa1N:i yvoopll-lOO'LCXTOS. K6:-roo j. ey~ypaJJJJtvos Reffel. perhaps an apodotic particle intended as an imitation of Herodotus' style. ovv AE(3T}'L<XS 1-leyCxAOVS vSCXTOS ~j. oos Kal -rov ~v cx\rrois &-rrelAfll-lllEvov &epa &q>e-rov 1-lEv E)(e1v -rftv &voo q>opav S1a Tfis KSvO-rT}-ros &v16v-ra Kal yvl-lvf. -rvxov ov 'TTp6-repov el6•a!JEvov.ov St -.la. ~V 4> Sf} -ra 'TTOAAa ~j.lE-rpeicr6al.l<XlVOlJEVflS ft &J. 8 'TTpoeA. oos SoKSiv AKCX"dpC{) f}voocr6a1 -roo oiKoo Kal vq> • ~vl "Ltpl-lCXTl Slaj.i 'TTPOO'\J'aVElV -rf.66v-ros Se xp6vov eplS cx\rrois ~vrneae K<Xl SVO'KOA{a i1 -rov SlOTI'"l'EVecr6al xaplv.lEVOVS 00s Crn<XO'<XV -rf}v a-req>6:Vflv 'TTEpl(3e(3vcr6al. KCXTci>KSl &yxov 5 'TTOV -rov •Av6ej.i Se1 v67T}-rl -roov Pfll-l<hoov ~ -roov oj.lEvos Kal o\Jx ol6s -re oov -rf..leV ss opoq>i}v. TO St LWR. St'KT'IY6pov in 12 below.l{ov.eA:Ao25 j.6:cr6al.i KCXTCx 70 'TT<XpEiKOV.lo{oov &v-rlq>epecr6al.J... 7 St011'TEVeo6at: 'to be overlooked'. 20 TOO ~v .levos.levovs Kal ~s -ro &vc:xAoyovv -reAev-roov-ra:s.

which is also found in the margin of L. 90..> Ka"Talt'EifAT)y~vo• • <pOl"TOOV TE ~EiVOS ~V -rois j3aCT1Ae{OlS CxVE1t'Vv6CxVETO"TOOV yvoop{lJOOV. Oxford 1962.. 34 'ITO)(VS MSS.e CxlJ<pl_ -rov Zf]voova hapCn-rov-ro Kal ~Se{lJoovov Kal CxlJ<pl Tf}v Aeoocp6pov ~~rnm-rov 40 1T'OTv1oo~vo1 Kal j3ooov-res Kal -re.lJf)ll'OTS ytVOl"TO" Kai 1rp6$ ye VElJEO'OOVTOOV 45 cxV-rc.> Se1 vc. hence Vulcanius proposed TO)(VS. 851.lJtvo•s Kal SlalJCxxE0'6al KCXT1JSeiTo rnl 1l'OAV "TOO'OVTOlS &vSpacrl Kal OVTOO Ka"Ta~lJ<pOlJtVOlS.6ya ~~\J'E ~&A11v· cx\n{Ka Se TOV vSa-ros Slcx6epolJtvov Kal CxVaKCX)(ACx~OVTOS CxTlJOS rnfjp-ro 1t'OAVS Kal aveppl1t'{~ETO 1l'CX)(Vs TE Kal 1l'E1l'VKVOOlJtvos· OVK ~oov 85 Se 011'1J s. EOOS -rij CMty1.mo Tovs -roov AEj3i]Toov 1TV6~vas Kal cp1. o\hc yap &ll'lCTTSiv ~av-rc. The same change was plausibly made by Bentley at Ar.cnraye" Kai . oov ~ -rov &cpavovs Ka-raO"TTlcra~vos m:ip bfiKE crcpoSpov \.KlCTTa Se ~s -ra mbs Slappeiv Kal Vrm<cptpe0'6al. Ach.f]cra-ro. 4 -rcrii-ra St.eet. Olt'oos cx\nois -ra -rov O'ElO'lJOV KaTE<pCxVT) Kal lJi] Tl crcpas 0-rct> Sf} oov -rp61rct> S•eS. ocrov \..t.: citus P.> oos Sf} -ro1crii-ra <pEVKTa Kal &1raicr1a -repa-revo~VCf>.moTptlJElV f}ptlJa Kal SlaTSTplytval -ra ~Aa. On this episode see Lynn White Jr.} 1t'p00'1l'Ta{oov ~vSeAe)(tcrra-ra ~S6v. rnl -rovs ooi'Aovs &veipll'E Kal -rij O'TSVOTT)Tl 1l'lE~O~VOS j31a16Tepov CxVE1T'tlJ1l'ETO. oln< etxev o -r1 Kal Slavo.cxxveet.AGATHIAS 80 25 T.> ol6s -re fiv ~cp~ ols i}1ricrra-ro &p-rloos yeyev.cT> Tav" Kai .ey6v-roov . 5 ol s. Medieval technology and social change.e\lcpi]~•" t.crev &rracrav Kal S1tcre1crev. . -roov Se . 37 ivSeAe){tCTTcrra: 'continuously'.

Stauffenberg.~ Se 'T~ xp6v~ OVCXKooS{KSVO"lS EyEVE'TO 'TOOV "ri"cxAalOOV v61lwv • Kal "ITolf]aas lS{ovs v61-1ovs KaTE"ITEil'f'EV ~v 1raaa1S Texis 1r6Aea1 1rp0s 'TO 'TOVS S1Ka~o1-1Evovs llft "ITEpl"ITi"IT"TElV 6i\{'f'E0"1 Kal ~Tlllia1s. 7-29). but there is only one Greek manuscript surviving (MS. Text: L. 451) Justinian's edict of 629 prohibiting the teaching of law and philosophy at Athens (see A. since its predecessor was now out of date. Cameron.os (3aa1AEvs &1rellep1aev &1ro 'A V'Tloxe!as Tiis "ITPOO'TTJS Lvp{as AaoS{KElCXV Kal fa(3c:xAa Kal n6:i\'TOV 'TaS "ITOAelS. 1969. Justinian directed the publication of a Codex in 529. and it was translated into Old Church Slavonic and Georgian. 5 Athens was less famous than Beirut as a centre of legal study. The following short piece is from book XVIII. 2 ~~~ with the dative is often used to indicate motion towards a point.IOANNES MALALAS (491( ?)--578( ?)) Little is known with certainty about this man. Se CXV. except that he lived in Antioch in the sixth century. though full of egregious factual errors it is an important document for the evolution of the spoken language. &vCXKooSIKEVcns: note the hybrid formation. so Malalas must be referring to a set of laws designed to speed the administration of justice. Die rOmische Kaisergeschichte bei Malalas. Proc Camb Phil Soc 195. Many later chroniclers exploited it or followed its general design. 'Ev cxv. Malalas records (p. Byzantinoturcica. Bibliography: G. as in the modern language.l'f'EV ~V >Aef]valS Kal ~V BTlpv-r~. Bonn 1831 (except that IX-XII may be read in A. Dindorf. in which Antioch receives more than its due share of attention. Berlin 19582 I 329 ff. Stuttgart 1931). D. Kcxl ·o 1 cxV-r4>: 'this'. finally the second Codex in 634. His work is a history of world events down to the end of Justinian's reign or a little later. which gives a slightly abridged text. &i\i\a 'Taxeiav E)(e1v "Tftv &"ITcxAi\cxy{tv • 81rep llov6(31(3i\ov 5 Ka'TCXO"KEVaaas rnEj. 4 1JOII6~l~AOII: none of the publications mentioned above was a single book. then the Digest. . the account of Justinian's reign pp. Moravcsik. The book was intended for wide circulation and has no pretensions to style or learning. 448-9. Barocci 182 in the Bodleian Library). S. Kal &1ro 'A"ITa!lE!as Tfis SEVTepcxs Lvp!as Bc:xAaveas 1r6i\1v. begun in 530 and completed in 533. E.

et.vs cp6J3os yeyovev. Ka:l lTOAAOl ~5fl~EV6flaa:v.. a very rare event (see C. 491 Malalas records that pagan books were burnt. the usage is common in Malalas.000 people are said to have been killed. 5o\Js a:V-rij Ka:l ~flTpolTOAlTlKOV 5{Ka:tov. TOVS 5~ TOOV &:A. for some fresh evidence of their occurrence in Crete see S.ei.e1<p6eiat Ka:l Tij lTOAel els KT{O'~CXTCX 6 a:V-ros f3a:O'lAeVS. The most spectacular of the riots caused by the circus factions of the Blues and Greens was the so-called Nika riot of 532 in the capital. WeO'lTtae 5~ 6 a:V-ros f3a:O'lAEVS OOO'TE ~ti lTOAlTEVea6CXl TOVS ~AAflV{~OVTCXS. 24 ~eeantae is often used of royal commands. he was an ex-prefect of the city.A. TAPA 67.E\i&TJaav: 'had their property confiscated'.orrrov ~V Tij TOOV ·AVTl0xeoov lT6A. Tov 5~ ~lT{O'l(olTov Aa:o5tKe{a:s o\JK f}Aeveepooae Tov \moKeia6a:t Tef> lTCXTptapx1J Ti'js •AVTtoxeoov lTOAEOOS . 21 'EJ.oov a:lpeaeoov oVTa:s &cpa:veis yevea6a:1 Tfis •poo~a:YKfiS lTOAlTE{a:s. <l>c. 249-250. KO:l TCx TfiS TCXPCXXfiS . 19 6eerrpou: 'circus'. . . while the other two appear to have been members of the commissions appointed by the emperor to codify the law. Forbes. &oiJTtVLas: note the view of causation implied.Af)voov: 'pagans'.. Makedonios was a consul and poet whose epigrams are found in the Greek Anthology. Ka:l &ya:vCXI<T'I)aa:s ~~ ~e{vov ~OOAVO'E -ri}v eea:v TOV eec:hpov lTpos TO ~Tt rnlTEAEia6a:t TOV A.f)voov ~a:s.e\rrflaa:v MCXKe56vtos. the word is late. in which 30. 1967. oO"TtS 6eios TV1Tos ~vecpa:v{a-6fl ~V lTCxO'CXlS TCXiS ~~OOTlKCXiS lTOAeO'lV. Justinian did his best to stamp out paganism and heresy. 22 ~STt!J. yet there is no evidence that classical texts ceased to be read in the schools or elsewhere.].a:f36VTa:s els To yevea6a:1 a:V-rovs Kotvoovovs Tfis 6p6o56~ov lT{aTeoos. • Ev 5~ Tef> a:V-ref> xp6vef> eye vETo Ta:pa:xit ~v ·A VTtoxetq: Tij ~eyCxA'IJ ~V T'f> 6ec:hpef>.AaKAillT165oTOS. 114-125). heAe\rrriaav: Theophanes says that these men were arrested and that Asklepiodotos died. 490--492). 13 (1Tcx6eV: se. Modern historians hold that the factions represented political and religious interests. Ka:l eoo~as 6 Kota:{O'Toop· Ka:l ~ To\!Tov lToA..:>VO~CXO'E 9eo5oopta5a:. Malalas records other disturbances of the same kind in the capital and at Cyzicus (pp.:>KCXS 6 KpCXTepov. TJVTlVCX rnc. ~V ols rnA. 29 ~~OOT1Kais must here mean 'outlying'. • EV 5~ Tef> a:V-ref> XPOVCf> rncx6ev \mo 6eO~fl v{a:s ~flTPOlTOAlS Tfis AVKia:s TO: Mvpa: • Ka:l lToAA. through an earthquake.O: ~a:p{aCXTo Tois \moA.IOANNES MALALAS 27 10 15 20 25 rnO{flO'EV rna:pxfa:v. 1936. At p. ·Ev a:V-ref> 5~ Tef> xp6vef> 5tooy~Os yeyovev •EAA.0VflVEx6fl T'f> a:V-r'f> f3a:atA. lTpo6ea~{a:v Tptoov ~11voov A. Spyridakis in GRBS 8.

as found in the N. na-rept1<6V. Text: Migne PG 87 part 3. the Leimon or Pratum Spirituale by Moschos is the best known.e. T. 5 avVE"t'Vyxavev: 'conversed'.ltpos &-rro TfiS' 'tr6Aec:. H. the preposition being used adverbially. 70 (p..rpos a\rrov tpxollevo•s. avvef311 cxVTois Sl<): TOV T61TOV tKe(vov Slepxecr6CX1" KCXi 1 6 ytpc:. 6 6Tav is by now an ordinary temporal conjunction. it is one of the few good sources for the development of the spoken language in Byzantium. Old Church Slavonic and Arabic. which have not yet been fully investigated. who was the narrator of the preceding story.>v: 'the monk'. For more information about him see Photius' comments below.Kcxl tvEKA.aev Se tv cx\nij lllKpav s 6vp(Scx 86ev Kcxl avve-niyxcxvev Tois . London 1966).ltpos: 'the distant part of the city'. but the context perhaps favours els To J. OTCXV oov ol f36:pf3cxpol ?}i\6ov Kcxl .>v. There is a selection with French translation and notes by D. See also N. C. 2 literally the Aramaic for 'father'. 404---14 (reprinted in his Byzantine studies and other essays.. 2924. and from the linguistic point of view it has the unusual and refreshing merit that there is no attempt to imitate Attic models.Q:s Kcxl cx\nos Mecro.>S. root'. The book was translated into Latin. There are several recensions of the Greek text. repovnJ<6v. Paris 1931.6:T110"CXV. &~~a: . variously entitled •A'trocpetyJ. The vivid picture of daily life and social conditions make the text attractive.A.1tva: 'hollow trunk'.>v 'trcrripc:.lcrra TOOV ay(c:. 1947.roTcxll•v6s . rather than 'base. 'in the region outside the city'.r6i\eoos e[s 1TV6jlevcx 1TACXTCxVOV. 3 els To &-rro J.&!3f30: Llcxf3lS ?}A.os llOVCX){OS 6v61lCXTl •ASoA.r5:crcxv TJ1 V xwpcxv tA.IOANNES MOSCHOS (d.) "EAeyev Se "Jilliv Ked Toii-ro 6 yepoov oTl llETCx Toii.. Hesseling. Of the many collections of this kind.>v) without regard to age. 4 TrV6J. rno(.6ev Kcxl &AA. Baynes.e1crev a\rrov els To &-rro llepos Tfis .. 61f.. but the title was given (like ytpc:. OrChrPer 13. pp. 619) A popular branch of hagiographicalliterature consisted of brief edifying stories about the monks and hermits who lived in Egypt and other countries of the Eastern Mediterranean.

constructed with an accusative of both the objects. in late authors 1t'EptoSruoo means 'practise medicine'. v~s 80 -fiiJTlV liEOOTEpos· Kal erno 'AcpplKf\S rnAEOIJEV Kal ~V T~ 1t'eACxyEl 6cp6cx'AJ. 14 ~v IJI~: 'one day'. this usage of &yoo is found in the N. Jerusalem and Rome. 1t'ATIYQs.{]'Aovs Kal Akye1 6 els T~ &XA." Kal ernEKp{~ 'Atyoov . ~ 6'A{yov &ve~lKCXK{]O"aTE.ll6:aas Kal IJTt E)(oov 1t'Ws 1t'EploSev6w Ta AevKOOIJaTa 1 1 I I 1 1 1 9 Sovvat: se. 28-29 6v-roos aot looks like an abbreviation of ov-roos aot Myoo.. 19 &ve~Kcxta'}acrre: 'wait'. TOVTO 6eaa6:~VOl Kal ol 'Ao11t'ol J36:pJ3apo1 Kal 6avJ. 30 -f\IJTIV: this form is found occasionally instead of ~ in manuscripts of classical texts. Kal 1t'Ol{]aas E\JxftV 6 yepoov l6:0"aTO cxV-r6v Kal o\hoo erntAvaev cxV-ro\is ~v elp{]VIJ.ltvoo~v. 20 &yoo~JEV ~v -r(i) Te-rpaWACt>: 'let's go to the Tetrapylon'. ~ACxAOVV Se ol TV<p'Aol 1rp0s CiAA. a rare classical usage. as at 56 below. a title held by the bishops of Alexandria.la~oJ. 31 1t'EptoSev6(.l6:aaVTEs~ ~SeoVTo Tov yepoVTos 1t'p00"1t'{1t'TOVTES cxV-r~. 16 (~JEvev: 'he lived'.oVToos O"Ol 1t'Ws ytyovas TV<p'A6s . T.c5:yOOIJEV ~V T~ TETpaTI'V'A<t> KCxKei J.) ~ATT"''}'AOo~v ~v IJlcii els TOV oiKov ~TE<p6:vov Tov 15 aoq>lO"Tov tyoo Kal 6 J<Vp1os ~oocpp6v1os~ tva_1rp6:~oo~v· i'jv Se IJECTTIIJJ3pw6v. just below he is called cptAoa6cpov. a colonnade in the centre of Alexandria." 20 TOTE s. !~vev Se els -ri}v ay{av 9eoT6KOV ftv ~KoS61JTlO"EV 6 IJCXKCcplOS 1t'Cc"Jt'as Ev'A6ytosl -ri}v rnoVOJ.IOANNES MOSCHOS 29 10 lSoov els Twv (3apJ36:poov T~>V yepoVTa 1rap<XK\rrn'oVTa ~9'}pev To ~{cposl Kal CcVaTe{vas -ri}v xetpa rnl TO Sovval cxV-rov !~lVEV EKTeTaiJSVT)V E)(oov -ri}v xetpa Kal CodVT)TOV. Hesseling restored this late word for the meaningless ~~tKcxta'}ocre of the Migne text. 2930. oos ovv ern{]'AOo~v 25 els TOV T01t'OV ovSeva rupOIJEVI el IJft Tpeis TV<p'Ao(ls· IJECTT)IJJ3pwov yap i'jv. Antioch. 17 1rcrrras: 'pope'. Akyoo T~ KVpict> ~oocppov{<t> .<t> .): 'cured'. 29 c!rrra<pl&Ti: Attic c!rrra<p(va-ro. iva 1t'pCx~001J£V: 'to meet for meditation or a service'. oos ovv ~Kpovaa~v els TOV oiKOV TOV <plAOO"O<pOVI 1t'aptKv'¥EV KOPTl Akyovaa ." !O"TlV Se 6 T61ros TOV TETpa"Jt'V'Aov 1r6:vv ae(3ao-1JlOS 1rapa Tois ~ AAe~avSpeiiO"l • 'Atyovo-1 yap oTl Ta 'Ae{"''ava •tepe!J{ov Tov 1t'pocp{]Tov erno Aly\mTov 'Aa(3oov •AAt~avSpos~ 6 KTiO"TTlS -riis 1t'OAeOOSI ~i aU-ra KcrreOe lO. &"Jt'{]'AOo~v ovv 1t'ATlaiov Twv TV<p'Awv ~e· 1iavxias Kal O"l001t'f\S Kal ~a6{aa~v E}(OVTES TcX j3l{3A{a f}IJWV. . 15 aocpta&ou: 'teacher'. 1 77 (p. 13 lrrrD. see 39 below.v01:v: 'bade them farewell'.ltVT)V -riis ~oopo­ etas.Ka6eVSEl CiAA.

lepoov J.lepov.6ov els 'TO J. anguish'.6s .liV K&yoo "'TOOS yeyovcx 'TV<pA6s" 'TcxVTCX &KovaaVToov flJ. oos ovv EJ. 45 EiTt: 'everything'. yeyovcx Se Kcxl CXO"OO'TOS. K&i<eivos P." AEyOVOW t!iAAop KcXKEiVOl . o•• 33 VcxAOifiOS: 'glassmaker'.> ev J. so used in Hellenistic and Biblical Greek. lSov el"'TOV VJ. Kcxl oos chreSvov cx\nov To 666vtov ivcx yvJ.lEiS cxVTf}KOOl 1Tcxpa 'TOV 1TE"JTOv66'TOS yey6VCXJ.eyoov . 28-29.cxf3oov "'TOAAa "'TCxVV.lOV 1Tpcx~•s P.lCX'TOS 'TOVTOV f}J.lOV -ri}v O~lV KCXl ~~eJ3c:xAev 'TOVS Svo J.cxtos eycb. cf.lvi}J.lV'IlJ. OVK exoov ovv "JT66ev <pCxyOO AOl"'TOV EKAE"'T'TOV. ~O:acxs cx\nc." V"!TeOTpe~cx ovv 6 Se{P.v.Kcxv cx\rrov els J.lE'Ta 'TO "'TOl'i)acxl J. i} KCXKf} J.Aop . ~V J.lEAAOV ~~epxea6cxt ~ •ov J.CY\J "'TOOS yeyovcxs 'TV<pP.lOl Ked hvcpP.lOVOV 666vtov. &vCXK~'Tcxl 6 vEKpOs EJ. J.lEV.liv· chcxv iiJ.lEv af}J. 56 Kiipt doubtless represents the colloquial pronunciation of the vocative l<Vpte." AEyEl Ked •et> &:A. 47 1rpCi~ts: 'impulse'. ooavvov Kcxl Eet.vc:xAo~os iiJ.P.lOl 6 KVplOS ~oocpp6vtos Kcxl &vexoopf}acxJ.lV'IlJ. 56. Kcxi P.lCX'TOS. &i\Tleoos yap chl ouSels "'TOlOOV KCXKOV Acxv6Cxvel 6e6v· Kcxl 'TOV J.ll~ ovv 'TOOV f}J. Kiip• &f3(3cx.lEAAoval V cx\nov 60:rrret V.l'llV VEOO'TEpos.6IJiliiOII: 'being taken for burial'. eloi)P." OO<pEA116EV'TES ovv yeypcx<pf}KCXJ." ernEKpfet.lV'IlJ.lois J.lft 1Tpa~ooJ.lOVS. .l'llV -ri}v 'TExV'IlV Ked ~ 'TOV "'TVPOs rntxvow EO')(OV ot Svo o<p6cxAJ.cb6r}v. 1Tt6cxv6v ~O'Tl v.eye1 J.lEV e~ cx\noov.lOl .. .lOl .leV Sl'llY1lJ.30 IOANNES MOSCHOS 85 40 45 50 55 60 ecrxov ~v Tois 6cp6c:xAJ.lOV Ked hvcpP.)s yap OTI: another colloquial ellipse of a verb.lOV Kcxl ~{vcxs •as Svo xeipcxs cxV'TOV rn· EJ.lEV.eye1 J. 'TOTE eyoo 6 a6AlOS ~aacxs "'TCxV'TCX J.lElOV Kcxi erneSvacx cxV'TOV ei'Tl ~cp6pel.eN "'TOOS yeyovcxs 'TV<pA6s.l1Tpoa6Ev J.le 'TOiS SCXKTVAOlS cx\nov e~eaev J.66VTcxS cx\rro\Js. 52 6AIIJIEOOS: 'affliction. a slight anacolouthon. ~J.oVToos eyw r. 40 t~oSt/.lEV ivcx Kcxl VJ.le "'TOAAa KCXKa lOTCxJ. 58 aAT)6c. 34 hrlxvow: 'discharge'.oVToos ao1. Mey<lAoos yap oocpei\1}6r}J.lE'Ta 6A{~eoos "JTOAAf\S Kcxl KlvSvvov ~~f}A6ov ~ 'TOV J.lvov cx\nov ~aaoo. eyw Se oos elSov &ireP.cbet.lEVOV KcxAOOS cpopOVV'TCX.Eyoo VJ. in 40 ov11 shows the same colloquial tendency. 1rt6a11011: 'beautiful'. personified.lOV ocp6cxAJ. &Kor.lElS cXKOVOV'TES 'TcxVTCX OO<pEA116f\'TE.lOOV vrue1 J.lE{ov P.l{O'T)O"CX 'TOV KCxJ. 38 Aonr611: 'so'.oveoo ovv C)"JT{aoo 'TOV ~~oS{ov ivcx eeoopf}aoo "JTOV J.6ov o"JT{aoo 'TO V ay{ov . ot Se -?}P.6ov.l'llV OVV rnl -ri}v &yopav KCXl 6eoopoo VEKpov ~~OSl~OJ." 6 Se &ireKp{et.lEiov Kcxl &-rrflP.lCX'TOV "'TCcVV.af3e Kcxl •o 666v1ov cx\rrov.

. Ko:l els To llft ei vo:1 !lOVCX)(Os Sf1Aov6·n 65 TEAeVT~. T. KO:l ~CxV 1rp0aeyy{01J yvvo:11<l Avcro:l. 3108." ~CTT'lV.Ta<v{o:. ST]i\ov6Tl a gloss that has intruded into the text. 64 Hesseling thought the words els •. . 01-lO{OOS KO:l 6 !lOVCX)(Qs tK Ti}S yvvo:11<6s ~CTT'lV.IOANNES MOSCHOS 31 217 (p. TO &Ao:s tK TOV vSCXT6S Ko:l lav 1rpOO"eyy{01J vSCXTl AVETO:l Ko:l &cpo:v{~cro:l. 61 &Aas: this neuter form is frequent in the LXX and almost universal in the N.) Ehrev yepoov .

Numerous manuscripts. 2 Ka~(vov: perhaps best taken here as 'chimney'.). reprinted 1963. Wake 6). one at least being as early as the ninth century (Christ Church Oxford. MS. lvSli<TlWVOS 6'. and in 873--6 the papal librarian Anastasius translated it into Latin. See below. Events in the year 726 'Ev cxVT't> Se T't> rnl. It is a continuation of a similar work by George Syncellus and was undertaken at his request. Some parts are no more than a dull summary of extant sources such as Procopius. the alternative was to reckon from the creation of the world (5508 B. Theophanes was a leading figure in the religious life of his day and founded a monastery near Cyzicus. which covers the years 284--813 in annalistic fashion. c:h!Jls oos ~K Ka!J{vov TTVPOs &v~[3paaev &va!J~aov 9f)pas Kal 9flpaa£as Twv vflaoov ~ TOV I3v6ov Tfis 6aACxO'O'flS rnl f}~pas TlVCxS. Byzantine dates were usually expressed in terms of an indiction cycle of fifteen years. Edition: C. 4 ~~~et: 'heat'. . For his orthodoxy he was imprisoned by the emperor Leo V and then banished to Samothrace. 6 lTETpOKta<riJpovs: 'pumice-stones'. as in modern Greek. Leipzig 1883. He makes a praiseworthy if not entirely successful attempt to achieve chronological precision: at the beginning of the account of each year he lists in eight columns the various rulers and patriarchs with the year of their reign or tenure of office. attest the popularity of the chronicle. 5 ~aV<nc. but elsewhere he has preserved valuable lost material. to which he retired. Tfj Se ncxxVTT)Tl Tfis yewSovs ova{as 1TETpOKlO'af)povs 1Jey6:Aovs oos A6cpovs 1 a\rr4': 'this'. 37 ff.THEOPHANES THE CONFESSOR (c. pp.JS: probably the fiery matter erupting. de Boor. In style he is much closer to the colloquial than the Atticist. lv6t1CT1&>VOS 6': 'in the ninth in diction'. Kal KaTCx I'PCXXV 1l'CX)(VVOIJ~V11 Kal &1TOA160V~Vfl' Tfj ~~6:\vEl TfiS TTVpwSovs s ~KKCXIiaeoos oAos 6 Kcrnvas TTVpocpavf}s ~SeiKVVTo. OOP<i'C e~povs. 752-818) The main source for the history of the seventh and eighth centuries is Theophanes' chronicle. C.

all Hellenistic words. 25 natSEV"n')pta: 'schools'. ~~ fis TCx 1TOAAO TOOV Kal<OOV epxeTal. the fact is important for the history of Byzantine education and classical scholarship. and so having no effect on him. Os Ti)v KaT. he had already narrated under the years 723 and 725 the beginnings of Iconoclasm. CTVIJIJCX)(OV ~oov 8flcritP Tov &pVflCT{6eov Kal Tfis iCTT}S &Aoy{as ~<paiJlAAOV. 15 O'E1TTOO\I: 'august'.CTaCTaV. since pagan authors occupied a strong position in the curriculum.EAi­ T00\1: 'planned'. attempts to make a smooth transition to another topic.. 28 aapCX1Cf1v6cppoov: Iconoclasm coincided with Islamic doctrine in forbidding representational art. tjs Kal IJETCx aAAOOV 1TOAAOOV KaAOOV Ka6alp~S o CTapaKflv6cppoov oOTos 1\~oov yeyovev. is right. aiJ<pOO yap lxTralSevCT{as fjCTaV ~IJ1TAeOl Kal TrcXCTT}S 01Jcx6{as. 14 Vn-~p ~CXVTOV: i. &p\IT}al6eov: 'atheistic'. 21 &v6poonovs: here 'officials'. 20 ~J. 23 ba<onaTs: 'mutilation'. cxV-rov 6e{av opyi}v \rrr~p ~avTOV AOYlCTcXIJEVOS &val15 S~CTTEpov KaTCx TOOV ay{oov Kal CTeTrTOOV eiK6voov i')ye1pe TrOAeiJOV.t •Jep~ VJiCT~ CTVVJicp6T}. as in modern Greek. OVTOO Kal aVTT} vVV trrl TOOV xp6voov TOV 6eOIJCxxOV 1\~oVTos.ovO'l: 'rebel'. a word not found in classical prose. 16 8fi<11'1P: T. ~CTOV s~ TOV TT}AlKOVTOV TrVPOs vflCTOS &1Toyeoo6eiCTa Tij Aeyo~vt. if T. and T.THEOPHANES THE CONFESSOR 33 TlVCxS aWrrEIJ\YE Kcx6• 8AT}S Tfis IJlKpas •ACT{CXS Kal /\~CTj3ov Kal •Aj3vSov Kal Tfis TrPOs eaA. and that he exercised great influence over the emperor.> Te ~IJEAhoov trreA6eiv Ka{ Tlvas j3aCT1AlKOVS av6poo1TOVS &veiAov Ka6eA6VTcxs Tf}v TOV KVp{ov eiK6va Tf}v trrl Tfis IJEYOAflS XaAKfls Tl"VAflS.aCTCTav MaKESov{cxs. earlier had said that he was a Syrian Christian taken prisoner by the Arabs and converted for a while to Islam. sees the movement as Islamic in origin. e. The name is presumably a misunderstanding of the title VIZier. out of reacb.. ~v TOVTOlS oov 6e{~ KlVOVIJEVOl ~f}A~ CTTOCTla~OVCTl KaT• cxVTOV IJEYOATJ VOVIJCX)({q.J. &:J. The schools in question seem to be primarily ecclesiastical. Kal A6y~ Slacpaveis· OOCTTe 25 Kal TO TralSEVTi}pla CTj3eCT6flval Kal Tf}v evCTej3fl Tra{SeVCTlV Tf}v &Tro Tov ~v &y£o1s KoovCTTaVT{ vov Tov IJEYOAOV Kal IJ~Pl wv Kpcrrt. ~~oplats: 'banishment'. ol s~ KaTCx Tf}v j3aCTlA{Sa TrOAlV oxAol CTcp6Spa AVTrOVIJEVOl trrl Tais Kalvais 20 SlSaCTKaA{alS cxV-rc. !Jf}Troo TO Trpl v OOCTa. a common patristic word.A • oos al Trpoppfl6eiCTal vflCTol 91}pa TE Kal 9T}pama Tron ~~j3pa<:T6T}CTav. 005 TroAAovs cxV-roov \rrr~p Tfis eVCTej3efcxs T11JOOPfl6flVal IJeAoov ~l<l<oTrais Kal IJcXCTTl~l Kal ~~op£a1s Kal ~T}IJ{OlS. IJOAlCTTa s~ TOVS e\ryeve{q. S Wilson . 00s ernav TO 1TpOCT001TOV Ti)S 6aAaCTCTT}S TaVTflS KlCTO"ftpoov hrmoAa~6VTOOV 10 ytiJElV. 13 T. 29 O"Taat&l.

A history of Greek fire and gunpowder. A. R. 35-36 cn<£VacrTftl TI'Vp(: Greek fire. 'l'}yei'To Tiis O"'TpaT1CXs. Kol erno'TSIJ\IO\I'T01 'TOS KE<pa"AO:s KocriJO:s 'TE Kol l:Te<povos. . 30 'EMaStKol: the armed forces stationed in the province Hellas. which at that time included most of Greece.i !3ocr1'AfS1 1TOAe1 111' 'TOV •A1rp1A'A£ov 1-lfl\IOS Tiis 1' lvS1KT1oovos ft'T'Too\I'To1 OVIJi3aA6VTES Tois 85 Bu~o\I'T{01S. 35 i~TI'pT)a&tv­ Toov: on the failure to observe the gender rules seeR. It is usually supposed to have contained saltpetre. but not containing saltpetre'. Vasiliev. 32 Tovp~CrPXTIS: 'commander of a squadron'. Cambridge 1960. ~l-\1Tpflcr6E\I'TOO\I cx\rroov 'T00\1 \lfl00\1 'T4) O"KEVoO"'T4) 1TVpL Kol ol lJev !3u6f~o\I'To1 mpl 'T0\1 1\cS:KKov. History of the Byzantine empire.i KaKtq. Tovp1J6:PXTlS Toov •EAf. It was invented by a Syrian refugee called Kallinikos c. Partington.34 80 THEOPHANES THE CONFESSOR OVIJ<pc. 68-69.. Kol l:'TE<povos • oi Kol 1Tpocnre'A6:croVTEs 'Tf. but J. 214). Medieval and modern Greek. the devastating secret weapon of the Byzantine fleet. Browning. 28-32. 673 (see further A. a hybrid formation from the Latin lurma. •Aya"A'A1ov6s Se. combined with other specified ingredients.:>vf}croVTES 'EAAoS1Ko{ -re Kol ol 'T00\1 KVI<A6:Soov vf}croov Kocr!JO:v 'Tl\lo OVVE1TolJevov E)(o\I'Tes els 'TO cr-re<pefj vo1. Madison 1958. a\/~1 Se 'Tf. which the rebels evidently had not been able to lay their hands on. argued that it was 'a distilled petroleum fraction. ~v ols Kol •Aya"AA1ovos E\101TAO\I kwrov rno\I'TOOO"E\1. ol Se ~00\I'TES 'T4) Kpa'TOV\I'T1 1Tpocrpvo\I'To1. /\eoov 6 Svcroc(3tis Kol ot ToV'Tov 40 crVlJ<ppoves 'TO \I Ka'TCx Tiis aicre(3e£os S100YIJO\I rn1-re{ \IOVTES.oS1Koov. 36 i\cDa<:ov: 'reservoir'.

LSJ cite only from Theophr. since he is the author of the valuable chronicle of events from A. 88-96. A considerable proportion of Byzantine literature consists of the lives of saints.). it is written by an author personally acquainted with the events he describes. oos vSpev6J. the Iconoclastic controversy. The following extracts illustrate Theophanes' thaumaturgic powers and the persecution that he had to suffer for his orthodoxy. -ro&roov o 66pvJ3os ftv{a 1TOOS 1 b yap &p~oTs: presumably 'in the heat' (in classical Greek Ta &p~a referred to xoop(a or }. Spiridonov. 3 ~Spev61JEvos: 'irrigated'. XX. pp. a kind of civil war that plagued the empire for a century and a quarter. Ekklesiastikos Pharos 12. Methodios himself suffered imprisonment by the Iconoclasts. 284 to 813 (see above. 32££. 1TE1TA1lpoo~vos. ~V 4)1Tep KCX"t{Avaav. Second. First. Latyshev. 6. known as the Metaphrast because he recast many of the lives in a style more acceptable to the taste of his day. 113--163 and V. 4. 2 &pa-rrelas: 'service. so that there is less chance for inaccurate pious legend to grow up and obscure historical fact. 749) and Theodore the Studite (769-826). 1916 no. D. Theophanes was involved in one of the great struggles of Byzantine history. Theophanes is well known for another reason. . Antony. H. 1913. In 843 he became patriarch and at a special synod reintroduced the worship of images. 2. 847) Hagiography began in the fourth century with Athanasius' life of St. 'Ev ya:p 6epJJois 1ro-re -rov JJCXKap{ov 1ropev6~v-ros JJlKpcxs 6epa1refas Eva<EV J3a-rpCx){oov 1jv 0 -r61TOS. notable in this context is the activity of Symeon Magister (tenth century).lEvos.METHODIOS (d. Text: D. Thirdly. 3. Zapiski of the Russian Academy 13.ov-rpa). P. elaborated or rewritten in the course of the centuries. favour'. Methodios' life of Theophanes the Confessor is selected for inclusion here for three reasons. many of which were revised. the claim of the Iconoclasts that worship of images and icons was idolatrous was finally refuted by the great theological writings of John of Damascus (d. strangely enough neither this biography nor the other two printed by de Boor in his edition of the chronicle make any allusion to his work as a historian.

. reducing'.nep av6poo1TOOV o{ &i\oyooTaT01 0"1001Tij TTJV \rrraKOTJV TOxOS i1 b<ei\eva&r.. 7 aV-rcrrr6a-roA.a1 vI 8 S • ov KaTeixov ~cppovpT)aav yvooplaJ. 5 VrrOO"Tt'OOIJEVOS: 'preventing. 23.IVOXapoov: cited by the lexica only from Batrachomyomachia 12. 18 Proverbs 22.lTtTOpa Kal !lET.lEVOS npo25 a6eival1TCXV S{KalOVTij J.. ft: probably in origin a mixture of TCxxOS and 6CiTrov ft.la · 15 To yap i\ai\eiv els &Kove1v aJ. 16 bnTtJ. 26 8etos 6ep6-rroov: 'the servant of the Lord'.aavl cxV-rov ~KE'ivovl 00s oiOJ.. first in Josephus. aV-rCryyeATOS: aV-rc!ryyeAos in classical Greek.vSas: here 'travellers'.. 20 SpaJ. n{crnv OVV avai\aj3oov TlS Kal T6i\J. there are several examples of this construction in Agathias (see p.la: probably 'sign of faith'.a1v Tov &KovaTlKov Tpavooeev-res 10 lTAEOV i. ~eivov flllCXS TOVS OKOVO"OVTCXS elSeval aej3ElV lTaTepa KEAEVOVTES Kal llfJ aai\eve1 V TOOV i\6yoov TcX op1a ~SlSaaKOVTES. 24--25 'not thinking it entirely right to add another pointless deception to the one that had already turned out profitable'. 21 AtJ.leV E)(ov-resl TO Se OKOVElV ovSrnoTEI ilvnep OVK eixov eli\f)cpaa1 v aia&r." ~pooTftaaVTos &nftyye1i\ev o <pli\ai\ft6T)s avyyevils aVTov Kal oVK El<pV\fiEV av6VT)Tov SEVTtpav Ki\o1TfJv oV)( f)yoVJ. Tolhov = aV-rov. yvooptaJ. 14 o<J Kcrntxov Spiridonov: o(/1( &m:txov MS.lall TOV rnlTlJ..lE{\f/aVTes~ OKT)Koeval a1yoov-res ~Oi\. 28. 6 e\nrp6A1)1TTOV: 'enterprising' ( ?) .1evov Kal napei\6ovO"T)s SEVTepas f)!lEpas Tfis a1oo1Tf)s 20 cxV-roov <pT)al v o Spa!laTovpyos Kal mrr<Xyyei\Tos npos Tov StKa1ov . where it means 'avenger'.lvoxapoov KvooS<Xi\oov oos navv ye" Tov Se .36 METHODIOS Kal \rrrt&i\1f3e To\ls hnii\vScxs Tij TpCX)(\rrr}Tl Toov Kpavyoov TO 5 oJ. the lexica cite only Odyssey 9. TOVTOV SfJ yevoJ.f}i\ef)ST)!lEv n<XTEp flavxaaaVToov Toov i\lJ.laV e\rrrp6AT)1TTOV TOOV avyyevoov TOV oa{ov Kal nopev6els cxV-ran6aToi\osl O"Tas trrl TOV T61TOV <pT)O"i 1Tp0s TOVS Kpa~OVTCXS .Kal noos &pa wv ~aloolTT)aav . ol yap TO Kpa~ElV els <pVO"lV J.aav trreSet~aVTOI epyov 6e{as Soopeas TOVTO Kal TlllTlS 1TpOs TOV OO"lOV cpepov ern6Sel~lV. avyyevoov: 'companions'. lexicis addendum.laTovpyos: 'deviser'.os: lexicis addendum..lEvos. not classical in this sense.li)Topa: 'critic'. 10. very frequently used of monks. a surprising echo of classical literature.. 212. .lai\ov Tfis f)avxtcxs oarapCrr-roov Kal \rrrooarooJ... 9 11 TCxxOS Tpavoo6ivres: in patristic Greek this verb can mean 'instruct'. 221 of Keydell's edition). see 39 below.. 270. 22 KVooS&Aoov: not in classical prose.lETCx n{O"TEOOS yeyovv{Cjt rnlKEpSei np6TEpov.o KaA6yr)pOS el1TE lTaVO"aTE Kal llfJ Kpa~eTE"~ ot Se T'liv aia&r. 8 KcxA6ytlpOS: 'venerable'. oaTlS eeros &panoov 1-1a6oov cl>s ~v T4l To\JTov ov61-1CXT1 rnlTl1 1 1 1 1 4 bnlA.

oVt< OJ. 00s ~avtf}A <pflCTtv. SetKvVS 00s TO Tij <pVO'El xapt0'6~v so cxVTe~OVO'{<j'C ov XPfl xav !VtCTXVOl VnaJ.laTE{av yap olt<efav Kal TeVxOS lStoO'Vyyacpov (3£(3r. He rose to power by deposing his predecessor.1EVKe Kal KaTEO'Tpe"J'eV. .1evos TCfl S6Act> Tiis J3aCTtAe{CXS To r.1EVOS O'V!lcpoovos f} t<pavyf} 1rapa 1TaVToov eVevs TCfl r. 10 elT' o~v: the particles are incorrectly used and perhaps corrupt. 41. OM • ov Kal TOV AEyOVTOS Kal 10 TOV Katpov. 01TEp !CTTl Tphov Kal 1TeVTT)KOO'TOV apt6J.laO'J. 1 'l'tAtl<tooaeoos: lexicis addendum. lexicis addendum. CSO'a TftV !Kl<AflCT{av eSpaCTE Kal !wJ3ptO'eV.laTOvpyov rntTlJ.ov 'lrrrepEK1TAi. cpavepoi To{vvv !vre\ieev Kal voeiv S{SooCTtv f} V1T66eCTtS. ola .METHOD lOS 37 J. oCTTpaxov CTtSftpct>.lEvtoyes v~s Tfj •pooJ. Kal !v TCfl !lECT<t> Tiis 6yS611s ftAtKtooCTEoos xp6vct>. oos 1ravv ye.recpaVAtKE Kal 1TE1T0:T.KEv. TaVTa SEeTat J.LEvtoye\lts: Leo V was. eh' oov lCTXvpov Kal 1TapaTETa!lEvov. lStooVy-ypaq>ov: 'devoted to this theme alone'. 30 &VCX)'I<aaTti<OOTcrra: this superlative is not cited by thelexica.l<pt(36:AAoVTOS yvcbptCTJ. The Armenians in the Byzantine empire.l1T685 &r)Ta. cx\rre~ova{q:: lexicis addenda. oos o\Jx Tt 1TfO'T1S TOV SpaJ. 'standard'. 34 'Tl'al. KOJ.la{oov &pxfj CTVYKaTEJ.laTl AaAflO'al 1TP0s aVTOVS . XXVI.l<pOTepoov.l<pOTEpa. &1TeCTTEtAe 1Tapevev AVO'OJ. 35 w66eats: 'story'.aJ3opov: Latin labarum.lEVOOV 1TaJ.l{CTas oov -n)v AVCTtv 6 1rplv Tov SeCTJ.lf}CTaVTa.l'T1'66r}Ta: commoninpatristic Greek.1EVOV. &AAO: K01Tpov l1T1Teiav Tfj evooS{<jC XptO'Ttavoov 1TapapTVO'CXS.lEYfCTToov OJ. 8CTa SeSf}J.llS Kvp{ov TOV eeov !vetpyf}Ket OJ.6yct> Tov AeAVKOTOS rnaveS{SoTO. Lisbon 1963).10VJ. like a surprisingly high proportion of leading Byzantines. 12 TE\ixos: 'volume'.0:(3opov Kal CTKi.aSf) T1")pOVVTOOV TOVTO TJT01 1TpoJ3Ae1fOJ. a Hellenistic word.CTat Svva28.lOV V1To1T011")0'CxJ. 1TpayJ. el Kal TO J.lOVOV rnl TCfl TOVTOV OVOJ. Ti !v TCfl 60'{'1' SvvaJ. 7 'Tt'apap-niaas: 'season'.lEVOOV Kal 1TpQs aUTO ftTOlJ.1E{J3etv TlVCx &vcxyt<aO'TlKOOTaTa.la. !KpO:TT)CTEV 6 TVpavvf}CTaS Tov TtJ. trn1TAf}~as CXVT<t> 1TaTptKOOS Kal a\ITE1TtTtJ.1TTpov &pJ. Kal &cpeA6J. an Armenian (see further P.rp6TEpov 1TtO'TeVOVTOS i'}v.lEVOV 000'1Tep ~ST)CTE. Charanis.lEV. To e<J6pV1TTov TCfl O'KA1")p(f> &vacpvpas. etymology uncertain. 4 ).r. &AA.lf}CTas Ta 1Tp6CTcpopa.lTtCTCXS Ta ~ooa -n)v CTtoo'TTT)v KCX'TT)VCcyKaCTev. &pi. 30 aV'lnt'1T11JfJaas. 00s elKCxO'al s.lT)TOV 1Tp6TEpov. 5 Daniel 2. oo0'1Tep ~<paJ.lt~e Kal o\Jx.

: possessive dative. 15 l'IIO'Taaeoos: 'opposition'. 3 John 13.ov: Christ. 7-8 John 16. 13 bn~ap-rVpoos: lexicis addendum. I XXVII. O'Tl . 005 1<al &aveiv e\i~aa6a1 aOll<OVjJSVOVS wep 'TOO"OVTOV 'TTPOil1}60VIleVOS npcXy!JaTOS. 'TaVTa 'Tt"Oll<{Aas S1Saxais rnl!lap'l'Vpoos 'Tt"cxAOlCXS 1<al veas r pacpfis 'TfiS 6eonveva-rov 1<al 'T~ nap • ~av15 'TOV 'Tfis !va-r6:aeoos A6y~. f)v npoSell<WS 'T~ wep ti1-1oov erno&aveiv 5 6 cp1Aav6poo'Tt"OS 'Ta&rf}V EAeye 'TOiS cp{AOlS 1<al napET{6e'TO 'TfiS cxV-r~ lla&'T}'TE{as Soopi}!la-r6: 'TE l<al yvoop{O"Ila-1"0.yvooaoV'Tal n6:VTEs" cp'T}a{v . olov 'TOVT~ av1Jj3ej31}KE &eoo/1lcp•a-ra. oos 1<al naw ye. discipleship'.f}Aovs ay6:'Tt"'T}s." eha -ri}v rnl 'TOVT'tl O:vay~<a{av l<al erna10 peyKAl'TOV 'Tfis n{O"'TEOOS nap6:Soa1v 'T'T}pfjaal Slellap'TVpETo. To&roov &i<ovacxs Toov S'T}A00!-16:-roov 6 xp•a-ro!J{Il'T}'TOS. 'TOOe 'ijv. 18 Svaarns: 'disagreeable'. 1<al O"V\1EX6V'TOOV l<al<O'Tt"a6das el O:'Tt"elef}aele. !x6V'TOOV rnayyeA{as el 20 rnOl'TO. Aall'Tl"f}VIJ j3A1}6els S1a 'TO &i<{V'T}'TOV OAOOS l<al avE'Tt"{j3a-rov. 7 6eo1rapaSeuCTov: lexicis addendum. i\x&'T} npos 'Ti)v j3aa1Aevovaav TcXxla-ra. ~a&rrn:fas: 'training. !I< 'Tfis OllO~S llE'TOTe6els els 'TTAOlOplOV. nAl)v S'T}A001-16:-roov allcplAacpoov.. ooa-re 'Tfis 'VV)(fiS acpe1Sfjaa1 Kal wep cp{Aoov OOVAOOV lllO"OVIlEVOV SeO"'TTO'T'T}V ~OVTOV SeSool<Eval 'TTO!lcp{A'TOTa.14. cited by LSJ from Soph. 35.Wovaav: se. fr. 'TOO"OVTO Se ehreiv 'TEKilOlpojJSvovs aVcxyKaiov oos 'TOlaVTO 'TE 1<a\ Toaaii-ra \rrrfipxev.::mo'TE aVV l<aK{<tX j3a0"1Asv0"0V'TOOV 'TOlOVTO nepas SvaaV'TES <royl<SXOOP'T}'Tal npOil'T}&ev-nl<OO'Ta-ra. 'TOO"cc\rrr)V ovaav -ri}v 6eonap6:Sell<'TOV ay6:'Tt"'T}v. . &rrep -ri}v OO<A'T}a{av 1<a\ Tcw aV-rfls &yyeAOV 1<al aVV cxtrr~ 'TOVS a1-1cp • cxtrrOV 'TTOlllEVOS !lE{~ovas 'TE Kal !lE{ovcxs 01-10 'TOiS XPlO"LO'Tp6'Tt"OlS &pEill-100"1 l<al<Cx eSpaaev O'Tl ovSevl 'T(. a sense not attested by the lexica..')V nc. 'TCx 'TOV Kvp{ov Tois lla&'T}'Tais j3ej3a1oov napayy0. 17 -rltv j3aaV. ]\a~1T'ft"Q: 'covered chariot'.el 1<a-ravevae1s 1<al avv&tlael 'Tij napal<Af}ae1 llOV. 1 ST}ACIJ~chc.&n 9eov lla&'T}Ta{ !a-re !I< 'Tfis npbs &Aft. 1<al 'Tfis 1-1ev Svae1So\is cS"J'eoos Tov TVpavvovVTos &eoxap{a-roos oVi< ilTVXe. Hellenistic. 1T6AtV. 6 cxli-r<. 9 &-rraptyi<AtTov: 'direct'.38 METHOD lOS I 15 lleVa.1-1a-ra .15.w: 'news'. 1<al aoi 15 &yyU. 16 aVE1T(j3aTov: 'inability to mount a horse (or mule)'. 13. ov lli)V weA6eiv 'TOOV 'Tfis l<aK{as !pya-roov 'Ti)v ~ool)v 'Ti)v w6aa6pov. 441 and LXX.

yvoo61 00s avvecppoVT]O"CxiJTlV Tij KCXKOVO{<j'( O"OV Kcxl OVK lVEO"'TT'lV ruae(3(. i. 00s aoo'TT'lp1ocp6pov 1To'1'ftp1ov O"T'iiaov 'TO ~i\ov. ov 'TCxS av{cxs IJOYlS vcp{O"'TCXIJCXl. tvcx 1TCxV'TOOS ~v{ ye KCXKovpyoov Toov Svo S1a:Se1KvVOl'TO.)s &Y){lVOVO"'TCX'TCX. 29 6eo-rrapOlT'TQS. Ag. CxVCXlpoov OOS IJlO"av6p001TOS.i\Aoov ets cp6j3ov ae 1Tpo-re&r)Koos. Historical Greek Grammar. . Toov Se erne1i\oov aov 0"1TeVO"OV ~ i\6yos 'TO ~pyov !vSe{~cx0'6cx1" IJCXpTVpOIJCXl yap eeov KCX'TEV001T10V.METHOD IOS 39 Kcxi Tij !Jovij aov &ycxeo1Ton'}aoo !~cx{pE'Tcx • 1TcxpCXKovoV'T1 Se Kcxl 1TE1pooiJSVct> 'TCxS 1Tcxpcx1VEO"e1S IJOV S1CXKpo\Je0'6cx1. 26 ~~<XAElv Spiridonov: ~~<XAat MS.0\11: lexicis addendum. i.. 24). ii &pov 'TO nVp 'fiSTl aTtiJEPOV.CXVT(j). Kcx\ et IJTJ 'TOV006els 1Tp06v1J{<j'( IJOV ~CXV'TCi> els cm6Tepov 1TpoaE:i\6oo TCXXVTCX'Tcx. 28.a: lexicis addenda. strengthened'. 1TCXpETv1JCX ao . 'Tcxii'TCX 'TCi> 6eoO"'TVYei S1CX1TEIJ1TOiJSVct> 1TpQs 'TOV cp1AOXP10"'TOV &1T6Kp10"1S 1Tcxp • cx\rrov y{ VE'TCXl c:x6-n. 'Jt"aphv~J. 996. 37 Tovoo6els: 'braced. ~Act> CxY)(OVT]S 1Tcxpa:Se1YIJCX'T{aoo Kcxl Toov l!r.Toov 1-1ev Soopeoov aov IJTJ !KKevoo01Js Ta 6r}acxvp{a1JCX'Tcx. a demotic form less likely to be used here (Jannaris. T. et Se 85 KCXl olov Crn01TE1pcxv 'TOV cxlpeia6cx{ 1JE 6aVCX'TOV 'TOV \Jnep aATl6e{cxs. 1672). as found occasionally in classical Attic. see Fraenkel on Aesch. in Polybius and the N. oos et hlvaels IJE 'TOV Svacxxeovs Kcxi 1TOi\voSvvov O"OOIJCX'T{ov IJOV. the text is corrupt and probably requires the insertion of crovotSa after ~CXVT(j) ( = ~IJ. it is standard usage." Kcxl 25 opKOV ~OYVOOIJOVl KCXK{<j'( 'TOV cp1i\eiv rnlOpKEiV !v 'TCi> IJTJ S6~1V !Kj3cxi\eiv 'TO 61JW01Jevov. rnlOpKooV oos 6eo1Tapo1T'TOS." 25 opKov: it looks as if some word like hd6T)KEV has fall~n out. the sense required is 'through appearing not to carry out what he had sworn to do'. ~eeAoyvoo­ IJ. xapl V OIJOi\oyoo 0"01 ruepyE'TOVV'Tl KCXi 1Tcxpa YVOOIJTl V !-~Sv.

1 'Aveyvcb0'6r) eeoScbpov 1Tpeaj3vTepov chl YVTJO"{a. N. These treatises of mystical theology. 1824-6. SteAVOVTo Se ~v Tct> A6y~ ~vO"Taae•s Theodore is believed to have lived in the sixth century. an Atticist lexicon (of which the first complete manuscript was discovered in Macedonia in 1969). from which some extracts are given here. as scholar he seems to have been responsible more than anyone else for the revival of education and classical studies which took place when the Iconoclastic controversy came to an end in 843. is equally important in the history of the church and of classical scholarship. one of the very few people ever to question the authenticity of the works ascribed to Dionysius the Areopagite. a synthesis of Neoplatonism and Christianity written . TOV aylov Lllovva{ov j3£j3Aos. a new edition of the code of canon law. 34S--63. The lost work discussed here was doubtless intended to combat the scepticism of Hypatius of Ephesus. Ahrweiler. On P.PHOTIUS (c. Wilson. the sources (if any) of his critical judgements. 1968. in general see K. R. and the Bibliotheca. Texts of the Bibliotheca: I. The factors governing his selection. each naming a book that he had read and giving some account of its content and literary merit. 1965. 451-5. of which nearly half is classical. who occupied the patriarchal throne of Constantinople in 86S--67 and 877-86. His voluminous writings include sermons. Paris 1959 . which seem to be the earliest of the kind. cover a very wide range of literature. BZ 58. As patriarch he conducted negotiations which led to a schism with the Roman church. These reviews. GRBS 9. This consists of 280 sections (sometimes referred to as 'codices'). are questions which have still not been finally answered. For his career and the composition of the Bibliotheca see H. Many texts that have since been lost are included. letters. and the extent to which he relied on his memory in drafting.(in progress). 810-891) Photius. G. Henry. Photius' choice is virtually confined to prose (but for evidence that he had read Aristophanes' Ploutos see his letter no. with French translation and notes. Ziegler's article in Pauly-Wissowa. Bekker. 160).

500.AVI<Ws avv-rtxTTetv ~ ·ollnpos "n:. Fraenkel on Aesch. ypaq>el. the noun seems to be Hellenistic. napaS6aeoov: 'traditions'. Tp{Tfl Se. (3{(3AOS 1TEP1ExEl. by a Syrian c.\nytv-re ~<epavvCi>" (Iliad 8. oTl Evae(31os 6 TlaiJq>fXov. ArnTOIJEPfi: 'in detail'. i'is it (3£(3:Aos IJV'Tl!Jove\te•. • lncpt~Ws faToo ~ TCi> c5v-rt •A&nvaTos 1<al Mav 'ATTtl<Ws oliToo cpnalv· •ATTtl<OV yap ~an To llEToxas apaevt~<O:s e. not his son. Tois ~OO"TOAOlS" & Se.\aaTov: 'ill-conceived'. 18 ~vtll<llaae: the compound verb is not classical. LS J quote only from Hermogenes. &JV. 2 ~vo-raaets: 'objections'. IJ{a !JeV c5Tl el ftv yVT)o-{a. Lobeck Aglaophamus 216-218 showed that it is quite common in late writers and cited an interesting comment by Maximus Confessor (580-662) on Ps. IJCXAAOV Se KaK61TAaO"Tov. OTl 1TOOS TOOV l<aTCx 1TpOKOnTtV ev T. 14 cpaal Henry: cpnal MSS. 15 Tfjs TEAevTfis: the construction is analogous to 20 npo ~pcxxv Tfis ruEVTfis. 8 1<crra npo1<o7Tl'Jv: 'progressively... 6 !Jev yap ~•owa•os Tois Toov &1ToO"T6:Aoov evf)K!Jaae xp6vo•s. . oos Sfi:Aov El< TOOV Tlpa~oov..\al3ot a6:. TCx 1TAeiO"Ta TOOV l<aTCx 1Tp01<01TTtV Kal Es liO"TEpov ev Tij EKKAflO"{<i' aV~fl6EVTOOV 1TapaSooecbv EO"TlV &vaypaq>ft. 6 [2a] IJEv yap 1-lEyas ~1owa•os o-Vyxpovos i'jv. q>aa{. (3{(3:Aos cxV-rr) Arn'TOIJEpfi 10 TT}v e~YTio-1v 1ro1eiTal. a technical term of logic and rhetoric. SEVTepa [lb] Se. &vaypaq>T}v 1TOlflO"OIJEVOS Toov avyyeypa!JIJEvoov Tois IJal<ap{o•s 1TaTpaO"lV TJIJOOV J:?n(3:A{oov.PHOTIUS 41 Teo-o-apes. Ta IJETCx 1ro:Avv 15 xp6vov Tfis TEAevTfis TOV IJeyaAOV ~lOVVO"{ov ev Tij EKKAflO"{CjX a\t9)6eVTa ~1owo-1ov \rrro:Aa1J(3ave1v &vayproya•· TETOPTfl Se. ~ ayvofJaav-ros TOv llEYCxAOV tuowalov. 'lyvcrnos Se rnl T pa"iavov TOV Sla IJOPTVp{ov f}6AflO"EV &yoova. enjoyed immense authority until Lorenzo Valla called them into question. 455). 19 llaPTVplov: 'martyrdom'.\otKov.-Dionysius the Areopagite: To elpn~vov "~v el1<6aw Cx1TOTV'Tt'ovaw". 1TOOS o\JK e!Jvf)cr&t. 20 os Kal 1rpo J3paxv Tfis Te:AevTfis TcxV-rr}v TT}v rnlO"To:Aftv. Cxir{6avov ovv. l<aK6n:. 1TOOS !Je!JVT)Tal Tfis TOV 6eoq>6pov 'lyvaT{ov rnlO"TOAfiS. 5 6 nallcpl:. often applied by Christian writers to passages of scripture. 9 cx\J~&tv-roov: masculine participle with feminine noun. fl&:. OVOEIJ{av Ta\rrr}S IJvTJIJflV rnoli}O"aTO.. which the Greek suggests at first sight. this sense is late. for possible examples of this construction in classical Greek see Ed. 4 XPfJaeoov: 'sayings'.ij EKKAflO"{CjX Kal Sla IJal<pov TOV xp6vov a\t9)6eVTOOV 1TapaS6o-eoov . 1111Sels V1To:.\naev ayoova is a metaphor regularly used in such contexts. J3!(3:Aos.o-av Toov EV cxV-rij ~flTOOV TE Kal Xpftaecbv Tl VES TOOV IJETayEVEO"Tepoov 5 1TaTepoov. Ag.\ov: the famous church historian was the pupil of the martyr Pampbilus. gradually'. 562. Stov el1TETv "Cx1ToTV1Tovaats''.

~O"Tl TcxVTex.s... 10 lv!aTaTat: 'argues'.l<p{i\'t' Se TlVl . &i\i\" 6 ll~V ooael Kexj.lcX~OOV.0: Kex{ TlVex KCXTcX Tf}v {aTop{exv 0:rr{6exvex avVTfe. (3e(3ex1oi TO ye trr• c::xVT(i) yVT)a{exv elvex1 TOV !lEyaA. IV. already known in Attic.exs ovv TcXS TEO"aexpa:s O:rrop{exs SlcxAVO"exl rna:yooVlO"Cxj. 4 bcnq. On Cosmas see above.lv6tKOOTepov: 'more a writer of myths'.. v.ov l:!. yi. 5 •A. TlexJ.16:l. .. is popular with Byzantine writers. hepOI. as in court.lETExOOV.oov: the late word is chosen partly for the clausula. from (t') 6ela) ypaq~f}. iJSpexlS EVCXKJ. not pre-Hellenistic in this sense.. Ko:l 15 hepa Tl Vex TOlcxVTex. and that it was about twenty-five years ago.lcXTOOV ev{O"TCXTO:l. J. 9 l. See G. it is difficult to think that he would fail to see the force of the arguments he summarises. in Hdt. 2 1rpoaq1C:A)vel: 'dedicate'..IftK11S: 'rectangular'.199 in another sense. els -rl}v oK'TO:Tevxov.li)K11S. OOS e56KE1.EO"Tl S~ TCXiTElVOS -ri}v <ppaalV Kexl O"VVTCx~EOOS ovS~ Tf)s KOtVflS J. 3 "lovcnivov: Cosmas 2. 36 •Aveyvcba&r] (31(3i\{ov' ov . ~ l86Ket: 'it would seem'.lV61KooTEpov J. rather than 'in his own view'. B. chl 6 ovpexvos OVK ~O"Tl a<pexlplKOS ovS~ . p.. Uppsala 1940.tlA~KC. HN Lll.lEVOS.lapex.rapxETexl ll~v \rrrep Tlvoov EKI<i\11 alexO"T1Koov Soy!lO:Toov ypex<plKexis.rpos TcX iTEpCXTex Tfls yi. the participial construction. not quite classical.lexpTVp{exlS &yoov{~ea6ex1 . a sense not attested in the lexica.16:pa: 'vaulted room'. 56 says that he made a voyage to Ethiopia in the reign of Justin (518-527). 1jv s~ Texis "lovaT{vov TOV •pooJ. rnlypex<pf} XplO"Tlexvov (3f(3i\os. \rrr~p &v s~ SoyJ.. 5 \ntip Bekker: 61rep M: lnro A.lex{oov (3exali\eoos .42 PHOTIUS TexV. ~Pil11ve{ex 23 T6 ye trr• cniT4': 'as far as he can'. 6. Kexl OTl iTcXVTES ot OO"TEpes KlvovVTexl &yyei\oov c::xVTois Tfj KlvfJael SlCXKovovVToov. and he gives no idea of the means used by Theodore to combat them.o-1 • S1o Ko:l J. The phrase may be a cautious way of hinting that Photius himself was sceptical on the subject.rov S{KexlOV. &i\116eo-TEpov i)yeia6ex1 10 TClV O:v6poo.liD\Aov . TJ S~ hepOJ. 12 Ka1.rpoa<poovei To (31(3i\{ov. &yoovll. Kexl KEK6AA11Tex1 TcX iTEpCXTex TOV ovpexvov .lovva{ov -rl}v (3f(3i\ov.. but see LSJ s. &XJ\.UN. Bj~rck. 1. 6 ypaqnKals: 'scriptural'. the imperfect would be easier if accompanied by c5:pa.e~at: 'defend'. .

Alaxfvov ot -rpets A. Hal. (3aa1i\e{a TOOV ovpavoov. not active.> ovpavc.OV •AvaO"Taa{ct>. .> &:Ai\a lJ. Kal OT1 6 Xp10"TOs &vei\6oov &-rro Tfls yi'ls els TO lJ. 28 &vcrrro6taj.w: I<Ailla is a technical term of geography.vi}l. but usually middle. 1 &veyvwa6T): the singular verb with a plural subject occurs elsewhere in the Bibliotheca. Kal 20 OTl ot CXyyeAOl OVK elalv ~V Tc. the opening phrase is formulaic as in the following chapter &veyvwae. 16. KaTa &pl6lJ.v ci>Sf}v 'E~EK{ov Kal els TOV OVCX1TOSlO'lJ.{av TOOV ~vvea Movaoov. i\Eye1 Se 6T1 To l. K&Kei6ev TOVS O:rroO'TOAOVS.6yot..l1lV Ti)s yeveaeoos Kal Ti)s S1aTp{(3e1 Se Tfj S111YltO'E1 Kal Tfj eeoop{q: 00s ~1t'{1t'aV Tils O'K'Il viis. 29 VrreiJ"TlllCrnO'E: 'wrote a treatise on'.cp{i\ct> TlV{. tv c1l OTl CxKaTcXAVTO{ ela1V ot ovpavo{. as in the LXX.<hoov i\eye1. ~~6Sov. AEyEl Se Kal &J\Aa Tl VCx &i\i\OKOTa. meaning the distance between two parallels. TOV oySoov Se.OVOV VTI'o TO O'TEpeoolJ. 20 crn:ptc. oos 6:Tr1KiiS 9oVKV5{51lS· 17 (h) -rij 6t11Y1'!0'Et would have been better Attic idiom.Crrlae Ta so {XalJ. in form.> O'VVETcXyr)aav. perhaps Ionic dialect did not interest him because it was not a model for imitation.>lla: 'firmament'.OV Tov T)i\{ov. but in documents &vtyvc.e1 6 iii\•os Svo KAllJ. 60 'Aveyvoo~ •HpoS6Tov lO'Top1oov i\6yo1 tvvea. Kal OTl TOVTO tO"Tl Kal lJ..a Kal ~· T)l.aTOS eloi\i\6e. ot Se i\omol Teaaapes ov 1rp6s Tl 1rp00'001t'OV a\rrc.PHOTIUS 43 Tio1eiTa1 Se Kal oos tv 1rapEK~aoc1lJ. and in 128. TI€Tpct> 1rpoacpoovei. 18 ClCTiviis: 'tabernacle'.>v was standard. ~v c1) oTl VTI'ElJ. 3 Kavwv: uncharacteristically Photius gives no stylistic criticism. 19 I<AtllO:rc..l&'w. Letter to Pompeius 3. 27 &KcrraAVTOl: 'indestructible': Hellenistic and LXX.aTa Toov ~alJ.V'IllJ. TOOV Se i\omoov e~ (ot yap 1t'cXVTES cx\rrov SooSEKa elal) TOV ~V e~So­ lJ. The formula may owe something to the language of officialdom. common in Hellenistic· Greek. The comment is borrowed from Dion. 25 Tipoacpoovei Se TOVS ~V e~ a\rrov i\6yovs TialJ.l6v: 'retrograde motion' of the sun or a planet. Os ~O'TlV els -n.OVOV . rn1TpE){e1 Se Kal TOVS 1rpocpf)Tas.leyeeos Ex.<hoov. 'looV1KiiS Se SlaAEKTOV Kavoov &v oihos ei11.OV Kal rnoovvlJ.ETa~v TOV ovpavov Kal TOV O'TEpEOOlJ.

ovpe.lt){pl TTlS zep~OV j3cxalAE{cxs Kcxl Tiis l<CXTCx TOOV •Ae.lj3VO"f)S Kcxl Tphos Acxpeios.. 32. 6 KCXTcXAAfiAOv: 'corresponding. falls away'. oQ f) lO"Top{cx l<CXTCXATJYEl..lEpS1s 6 J. If the text of Herodotus had not come down to us we might assume from this statement that his history was cast in annalistic form. mainly Hellenistic. AEyETCXl Se &vcxYlVOOO"KoJ. V ita Thucydidis 54. ws CXAI. 24 ~S dfl: after this the construction suddenly changes so as to report the words directly. OVK ~6EAOVO"f)S Tiis CxAf)6e{cxs J.llSij veov OVTCX 1TCXpa TCi) 1TCXTpl 9oVKVS{Sflv O:Kovacx1 Kcxl SCXKpvacxl. ovSe Jltxpl TEAOVS TiiS cx\rrov 1TpoeA6ovacx j3cxalAe{cxs.vcx{oov rnEACxO"EOOS Kcxl Tiis cpvyiis Tiis ~ei6ev. 10ff.lCXTCX.. 2. 10 "ApxETcxl Se Tiis taTop{cxs &1To Tiis Kvpov j3cxalAeicxs Tov 1Tpc.. 6 yap J. ThcxpTOS Se ~O"TlV &-rro Kvpov zep~s· Sewpos yap 15 KcxJ..lETCX~ l:J. but in the classical language the word would have meant 'is reduced.o1 TE Kcxl 6 l:lKeAlOOTflS A16Soopos laTopei..1V60lS cx\rriis aJ.lcx&tiJ.1EiTCXl TOVTOlS.OS hpacpf) TE KCXl f)V~ft6T') Kcxl ~j3cxa{Aevae· KCXl l<CrrElO"l J.:nov nepaoov j3CXO"lAeVO"CXVTOS. 13 trreA6:crec.1cxvpova6cxl Tl)v &1<p{j3ElCXV..oy{cxlS Kcxl 1TcxpEKj36:aeal 1TOAAcxis. ovSe 1TAEOV TOV 1TpOoTtKOVTOS &1T01TACXVaa6cxl TCXiS 1TCXpEKj3CxO"EO"lV. 27 ace. oo "Q]t.layos OVK apl6J. Tim. o6ev TE ~cpv Kcxl 01TC:. ~cp..The following anecdote is from Marcellinus. Acxpe{ov Se S16:Soxos 6 vlbs zep~s. appropriate'.lcxae Tois xp6vo1s. el Kcxl 1TP0s Tl)v TTlS {O"Top{cxs l<CXTCxAf)\l)lV Kcxl T~>V olKEiOV cx\rrfls Kcxl l<CXTCxAAf)AOV -rVrrov ~v{OTE Tcrii-rcx rnlO"KOTEi. Stappei: 'diffuses itself'. 5 KCXTa St6:votav yAVK\rn'}S: as opposed to that of the style. .>S: first in Plut. to LSJ.6cbv. &re Sl) wpcxvvos Kcxl ov 1TpOoTtKOVO"CXV c:xVTCi) &pxl)v S6Act> Kcxl &1T6:-nJ \rrre]. Sic. 20 ·o Se • Hp6SOTos ~v cx\rrois To\!To1s T)KJ. 2. 21 Diod.. 16 6:pt61JE1Tat (~v) TOVTOtS would be expected. 6 abs 6pyooacxv E)(oov 25 Tl)v <pVO"lV 1TpOs J. n . "OAovpe: in other sources the name seems always to be written Oloros. Tov Se • Hp6SoTov &1Tocp'l'tvcxa6cxl oos ei11 6 1Tcxis.44 PHOTIUS Kt){pflTCXl Se J.lv6o]t. S1" 5 oov cx\rrCi) f) KCXTCx S16:vo1cxv yAV!<\rn-)S S1cxppei.lEVf)s c:xVTCi) Tiis lO"Top{cxs KOJ.

M. Colonna. see H. represented the author as a Christian bishop. na&at: the usual sequence of events in a Greek novel included shipwreck.\Evo1s. On the date see R. Paris 1935-1943. first found in Socrates.lO{ 'TE elm Kcxl ~vcxpyoos 1TO:plCTTOOO"O:l 'TO 1TpOKE{J. 00s elK6s.l<popoov aoo.. 1969.'Tl 1T'Aeov&~e1. 47-69. Polychronion.1CX'TlK6v. without pejorative sense.el'To<pooV'Tcx 'A6yo1 . ecrr1 Se Spo:J. the resuscitation of a person apparently dead. Kcxl 'Texis els •po1T11v K7\lvovacxls &noxpi}acxl'To. 8 mp(oSot: for modern taste Heliodorus' periods are too long (A.1EVOV. EVO"T'lJ.10lS Kcxl Kcx6cxpcxis. 5.et: 'abounds in'. ed. But Photius fails to mention how Heliodorus manages his plot more skilfully than the other novelists. 9 ola S-ft: an Attic expression obscurely employed. '...PHOTIUS 45 73 "AveyvwO'&r) ·H'A1oSwpov Al6lo1TlK6v. Kcxl f} avv6ftK11 Se Kcxl 10 'T&:J\Acx •et' 'A6yct> &v&Aoycx. 7 TpolTI'}v: 'figurative language'. Achilles Tatius: novelist of the second century. <ppaae1 Se 1TpE1TOV01J •fj \rrro6eae1 KExPT'l'TO:l" Kcxl yap &q>e'Ae{CiC Kcxl y'AVKV'T.r F. 22.lev 1Tcxpova1 •o se ~1Tl~oJ. Der griechische Roman8 376f. •o se Kcxl &ve'A1Ticrro1s SlCX1TOlKi'As 'AE'Tcxl i} Sn1y11a1s. Geschichte der griechischen Literatur3 924 (p.epov olcx ST) avcrre'AA6J.1crn1<611: in patristic Greek Spa(. 867 in the English edition)). 87 "AveyvwO'&r) •AAe~cxvSpeoos ·Ax1'A'Aeoos Tcx•{ov •oov 1Tepl /\EVK{1T1TT'l v Kcxl IO. and repeated noncommittally by Photius at the end of his summary.p{cxls. Photius was not the only Byzantine to write about this popular novel.. Lumb. A pious fiction. hist. 6 ruai)(. etc. Kcxl ei 1Tov. Antike und Abendland 15. eccl. E. Vilborg.la can mean 'story.. DtSlger.lJ. 1 Al6tonn<6v: the title of the novel is normally in the plural. R.\S'Tpol Kcxl 1Tpos 'TO (3pcxxV. fable'. Ga. it is followed by a not entirely accurate account of the action of the novel. Festschrift fO.101~: 'clear'. 1Tep{oSol aVJ. 'AE~ea{ 'TE evCTT1J.1evcx1. Stockholm 1955. encounter with brigands. ecrr1 Se •o cn}v•cxyllcx Spo:J. Lesky.rtner. Heliodorus: novelist of the second half of the fourth century.The text printed here is the first paragraph of Photius' notice. 3 nAeoval. Kcxl 1Tcxpo:S6~o1s ~ OVJ..1CX'TlK6v. A. See further E. . 2 Spa(. Kcxl 1T&eea1 Se 'To J. Heidelberg 1966. Hellenistic in this sense. it probably does no more than modify the following participle. W. Rattenbury-T. 345-350. . Rohde. Rome 1938. ed. Keydell.

Isaeus 7.el: 'give a bad impression of'. 'Kcxl TOOV irOl'T\TOOV cxVTOOV TCxS TepcxTOOSEtS S6~cxs J<cxl &vcrrrA6:crets.. lllff. oTE J<cxl Tcxtrn:l XP4ho • &cpoptO"TtJ<cx{ Te 'Kcxl crcxcpeis 'Kcxl TO f}Sv cpepovcrcxt cxt .rtner. Ha!. de comp.r5:crt 'Kcxl cr. A adds in the margin Kal 6eoov S16:Aoyo1.roov Ti'is 6vo~cxcr{cxs 'Kcxl Tfls ~vcrcxp5:s cxlcrxp6T'T\TOS. tv oTs crxeSov &rrcxcrt TCx TOOV . 12 and 16. . 11 S1aaKEVij: this comment is not entirely true. the lost Babyloniaca of Iamblichus. not classical in this sense.rovSf}v. Kcxl Tov eVTeV6ev irA6:vov Ti. Hal. Lucian was one of the most popular classical authors in Byzantium.rep{oSot. 'Kcxl -rl}v &J<of}v T~ -flx~ 'Aecx{ vovcrcxt. Leipzig 1821 CVI-CXIV.OcrEh') AovJ<tcxvov \rrrep <t>c:cA6:ptSos Kcxl veKptKol Kcxl hcxtptKol St<XAoyot St6:cpopot. see H.rovs rnetcr6:yov. 56-60). . 'KC:. 7 A£alvovaa1: as a critical term this is borrowed from Dion.r'AeiCTTcxt . 8 cpav}.d rnl Tpom1v olJ<e{oos s TETpcx~~VIJ.XA. . not classical in this sense.. verb. irOAAftV Se o~ot6T'T\TCX tv Tij StcxCTJ<EVij 'KCXl irA6:cret TOOV St'T\yt'}~choov. of Achilles Tatius.A comparison with Heliodorus at greater length was made by Michael Psellos (printed in J acobs' ed. cit. Gll.EAAf}voov 'KOO~ct~Sei. who provided Photius (indirectly?) with a good deal of his critical vocabulary.rpos TCx TOV •HAtoSc. op.d QVv61}1<1J SoJ<ei Stcrrrprnetv· e\10'1')~~ TE yap 'KC:. 6 cXva"TrAcXaEIS: 'inventions'. Photius alludes to the matter briefly again in codex 94. 'Kcxl Tois &vcxytvooCTJ<etv ffieAovcrt 'KCXTO:irTvO"Tov 10 -rl}v &v6:yvoocrtv irOteiTCXl 'KCXl cpEV'KT'I'}v.Opov Sp6:~CXTcx cpvA6:TTet.ll.rpocrc. 2 After S1acpopo1 the corrector in the MS.d AS~l ~" 'KC:.a T6 ye A{cxv \rrrepcxtcrxpov 'Kcxl &J<CxecxpTov TOOV tvvotoov 'Kcxl Titv Tov yeypcxcp6Tos cpcxvA{~et 'Kcxl yvoo!J'Tl" tv . 'Kcxl hepot Stcxcp6poov \rrro6ecreoov A6yot.rAcxCTT{cxs c:cVToov .46 PHOTIUS epooT6:S TlVCXS &T6. as is shown by imitations such as the Timarion (see pp. see above on Heliodorus. but the verb 6eo"TrAaaTETv was used by Hellenistic writers.) and by the large number of manuscripts that survive. 128 'Aveyvc.rA6:VT'\V J<cxl ~oop{cxv 'Kcxl Tf}v ets &crtAyetcxv 5 6:CTXETOV op~ftV 'Kcxi &J<pcxcr{cxv. 373). 4 6eo"TrAaa-rlcxs: the lexica do not cite this noun from any author before Athanasius (d. Tf}v TE Ti'is 6eo. 13 cpvAlrTTEI: 'retains throughout' seems to be the sense. C:J.S 5 &cpoplaTIKa(: 'pithy'. irAftV crxeS6v Tl TOOV . the term is first found in Dion.O.

'ITAftV ei 'T'lS aV-rov S6~av ~pei 'T'O llflSsv So~6:~etv.reptcpopav Kal 'T'CxS . but the adverb is difficult.rotc:rt Sta~<ptS6v ~O"T't v6flllO · aAA • 0 crV 6avj. KOO!l<t>Sfa 'T'OOV •EAAf}voov ~O"T'lv a\rr't> Tt a. .lj. both are common technical terms among scholiasts and grammarians. Kal 'T'OOV cptAoc:r6cpoov aV-roov 'T'O cptAOKOil'ITOV -jljeos Kal llflSsv OXA. i. eVl<pt vefas 'T'E Kal Ka6ap6"t'f17os llE'T'6: ye 'T'OV Aall.os. 25 The epigram (app. as aV-rbs eyvoo cniv 'T''t> yeAof<t> Sta. 13 6etal. T~ i11cpcrrtK~: 'expressiveness'.PHOTIUS 47 . aV-rbs ilv 6et6:~et ov 7f6flc:rt.ra{~oov S6~as. the praise that follows is extravagant. e\ncptve(as: 'limpidity'. ooa. 7 TrOAITelas: 'conduct'. Kal OAOOS. 15 Tf}v llEVTOl cpp6:c:rtv ~O"T'lV cS:plO"T'OS.et: 'worships'.1Cx~ElS. .rept'IT"t'ooc:rets. especially as Lucian uses many words that do not seem to occur in Attic prose.1EO"T'6v· Kal CrnAOOs. lxel yap ooSe. 25 AoVKtavbs 76:S • eypooya. see the list in index II of Scholia in Lucianum. cited by LSJ only from the rhetorician Hermogenes. avvef}Kfl 'T'E aV-rct> o\Troos i1PilOO"T'at ooO"T'e SoKeiv 'T'OV &vaytvooaKov-ra llft A6yovs AEyetv. ed. Pal.lO S{Sooc:rtv VrrOAOilJ36:vetv.rcxAat6: -re lloop6: -re elSoos· llc:. ~paO"T'fls. cS:ptO"T'OS 0 A6yos aV-rct> Kal ov . Rabe.c: 'natural.o 'ITAftV Vrt'oKpfc:reoos Kal Kevoov So~ac:rllCc-roov 10 j. Kal 'T'o 'T'fls (3f(3AOV rnfypaj. Leipzig 1906. "t'o\ie• hepOlO'l ytAoos. 132) is not thought to be genuine. his few uncomplimentary references to the early church were outweighed by his ridicule of pagan religion.rpe. ei 'T'lS OXA.rptrroov Vrt'o6ec:rec:rtv. 10 1<0011~S(a T&v •f:AAflvoov: this doubtless helped to make Lucian acceptable to Christian taste. AE~a evc:rflll<t> 'T'E Kal KVpfcte Kal 'T''t> ~ll<pO'T'tK't> Sta. 15 A~~t: 'vocabulary'. e. rare but classical in this sense.rpov Kal avll!Jkrpov llEYeeovs. superior. 16 J<Vplc. On the other hand the scholiasts heaped abusive epithets on him.rai~al. Hellenistic in this sense.rep E<pflllEV. ·on Se a\rrbs 'T'oov llflSev -jljv oAoos So~a~6v-roov.rovST} ~v AOY'f> m~'t>· "'EotKe Se aV-rbs 'T'OOV llflSsv OAOOS . KovSev ~v &vepoo. Kal 'T'OV OXA.:>pa yap &v6p00it"ots Kal 'T'Cx SoKovv-ra c:rocp6:. the title of the lives of the saints usually begins J31os J<al TrOAITI:Ia Toii 6alov mrrpbs 1'!11&v J<TA.rpec:rJ3ev6v-roov elvat· "t'CxS yap &XAoov KOOil<:f>S&v Kal Sta. Ill. 27 StCXKptS6v: 'set apart'. must be the meaning.ov J3fov -rl)v &vilillcxAOv . H. standard'.rovC11J KE)(PflllEVOS. oos E<pflllEV.roArrefas. Anth. &AAa llEAOS [96b] 20 'T'l "t'Ep'ITVOV xoopls ~ll<pOVOVS c:i>Sfls 'T'OiS ooc:rl V ~VO'ITOO"T'Cx~El V 'T'OOV &i<pOO'T'OOV.

:>v: 'signs of his divinity'.: did the author already possess translations from all these languages.acxv' as 0 avyypcxcpe\Js O"VJ. Kcxl Sf) Kcxl -riis cpof3epas Xpta-rov -rov 9eov 15 T)!loov Sev-r~pcxs 1Tcxpova£cxs Kcxl -ri.s avcxa-raaeoos -rfls LE ava:Aft"YEOOS Kcxl -rfls "t'OV 1Tcxvcxy{ov lTVEVJ. were the unit of measurement in antiquity. 3 XPitaets: 'quotations'. Lines. 13t(3A{ov lTOAVCT'TlXOV' J.lCXAAOV s~ 1TOAVI31(3AOV' A6yots ~V te'' TEVxEO"l s~ e'.eev Kcxl xpftaets OAoi<A{}poov A6yoov. 1TcxpcxSe{aov LE Kcxl -roov ava-ro£xoov -roV. i.ots. 6fj9ev: not ironical as it is in classical prose.l<pEpoJ. as is shown by e. Karayannopoulos. e. oos Kcxl \nr" ~e{voov l<flptn-reLcxtKcxlKcx-rcxyyrue10 -rcx1. is disregarded by modern scholars. ~V ols J. the accompanying doctrines.. but 'collected and arranged'. 7 SetKvVetv: verbs in -J. g. the subscriptions to the speeches of Demosthenes.ltvcxs lTEtp&rcxt SetKvvetv -rfj -roov Xpta-rtcxvoov axp6:v-rct> Kcxl \nrepcpve'i Kcxl 6eto-r<htJ 6pflaKe{~. Byzantinische Urkundenlehre 1. e.lCXp-rvpkxt s. not columns or pages.Ll had mostly been replaced by forms in -oo long before Photius wrote.1e{oov Kcxl -rov a-rcxvpov Kcxl -rov 1TCxeovs Kcxl -rfls -rcxcpfls Kcxl -ri. 37). i.ecn: 'volumes'. 10 6EO<J'TI11E(c..s -roov ve~<poov &vcxl3tcbaeoos Kcxl Kp{aeoos Kcxl aJ.lCXLOS 1TVp£vcxts yAcbaacxts E-rnxopflYfl6e£0"fls -rois J. 4 TlepcnKal KT~.lcxe. another post-classical technical term. which.J. 2 TEVx. Dolger. as Henry remarks. 18 ava-rolxoov: 'concomitant'.a Kcxl nepatl<cxl KCXl 9p~101 Kcxl Aly\rrrrlOl KCXl Bcxl3VAOOV1CXKCXl Kcxl 5 Xc:xAScxiKcxl Kcxl Si} Kcxl 'ITc:xAol ~ -roov 1Tcxp • ~aa-rots So~<:ovv-roov Aoy{oov Kcx-rea-rpcb&t. . 1Tep{ LE -ri. 1 1t'O~VO'TlXOV: 'of many lines'.-rcxTs ~P A6yov xapt-ros. ov JJ6vov Se &AAa Kcxl 1Tepl -rfls -rov 1Tcxv-r6s SflJJtovpy£cxs Kcxl 1Tpovo£cxs. lTEp{ LE c:x\rriis -rfls \nrepova{ov Kcxl O!lOova{ov TptaSos.. meaning 'the provisions of this document have been duly noted' (F. The compilation of a book of its kind in the late seventh or eighth century is surprising in view of the decline of literary and scholarly activity. o\Jx ci:AAflVli<CXl J. 1968. Kcxl Sf) Kcxl 1Tepl One would like to know more about the anonymous lost work summarised here.s ~v acxpKl -rov /\6yov 1Tcxpova1cxs.lotl3iis oov ll<cxa-ros ~v 13£ct> StElTpa~cx-ro.l6vov &XA. 13 &rrep ~6yov: 'miraculously'. Kcrrea-rpoo&r} was a technical term in the Byzantine civil service. miracles.. 8 Vn-epova(ov Kal 611oovoiov: on these terms one may consult the material assembled in Lex Patr Gr. or did he commission some of them (as for instance Agathias (4.48 PHOTIUS [117a] ~V 170 •A veyvcba&r. 30) asked a friend to translate some Persian texts for him) ? 6 KCXTEO'Tpoo&r}aav: probably not 'ont ete jetes pelemele' (Henry). -roov LE 6eOO"flJ.

44-45 ouSt TOVTOVS 11-cyetv 'TTaparreiTat: 'not even these does he refuse to claim'. Ov 1J6vov Se &iro Toov elpfl~voov &ye£pe1 t<al avVTfS.a{ TE t<al Al)Nll"TfolS t<al Xai\Safo1s t<al Tois irpoelpfl~VOlS iTEcpli\oaocpfla6a{ TE t<al SlaKEKflPVx6al ~v lS£o1s a\rroov Tie1pfrra1 Se1t<wva1 avyypa!JIJOO'l V. 30 KCXTCXT(6eTat: 'records'. YVOOIJOAoy{alS TE TOOV e~oo t<al ypacplt<ois i\oy{ols Tcx\m)V avvvcpa{ voov t<al SlairlO'TOV!Jevos · ~v ~ IJOAlO'Ta To cpli\apETov Tov &vSpbs t<al TO els evaei3elaV &S16:i3i\flTOV EO'TlV rnlyvooval. since it probably derives from XVJ.ov a\JTov lSea oUt< &cpeO'Tflt<e Tov !JflSe ISea as elva1· i\ TE yap avv&ftt<fl ~v Tioi\i\ois o\hoos &irfl~flTal t<al . 31 ypacptKols: 'scriptural'. Cxi\i\a t<al 1JV6ovs t<al 6ve{povs Tovs irap• a\JToov b<e{voov TOOV Tet<6VToov yei\oo~vovs &v. Zosimos of Panopolis.. OV ~flTCx yap IJ6VOV ~V iTOi\i\OiS t<al iTOi\i\6:t<lS OVCxpiJOO'Ta Tois 'Ji1JETepo1s 6efo1s S6y1Jaa1v ~cpap!J6~elv ~i316:~ETa1. CiAAa t<al O'TC'evSe1 -ri}v ~v Tots 1JV6o1s t<al 6ve£po1s Cxi\i\6t<oTov evvo1av els 25 XEtiJEVTlK&:w: 'alchemical' (XVJJ. t<al Tov !Jev Tov &vSpos TI6vov t<al Tov [117b] aKoTiov 40 OVK &v TlS eVyVOOIJOVOOV rnl~IJq>OlTO. Kal 0 vovs Se TOOV ypacpOIJEVOOV a\rr4) iTOi\i\CxKlS ovSev Cx!JE{voov.lEVTlt<oov Zooa{!Jov i\6yoov (9flj3aios s· 1jv oihos llavoiToi\{Tfls) OVK ~cpe{O'aTO Ta a\rra l<aTOO'KEVCx~El V. a fourth century Gnostic. 4 Wilson . ao ~irl Tei\e1 Se TOOV i\6yoov t<al Tiapa{vealV lS{av t<aTaT{6ETa1. oVt<rn s.a1 Tas 25 IJapTVpfas.EVTtK00\1 is a better form.PHOTIUS 49 &p~Tfjs Tfjs Tiapa Xpurnavois aaKoV~VT)S t<al ei Tl Tcx\m)S 20 irapairi\{}cnov. Tiepl To\noov &rraVToov ·Ei\i\.EVOS: 'proving'. •H Se Toov i\6yc. AE~lS rnl TOO'OVTOV OOO'TE IJflSe TOOV ~ Tp16Sov ~fliJCxTOOV ~v{oTE cpe£Sea6a1.Ia). lexicis addendum. is the first identifiable Greek alchemist. CiAAa t<al &iro Toov XElJ. the verb is not used in this sense by classical writers. 0 Se ovSe TOVTOVS 45 AEyElV irapalTEiTal Tfj 'Ji!JETEP~ eeoaocp{~ O'V!Jcpepea6al. 36 T(. t<al ~V cp T6iTCj) TOOV av6pooir{VOOV TI6VOOV CcVEiTCxVO'aTO. a meaning not attested in the classical language. ~V ols t<al • Ei3pait<OOV i\E~eoov m{6ETal O'fliJOO'{as t<al TOOV &iroO"T6i\oov EKOO'TOS ev6a TE TO aooT{}plOV ~{}pv~e IJcleT)IJO. 45 6eoaocp('il: first in Porphyry and Proclus. OIJO{oos t<al TO epyov. ei ye aoocppoveiv EIJEi\i\Ov.)v b< Tpt65ov f!>T'l!lc!rroov: the author must have used some of the spoken language of his day. 32 StcrmcrrovJJ.

wv f)v &1Top6v 'Te Keel ern{6eevov. &napayp&rrrovs: 'unexceptionable'. 47 Oeonpem:Ts: not in classical prose. 52 croo-raatv: 'confirmation'. a Hellenistic usage. c::x\rriis 'TOiS cptA. 51 &lTe~JcpalvoVTa: 'irrelevant'. ei ye Keel •a ll'llSev 1TpO<TI')KOV'Tee OAACx Keel Ws 1TAeiC"'TOV &ire!lcpee{VOV'Tee rntxetpOVV'TCxS 'Ttvees •oov 'lillE•epwv e~ovat SetKvVetv ets cruC""Teeatv 'Tfls &irpoaSeovs Keel llOVTlS Kcc6eepas Keel &A116ovs ACC'Tpe{ees 'ft1-1oov. Tvee Se{~ccs 'TO XptC"'Tteevoov S6y1-1ee ~v 1TCXC"tV e6veat 1TpOKCC'TcxyyeA.50 PHOTIUS 50 55 60 65 'TCxS OA116eis Keel eeo1TpE1Teis Keel O:rreepcxypCm-rovs Keel Kcc6eepas ~vvo{ees 'TOV 6e{ov S6yllCC'TOS avCC"T{6ecr6eet.oy{wv Kal 1TpOKTlPV'T'TOilEVOV &vCC1ToA. •oii'Tov 1Tepee{vecr6eet.oyi)'TOVS ~A. Does this statement of the author's intention imply that he wrote with a view to helping the missionary effort of the church? 60 C7K01TOs rnati/ETOs: i. a sense not given by the lexica. 48 avCXT(6ea6at: the required meaning. 64 ooa eiSoiJEv: had he looked at a number of copies in different libraries? 67 Heraclius was emperor 610-641.f)v ye Sf} O'Tt KwvC""TeeV'TtvowoA. classical Greek used this verb normally in the middle voice. 50 86~: a better Atticist would have written S6~EIE. the refutation. 'Y1reSv Se •ov 1TOAVIloxeov •oii'Tov o &v6pw1ros 1r6vov. 56 \rrrtSv: 'undertook'. yvveetK{ 'TE VOil'fl y6:1-1ov avvci>Ket Keel •ois ~~ o:V'Tfls cx\rrov 1ree1ai. Keel o'Tl llE'TCx 'TOVS 'Hpcct<Ae{ov xp6vovs 'TOV j3{ov Stf}waev. not the writing of the book.waev. ~~ wv KtpSos 1-1ev ovS.Ey~ 'TOVS ~~ ~voov oaot llfl •et> 6e{Cf> 1Tpoaf1A.eej3iis KCC'T. by extension from the meaning 'commendation'. Hellenistic.fots oaee eiSo1-1ev 1rA.Co<ts ~Sf)A. •a ~Ke{vwv ~~tee~OilEVOVS Keel rntxetpOVV'TeeS els C"VIlcpwv{eev O:yetv.eet'T{ots o\JK &v &A6yws 56~ 1Top{~ecr6eet.A. acpOpllCxS Se A. T 0 llEV'TOt OVO!lee 'TOV C"VV'TE'TCCXO'TOS 'TCx 'Te\Jx'll llExPt wv o\JK eaxo1-1ev etSeveet · ov yap ~vecpepE'To •ois j3tj3A.6ov KTlPVyllCC'Tt. &npoaSeovs: 'self-sufficient'. .lKet. & 1TAEOV 1TpOs 'TCx 'ft1-1rnpee f) 'TO C"KO'TOS 1rpos 'TO cpoos StEC"'T'IlKev.6ev 1Teepa 'TOOV ~V tl<aC"'TOtS A. e. O'TtOVV 'Tij evaej3e{<i'C. oos o:V'Tos 1roA. &AAO: St• wv ~vexwpet Keel 1i 1TfC"'TtS avve{1TE'TO. first in Pseudo-Dionysius. seems to be 'put in accord with'.tv c:. OVK eSet Se St. not given by the lexica. Keel 6 1-1ev C"K01TOS rneetve'TOS. 59 &vano:AoY1'!Tovs: 'without possibility of reply'.

the chronological limit of the other collection. 0 10 s~ O'VVTETCXXWS. it came to mean a group of monastic cells. 1/Eal.. S1ex -ri)v cxlrrf}v S • cxhicxv Kcxi vi}aovs lCYTOPTlCYOIJEVOS tv T4) 1Tpos -ri)v 'Pw1-111V S16:1TA~.l!Jillov: 'contained in'. hence 'retired'. e.111111: despite the separation of the Eastern and Western empires Rome still had a considerable Greek colony with its own churches and monasteries. TlV~S s~ c:xlrro KCXi Neov t"'TOVOIJCx~OVO"l TTcxpcxSe{CYlOV.IETayEIIEOTipoov. yet another is mentioned at 27 below. "'TPOs Tl')v OO"KTlTlKT)v s~ Kcxi TOVTO TCx IJCxAlCYTCX O'VVTEAOVV tCYTl "'TOAlTE{cxv. 17 &p1a-relas: i. e. but nevertheless seems reliable. 7TEp1E1ATJI. 4 I. Kcxi "'TOAAWV Kcxi IJeyaAwv avSpwv aplCYTEfcxs O'VVcxyTlOXOOS TOVTO ll~V 0'-J'El TOVTO s~ Kcxi VECX~OV01J &:Koij. 11 6 Toii M6axov: the following information comes from a prologue that is not by Moschos himself.:lCYlV 0 O'VVTCX~OIJEVOS OVOIJCX TO j31j3A{ov.laTa: 'regions'. tVTeVeev s~ TCx TE Tiis •AVTlOXEfcxs 15 I<A{IJCXTCX Kcxi -nl v •Ar. Kcxi 1Tpoacpwvei ~wcppov{~ ft ~wcppov(i( T4) olKe{~ IJ~Tij Kcxi On Moschos see above. 1 5' Kal T': 304. feats of virtue in the struggle against the temptations of the world. . j31j3Afov S' Kcxl T' S111Y1illcxa1 1TEplE1ATlllllEVov. 21 Sophronios: patriarch of Jerusalem 634-638.PHOTIUS 51 199 ·Aveyvwcr&t. t!<eiae Te Tex 1TcxpCX1TAi}alcx [162b] 20 S1epevVTla6:1Jevos Kcxi 1-1cx6wv. a usage found in the New Testament. AEliJWVCX s~ KCXAEia6cxl S{Sc. the best known example being the Mey6:A11 1\. t~ rnli<Ai}aews s~ tr. 28ff. 13 AaVpG': originally 'alley' or 'sewer'. ehcx cruvSlETPl"J'E TOiS TE KCXTCx TOY •JopSO:VTlv &vex -ri)v EPTliJOV aCYKOVIJEVOlS KCXi TOiS tv Tij VECft AcxVpCft TOV IJEYOAOV ~6:j3cx Slcx6AOVCY1V.TJA~TOVS are Hellenistic words. 19 •pc.a\lpa on Mount Athos. 2 Kal ToiiTo: the preceding codex is another text of the same kind.::. 5 &~10l.eyeTo o Tov M6axov • os &:1TeT6:~CXTo ll~V tv Tij Tov ay{ov eeoSoa{ov IJOVij. 15 KAil. •Jw6:VV11S ll~V c:xlrr4) OVOIJCX. pp.ovOlJ &Koij: 'while the tradition was still young'. &7TETa~aTo: 'took his leave'. To 1Tcxpov O"VVTcxyllcx ypacpe1.e ~O:vSpov Kcxi Tl') v 1Tepl cxlrrf} v EPTliJOV Kcxi IJEXPl •oaaews rneA6wv. then a monastery. tl<ei6ev: i.:lV &:peTcxis rnepXETCXl Tovs j3{ovs. TCx cxlrrO 1Tc. the Migne text prints a different recension with only 219 chapters.:lS 1TpcxyiJCXTEVOIJEVOV T4) 1TpOE1PTlllEV~ 1TAf}V ch1 TWV IJETcxyeveCYTepwv avSpwv epycx TE Kcxi 1TpCx~ElS 5 a~lO~TlAWTOVS &vcxypO:cpel· Kcxi yap 8<ei6ev TWV llExPl Tiis c Hpo:KAe{ov &pxfls Kcxi rnl "'TAEOV SlCX"'TPE"J'OVTc.

.lcx6EaTEpov ernol<A{vel.lOV 6 avvETos Kal 6eo<plAftS &vf}p Spe1TOIJEVOS OVK av TOOV avVTETayl.cAa{oov rnlSlatpeael TOV &pl61.lOV avvav~OI. 28 trnStatptCTEt: 'sub-division'.1 Kal T St1l1TAOOJ.lEYOV.1ov ~v 1Taa1v e\Jp-ftaets Tois (3t(3A{ots Staaeaooa~va. 31 K6pov: 'excess' which bores the reader.-Epov 25 Kai Cxl. 1 I I 24 Photius' judgement is a great deal milder than one would expect. Keel TcX Sl1lyTtl. 1TAftV ~~ ernav30 TOOV TO XPfJO"lJ. &:1\A • gy TlO"l Kal els (3 Kal 1.52 PHOTIUS tyxetp{~el a\no TOVT'f>. 'H s~ TOV A6yov ~PI. ToiiTo IJEY ~vkuv Kecpc.uv Kopov KCCTayvo{.lETCC(30AftV.leva. TOVTO s~ Kal Sl1lY1ll.lCCTCC s~ oV)(l TOV iaov &pt61.lEvc.lCxTOOV EO"TlV oov 1Tapev61}1<1J. -rl)v TOV (3{ov ~ovaav ~<p{o-Taa6at 1TpOS TcX Cxj.lE{VOVCC 1TpoTE6ea~VOS j. .l1lVE{a els TO TCC1TElv6Tepov TOV 1Tpo. 27 !3' Kal ll' Kal T': 342. but perhaps the quality of the Greek was better in the recension that he read than in the Migne text.

an invaluable guide to Byzantine court procedure and ceremonial. recommends that they be given annual presents as an inducement to friendship. J. C. and even more to the De administrando imperio. Budapest 1949. which includes highly secret information about foreign policy.ro~&t<ts. imp. Paris 1935-40. with French translation and commentary but incomplete. commentary by J enkins and others. TTcrr~tV<XKlTat: 'Pechenegs'. J en. as in modem Greek. Reiske. 2 6Tav: 'when' with the indicative.Af)Aovs elpT}1 6-n: 'note that'. 6-rav "'-fl . Living in semi-retirement he devoted himself to writing about Byzantine institutions and to supei-vising the compilation of encyclopaedic anthologies on historical and other topics. Vogt. Some sections of these. a Turkic race that was extremely dangerous to the Byzantine empire until 1091. Bonn 1829. 2: diplomacy with northern neighbours ·on J<al -rois •pa. as may be seen from the pages of Anna Comnena.CONSTANTINE VII PORPHYROGENITUS (905-959) Constantine succeeded to the throne at the age of seven. The latter is addressed to his son and is an example of the tradition of paraenetic literature that goes back ultimately to Isocrates' letter to Nicocles on the duties of a ruler. Moravcsik and R. but he had Do real power until 945.kins. since it was in varying degrees confidential. a standard feature of matter in draft or note form. De administrando imperio: text and English translation by G. J. on the linguistic form see J enkins' commentary. could not have been written without the vast resources of the imperial library. De adm. . •p005: 'Russians'. this applies to the Book of Ceremonies. had announced in the previous chapter that he would not attempt fine writing or an Atticising style. and they preserve fragments of texts that were already rare in his day and have since been lost. J<al .s ot TTa-r~tVaJ<i"Tat yehoves J<al o"'"opot J<cx6ecrniJ<acnv. J. C. London 1962. not 'whenever'. Editions: Book of Ceremonies: text by J. Much of C.rpc)s &!. for instance the so-called Excerpta de legationibus. H.'s work never existed in more than a tiny number of copies circulating among the royal family and its most trusted advisers.

has more to say later. in the Dnieper river. . 21 cppay1. Kal pc. Berlin-Leipzig 1926. Mayser. 88. 3).s S1a CT"'TovSfis E)(ovcr1v elpt1V1lv E){e1v 1-lETCx T&V naT~1VaK1T&V. OVTE "'TOAEilOV xap1V. "0T1 ovSe 1TpOs -nlv (3aCT1AeVOVCTaV TaVTT')V TOOV •poolla{oov "JT6A1V ol ·pc. p. This paragraph hints at the idea of the balance of power. see below on Anna Comnena. Cti\i\. E.IOV !6vos Kal JMpJ3apov (Homilies 3.:. Grammatik der griechischen Papyri aus der Ptolemii. 76.s.':> 1-lETa TOOV "'TAO{oov els TOVS <ppayllOVS TOV "'TOTallov yfvecr6a1 Tovs •Poos Kal llft Svvacr6a1 S1ei\6eiv. el llft 1-lETO: TOOV naT~1VaK1TOOV elpT')VEVOVTES.':> ~e{vovs T&v olKE{OOV VTrOXOOpEiV cx\nol rnEpXOilEV01 Ta ~KE{VOOV &<pav{~E1V TE Kal AVIla{vecr6a1. and the patriarch Photius spoke of the invaders in his sermons as 'TO l:KV6tKov 'TOVTO Kal WI. Tp01TOVVT01 Kal KaTaCT<pcX~OVT01.xS{oos. ayopa~OVCT1 yap ~~ cx\n&v j36as Kal i1T1Tovs Kal 1Tp6(3aTa. of which C. 24 StaJ3tJ3aaooat Moravcsik: StaJ3aaooat MS. el llft ~~ay6:yooCT1 TOV 1TOTOilOV Ta "'TAOia cx\noov Kal rnl TOOV 001-lOOV (3aCTT6:~0VTES S1a(31~cXCTOOCT1V. S16: TE TO llft 1Tapa(3i\Crn-recr6a1 1Tap • cx\n&v Kal S1a TO lcrxvpov eJ Va1 TO T010VTOV e6vos.:. "On Kal ol •pc. rn1T{6eVTa1 TOTE cx\nois ol TOV T010VTOV e6vovs TOOV naT~1VaK1TOOV.54 CONSTANTINE VII PORPHYROGENITUS 5 10 15 20 25 vruovcn.. el llft 1-lETCx T&V naT~1VaK1T&V elpT')VEVOVTES. 510 llai\i\Ov ael CT"'TOVST}v ol • P&s T{6eVTal. &Te 1Tpos Suo 1T6vovs aVTE){E1 V llft SvvaVTa1. CTVIlllOX{av 1Tap • cx\n&v i\a1-1(36:ve1v Kal exe1v cx\novs els (3ot16e1av. 3 npatSruovat: 'plunder'.s 1Tapay{vecr6a1 SvvaVTa1. and so does c. 20 'JTOA~I. 'carry them past'.erzeit II 1.. 17 KCXTa'JTOAcxUOiev: 'enjoy to the full'. Kal ~ ToVToov ev1-1apeCTTEpov S1a~&cr1 Kal TpV<pEpOOTEpov.IEVOI. but in neither case does C.:. from Latin praeda. S16T1 SvvaVTa1 ~v Tc.1o\ts: 'rapids'.. rnel llT')SEV T&V 1TpOE1pT')!-1EVOOV ~ci>oov ~V Tfj • PooCTlCjX Kcx6ECTTT')KEV. Kal lKav&s aVTJ1v 1Tapaj3i\Crn-rovcr1 Kal i\vlla{voVTa1. the compound is rare and late. oos &v Kal Tfjs E)(6pas cx\noov O:rrai\i\c:hTooVTa1 Kal Tfjs f3o116efas KaT01TOi\cxVo1ev. o\J-re 1TpayllaTE{as. rne1Sf} ~V Tc. a change of meaning found in early papyri. 4. 26 SvvaVTat: classical syntax would require Svvai.. 15 'TO 'TOto\rrov: no more than 'that'.IOV: the first Russian attack on Constantinople had occurred in 860. formulate the idea clearly as a general principle. 1Tpa1Sevovcn -nlv •poocr{av. ovSe 1Tpos V"'Tepop{ovs "'TOAEilOVS ernepxecr6a1 SvvaVTa1 oi\oos ol •pc.

13ilAov here means a group of persons who make up a division in a procession or formal gathering..roaiToov Kal TOV i\oyoehov TOV Sp6!lOV. The imperial administrative system in the ninth century with a revised text of the Kletorologion of Philotheus.rpam6alTOl elaayova1 Tois Tov Kovj3oVKi\e{ov S1a Toov Svo !lEpoov Se~1C:X Kal &pl<TTEPC:X Ka6oos .rp(>s Sva1v avpToov 131ti\oov. 12 j3tpyav: 'staff'.rpooTov Tovs !lay{crrpovs.. Kal llETCx To aTflval a\novs 1 an with the subjunctive is faulty Atticism..: 'the master of ceremonies.r6Tas.roaiTov e~epxeTal hepos OO'TlaplOS Kal elaayel Tef> a\nef> <TXftllaTl j3fli\ov Se\JTepov. 1-2 -rov "Tfis KCX"Ta<TT6:aeoos KTA.ra-rplK{ovs. TcX~lS TOOV Soxoov.raVTa Kai\oos e\npe. Latin virga. a late word.rc:XA1 v S1a vev!la-ros Tov . B.r6a1T01 Kal VrrO!llllvTt<TKOVal Tovs Sea.r6Tal. TOVS CTVYKA'IlTlKOVS.a -ra E-rTJ TW\1 aotS{!l00\1 j3aatAtoov 'l')!lwv). 3 TOVs Seo-rr6"Tas: the emperor and empress. Kal ernepxoVTal ev6a at xi\a!lvSes Kal TCx O'TE!l!laTa c:br6KElVTal. above p. Kal &re . 5 10 15 20 . Kal erni\oos 6aa O:v j3fli\a ExEl ft avv. 11 6<TTtap{Cfl: 'usher'. KOVj3oUKAe{ov: 'bed-chamber'. Kal . Bury. Kal ere> OVTOOS elaepxETal 6 KaTElTCxVOO llETCx Kal TOV SO!lEO'T{KoV Kal TOOV xpvaoTplKAl VlTOOV Kal icrraVTal Se~1C:X Kal &p1crrepC:X . 19 Kcrre-rr6:voo: a military title. Latin cubiculum. 9 -rots: -ro\Js would be expected. Tovs .rpa~. 567-70). Kal . Kal !~EPXETal Kal elaaye1 j3fli\ov . Kal eVeeoos !~epxoVTal ol Sea. 5 XAallvSes: 'official dress'. Kal ere· OVTOOS !~ep­ X6!lEVOl ol . Kal 6 i\a6s e~oo ~O'TOOS TOOV Svo -rrpos SVCTlV avpTOOV 131ti\oov AEyEl !leyc:XAoos TO . perhaps C. for more information about their history and duties see J. Kal !v Tef> TOVToVS aTfl Val VeVEl 6 irpalirO<TlTOS Tef> OO'Tlap{Cf> Tef> -riJv XPVofiv j3epyav KaTSxOVTl.eela Kal .rpo Toov Svo . 18.rpal.rpa~. elaepxoVTal ol . 13ilAO\I = Latin velum.roaiTov !~epxETal 6 eTEpos 6crr1ap1os Kal elaaye1 Tef> a\nef> <TXftllaTl j3fli\ov TpiTov. fails to handle the archaic dative case correctly. 8 TO 1rOAV)(p6vtov: the acclamation els 1rOAAOVs xp6vovs (or -rroA}. 7-8 -rwv Svo -rrp6s Svaw avp-rwv j3T)Aoov: 'the two drawn curtains at the west end of the hall'. 18 Soxwv: 'receptions'.CONSTANTINE VII PORPHYROGENITUS 55 The Book of Ceremonies: the reception of envoys (p.r10'6oocn v Vir6 TE Tov Tiis Ka-racrraaeoos Kal TOOV .rep1j3aAi\61lEVOl TCx CX\JTCx VrrO TOOV .roi\vxpoVlOV.rpa1. as in Procopius. the chamberlains and the foreign minister'. 17 avyKAfi"TIKovs: 'senators'.rpamoaiToov OVEPXOVTal Kal Ka6E~OVTal rnl TOOV ep6voov. London 1911. Exact modern renderings of Byzantine ranks and offices are not possible. avvf}6e1a exe1. Kal ircXAlv S1a vevlla-ros Tov .

like the lions on the throne and the birds in an artificial tree mentioned just below. then became a more important officer. cht 'TOV <p{AOV Crn01<1VOVV'TOS "'l'pos 'TOV j3cxatA~cx ela~pXOV'TCXl ol "'l'pot<pl'TW'TEpot 'TOV'Tov O:v6poo"'l'01 KCX:l "'l'pOOl<VVOVV'TES tO"'TCXV'TCXl evSov 'TOOV Svo ovp'Toov j3f}Aoov. lO"'T~OV. 'led by the hand'. These mechanical toys were intended to astonish foreign visitors. ~Setv ~vcxpllov{oos • 'TcX Se ~~ex 'Ta ~v 'T~ 6p6v~ erno 'TOO V lS{oov j3cx6!-loov &vop6ovV'Tcxt. 30 '!ra(ovat: as in English 'strike up'. 38 KavfaKtov: a box of presents for the emperor. The protostrator was originally head groom. STlAov6'Tt t<pCX'TOVIlEVOV trrro 'TOV t<CX'TE"'l"cXVOO 'TOOV j3cxatA1KOOV ft t<cxl VrrO 'TOV 1<01-lTl'TOS 'TOV 25 O"'TcxVAov ii t<cxl \JTro 'Tov "'l'POO'TOO"'Tpcl'Toopos. 25 OTooi)l.>atv: here 'presentation'. t<cxl ~v 'T~ 'TcxV'TCX o\hoos 'TeAeicr6cxt elaO:yE'Tcxt 'TO 'TOV !evtt<ov t<cxv{O'Ktov \JTro 'TOV "'l'poo'Tovo'Tcxp{ov 'TOV Sp61-1ov t<cxl "Jl'aAlV j. J. = Latin sessus. 29 lrrro StaaTfn1crros: 'at a distance from'. 28 <Spyaw: 'organs'. ehcx ela~pXE'TCXl t<cxl tO""TCX'TCXl erno Sta:O"'Tf}llCX'TOS 'TOV j3cxatA1KOV 80 6p6vov KCX:l eV6~00S "Jl'CX{OVO"l 'TcX opycxvcx.1~vov STlAOVO'Tl t<cxl 'TOV Aoyo6hov 'TOV Sp61lOV. 43 lrrroKtvflaat t~&tv: if the text is correct this means 'begins to leave'.10{oos t<cxl 'TcX ~V 'TO'iS S~vSpeal. cpO. Italian seggio. Oj. 35 aiVT~~: 'throne'.ov: 'stables'. t<cxl "'l'OtOVV'TOS 'TOV Aoyoehov 'TcXS ovvi]6e1s ~poo'Ti]aets ets a:V"Tov apxoV'Tcxt j3pvxacr6cxt ol A~oV"Tes t<cxl 'TcX 85 opvecx 'TcX ~V 'T~ O"~V'T~~. a Hellenistic usage. .ov: i.56 KCX'T~OV'Tt CONSTANTINE vn PORPHYROGENITUS vevet 0 "'l'PCXlTt'OO"l'TOS 'T~ OO"'Tlcxp{~ 'T~ -ri}v xpvofiv 13~pyc:v Ked elaO:yet 'TC>V !evtt<6v. 'TOV'Tov ela-sA66V'TOS "Jl'{"Jl"TEl rn' ~Sacpovs "'l'pOOl<VVOOV 'TOVS SeO"TT'O'TCXS KCX:l eve~oos cxVAOVO"l 'TcX opycxvcx. ovv6V"Tos a:V-rois t<cxl 'TOV ~PilTlVEV'TOV. Hannover-Leipzig 1915. 164--165. honoured visitor. Becker. t<cxl s. 6.1E'T' oA{yov "Jl'CX{OVO"l 'TCx opycxvcx t<cxl ol ~OV'TES ftpej. cf. t<cxl Sf) llE'TcX -. "'l'po"'l'opevoj. 41 av~'lrAi!pc.e. ed. 27 The genitive absolute has the same subject as the main verb. automata of the kind described by Hero of Alexandria.10V0"1 40 t<cxl 'TCx opvecx 'TOV <XSetv "'l'cxVOV'TCXl 'TcX 'TE ~p{a: 'TO'iS lS{ots 'TO"'l'OlS ~cxe~~oV'Tcxt. t<cxl ~V 'T~ 'TOV'Tov CrnOK1vfjO"CX1 ~~eA6eiv 'TcX 'TE opycxvcx cxVAOVOlV t<cxl ol ~OV'TES t<cxl 'TcX opvecx -ri}v lS{cxv ~CXO"'TOV erno45 "'l'ATlpovat cpoov'liv t<cxl 'TcX 6Tlp{cx "'l'cXV'TCX 'TOOV tS{oov j3cx6!-l{Scuv Kpcrrov~vov: 23 l&vtKOV: 'foreigner'. see Liutprand of Cremona.. one of whom has given us an account of his reception. Antapodosis 6.Qv OV!l"'l'Af}pooatv 'TOV t<a:VtO'K{ov \JTro 'TOV Aoyo6hov "'l'po'TpCX"'l'els 6 !evtt<OS "'l'poOl<Vvf}acxs ~~~p­ XE'TCX:t. handed over to one of the secretaries of the minister for foreign affairs. from ataaos.

CONSTANTINE VII PORPHYROGENITUS

57

S1ccv(crrcxv-rcx1. Kcxl ~v -r'fl ~~1evcx1 -rov Wv1Kov -rov (3fti\ov ;rcx(ova1 TCx TE opycxvcx Ked -ra opvecx Kcxl -ra 6r)p(cx -rois IS(01S TOiT'01S Fy1<cxee~ov-rcx1. el Se Kcxl Eo-nv hepos cpfi\os Kcxl Kei\roova1v ol SeO"it'6-rcx1 -ro\iTov elaei\6eiv, ;r6:i\1v ~v -r'fl elaepxea6cx1 c:xVTov Kcxl so ~~epxeaecx1 'f} cxV-n1 -ra~1s Kcxl &Koi\ov6(cx cpvi\C:cTTeTcx1, ov Tp6;rov elpf}KCXIJEV, KCXl CrnAOOS 00"01 OV 6EACU0'1V cpfi\01, ~cp • ~Vl ~KCxO'"T'!' Tei\eiTcx1, oos ;rpoelpfl7CX1. lrnov, o-r1 -roov cp(i\cuv ~~ei\66v-rcuv i\eye1 o ;rpcxm6a1-ros IJeyCxi\cus ,KEi\eVaCXTE". Kcxl ~~epxov-rcx1 ot -re IJCxy1crrpo1 Kcxl iT'CXTpiK1o1 Kcxl c:TV)'Ki\11-r1Kol rnevx61-1evo1 To 55 ,els ;roi\i\ovs xp6vovs". KCXliJETCx TO -ro\rrovs ~~ei\6eiv iT'Cxi\1 VAEyE1 0 irpCX1iT'00"1TOS ,KEAeVO"CXTE". KCXl ~~epxoVTCX1 ot TE XPVO"OTp1KA1ViTCX1 Kcxl ol -rov Kov(3ovKi\e(ov, rnevx61JEV01 ,els ;roi\i\ovs XPOVOVS". KCXl iT'CxVTCUV ~~i\66v-rcuv KCXT(CX0"1 V ol SeO"iT'OTCX1 CmO -roov 6p6vcuv Kcxl -ra -ro\rrcuv b<J3Cxi\i\ov-res CTTEIJIJCXTCx Te Kcxl 60 xi\cxv(S1cx ;rep1J3Cxi\i\ov-rcx1 -ra XPVO"o;rep(Ki\e1CTTCX cxVTOOV acxy(cx. Kcxl elaepxov-rcx1 IJVCTT1Koos ~v -r'fl 6eocpvi\C:cKT'!' ;rcxi\CXT('I' 81 • fis Kcxl &vfli\6ov oSov, Sflp1yevOIJEV01 VrrO TOV Kov(3oVKi\e(ov.
53 l<EAEVacrre: 'at your service', rather like modern Greek 6p£a(a)'TE and Italian comandi. 60 xpvao'TTEp{ICAeta-ra: 'goldembroidered', literally 'surrounded by gold'. aayla: 'cloaks', a diminutive of the Hellenistic word aayos. 61 I.IVCJ'TlKws: 'secretly'. 62 s,ptyeV61.1EVOl: from Latin dirigere. TOV: TWV TOV gives the sense required.

IOANNES MAUROPOUS (c. 1000-c.1060)
After being employed for a time in the imperial chancery he was appointed professor of rhetoric in the university of Constantinople, and not many years later he became metropolitan of Euchaita. At some time he seems to have taught Michael Psellos. His works in prose and verse are very numerous (see J. M. Hussey, BZ 44. 1951. 27~2); among them are verses on etymology derived from an ancient Stoic source and a prayer begging God to spare the souls of Plato and Plu+,arch (item 60 in C. A. Trypanis, Medieval and modern Greek poetry, Oxford 1961). The best source for many of his writings is the manuscript Vaticanus gr. 676, which also contains the charter for the new faculty of law set up by the emperor Constantine IX Monomachus in the capital in 1046; Mauropous may be presumed to have drafted the text. It begins with a long preamble on the duty of the emperor to maintain the rule of law and the current lack of suitable facilities for training lawyers. The provisions for a new faculty are outlined. The section printed here amounts to about half the text of the edict. It is followed by exhortations to future students of the faculty, where a copy of the text was doubtless displayed. The specimen may enable readers to decide whether the higher civil servants in Byzantium were justified in priding themselves on the merits of their prose style; it is difficult to imagine modern administrators writing state papers with a view to publication as works of literature. Edition: A.
Sala~.

Prague 1954.

•AXA.a TcxiiTa !lE V &){pl viiv TO s. ev-re\ieev o-rroiov cx\rro (cpaa{) S11:Awae1 To -rrpay!la. i} yap (3aa1:Aeia i}llWV XPTlCTlllWTCm,v acp6Spa Kal -rrprnovaav TOiS XPOVOlS cxV-riis -ri}v evaeJ3ii Tatrn,V itpa~l V AOylaa!J1V'I'l Ka\ OCTO V Tij 1<01 Vij KaTaCTTCcCTEl 7rEpllT011lCTEl
I I
1 1

1 -rcxiiTa: the shortcomings of the present situation. cpaal: an Attic expression found at e. g. Dem. 19. 157. 2 1'! yap !3aawla 'l'!llc.;">V: the abstract noun with the genitive of the personal pronoun became common in the late Roman empire; the idiom is used for many ranks besides that of emperor. 4 'KOtvij 'Ka-raa-r6:C1Et probably means 'public affairs'.

IOANNES MAUROPOUS

59

5 TO KepSos Kcxi iTPOs evSo~{exv Oj.lOV Kexi iTPOs AVCTlTEAelexV Ka:i\ws ~vvof)crexo·ex, iTp06vll6Tep6v Te KEK{VT)Text iTpos -ri}v VOillKftV E-nwfutexv, Kexi To Ei\i\e{iTetv E-rt SoKovv Tc;; Ka:i\c;; Tiis iToi\tTe{exs pvellc;; iTexp • ~CXVTfls &-rroxpwVToos avCXiTi\T)poi, ~~TlYTlTftV Kexi StSexCTKa:i\ov Tois v61lots iTexpexcrxollEVT'l •JooexvVflv Tov i\oytwTCXTov 10 li\i\ovCTTplOV, KplTftV rnl TOV liTiToSpoj.lOV Kexi ~~Cxl<Toopex, TOV ~l<pti\ivov rn{Ki\T)V, Os OVK &cpexvws ovs· &criJilOOS ovs· aj.lvSpws rneSe{~CXTO Ti)v ~CXVTOV iTOAVj.lCxeetexv, &i\i\a ST)IlOCT{~ Kexi cpexvepws ~v a:VTexis Texis Twv iTpcxyllCx-roov iTe{pexts ~~ei\exll"'JEV, 6!lo{oos llEV Texis Tiis i\oyt6TT)TOS, Olloioos Se Kexi Texis Tiis Twv v61loov elST)15 creoos TExVexlS KEKOCTilT)IlEVOS, Kexi llT)SEV iTpOTlj.lOTEpov llT)SrnoTe 6ej.levos Twv iJilETepoov Kei\evcreoov. Oirros Totyexpovv T)ST) iTpWTOS &ya6ij Kexi !lo{p~ Kexi Kp{cret Tf)S ~phov TWV vojloov Kexi SeSoKtllexCTilEVT)S O:p~e1 StSexCTKa:i\{exs, iTpoeSp{<tt TE TlllT)6eis Cx~loi\6y(j) Kexi ~T)AOOTij, acpopllCxS TE i\exJ3oov OV TCxS 20 TVXovcrexs els 6epCXiTE{exv ~ Tiis tillETepexs cpti\oTtll{exs, Kexi StSexCTKa:i\e{ov TVXOOV OV lllKpoiTpEiTOVS ovSe cpa:Vi\ov' TOVVexVT{ov llEV OOV lleyexi\oiTpEiTECTTCrrOV Kexi Stexcrl]j.lOV Kexi TOlOVT(j) iTpCxyllCXTl iTprnoVTos. eCTTexl yap &-rro Tiis iTexpovCTT)s llETa Tfls ~~ ovpexvov J3oT)6e{exs Kexi crvvepy{exs &vet!lEvov !lEv Tois v61lots els

5 i\vatTtAI:tav: 'advantage', a Hellenistic word rejected by the Atticist lexicographers Pollux 5. 136, Moeris and Photius. 6 T'l')v vo~tKT!v: the adjective is rare in Attic, and TWV v6~wv would have been natural instead. 8 1rap' ~avTi)S': i. e. Ti)s !3aatAI:Ias. 9 John Xiphilinos: a member of the same intellectual circle as Mauropous and Michael Psellos, who later held the patriarchal throne of Constantinople from 1064 to 1075. i\oytC:>TaTOV: 'learned', perhaps a title given to him in virtue of his position as a judge. The rest of the description is a trifle obscure. 10 li\AovaTptOS' was a title given to many high-ranking officials; l~­ ciKTwp is originally 'tax-collector', but in this case perhaps means that he was responsible for receiving the fees paid in to the court. 14 i\oyt6-n)Tos: 'eloquence'; post-classical. 16 Kei\evcnoov: instead of "the classical Kei\eva~crroov. 17 Totyapovv in Attic was always the first word of its clause, but Lucian sometimes put it in second position. Kplcnt Ti)s ba<piTov: the two words derived from the same root are deliberately placed together for effect. 18 SeSoKt~aa!-liVf1S': 'tested and approved'; this extension of the original meaning resembles the semantic shift in Latin spectatus. 20 els 6epa1rdav: 'for his benefit'. 23 1TapovCTfls: i. e. '1')!-lipas. an easy ellipse, but LSJ imply that it is not classical.

. not a teacher of law.lCX 'TOV evcxyovs 'I'JJ. 606. ill.locpvAcx~ s~ o StSaCTKo:Aos. ov J. but the verb ovvevSoKEYv is mainly Hellenistic. but this is not mentioned in R. it is used of churches and lecture-rooms.lEyCXV O{K05EC"lTO'TTlV o:V'Tfj Kcxl olKtcr-rf}V 'TE Kcxl <pVACXKCX ACXJ. 'TOV Kcxl M:t')cret Kcxl lTpCxyJ. Pal. and frequent inspection of the building operations at the church and at a new palace nearby gave the necessary pretext.lOVS StSaC"KOOV.. Kcxl 'TOV ~v J. the usage goes back to the description of the sophist Hippias in Plato Prot.lev ovv ernAoos ovS. This monastery was a foundation of the same emperor. Paris 1953. oTKTUla: the new faculty. &A6yoos. &AA.lO:l) crvvevSoK{cxs &J. Kcxl <pVAO'T'Tel V EACX)(E ov 25 oxeS6v modifies slightly the fOf'ce of the superlative: 'the most beautiful. rare and post-classical.60 25 IOANNES MAUROPOUS SO 85 lTO:tSE\J"l"i}plOV 'TO KcXAAlO"TOV O")(ESOV Kcxl 'TEplTVO'TCX'TOV OiKT}J.lOOV 'TO evcxytaTCX'TOV oiKflJ.lev. 'TOlTOS J.lCX'Tl 'TpOlTO:lO<pOpOV feoopytOV olove{ 'TlVCX J. OV rnl KpE{'T'TOCW ~lT{Crt KCX'TCXC"KEVOC"CXV'TES.lEV • gO"TO:l 'TOlycxpovv o1rep eipfl'TO:t. although a secular institution.liv 'Toov &ycxeoov SoTi)pt Kcx6tepcbcro:J. Sea1r6-rT}v: Attic writers preferred o1Kfa5 Sea1r6-rT}v.lcx6ftcreoos. George in the district of Mangana. &V'TlAfl'f'EOOS': here 'collaboration'. according to Psellus (Chronographia I 143 Renauld) his reason was that he wanted to have an excuse for visiting regularly his mistress Scleraina whom he had accommodated in that part of the city. e. 26 rnl Kpehooatv V. 29 Tpo1t"atocp6pov: a regular epithet of martyred saints.lO:p'TVptKfls xoopls (oTJ.OS ~ Kcxt viis &VTiye{po:J. 315c. voJ.loov J. 20. cht VOJ. 76ff. La g~ographie eccl~siastique de ]'empire byzantin I.1rfatv: 'in the hope Of salvation'. &Cj) 'TCj) lTaV'Toov 'I'JJ. will be housed in the monastery of St. not in LSJ. Cor. 6:-rri\G)s.lOV. 38-39 o6 .l~'TEpov ~cptAO'TlJ. cf. b< Katvi'jS": 'afresh'. olKo7. but meant a magistrate.lSV. if one may say so'. !v c1) Kcxl 'TOV StSo:CTKo:AtKov 6p6vov tSpvcre. . o:V'Tois 'TO -fJJ.lCX KAf16f}C"E'TCX1 'Toii'To. 28 mptwvv~-tov: 'famous far and wide'. Anth. as in I Ep. 36 6p6vov: the professorial chair. Legg. Janin.lOOV oiKOV. 32 ovvevSoK{aS": 'consent. approval'.l~V VOJ. 7.l~V &cpooptcr!-LEvos ~i 'Tois ~poocrt Tiis 'TOOV v6J. c1' KO:l 'TOV ~eicre eerov vcxov ov Tiis J. 954 b. 23. 21 state the same preference as a rule for students of Greek prose. 33 cppovnaTflptov: 'place of prayer and contemplation'.o6s• &i\6yoo5: 'not lightly or unreasonably so called': the title nomophylax had existed in classical times. Kcxl 'TO erno 'TOVSE StSCXC"KcxAEiov J.lcx Kcxl cXV'TlAft"''EC. Agathias 2. g. which ought to imply that the emperor rebuilt in much grander style an existing church.ltlC"CX'TO KpO'Tos.lOp'TVC"l lTEptcbVVJ.lEV Kcxl ets lepov <ppOV'Ttcr-rf}ptOV 'TO V oTKOV KCX'TEC"KEVOC"CXJ. t<Aflaet: 'calling'. Phrynichus 348 and Pollux 10. Plat. Les ~glises et les monasteres. the word apparently invented by Aristophanes at Clouds 94 as a humorous description of Socrates's school had a rich semantic history.llTPOOS rncrri)cro:J.

O<pVAa~ SlaiJ. ~OVATJO"e(o)S: 'the intention Cif the law'. 41 avii'T'I'IpflCTIV: 'preservation'. 52 ~cp' ~aaTfls: 'on each occasion' the adverbial expressions are usually -rrap' ft<acrrov. I have not found an earlier example of the metaphor. Oxford 1968.EVOS Kal llt1 Trap • hspoov Taii-ra Save{~olTO IJ. ST}A. Toii-ro s·. llcx6TJ'TEVOiltvovs: a word drawn from the N. 46 xpetooSecrrtpas: a Hellenistic word. tv• oiJ<o6ev E)(o1 TCx Ti'}S TSxVT}S opyava TrclVTa 6 els TaVTT}V ael Trapa Ti'}S j3aCTl'Aetas Trpoxelpl~OIJ.OOV XPTlCTliJ. 55 -rrpo56 avyVOil(ots: 'privileges'.i}CTETal IJ.oov: probably Hellenistic or later in this sense of 'interpret'.oov Kpchos. aacpT)v{~oov TraVTa Kcx'Aoos Kal TrapaS1Sovs 00$ ol6v -re Tf}v VOIJ. the regius chairs in various universities of Great Britain are somewhat analogous. 6pyavov is not even used of Aristotle's logical works until after the sixth century.o Trpoaal-relv Kal av'AASye1v ecp.OOTEpas • Kal yap 51) Kal Toii-ro A. aacpflv(l. 42 VOilOilO:eetav: 'knowledge of the law'.T}CTE To e\1ccj3es 'I'JIJ. G.ETaxe1p1eiTal.eV TOiS IJ.aSt) Tas xpelooSeCTTspas Kal TrPOs Tf}v 515a0'1<cx'A{av Toov VOIJ. 6 E[S Ta<rn. 60.o6ev &AA. originally 'knowledge of the Mosaic law'. the usual (Hellenistic) form is -rrpovo11fa. Philosophie der Griechen II 2'.V ae(: the emperor does DOt simply guarantee the salary of the professor. and a single volume might cost a substantial proportion of the annual salary of a civil servant.{}q~ETal XPTlCTlV Kal TrpOs To SoKovv a\rr(i) 1J. fJ oVyKAflTOS (~OVATJ) being the trans- .IOANNES MAUROPOUS 40 61 45 50 55 v61J. T. e~el Se 40 TOVTO J. D.T}Se TrpCxyiJ. a fuller expression might have been (b<efvots) oTs.Evei. 44-47 The professor can borrow books from the library. T o\i-rov To{ vvv f~e1 Tov Tp6Trov Kal o\i-roo KcxAOVIJ. Reynolds-N. TOlOVTOlS Se xp{}aETal SlJ<a{OlS Kal TrpovoIJ.OIJ. av a\rros TVXOV TOVTOOV &Tropo{T} S1a Trev{av. 56. as often in the classical language. KAflTIKots: 'members of the senate'.EVOS. by implication the privilege is denied to the students.Cxeelav CrnTalCTTOV. but reserves the right to appoint subsequent holders of the chair. see L. GRBS 8.ovs .OOV J3ov'A{}ccoos. On the library see further N. Wilson. 3.EYcxA056~0lS O'\J)'1<AT}TlKOiS.va1Te'Aoos ~KOVOIJ. 48 oTKo6ev: 'at home'.EVOS 6 VOIJ.Toii-ro IJ. Scribes and Scholars. 187 D.l!v oTs tva~t: 'in the first place by guiding'.cx6r}'TEVo~vovs cxV-r(i) TrPOs cpvA. tl<aCTTT}s CxVayKa~OIJ. 49 Ta Tiis Tt){VflS 6pyava: 'the tools of his trade'.ovs TOOV VOIJ. as B< Ti'is 8<eicc j3lj3AlO&f}KT}S Trapa TOV eVAaJ'eCTTchov j31J'Al0cpv'AaKos els ~pav A. 53 mv(av: books were expensive.{OlS. Wilson. G. OTl <pVACx~l J<al TCxS j3{j3A.Ev ols ~v6:~1 Tovs IJ. evapl6IJ. Ka6' fl<acrrov.aTa E)(o1 &AA. 'by those means by which'. not in LSJ.OOV. 1967. Zeller. see Ed.<::XKTtv Kal avv-ri)pT}CTlV Ti'is Toov VOIJ. post-classical. cxV-rlt): dative of the agent.

64 1TEpiSo~ov: the word is apparently not attested before the 8th century. 57 TOV rnl TOOV Kplaeoov: a judge of a certain rank. 'Tfls . o. Totoii'Tov ~ev 'fiSfl 'TOV 7rep{So~ov vo~o<pVACXKa oo0"7Tep &vSptaV'Ta Katvov &7Te'TEA~o-a~~v 'TE Kal. ~11Se 'TCxS i}~e'Tepas ~A7T{Sas rnl. quoted by LSJ only from Proclus..62 IOANNES MAUROPOUS 60 65 Kal. ~11Sa~oos &yvoo~oov ocp6f. 0:-rre~t<raiJEV: 'polish'. a silk garment. 6elO'T~pav Se VEVO"lV &~too6el. 18. 'T'?> 'Tfls 'Tt~fis \rrrepS)(oV'Tl Stacpep6v'TOOS ~va!3pvv6~vos. 00s KaV'TeVeev ~ 7rpo6v~6-repos. 63 TaSe Kal TaSe: 'such and such'. p6yav &vex Tiav E'Tos Ai}t. post-classical. !3atov. since its residuary powers had been abolished by Leo VI (886-912). Kal. -nlv 'TOO"alrrflV xaptv &vao-x1J. is chosen for the assonance with 1'!~-~ETtpav. ol'KTtplJots: found in Pindar and biblical Greek. 70 75 TflAlKoV'Tov 'To{vvv !3cx6~ov Kcx6• T)~e'T~pav ~ev hloyftv. rather as in the English 'model'. 4> Kal. O"l'Tflpeo-{oov Se xapl V e~el 'TaSe Kal. \I}EV0'6fival 7TapaO"KEVCxO"'IJS. established by Constantine IX (so DuCange.. 7rp(Xy~a 'Too-o\i-rov 'Tais i}~~pa1s ~cpvAa~e 'TOV Kpcrrovs . 7rpos 'TO T)!Jhepov KpCrrOS OVVElO"EAeVO"E"Tal Kcx6• OS K&i<eiVOS T)~~pCXS.). as are the students in the part of the document not printed here. vevatv: 'consent'.~oov.va1 7Tepl. s. 70ff. 66 aVEKq>pOO"TOtS: 'ineffable'. an allowance for food'. v. OXA. J3a61JOV: 'rank'.ye-rat ~~ T)~e-r~poov xe1poov Ahpcxs 'T~o-o-apas Kal. 288 gold pieces. the lowest civil servants received 72 per annum). ~eycxA07TpE7TEs epyov 'fiVeyKEV T)~iV els rn{VOlaV Kal. 71 6etoTtpav: the comparative. 129. Kcx6~Spav evEhJs ~e-ra 'TOV rnl. Hellenistic. aVV 6:Kpti3E{GC 7TOAAfj lation of the Latin senatus. and this detail of the professor's emoluments had not yet been decided. the text is only a draft. Glossarium mediae et infimae graecitatis. 'li'TtS 'TO 6e0"7T~­ o-tov 'TO\i-ro Kal. 61 ~vaJ3pvv61JEvos: 'priding himself upon'.. rather than 6elav. The professor is addressed rather surprisingly in the second person with a mixture of instructions and exhortations.~e-r~pas O~lA{cxs Kal. . o-ol. lexicis addendum.yeoos ooo-aV'Toos &~too&f)o-e-ral.a 7TCXO"av f}Sfl 0"7TovSftv. 68 ~q>vAa~e: 'kept in store for. membership now had little significance except for ceremonial occasions. 13Aa'T'T{ov Kal. 'TaSe. 7Tao-av 7rpo6v~{av e{o-~VeyKal 7TEpl. e. 62 AITpas 'KTA. : 'four pounds of gold (i. a borrowing from late Latin.s rntl3fival. goes back to Dem. reserved for'. ~cxAO<pV~O"'Ta'TE vo~o­ <pVAa~. 'TO o-acpoos ch1 ~CxAlO"'Ta Kal. Kal. 65 &vSptaVTa: the application of the word to a person. &7Te~~o-a~v. as opposed to the original sense 'scrape'. a baton of office. ~6ya: 'stipend'. olK'Tlp~ois &VEKcppaO"'Tots 'Tfls KVI3epvooO"fls TiaV'Ta 7rpovo{as. 'TOOV Kp{o-eoov.

OV. But Kcx6iSpa could equally well refer to the professor's chair. Ov cpvA-oKp•vflcre•s se Tovs CTVVTpE)(oVTa:s rnl -n. &JV.os &-rra:yopeVollEV -niv A.lEv..v yvwll'llV Tois v61-1o•s.ov ~~YTlTTJS · -rrA.lCXTlKOiS OXOATJV CXyElV.ov aKpoa:CTlV. 83 cpvi\oKpnn'JCTEIS: 'make distinctions of nationality' is the original meaning. &-rrav6poo-rr!av: 'unpleasing conduct'. 84 &Kp6aal\l: 'lectures'. WK-rc. 90 oTSa:s -rr6:VTc.looj.os -rrpo -rr6:VTc.ov ~c.op 1-1ev llEAEToov Ta -rrpos -niv ~Pil'llve{a:v CTVVTE{VOVTCX. 'fulfil your duties as professor'.ov Si. Ka:l OXiilla: Tij crxoA.A.os Se "ITOO"l Ka:l aj. all Hellenistic.o-rr{a:v j.os j. Toii-ro 1-16vov gpyov "ITOlOV!lEVOS Sl'llVEKes Ka:l &tS1ov Ka:l -rrepl Toii-ro -niv oA-11v &-rra:va:A{CTKc.1'}v et llTJ "ITOV TlS TOVTC.v yA.lev Kp{voVTEs -niv Ka:6• oA. . -niv 85 Tfls Ka:6eSpa:s Ta~l V &lfoKATlPWOClS • Ka:l ave-rr1cp66vc.v SlCXTplj31'}v -rra:pdSe~.ov OTl Ka:l 1-16vc. 84-85 TJ'tv .leV xeipa:.lj. oos Sei.ocppovflcra:CT6a:l j3oVAOlTO. Ka:l Ka:6a:pO:v j.waCTCXV Ka:l -n. -rrapaSoxftv: 'acceptance'.OV E~ euSa:{j.oV -rra:pa:Soxflv.o-rr{a:v Se lfaAlV -niv CmAOOs TOOV -rr6:VTc. 95 Ka:l lllcra:v6pc.OV KCXTa:ppv-rra:{voVTa:s oia:1s cxUCTTTlp{CXlS llETEPXOVTa:l.os TOiS <pOlTTlTCXiS Oil lAW V· M{ vc.levov.liV VlfE~PTlllEVC. ouSe "ITAOVT{VS'Ilv a:U-rois. CTVVCf>SO: KO:i a:U-rol TOiS eucrej3ecr1 v6j.v T6.ov S16:vo1a:v &vcrrrniaac•v Tois veo1s.JllV TOV SlSoj. 217'1'] tv Tctl Kft1T'tl Stcx-rpt~ft· 96-97 O:rroxitv: 'abstinence'.lVOV.leV -rr6:VTa:S ets -n. suggesting that the number of places in the faculty is limited.v Toov v61-1c. TOTE yap o\Jx o-rrc. 77 StflvadS: not in classical prose.. oi Ka:l Tovs Tas l'!iAAa:s O:pxO:s S10: ATlllllCxTC.ll0"6l SlcxAE~. Ka:l Ka:6> ~6:0"TTlV 80 a6Kvc. Ka:6> &s ~CTTlV e6os Ka:l Tois ypa:j.ov TOV -rra:VTos &-rroxflv. Ka:6a:pO:v Se XPTJCTElS -n.lOVOS opj. rne•Sfl-rrep Sei TOV "ITCXlSeuacc. ij -rrep16flcre1s cppoVTlO"TTlp{ov O"Ej.fli. and perhaps we should read &-rro-rri\flpOOCTEIS. 100 -rrpo TOV i\6yov: obscure.ov TWV TJilEPWV Vj. 86 Stcx-rpt~itv: 'school'.ov. but later it means 'select'. in which case this is an instruction not to discriminate against Armenians or other racial minorities in the empire.lEVOS oiKOV e\ryevoos TOV SlSaCTKCXAOV qnA.'w v6!lc.> &plCT'T{VSTlV.OV Se IJE6> f}!lEpa:v. O:AJ\0: Si} Ka:l -rrpoac-rra:lvouj.IOANNES MAUROPOUS 63 -n. -rrpovoflCT'IJ Se llaAlCTTa: Ka:l Tiis Toov &KpoCXToov e\JKocr!l{a:s.oflv. O:va:py(Jpc.os aATl6lvfls 6pey6!lEVOV lOO-rrpo TOV A. 6 Toov v61-1c.lOlS <ppOVOVVTES. O:rroKi\flpOOaEIS: if the text is right it means 'allot them places in order'. probably 'before attaining the faculty of reason'.6yov TOV Tp6-rrov Ka:l TO i'i6os exe•v "ITE"ITCXlSEVIlEVOV.. but then the construction of the preceding adverbs 'to students chosen for their merit rather than their wealth' is not easy. 76 &vcrn-niaCTEl\1: not in classical prose. perhaps first so used by Epicurus fr. ~Pil'llVEVC. erna:v6pc.

in Attic 'maltreatment'.Av OVTOO -rcxV-ra: 1TOlijS.ov !<VJ3ov 1t'EptTpo1T'ij: obscure. Hellenistic. Hellenistic. Ka:l -rov IJEYcxA01TpE1Tii -ro\i-rov 6p6vov. 111 cX-rroaK01t'w\l: 'aspiring to'. ov !cpCx7Ta:~ 1TlcneVea6e. 9. 117 of!v 15aTl: an inept imitation of the usage seen at lliad 17. &vacpalpeoov: 'with security of tenure'. Ka:l v61JOOV ~V !~1TElp{a:v ~ET' rn1a-rfi~11s exEl 1roAA.lETa: Ka:i SElyiJ KCXKOfi6ElCX -roTs ru{vov CTTTACxyxVOlS VTIOlKOVpij.t&v11lav voawv: an extension of the classical v6aov voaeTv. ii 1TCXO"l 103 Kcx6e~s: Hellenistic for lcpe~s. a:V-r6s -re 1rp0 mJ:v-roov. CXV cpoopa:6ij KCXKos oov . El ~fi 1TOV 71S a:V-rc)s ~CXV'TOV -rfls "t'flAlt<a:V-rflS avex~1ov arrEAEy~Ol "t'l~flS. Ei-rE pc. .v. SoVAeVEl V -rov -ri. S1a J3fov t<a:6e~e-re. 119 KCXKovxlas: 'rigours'.ty~ot: the future optative is inappropriate. see below 128 and 163. in Byzantium as a rule only a few lawyers and interpreters knew it. 109 Svaopc11ros: 'unsatisfactory'. evil disposition'.. Ka:l ~e-ra ae t<a:6e~iis ol -rov -ro1oV-rov f3a:6~ov Els -ro ~ov S1a:SE~6~vo1. -rex -re &:1\A. but Mauropous probably wrote it. ~c.-riJv •EAAflVlt<iJv AEyOO -ra:V-rflv Ka:l -riJv oa11 • Poo~a:it<Ti -. 121 V1t'otKovpij: 'lurk'. ava:cpa:{pe-r6v 7E Ka:l aS1exSoxov.LEvoov. surly'. Tia:pa:J3a:i vEl v oAoos -roA~oov -roov 1ra:p • ft~oov -r1 S1oop1aJ.. both post-classical. El ~ft -ra 115 Kpo:Tla"t'CX 1TCxV"t'OOV ~CXV'T~ avyylVOOC"KEl. because the Byzantines regarded themselves as maintaining the Roman empire.: 'unless he is conscious of possessing the highest qualities': in Attic the verb is constructed with a participle.a: XPfla-rC: Tia:pC: -riis f3a:a1:Aeta:s ft~oov t<a:l t<cx-rC: at<o1rov 105 VIJlV crna:v-rf}ael.64 IOANNES MA UROPOUS . t<cx-ra:6a:ppET Se t<61roov -ra:Aa:lTioopta:s t<a:l cXypV1TVlOOV KCXKOVX{a:s. als Wilson: ols MS. Usually •p(A)IlaiK1\ means 'Greek'.. perhaps 'a change fraught with such drastic consequences'. 107 &St&Soxov' 'permanent'.. 172. 118 •p(A)Ilaii<1'J: here 'Latin'. et 111'! KTA. Ka:l-rolOVrOV O"CXV'TOV rnl-roov ~pyoov f}IJTV ernoSElKvVElV 0"1TOVSCx~1JS. in Attic TO ~ov.S "t'flAlKCXU"t'flS 120 TliJiis Ka:l -rov rna:yyeA~cx-ros &~1ov. Luke 13.oos Sva-rp01TOS OOV t<a:l-r~ KcxA~ XOP~ -ro\1-r~ -roov ~a:6fl7EVO~EVOOV o\JK 110 EVxpfla-ros· 8 1TCx01J cpvACXKij cpvAa:-r-r6~vos 6 -rov 6p6vov -ro\i-rov arroaK01TOOV Ka:l "t'OV V1fep KE<pcxAflS -rpe~OOV K{VSVVOV. ets TO !dAAov: St. in Attic it meant 'peevish. 108 Crr!V. Kaoa6appeT: 'facing confidently'.x6v~{a:v VOO"OOV Ei-rE a1Ja:6{a:v. 105-106 VI-ITV. here omitted. 106 lcpcX-rra~: 'once for all'. ~cx-repa:v se yAooaaa:v cruv &t<plJ3Et~ 1TCx01J 1rpote-ra:1 . mCTTE\}ea6e: Xiphilinos and his successors are addressed. a:Is avCxyl<. ~11 &:1\A. but later Svaopo1t'{a developed the sense 'perversity.. 114 TT}AtKoV.oos -ro 1rpay1Ja: t<cx-rC: vovv Aa:~J3a:vhoo ~flS • rnlXElpEhoo 1TCXV7CxTICXO"l "t'flAlt<0\1-rov t<VJ3ov 1TEpl-rpo1Tij. fJ Ka:l &:1\A. t<a:l ~11 se -r1s SplJ.

in this case'.. 145-146 -rois i\6yots: 'reason. 125 Sta11ap-rvpla in the sense of 'solemn affirmation' is quoted only from LXX 4 Macch.6VTee S • ellTEiv. a:\JT661 Se 1reipeev ~CCVTov SeSooK6Tee Keel TOOV ~CCVTov 1TAefCTT<t> llhP<t> S1eveyt<6VTee O'VJ. &:1\A • ti<eivov els T~v -ri}v 1TpoeSp{eev KccAOVIJEV..lev Ta Toov v61Joov lt<eevoos t~eeO'l<{)creeVTee.la:6e{ees 1TEplovcr{ctt Keel . 139 eV-rovl'i": 'vigour'.l1TE1p6TCCTOS ~v · j3ovA.l1TEVecr6ee1 els TlJ. ETl Se Keel yA.a Ta:iiTee J.· 121-122 1raat -rp6-rrots: the plural is cited by LSJ only from Plato Phaedo 94d.le6ee.loov a:\JT6 Te 1TeeVTo{oos rn•IJEA{)crETeel Tiis TOV VOIJO<pVACCI<OS 1TPOXE1p{aeoos. av Keel 1TCxA1V TOVTOV Se{)crol. f!llOOV 1Tpoj3AT'\6e{s. 130-131 -rots &AAots 11a6ti11aaw: the reference is not clear. oov ivee IJT'\Sev ei1Too 1TAtov.. 12. 122 &-rreAa(a)et. 123 Ka-ra avvap1raYl'!v: 'precipitately'.l~IJCxTOOV o\Jx ijTTOV 11 Tiis TOOV v61Joov elST)creoos tJ.o1s ~v{oTE.lcpolTT'\TOOV lJEYt6e1 TE cpvcreoos Keel 0'1TovSfls e\JTov{Cft.oocrO'T'\S e\Jpofctt Keel 1TOAVJ. Keel TOiS Ilea· f!IJCXS j3eecr1AeVO'lV rn10'1<i}1TTE1 Ta 1TeepCC1TA{)crlee • llT'\Se yap iSo1 Tl TOlOVTOV TOAIJOOIJEVOV tVTa:Veee 6 1\AlOS.Tp61Toov XPT'\CTTOTT'\Tl • cruveA. rn{ TE Tois CXAAOlS TO CxVE1T{AT'\1TTOV exoov Keel Tiis TOOV A011TOOV J. olos oinos 6 1TpOOTOS 1Teep.le6ee yap Tovs lepovs f!IJOOV VOIJOVS olove{ T10'1 Aee1J1Tpois Sopvcp6po1s xpflcr6ee1 Tois A.6yo1s. I<CXV cp66:cro1 I<CCTCx TlVee cruveepm:xytiv 1Tpoj3AT'\6e{s. o\Jt< rnee1voo Ta 1TOAA6:. but it is known that at about the same time the emperor issued an edict regulating the faculty of philosophy.6J. 132 c!rrrpoae~(a: first in Arrian Epict.eaeat.leepTVp{ee TlS 1TPOs Tovs vCTTEpov • o\J J. 128 Seftaot: Sefta1J would be an easy emendation to restore Attic syntax.le6ee yfvecr6ee1. o\JSevee XPOVOV 11 Tp01TOV CxVSXOJ.eis Toov oA.lev olov SleeJ. 16. a sense not given in LSJ. aVT11<a:e1CTTee~vov Tc. 147 \rrrepa0'1TIz. intellect'. Tov a:\JT661 J. 133 rnl .lj3ee{ve1 llcx&ftJ. • AAA. 138 1ri\ela-rct>llh'Pct> seems not to be a classical usage.lftV &:AA' o\Jx T\KlCTTee Keel To Kp6:Tos f!J.> 6p6v<t> Tov a~lOAoyooTepov Keel KpefTTOVQS. Keel 1TeeVTa:xov 1reep • tl<e{ voov 00s j3eecr1A. -ro\rrov: 'in this field.IOANNES MAUROPOUS 65 125 180 185 140 145 Tp01T01S ~Kei6ev 6 TOlOVTOS c!rneAcx&ftaeTeel. olee Kav Tois &AA. 1rp01TOI11TeVea6at: both Hellenistic.llJEAOV~VOOV c!rnpoae~{eev 11 Keel O'l<eelOTT'\Tee o\JSev 1TeeVTEAOOS rnl TOV etiJCCTOS TOVTOV KCCT.oov 1Tpa:yiJCxTOOV \rrrepee0'1T{~ecr6ee{ TE Keel 1Tp01TOJ. post-classical. 127 1rpoxetplae(I)S: 'appointment'. Toov 1Teep' tl<e{VOlS To{vvv 1TAT'\J. earlier meanings are 'on an impulse. 5 Wilson . by deception'. 4.lftV s. 16 by LSJ.To IJEylCTTov 1TCxVToov .leecrlv. in the papyri 1rpoxetp1a116s is found instead. cnJJ.aE"Tat is the usual form. 6. tl<eivov els To V\f'OS TOV ~1"\AooTov To\/Tov 6p6vov 1TeepeeSex6J. Hellenistic.

Tov Se 1Tapa ToV'Tov •ov TV'lTov ~avTov els Tovs crvVTly6povs i\ Tovs Kai\ov!Jevovs Ta~ovi\i\ap{ovs 1Tapeve{petv TOAIJOOVTa 1-111Sev Ka6Cx1Ta~ KepSa{vetv ~K -rfis ~avTov 1Tp01TE'TEias. He is perhaps referring to rules for membership of the legal profession laid down in the Book of the Eparch. 164 &rr6AT)Ifltv: 'reputation'.:><peJ. 153 <ruiJ~OAatoypa<pc. rnel yap &rra~ ~l-lvtlcr6't11Jev CTVIJ~oi\atoypacpoov Kal CTVV11y6poov. Olov Se IJlKpov Kal Stecpvyev T)IJOS 1Tapei\66v. neglect'.OIJEV: 'decree'. 162 av<TT"fJIJaO't: 'profession'. a usage attested from the 4th century onwards.. Hellenistic. oos O:v 8< 'TOV 1Ta6eiv rntyv(i) IJ11KET1 Tf}v els Se\ipo Kpa'Tflcracrav rn-· aV'Tois &Stacpop{av. 157 eeo-rrfl. -rrapevelpetv: 'intrude'. 9e0'1T{~o1Jev ovv 'TCx 'Tois 1Tai\atois St11yopev1Jeva VOIJOlS 1Tepl 8<e{voov.pea~el V oohois 8< -riis epa0'\J'TCrrrtS oUt< 6KvovVTas crocptcrrtKfls • ov yap s. P11•optKf} v cpai11v O:v 'Tf}v 'TO 1Tt6avov &1Tt6avoos i\ Kal 1Tt6av00$ 'TO &1T{6avov KO'TOCTKeva~ovcrav 'T~ VTl v.o KOl voocpei\E<TTO'TOV O"lTOVSaCTIJO. 173--174 -rreptSpo!JfiS . decision formally communicated by an emperor. OOS 1TOV'TCX)(06ev i)IJiV c5:p•tov ei11 Kal KO'Ta 1-111Sev ~i\mes •o 1Tepl •ovs v61Jovs •oV. &vayKaiov ci>fl6111JEV Kal 'TO KO'T' 8<e{vovs EV 6ecr6a1.VX11s i\ 1Tep1- 152 In a document so carefully drafted the touch of informality is specious and incongruous. a document issued in the reign of Leo VI (886-912). &rrep i)S11 CT)(ESov aVTl IJTt yeypa!JIJEVOOV VOIJ{~ecr6at f) &xP11cria 1TE1T0{11KE. 171 &Stacpoplav: 'indifference. &i\i\ • aVets ~i6ev ~~oo6eicr6at IJETCx crcpoSp6TTlTOS. 167 T\rrrov: 'rescript'.v 8<e{V11v &Kp{~etav Toov v61Joov ~IJ1TOi\t­ TEVOIJEV11V c5:pTt Tois 1TpCxyiJOO"l.a 'Tf}v &pxatoTa-n. 159 6:){pT)afa: 'disuse'. "Ti}v IS{av Kal 1T6Atv exe•v loxvv. 156 Kotvc. a sense not found before Plutarch. 163 rnt!Jap-rupnaot: here 'gives a testimonial'. 1-111Se Scbp111Ja .~e~alcb0'01. &i\i\0: 1-111S • ~VTCx'T'Tecr6a1 1TpOTepov 'TOiS TOlOVTOlS O'VO'TfliJaCTl. Kal IJTt IJOVOV a\J'Tovs 1TCxV'TO 'Tp01TOV 8<'JToveiv Kal IJOv6CxVEl V rnl!JeAOOS •a •oov v61Joov 1Tapa •et> i\oytoo'Tc:X-r~ vo!Jocpvi\aKt. not classical. 1Tplv OV OVTOS aV'Tbs 0 StSaCTKai\os aV'Tois rnliJOpTVpflcrol.:>v: 'notaries'.to-ra-rov: Hellenistic.66 IOANNES MA UROPOUS 150 155 160 165 170 OIJOV Kal &crcp6Aetav 1Tpos 'TOVS tm.yi\cb'T'TTlS OIJO cpoovij Kal xe•pbs ypacpij . Kal Ti}v ~{voov \nroi\11\jJlV rn{ 'TE 'Tij TOOV VOIJOOV IJa6flO"el Kal 'Tij i\omij Se~lOTTlTl . &XA. post-classical. 168 Tal3oVAAaplovs: 'notaries'.

CTTTovsa~6(. 176 KCXT6p6c.lfl cp66vos T(.loo(. as in Chrysippus.o To{vvv TtiJ'iV S1avvo-6ev To KaT6p6oo(.lvVVOV. (.levov &El Kai Tl(.)V KaKOOV ernocrf3ecrol. not attested before the 6th century. Kal (JT)Sels cxVTO xp6vos. both words ar~ late in these meanings.le\la. rnt- . &:1\Aa S1a TEi\ovs hla(.la Tij Tov Kpd"TTovos xaplTl Sla(JEVOl lJExPl lTaVTQs -ri}v lTOAlTS{av O'E(. 0\i-rc.>j.la: 'virtuous action'.levov \rrro 1so Toov ~~fis yeveoov Kai SlKalOaVVT)V 6:tS1ov bnf3pa(3evov T(ij (3{'1'· 175 6:p1Taylla: 'the reward of intrigue'.llTol. 180 J3paf3e\iov: 'guaranteeing'.la.IOANNES MAUROPOUS 67 SpoiJfiS &plTay(. &AA • e1ra6i\ov CTTTovSfis Kal cpli\olTov{as Ta TOlcxiiTa WV (JOVOlS TOTS a~{OlS lTpoKE{(.

Paris 1926--8. s~ ye -r~ws hpvcpa: Ka:l. L. Westerink. much of which depends on Plutarch's De philosophorum placitis. On P. which in due course led him and his pupil John Italos into conflict with the church authorities (a special synod anathematised the belief in the Platonic theory of forms). in general see the article by E. N. 36-41. a large correspondence. When he temporarily fell from favour he entered a monastery. Meaat(I)VtKT') Bt~AtoefJKTJ. funeral orations on his distinguished contemporaries Cerularios the patriarch. who had adopted him and permitted his accession to the throne.MICHAEL PSELLOS (1018-96/7( ?)) Psellos spent most of his career in the service of the emperors. restored largely at his own suggestion. ·o Jl~v yap f3a:cnA£vs Ka:6E1CTT'f)KE1 cppovf}J. Kurtz-F. a set of short discussions of various topics in philosophy. ed.w) in the imperial university. 1TA'IiPTlS ~J. De omnifaria doctrina. Psellos was exceptionally versatile in his learning and the number of his writings is enormous.. Leichudes and Xiphilinos. Kriaras in Pauly-Wissowa. E. Chronographia: ed. Sewter. . 4-5 of K. a history of his own times full of gossip and intriguing sketches of important people and events. he was noted for his deep interest in Platonic ideas. the De omnifaria doctrina. . 25-9. A. ed. English translation by E. others in vols. first as an administrative official and later as a highly influential minister. Drexl. ~w s~ Michael V (1041-1042) trumped up accusations against the dowager empress Zoe. science and theology. Revolution (Chronographia 5. Sathas. perhaps better described as memoirs than as a formal history. by no means all have been correctly identified and printed. Athens 1875. with French translation. Utrecht 1948. Supp. For a time he was also professor of philosophy (liTrCXTO!i 'T(. E.-Band XI. R.ICX"TOS.11TO:CTO: TT6i\1S. Editions: many of the letters and other works are in the Scripta minora. She was sent into exile on the nearby island of Prinkipo. Milan 1936--41. but seems to have had no difficulty in returning to his former activities. Renauld. G. and he enjoyed considerable fame as a lecturer..)v cp1Aoa6cpc. Penguin books 1966. 43-5) XXV. The most important are: the Chronographia.

J3filla 'chancel' occurs in c. 20 At this date the imperial guard was composed of Varangians from Russia. &AA. Ta Se ~-rr{~oVTEs. ov TWV ~V TEAel. CiJ\A. ov TWV TOV j3T)J. . K<rrExElV f}SvvaVTO TCxS opyas. -rrepl TOV -rrpayiJ<rrOS ~j3vaaoS61JEVEV. who rose from low origins.JN)(CxS Kai oV!<: E){OVO'lV o-rrws O:v ~avTOVS &v<XKTftaalVTO. TE -rrpoiovaas Kal j3owaas TE Kal KO"ITTOIJEVaS Kal SelVOV CrnOAO<pVpOIJEVaS rnl TCfl -rr&ee1 Tf\S j3aal:h{Sos.JN)(&s. 40 (line 54) below. Ti hepo{ TlVES. 17 olKfS1ov: 'domestic'. 6 Vrre-rov66pvz. 16 Twv Tov J3ftllcrros: 'the clergy'. ws yap 1'} cpfliJT') &rraVTaxov (t'jv) "T'f\S -rrep\ -ri}v j3aalA{Sa KalVOTOIJ{as. 9 (?jv) add. Sf11JOcr{q.pxe-ro. ovS.-rrov "ITOTE" 4 KCXTcX Sathas: Kal TcX MS. Kal OVK t'jv T6:>Y "ITCxVTWV ovSels os o\Jxl Ta -rrpwTa 1-1ev V-rre-rov66pv~e Tfj y:hwTTtJ Kal Se1 v6Tepov Tfj KapS{q. a very rare adjective. as ovSels axpl TOTE Ti'\s yvvalKWV{TlSOS e~w TE6ecrral. Ka\voTollfcxs: 'news' or 'outrage'. -rrev6ovaav ijv opcxv 10 -ri}v n6AlV ~VIJ"Traaav· Kal WO'"ITEp rnl Tais ~OAals KlVf}O'EO'l TOV -rraVTos O'KV6pw-rra~ova1v ernaVTES TCxS I. 24 &VTtTVpavvfiaov: the compound is cited by LSJ only from Lydus De magistratibus 2.MICHAEL PSELLOS 69 -rrcxv ye~os Kal -r\Jxflv Kal. 11 Tov -rraVTos: 'the universe'. CxAACx lfaVTES K<rrae\JElV V"Tfep "T'f\S j3aal:h{Sos ~j3ov:hoVTo Tas I. K<rra IJEpf) TlVCx avyKlVEia6a1 Kal Sla5 TapchTea6al T. o\rrw ST} Kal ToTE -rrcxaav '¥V)(t.l<rrOS. 24ff. TCx IJeV TWV SelVWV V-rro1JEIJEVT)K6Tes.e: 'murmured in an undertone'. XXVI. Kal els SEVTepav 1'}!-lEpav ovSels TEWS rneixe -ri}v YAWTTaV. Psellos speaks as if the women of the lower classes led a restricted existence of the same kind as in classical Athens. Sathas. ovS. wO'lt'Ep :hv&{O'f)s cxV-rfj "Ti'\s OVIJ<pVOVS apiJOV{as. OO'OV ru{vov avyyevlKOV Kal olK{Slov· ot S' OQV rn\ TWV ~pyaO'Tf)p{wv Kai -rrpos IJeya:has TOAIJas -rrapEO'KEVCx~OVTO. TJAlK{av. Michael. found in the Odyssey and the Atticists. 7 lJ3vaaoS6~ev: 'brooded'.V Kcx-rft<pelCx TlS K<rrElAll<pEl SElvTJ Kal ernapaiJ\JeT')TOS 15 OVIJ<pop&. 20 :heyw Se Tovs mpl Tov Ta\ipov l:t<Veas.Sf) -rrov Kal -rrapEKEK{ VfiTO ws aVTlTVpavvfiaov TCfl TVpavvevaaVTl · To Se 25 &fl:hv yevos. at Se :homal Ma1v6:Swv S{Kf)V ~cpepoVTo Kal TCxyiJa ao ov Tl IJlKpov rnl TOY &XlTf}plOV avvecrniKeaav . is regarded as a usurper. To S • ayopaiov yevos Kal O:cpe-rov i.laxlKOV elw6aa1 -rrap<rrpE<pEl V o{ j3aO'lAEiS. Kal Tfj y:hwTTtJ Tov :heye1v ~S{Sov fuv6ep{av. &AAa -rrws &v ToiiTo Tois oV!<: elS6a1 v &cpf)yf)aa{IJfl v. tyw yovv -rroA:has ~wpOKelV. first used by Lucian. 1. OO'OV ~EVlKOV TE Kal OVIJJ.

. oUt< -jJj V E-n TO t<ooi\vaov ovSev.l{a 'VV)(ft TOOV TraVTOOV txoopT)ae . then 'antechamber'. 41 Kcm:a-rp<XTom:Sruovro: 'they marched'. apparently lexicis addendum. 0 Se TTOAVS oxi\os. Tt TOV ~lllfOVTOS yevovs SeaTT6TlS. 44 StT)YKcxAta!dvos: simply 'carried'. 52 11T1T6KpoTOS does not occur in classical prose.leV I<OATTOOaaj. 6 s~ poj. XXVII. tv xepoiv EXOVTES. &6p6ov S~ J'oi} TlS TtlliV TrpoaJ'O:i\i\el ooaTrep lTTTr6t<poTos t<al s •eae1ae Tos Toov Troi\i\oov 6 -?ixos 'VV)(O:s • ETTElTCx TlS -?jt<ev &yyei\i\oov. eyoo yovv TT)Vlt<aii'Ta Trpo TOOV J3aa1i\etoov ela'Ti}t<e1v eia6Soov. here the sense must be that he had the right of entry to special offices in the palace. ~vl avvef}j.Tt llOVT) t<al -ri} V 'VV)(ft V eVyEvftS t<al -ri} V llOpcpT) V eve1Sf}s.. noos S • apa t<al o SvayevT}s Tfls e\Jyevo\is I<OTETOAilT)O"E t<al TOao\iTov rn• tt<E{VT)V tv6VIlT)IlO 6n6aov ovSej. TOOV aSpOTepoov i\{6oov TOVs j. "Et<aaTOS yovv TOOV naVTOOV t<a600TTAlaTO. lTTElTO OA1J Tfls noi\eoos t<OT• aV'Tov avveO"Tpmvov Tij cp6:i\ayy1. &-rat<TOTEpov e6eov. 50 1Tpoeta6Sta: originally this meant 'ceremonies of entry to the royal palace'. 51 &ep6ov: 'suddenly'.lETat<SXE{plaTO t<al &i\i\os S6pv.lEVOl. 00s s . 22.lEV Trei\et<vv SlT)yt<aAlO"j. E-repos Se TO~OV j.. for the usage see LXX 2 Mace. Tr6ppoo6ev \rrroypallllOTeVOOV TCi'> J3aa1i\ei t<a\ apTl llEilVT)IlEVOS TCx Trpoe1a6S•a· t<a{ 1-lE elxev .. 48--49 1T6ppoo6ev: 'for some time past'. "TraVTOOV ftST) rnl -ri}v TVpaVVli<TlV avappayevToov \l'vxilv. -?is t<al 6 Tra-ri}p J3aa1i\evs t<al 6 tl<eivov cpvs t<al 6 ToiiTov aV&1s arroTEt<oov.IEVOI: 'putting into the folds of their clothing'. 46-47 KOA1TOOaC(J. 00s 6 SflllOS C'rnas rnl TOV J3aali\ea t<Et<{VT)TOl t<al ooamp vcp. To ll~v npooTa t<OTo !lEpos t<al ooaTrep t<OTo aVO"'TT)Ila rnl TOV lfOAej. 4. 0 j. . 40 ~tpos and aVO'TTl~a can both be used of. TOVS s.military units. 1Tpoa~&AAet Kurtz: 1Tpo~&AAet MS. a rare classical usage. 1TOV 1TOTE Tt llOVT) TOOV Traaoov tAeveepa. Tois ll~V ovv Troi\i\ois t<alVOTOil{a TlS &i\oyos To 33-35 Zoe was descended from Constantine VIII. 39-40 'against the tyrannous spirit of the emperor'. l~oo O"Too ypacpas -nvas Toov 1-lVO"Tlt<oo'TEpoov \rrrayopevoVTa.lT)V avve{i\ei<'Tal." TaVT• li\eyov t<al avve6eov oos tllTrpi}aovaal TO J3aa{i\ela. t!>o~cpafav: a heavy sword.70 MICHAEL PSELLOS 35 40 45 5o 55 J3oooaa1 .lcpa{av TlVO t<paSa{voov Tij xe•pi J3apva{ST)pov.laTl TTPOs -ri}v aV-ri}v YVOOj.lEVOS.lOV I<OTEO"'TpaTOlTESevoVTO. avvecrrpO:-n:vov Wilson: avvea-rpcrniyovv MS. Tov t<Aflpov Tfls J3aa1i\etas tvvollOOTOTa lxovaa. Aemilius 18. 45 ~apva{ST)pov: LSJ cite this only from Plut. Romanos II and Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus. 42 <XVTov Sathas: <XVToov MS..

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1rpCXTT6J,.lEvov ~So~ev, eyoo Se cvvels t~ c!>v 1rp6npov -ra !lSv ~oopCxl<e1v, -ra Se i}KT)K6e1v, oos els 1TVpKa:iav 6 O'iT'lv6T}p &ve<pAE)(&r} Ka:l Sei TI"OAAOOV TI"O'TCXIJOOV Ka:l rnl<p6pov 'TOV peVIJCX'TOS OOO'TE ernoaj3eaefiva:l, a:\rr{Ka: 'TOV i1T"1T"OV &va:j3as Sla IJEO"T)S {lelv -riis 60 n6:Aeoos KO:{ ye 'TOiS 6<p6cxAI.lOiS a:\rrois ~c..>pCxKelV 1repl OOV vVV ~TI"elO"{ 1.101 CxiJ<plO"j3T)'TeiV. XXVIII. "QO'iT'ep yap -r1vos ~l.lTI"a:v-res Kpeh-rovos l.lE'Teaxf'tK6ns lTVeVIJCX'TOS, OVK hl rnl 'TOOV 1rpo-repoov ~oopoov-ro -riis \IJVXTlS Ka:-ra:a-r6:aeoov, c!iJ\A • ot TE Sp61.101 a:V-r6?v IJCXVlKoo-repol Ka:l 65 xeipes tppc..>J.lEVEO"'Tepa:l, Ka:l 'TOOV 6<p6cxAIJOOV a:t j3o:Aa:l1TVpooSels TE Ka:l tv6oVO"lOOO"CXl, ot -re 'TOV O"OOIJCX'TOS -r6vo1 pc..>IJcxAeOO'Tepol, J,.lE-ra:ppv61.l{~ea6a:l Se 1rpos -ro eVO")(T)I.lovea-repov ;; J.lETa:-rf6ea6a:l 'TOOV j3oVAEVIJ6:-rc..>v ovSels 'TOOV TI"CxV'TOOV tj3ov:Ae-r6 ye, ft 'TOV CVIJj30VAeVOV'TOS oiiv. 70 XXIX . .66~a:v Se a:V-rois -ra 1rpoo-ra: rnl -ro yevos tKetvov xoopeiv Ka:l 'TOVS O"EIJVOVS tKe{voov oiKOVS KCX'TCXO"'Tpe<pelv Ka:l \rrrep6yKOVS, epyov -re eixov-ro, Ka:l 61.1ov 1rpoaej3a:AAOV, Ka:l 'TO ~VIJTI"CXV els eSa:<pOS Ka:-reppf}yvv-ro, Ka:l 'TOOV olKoSOI.lT)IJCrrOOV 'TCx 1.1ev rnlKEKCxAVTI"'TO, 'TCx S • CxVCXKEKCxAVTI"'TO • t(1re )Ka:AV1f-rov-ro 1.1ev 75 ~po<pa:l els yflv TI"f1t"'Tovaa:l, &veKa:AVTI"-rov-ro Se KpT)lTiSes yfl6ev ava:ppT)yvVIJeVCXl, OOO'iT'ep a:V-roov -riisyfls-ro cX)(6os &lTo<pop-rl~OI.lEVT)S Ka:l &1ToeP11t"'TOVO"T)S -rovs 6el.le:A{ovs · Ka:-rea-rpe<pov Se -ra TI"Aefoo ov xeipes f)J3oov-roov f} CxKIJCX~OV'TOOV &vSpoov, c!il\Aa Ka:l 1Je{pa:KeS Ka:l ei ••s hepa: &TE:AT)s f):A1Kfa: t~ ~a:-repov yevovs, &rr6:0"T)s Ka:-ra:O"Kevfls so &lToSlSOVO"T)S -ra:is 1rpoo-ra:1S e\JeVs rna:<pa:is • -ro Se S1a:ppa:yev ft KCX'TCXO"'Tpa:<pev 61.lcxAOOS 6 KCX'TCXO"'TpE\I)CXS &lfe<pop-r{~e-ro, Ka:l els &yopav 1rpoV-rf&r}, 1.11) S1a:l.l<p1j36:AAoov 1repl -rov TI"Ae{ovos.
60 Ka{ ye is scarcely found in the classical language; Denniston, The Greek particles, 157. 67-69 'no one whatever wanted to check their behaviour or dissuade them from their plans, nor would any of them have followed such advice'. The syntax is difficult and the text not quite certain. 74 The anomalous pluperfect forms may be due to Psellos' faulty Atticism. 75 yfj6ev: 'out of the ground'; in poetry and late prose. 76 c!rnocpopTtl;oJ.ltVT}s: 'unloading'; Hellenistic. But in 81 it means 'carry away'. 80 c!rnoStSoVO'T}S: 'yielding to'. 81-82 els &yopav: 'for sale'. 82 J.l~ ~q1...: 'without argument about the price'; the compound verb is occasionally found in patristic Greek. - In chapters 30-35 Psellos explains how the emperor was temporarily saved by one of his officers.

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nepl Tfjs TOV ox/l.ov &Trayooyfis iTPOs -n)v c:xVyovo-rav 9eoSoopav

XXXVI. ·o To{vvv Sfillos, oos 1..101 !I.Ei\EJ<Tal, KaTa Toii TVpavvevaaVTOS O'TCXO'lCxO'CXS Kal SeSlOOS J.li} TE &i\i\oos TCx r.pCxyJ.lCX5 TCX E~OVO'l, Kal TJ TVpaVVlKf) cx\rroii KaTlO"XVO'El XE{p, Kal ovSev Tl ;r/l.eov Toii 6opvl3ov yevi}aeTal, ~;re1Si) -n)v ;rpooTflV (3aali\{Sa lliiv o\Jx oT6s TE i'jv, TOV TVpCxVVOV TaVTflV iTpOKaTCXO"XOVTOS Kal oTov ~AAlJ.lEV{O'aVTOS, rnl -n)v &Sei\cpf)v TprnETal, oos Se\JTepov aTJ.la I3aa{i\e1ov, ov TapaxooSoos ovSe ovyKEXVJ.lEVOOS, CiAi\' eva 10 TOOV ;raTp~oov a\JTfj 6epan6VToov ooa;rep TlVCx o-rpOTflyov Tfjs eavToii ;rpoa--nlaas T6:~eoos, O:vSpa To 1..1ev yevos o\Jx ·Ei\i\T)va, To Se i'j6os Toii Kai\i\{o-rov yevovs, itpooiKcw Se To eTSos, Kal To ael3exaJ.11ov ~~ &pxatas e\JTVx{as KEKTflJ.levov, cp6:i\ay~1v oi\a•s cruv cpai\ayyexpXT) yevva{~ rnl Ti)v 9eoSoopav CrntJEl. 15 XXXVII. •H Se T't> &TrpoaSoKi}T~ KaTani\ayeiaa, TTJV TE ;rpooTflV ;reipav &vevSoTos SlaiJEJ.lEVtlKEl, Kal ~v Tois O:S\JTo1s eavTi)v KaTaaxoiiaa &vf)Koos iTpOS iTCXO'CXV SlCXJ.lEJ.lEvrlKEl cpoovf)v. &:1\AO: To ;roi\lTlKov o-rp6:TevJ.1a, O:iToyv6VTes ;rpbs Ti)v ;re16oo, Tf)v I3{av ~ ~EV cx\rrfj, Ka{ Tl VES O'iTCXO'CxJ.lEVOl ~Elp{Sla OOS cXVCXlpi)20 O'OVTES TaVTflV oopJ.lT)O'CXV, ehcx Sf) Kcxl TOAJ.li}O'CXVTES O:iToO'iTOOO'l 1..1ev Toii O:S\JTov, ~~exyova1 Se els TO \Frrcx16pov, Kcx{ Tlvcx TOOV ACXIJiTpOTepoov o-roi\oov rnevSvaa:VTES ~<p' i;r;rov TE Ka6{~oVO'l Kal ;rpbs TOV J.lEYCXV vaov Tfjs TOV 8eoii ~ocp{cxs KVKAOO'E ovyKlVOVJ.lEVOl ayova1 v. ~vniieev o\Jx it Toii SfJJ.loV J.lOVT) J.1Ep{s, O:i\i\0: Kal 25 it EKKplTOS ~VIJiTCXO'CX O'VVEiTl VEVEVKel Tfj eeoSoopc;x, KO:l iTCxVTES TOV TVpexvvov iTCxVTfl KaTOAlyoopf]aaVTes I'cxal/I.{Sa -n)v 8eoSoopav eV<pTlJ.l~ O'TOJ.laTl KaTOOVOJ.lCXO'CXV.
1 &-rrayc.>yfis: here 'approach', almost 'appeal'. 7 V.etv: i.e. obtain the support of. 13 TO ae~6:a~uov: 'respect'; Hellenistic. e\rrvx{as: 'noble ancestry'. 14 ~cxAayy6:pxu (a technical term of Hellenistic military writers) Sathas: ~&Aay~as 6Afl MS. 16 6:vivSoTos: 'without yielding'; Hellenistic. 19 rnfi~ev: a rare alternative in Attic for bn'Jyaye.

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Tiepl -rfis 'TOV (3aat:Mc.us Kal 'TOV 6dov cx\rrov c!rrrocpvyfls, Kal nepl Tiis cx\rroov b<-rvcpA.waews

XXXVIII. ·ns Se 'Toii'To tyvw"Ket o -rVpavvos, Se{aas J.l'l') &ep6ov rneAT}Av66ns cx\rrov "TTOV ~V 'TOiS &va'K'T6pots StCX)(Elp{aov'TOl, els VaVV 'TlVO 'TOOV (3aatAl'KOOV ~OV'TOV ~J.l(3t(3aaas 'Kal 'TOV 6eiov napaA.af3wv npbs 'TT)v lepav 'TOOV ~'TovS{ov 'KO'Ta{pet J,lovf)v, 'T6 n OXfiJ.la J.lE'Taj3cxA.wv l"Khov O')(f}J.la J.lE'TcxAOJ.l(3avet Kal np6acpvyos. a5 ws Se SflA.ov tyey6ve1 'Toii'To 'Tij TI6A.et, eOOVs aipE'Tat naaa 'l'V)(T) J.lExPl 'TOtrrOV TIE<p0(3T}J.lEVT} Kal cpp{'T'Tovaa · 'Kal ol J,leV O'OOO"Tpa 9e4' &vE'T{6ovv, ol Se &vev<pflJ.lOVV 'TT)v (3aatA.{Sa, 'TO s. oaov ST}J.lOOSes Kal &yopaiov xopovs n avv{O"Taaav Kal rnE'Tpay~­ Sovv 'Tois yeyov6atv, aV'T66ev 'TCx J.lEAT} "TTOlOVJ.levot· ot Se ye 40 nA.e{ovs rn• aV'Tov Si} 'TOV -rVpavvov Co<a6E"K'l"<t> Sp6J.l<t> avve6eov, WS 'KO'Ta'KO'f'OV'TES, WS acpa~OV'TES. XXXIX. Kal ot J,lev o\i-rws· ot Se nepl 'TT)v (3aatA.{Sa 9eoSwpav cppovpav 'Ttva m-• aV'Tov &cptaat Kal cppovpapx6v 'Ttva 'Toov yevva{wv, cp K&yw avvem6J.lT} v tyyVeev, cp{A.os 'Te oov ~e{ Vet>, Kal els 45 J3ovA.T)v CXJ.lO 'Kal npa~lV 'TOOV tyvwaJ,lEVWV "TTapcxAT}<p6ds· rnel Se TIPOs 'Tais mJAalS 'TOV vew tyey6velJ,lEV, hepav aV'To'KEAEVO"TOV opOOJ.lEV cppovpav, ST}J,lWST} cp&Aayya 'KV'KAoae 'TOV lepov TIEplElAT}cp6'Tas ol'KOV 'Kal J.lOVOVOV Stopv~al 'Toii'Tov WEAOV'TOS. oeev ovS. c!rrrpcXyJ.lWV TtJ.liV Ti TIPOs 'TOV vaov tyeVE'TO eiaoSos· OJ.lOV Se 'Kal 50 noA.v 'Tl nA.fl6os avveppUT}aav, 'TOV <XAt'TT}p{ov 'KO'Ta(3oooV'TES Kal naaav 'KO'T• aV'Tov cpwv'l')v acplEV'TES aO')(f}J.lOVa.
so
31-32 StCX)(Etp(aovrat: 'kill'; this sense is first found in Hellenistic writers. 33 The Stoudios monastery was one of the most important in the capital, housing a community of several hundred monks. It had been a centre of resistance against Iconoclasm, and for several centuries it ran a large scriptorium, which may have been responsible for the change from uncial to minuscule script c. 800. For a photograph of the impressive ruins see S. Vryonis, Byzantium into Europe, London 1967, plate 73. 34 1Tp6a!pvyOS: 'fugitive'; the word is Hellenistic. 38-39 rnnpayc;>Sovv: 'composed songs' (modern Greek TpayovSt 'song'). But at 77 it means 'bring disaster on'. 40 &Kaeb<T~: 'ungovernable'; Hellenistic. 41 KcrraK6'+'0VTES, acp&~oVTES Sathas: the MS. has -avres in both cases. 44 Psellos unfortunately does not relate the manoeuvres which led to his personal involvement in the following scenes; but evidently he was already regarded as a person of considerable influence.

rpC:>Tcx ~~v KCXTlJTlOO~Tlv T)pe~cx Tov voo~eAA.A-0: SetKvVVTCX Tl TOV rnlEll<OVS axti~CXTOS. XLI.e~oo~evov ~{ VOlS. 78 Tcx\rnJ Renauld: TOVTC¥ MS.jiCXTO • .roTe .repmcx6oos exoVTcx Kcxi ov .rp<Xy~CXTos· ehcx Sf} av'Me~6:­ ~evos -ri}v 'YVXTJV ~pcxa6:~11v Tfis TJ~ETepcxs ~ooiis.ravv Tl OVVeA11AV6etv rnlElKOOs. reecxa6:~11V c5:~cpoo TOO .s: 'speechless'.74 MICHAEL PSELLOS XL. &)(avt. .ots TE Sf} KCXi 5-n OVYKOl vooverv T'i> ~CXO'lAel etAeTO rni Tij Tfis ~CXO'lA{75 Sos KCXKooaet. 60 croos can mean 'trembling'.eA.cxVl<Etv· 52 o~ 'TTOVV Tt tm'with no very moderate feelings'. ~ETCX~E~A'Tl~evoo Kcxl TO axii~cx Kcxl Tf}v ~f}v KCXlKCXTlJO")(V~~evoo it'CXVTCrnCXO'l. e. 'deeply moved'. Kcxl c5:~cpoo Si} ~Ol &ireKptva0'611v.)s: ."YTlTOS.rnlO")(ElV so Se" cp11a{v . Hellenistic. KCXKov Ttvos . OOS o\/Te Tf}S rni TcxVT1J ~OVAflS TCi> cXVE\YlCi> ~OlVOOV110'EV OVT> aAAOOS .rpoexeTTo 65 Toov 6cp6cxA.rpos Tij Se~·~ TOV ~i}~CXTOS KlYKA{St ~O'TOOs rnolOV~'TlV TOV 10 6pflvov.In chapter 42 Psellos digresses for a moment on the misfortunes just alluded to. ~00 s~ .retTcx Kcxi cx\rrov Sf} Tov eiA-11cp6Tcx TO Kp6:Tos T)pooTTlCTcx o Tl Sft.rep S~ TV<pOOVl ~A116els cxVOS elO'Ti}KElV Kcxl Q:xcxvfts.rep Tl VOS EVSo6ev &vcxppve{a'lls TI"'lYiis.re.roA.. oos Se ~ eiSov c5:~cpoo .JTpel.ei ye ~ovA. 74-75 Tfls ~acnAISos Kurtz: ~acnA!St MS.f16os Kln<Aoae .roA.rA. 57 The nobilissimus (a title restricted to members of the imperial family) was the uncle who had saved him so far.v6os . EIK{. ev~ov s~ ovS > OTIOVV ixvos ~cpVACX~CX Tij 'Yvxij.r6:6os rneTpcxyci>STlCTE.raVT'Il acrre. St • f}v eiooee OV~~cx{ VEl V TcX KCXl VeX TcxVTCX Kcxl c5:To.~oov. ov yap i'jv rnl Tij ~CXO'lA{St &vaA.rcxpO: TiiS ~TlTPOs Kcxi Sea. 6 ~~V voo~eAA{CTl~OS.re~'TlS.r6TtSos TOlOVTOV ~Ke{V1J . TOV Se ye VOO~eAA{O'l~OV rnl TOV Se~lOV ~O'T111<6TCX ~epovs. TEAeVTooVTt Se ~o• Kcxl els aTEvcxy~ovs To .rep Si} Tl ves &f'lpes KCXTcxScx{acxa6cxt TOVTOVS ~~OVAOVTO. &:A. Teoos s~ KCxl cx\rros ov . To ~~v ovv elaeA-11A. 59 S~ is unexpected in this main clause and should perhaps be deleted.rpol.rcx· ehcx STJ ooa.rp6acpvye.r6:6os &it'ETeA-eVT11ae. TOV ~~V ~CXO'lAeVO'CXVTCX c::x\rrfls rnelA'Tl~~evov Tfis lepcxs TOV A.6yov Tpcx. . 70 'TTEpt"TTcx6oos: i.rpc)s TCi> lepc.fat~ov rn• &AA. OV 55 ~Tvos h&yxcxvev wv.reptO'TaVTes Too c5:vSpe ooa. . e.rov6oos . 64 OKaTaO')(ETOS: 'uncontrollable'.rwevos Tov . but perhaps Psellos intends 'horrified'. Hellenistic.> ~i}~CXTl yeyovoos.rpos Tf}v KcxtvoTo~{cxv ~ETcx~e~A. . SCXKpvoov povs &l<CXT6:0")(ETOS . 60 ooa. &XAO: KcX~~ ~PCX)(VS TlS hr> ~lVOV \rrreK{Vel 6v~6s· rnel S~ .rcxpcx.116e{11v.rp6s ~e a~cpoo OVVEA11A~v· KOyOO ~pCX)(V Tl ~ETCX~CX­ AOOV.

XLIV. ei1re-ro Se cxV-rct:> Kai 1TAT}6Vs 1TOA1TlKTJ Te Kai a-rpaTlOOTlKfl. elpi)oe-ral Se Kcrra llEpos TcxV-ra. perhaps 'holding conversation as if they were executioners'.: if the text is sound this means 'signalling that this was the moment'.e.oal TOVS 1rp6ocpvyas.T}v bncn{aa!. 6 JJETal.lcpfaatv: 'change of clothes'. el yap olos TE i'jv Opllf}V cxV-rov avaK6~al.6os ~oopcXKElOav ST}Il{oov A6yovs rnexoVTas Kai TOV &yoVTa TEeEaVTal 1rapaSe1KvVVTa Tl TOV Ka1pov Kai 1rapa To XLIII. 9-10 &){pt ToiTTov: i. hence perhaps 'evolution'. 3 1fOV Pantazidis: I. ~crro.ptov may be used of any form of initiation. 7 KaTa~tol: 'asks'.. 15 &pxa!i Sathas: E\Jxa!i MS. the formal act of adopting the monk's habit.IOV MS. "'HST} yap I<A•vovo'Tls f)I-\Epas !cp{a-rcrra{ TlS &ep6ov 15 TOOV apTl Tas apxas KAT}pOVIlEVOOV. et 2 -n'lv KecpW. 20 S1)11fwv A6yov!i br~oVTO!i is obscure. OVK av s. &StKO!i Sathas: ftSfKT) MS. Kai TTJV ye OKT}vf}V OTrE6aVIla~OV.MICHAEL PSELLOS 75 oliToo yap i'jv &Kcrraoxe-ros ov-t-os" (1rpbs ~ivov hna-rpacpels) "1TP0s 0 j3oVAT}6e{T} Kai !cp.. 20 oos TO TE 1TAi. 21 1rapaSefKW\ITa KTA. OVK &SlKOS 6 9e6s" o\rroos el1rc. aKT)vTJII: here 'scene' 11 xopefav: 'circular movement'. 8 11V<TT1'. Ked TEAovVTal &llcpoo Tiis 1-\ETallcplaoeoos To llVOTf}plOV · Kai f)OTT}V 01-\0V O'VVTETplllllEVOO Kai SelAlOOVTE Kai TT)v Tov ST]Ilov 1TEcpoi3Tlllevoo cpopav. cxV-rct:> yeveo6a1 K<rra~1oi. only so far.. et ·o llev oov vooj3eAAiolllOS TOlOVT'!' llE AOY'I' 'lille{6 Se TVpavvevoas f}ptlla Tf}v KE<paAT'}v rnloe{oas Kai llOYlS 1TOV Kai SCa<pvov Tci)V 6cp6aAilOOV rnacpe{s . Kai el1r~w ®61s Tiis aetas Tpa1Tt~TlS !Spa~crro · rnElTa Si) Kai TT) V TOV O")(TJ llaTOS iVVOilOOS llE"Tallcp{aol V rn. TO Se i'jv &pa 13pcxxv Tl 1TpOO{IllOV xe•p6voov TPay'!'SlOOV.Ka{ llE f) S{Kfl Toov 1TE1Tpaylltvoov 1r01vas s el01Tp6:TTe-ra1. 10 Ta Renauld: T~)\1 MS. 0 .:w . oos &lro Tiis eeoSoopas 1TpOOTETayllEVOV cxV-rct:> !cp· rnp6v TlVa T01TOV llETaoTi. which would signify his retirement from public life and perhaps preserve his life. eyoo llev oov 4JilflV &xP• 10 TOVTOV Ta TapCX)(OOST} 1Tpoj3T]oeo6al.&AA. hallOOTEp<j~: cpoovfj Tf}v e~oSov cxV-rois 1Tpo0TpE1Tev· ot St.: in classical Greek this might have been expressed by brtveVO'a!. &rrep OPilflOElEV. 1-\01 TO ytvos ~VIl1TaV adl<o1TTO Kai1TVpOs Kai 01ST]pov epyov iytve-ro. Kai Tf}v TOOV 1Tcx6T}IlcXTOOV xope{av i~ElTAT}TTOilT}V. Kai 1Tp001TEACcOaS Tct' j3f}ll<rrl 00 iKeiVOl K<rralTE<pEVyaOlV.

31 'TOO V :A6yoov Sathas: 'TOV . iv' oV.\6yov MS. 22 ~JCTai3<XA6vra Sathas: -!3aAJ. OOO"''TEpel avveftKas "'TOlOVIlEVOl. &"'TEATlAOilEVOlS rnlKovpt1croVTES • &AA.IVT)V: 'flock'. i'}v cS:pa ovSev 'TO f3o116fiaov lKe{VOlS. Sophocles cites this usage from Synesius only.v f3iav lAf}Av6ev· 00s Se 1TpOO"TcX~aVTOS xeipas rn' aVLOVs 'TO 1TAfl6os avrn1vav. Oll0Aoyfas Se 1Tapa •ov 1TAt16ovs 1TpoaelATl<p6'TES Kal •ois •ov &yoVTos opKOlS "'TlO"'t'EVO'aVTES. Kal 'TOOV &VE)(6VTOOV -rftv lepav 'TpCrne~av KlOVOOV lSpa~aVTO eva6eveO"Tepov • 6 Se 'TOV 6paaovs acpellEVOS rnlElKEO"TEpov aV'Tois 1Tpoaoo!l{Ael. ws oV.76 MICHAEL PSELLOS 25 so 85 40 45 i'}6os lle-t"O~cxA6VTa "'l'POS 'TO epaoVn:pov. . XLV.pes aV'Tovs 'TOOV lepoov &"JTeAaVVOV'TES. were blinded by the executioners. ll11Se 1Tpo0'1Tecpevy6•as 9e'i) lKei6ev &1TeAa6fl va1 1T1Kpoos • Kal oi ye "'TAe{ovs 1Tpos 'TO ru{voov 1TcXeos lSvaoo"JTft&r. Hellenistic. Ka6' lepoov 'TE OllvVS Kal "'TcXVTa A6yov Klvoov. after being almost lynched by the crowd.aav. Kal lvaVT1006f}aea6al llev •ij •ov Kalpov cpop~ 1TaVTernaa1v oln< h6i\ll110'av. Hellenistic. 42 'TOiS MS. 26 !3ap\nepos 'TOV Katpov: 'harsher than the circumstances warrant'. o\nc Sathas: ou-r• MS. Kal i1S11 Kal1TapaVOilEiV rnexefpT'lcrav. oos et. 36 1rpoaAt1Tapovvoes: 'begging fervently'. a rare alternative form of yoep6s. OtrrOO 'TOOV 1TpayllcXLOOV aVT11TEplO"TOVTOOV Kal "'TCXO'OV "JN)(f}V rn' lKe{VOVS lpe610'cXVTOOV. . 1TpocrAmapoVV'TES llf} ~eaeiv 'TOOV lA"'T{Soov.oos ei1Too. lv 'TOiS aSV'TOlS 'TV6T)aea6a1 llCXAAOV V-61-lEVOl. f) Vrra16po1 yeyov6'TES "'TOO'T')S alK{as -rvxeiv. OVK ecpacrav l~AeVO'E­ a6al. ru{vovs 'TE 'TOVL<t> 1Tape6eaav Kal aV'Tol avve{"'ToVTo 'TOiS. "TTOIJ. lVTeV6ev MiVOl "'TCXO'aV yo11pav a<plEV'TES cpoovf}v 1Tpos -rftv lepav 1TOfllV11V &"JTe~AE'J'OV. 35 yoT)pav: 'distressed'. : 'TOVTOtS Sathas.epos aV'Tois 6 1TE!l<p6els yevf}ae-ral 'TOV Kalpov • ol S' erna~ &"JToSelAlcXO'aVTES Kal "'TCXO'OV lK 'TOOV 1Tap6VTOOV OVIl<pOpav \rrro"'T'TEVO'OV'TES l~EKEKW­ <pElO'aV.e KaKov 'Tlvos "'TElpcx&f}aoVTal o\rre ~apV. 30 aiKICXS Renauld: hnetKelas MS. which must here refer to the monks who will have been watching the proceedings. 24 rua6evt<Ttllpov: 'more firmly•.Psellos goes on to narrate how the two victims. 28-29 ~~oocpetaav: 'remained deaf'. 'EVTEV6ev lKeivos 'Tf\S S1a 'TOOV A6yoov 1TE16ovs ernoyvovs rnl -n.ovra MS.

MICHAEL PSELLOS

77

The empress Zoe (ibid., 6. 64-7}

LXIV. • EKE{ V11 yvvcm<e{oov J,leV "'TaVTarracn V epyoov arre{xe-ro, o\i-re yap Cx-rpCOC'rCf> 1To-re -ras XEipas 1iox6i\T)crev, oV-re {cr-rovpyeiv rnej3cXi\i\e-ro, o\i-re &XJ...ov 'Tl VOs rnej3c:Xi\i\e-ro • Ka'TOOAlyoopel Se Kal j3acrli\e{oov t<cxi\i\OO"'TlCTJ.lOOV, el JJEV Kal ~V oopq; -rfis 5 &i<JJiis oVt< oTSa, 1TapT)KJ.laKVia S • ovv -ro qni\6-rlJ.lOV &rrav Kcx-rei\vcrev. "'TEpl -ro\i-ro Se J.lOVOV rn6vel Kal -rftv "JTCi:crav 1TpayJJa-re{av crvvhElVEV, -ras 'TOOV apooJ,lc:hoov <pVCTElS J,lE'Taj3aAAElV, Kal J.lVPE\J'EiV, -ra Se 1Ti\c:h-re1 v -re Kal 'TV"'Tovv, -ra S • &XA.oos ~pyc:X~ecr6a1, Kal 6 arrO'TE'TJ.lT)JJEVOS cx\rrfj o{KOS els ellvf}v ovS~v 'Tl CTEJ.lVO'TEpOS fiv 'TOOV 10 rnl -rfis ayopO:s ~pyaCT'TT)p{oov, ~cp· OOV at j3c:Xvavcrol 'TOOV -rexvoov Kal EJ.l"'TVpol -rftv ~VTSi\e1av E)(ovcr1· 1TVpa yovv 1Toi\i\a 1Tep•~ -rov SooJJa-r{ov aV-rfis V"'Tavft"'T'TE'To, Kal -roov CxJ.l<pl1T6i\oov ~KCxCT'TT) T) J,lev -ra J.ley~&r) 'TOOV &pooJ,lc:hoov S11JpEl, T) Se -ra\i-ra crvvrni\a-r-rev, T) s. &XA.o 'Tl -ro1oii-rov elpyc:X~e-ro · -rov J,lev ovv XElJ.lOOVOS ~S61<e1 -r1 15 1Tpos El<e{VflS etva1 -ra V"'TovpyovJJEva, Kal -ro 1Toi\v "'Tlip -rov \J'VXPOV El<e{VIJ &Spa Su'IJJE•J3e, 6epe{as Se OVCTT)S -rfis oopas, -rois J.lev &i\i\o•s J3apv -r1 Kal &yxov 1Tap1eva• Et<eicre ~S6t<el, r, Se ooCT"'Tep &va1cr&ti-roos -rov KaVJ.la-ros E)(ovcra V"'To "JToi\i\ois ~Sopv­ cpopei-ro 1TVpcrois • &i\i\6t<o-ros yap cx\rrij -re Kal -rfj &Sei\cpfj 1i 20 cpvcr•s ~S61<E1 · 6i\1yoopoos etxov Kal eV"JTvovcr-repov &epos, Kal olKTlJ.la-ros i\aJ.l1Tpo-repov, Kal AElJ.lOOVoov, Kal 1TapaSe{croov, Kal ovSev cx\rras 'TOOV 'TOlOVTOOV e6ei\yev, el Se evSov etev 'TOOV <hro-re-rZoe married three emperors, Romanus Argyrus (1028-1034), Michael the Paphlagonian (1034-1041) and Constantine Monomachus (1042-1056); for a short interlude before Constantine's reign she and her sister Theodora had governed the empire. Psellos, who had already given a description of her appearance (6. 6), adds a sketch of her character in old age. 2 f}ax,6Afl<nV: 'occupied'; in Attic this verb is rare, especially in the active voice. 5 cpti.chtJ.L0\1: obscure, perhaps 'worthwhile interests' (in the classical language it means 'ambition' in a bad sense, in the modern 'self-respect'). 7 J.LVPE'¥Eiv: 'to prepare perfumes'. 9 olKos: 'room', a usage from classical poetry. 10 ~avavaot Sathas: ~aaavot MS. 11 (J.LTIVpot Wilson: !J.Lm1ptot MS. (which would mean 'empyrean'). Tr')v ~VTtA!:tav fxovat: 'are performed', an unclassical periphrasis. 12 \rrravrrtrTETO: 'were lit'; the preposition in the compound seems to have no force. 16 Sn'JJ.LEI~E: 'changed'. 6epelas: 6eptvas would be expected. 17 ~apv Pantazidis: ~paxv MS. 19 TIVpaois: 'braziers'.

78
acppcxy{~ol,

MICHAEL PSELLOS

1-1111-lEVOOV cxV-rais oiK'IlllCx-roov, Kcxi fJ lleV TO xpvaoiiv j!>eVIlCX hnfJ Se -n'\v 6Sov StaKa6a{pot Tct'> j!>ev1-1aT1, ToiiTo 25 cxV-rais &VTi "'TCxO"T)S &'Tt"o'Aa&aeoos i'}v. LXV. TO: 1-1ev ovv OXA.a Tfjs TIPOOT'IlS j3cxat'A{8os ('Asyea6oo y6:p Tl TI'Aeov Tiepl aVTfjs, ~oos &v Tij aej3cxaTij cxV-roKp<X-roop avvava"'TaVTlTcxl) OV 'A{av E"'TCXlVEiv exoov, ~V TOVTO eavllCx~OOV StaTEAOO, oTl Sf} qn'Ao6etc;x 'Tt"exaas 1-1ev yvvaiKcxS, Ticxaav Se cpva1 v \rrrepej3a'Aso AE'TO appeva· OOO"'Tt"Ep yap ol avaKpa6EVTES StO: 6eoop{as 9eCi), !lCXAAOV Se ol Kcxi \rrrep TOVTO yeyov6TES Kcxi Cn<ptj3oos ev6e6:acxVTSS, Toii TE'Ae{ov 1-16vov ecpeToii E)(oVTcxl, K&Kei6ev 1joop11VTcxl, o\hoo Sf} Kcxi T~V TO "'TEpi TO 6eiov eepllOTaTOV aej3as Tct'> "'TpOOTCf> Ked Cn<pat<pveaTCx-r'f> cpooTi Cn<ptj3oos, tv • o\hoos eiTioo, avvEKepaaev · 85 ovSev yap chl llfl TO TOV eeoii OVOilCX StO: "'TCXVTOS rnl YAOOTTTlS EKE{VIJ. Tlepl TOV •A VTl<pOOVTlTOV

LXVI. •AllfAel TOl Kcxi Tov EKE{V11S, tv• o\hoos ei'Tt"Oll-11,
• l11aoiiv Stcxllopcpooaaaa &Kptj3eaTepov, Kcxi 'Acxll"'TpoTepq: vi\1J "'TOlK{i\aaa, lllKpoii Seiv Ell"'TVO'!V elpyexaaTo To eiK6vtallcx · rnearwa{veTO yap Tots XPOOilCXO"l TCx cxiTOVIlEVCX, Kcxi eSf)i\ov TCx llEAAOVTCX 1i xpot6:• "'TOAACx yoiiv EKE{V'Il eVTeiieev TOOV EO"OilEVCUV KCX'TEilCXVTEVETO. ei TE yovv Tl 6v1-1f\pes 'Tt"poaeyey6vel cxVrij, El TE Svaxepes Tl 'Tt"poae"'TE'Tt"TOOKEl, evevs a<plKVEiTO 'Tt"pos Ti)v eiK6vcx, 45 TCx lleV &v60ilOAOYOVIlEVTJ, TCx Se E~lAEOVIlEVTJ. eyoo yoiiv Eeeaa6:40

23-24 bnacppcxyll.;ot: 'sealed off' the flow of the golden stream. Psellos humorously treats the process as if it were alchemy (of which he was not ignorant himself). 27 "Tfj aej3aO""Tfj: 'his Augusta, empress', in fact his mistres!l Skleraina, for whom he was building a special palace. Her attractions are indicated by the fact that when she was first introduced to the court someone observed ov llii.IE01S, an apposite quotation from Iliad 3. 156-157. 28 Stcrt'EAoo Sathas: Sta TEA(;)s MS. 29 cpt11.o6etq; is the patristic word for 'piety'. 30 avaKpcx6tVTES: 'permeated by the Spirit Of, united with'; from the vocabulary of mysticism. 32 tcpe"Tov: 'desired object'. 37 The title of the new chapter means 'the icon which gave responses'. 39 Sta~opcpooaaaa: 'giving shape to'. Psellos may be trying to say 'having made an icon which represented her conception of Jesus'. 43 &v1..1fipes: 'pleasant', a word from epic and late prose. 45 av6o~o11.oyov~Vll= 'returning thanks'. Hellenistic.

MICHAEL PSELLOS

79

\.l11V aV-niv irOAAcXKlS rnl Svoxepeo-repoov 'KO:tpoov, v\iv !lev 'TTtV 6e{a:v O:y'Ka:At~O\.lEV11V elK6va: Ka:l KCX'Ta:6eoopovaa:v Tc:x\rrr)v, Ka:l oos ~\.l't'Vx~ Sta:Aeyo\.ltv,v Ka:l ('Ta) KCxAAto-ra: 'TOOV 6vo\.lerroov avve{povaa:v' v\iv Se rn. ~Sexcpovs 'KEl\.lEV11 V 'KO:l SOO<pvat \.le V 'T1'} V so yf) v ;rta:{ vovaa:v, 'TVirE'Tois Se ..a: o-repva: Sta:a;ra:pex....ovaa:v · Ka:l ftv \.leV ooxptCXKO'TO: iSot, cm"IJEl o-rvyvex~ovaa:, elSe ;rvpp6:~oV'Ta: Ka:l cpa:voTCx-n:l a:iyA1J KCX'TcxAO:\.lirO\.lEVOV, StiJyyeAAE 'TE a:\rriKa: ..c;; J'a:atAE'i 'TO irpCXy\.10: Ka:l ;rpoKc::rrf}yyetAE 'TO ~0'0\.lEVOV. LXVII. OlSa: \.lEV &va:yvovs A6yovs ~AA11Vl'l<ovs, oos 6 ava:;re\.l55 irO\.lEVOS els aepa: 'TOOV apc..>\.lCrrOOV &'T\.lOs CrnEAcxVVEl \.lEV 'TCx ;rov,pa ;rveV\.lCX'TO:, e;retaKp{vet Se Texis &rroKet\.ltva:ts \JAa:ts Tas Toov KpEl'T'TOVOOV ;ra:pova{a:s, o;rep 51) rn' aAAOlS Ka:l A{6ot Ka:l ;r6a:t Ka:l 'TEAE'Ta:l 'TCxS 6eocpa:v{a:s ~vSe{KvvV'Ta:t • oV..e Se ;rpooTov &va:yvovs ;rpoa,KCx\.l11V 'TOV A6yov, Ka:l \.lE'TCx 'TcxVTO: OVK epyots 60 irlO"'TEVO'O:S, &AAO: J3a:Aoov A{6ots erniJAO:O'O:. E'Ke{ V11 Se oV..e ~A­ A11Vl'KOO'TEpov ov'T' CXAAOOS ;reptepy6TEpov 'T1}v ;repl 'To 6eiov ~;ro{et 'Tl\.lTtV, c:XAAO: 'TOV 'TTlS 't'VXTlS ;r66ov rntSetKVV\.lEV,, Ka:l Ka:6oatovaa: Sec;> 'TOO V ;ra:p • f}\l'iv SoKovvToov &ya:eoov ..a: 'Tt\.llOO'Tepa: Ka:l O'E\.lVO'TEpa:.

His fame as a teacher (from a letter, ed. Sathas, op. cit., V 508)
~tO: &..t\.lex~ets

Ka:l

'TcxVTCx \.lOt Ka:l 'T1'}v KOl voov{a:v Ka:l 'T1'}v O'V\.lJ'{ooat v ;ra:pa:t'Tij, Tov A6yov, Ka:l KCX'Ta:cppoveis 'Tf)s ;ra:tSevaeoos, Ka:l

48 (-rO:) add. Sathas. 50 "TVTI'E'Tols: Hellenistic. 51 <TTV)'Val;ovaa: 'with a gloomy look'; a word from St. Mark 10. 22. 1ruppal;oVTa Kurtz: 1rupa MS.; the word is from St. Matthew 16. 2. 52 aiyA1J is not found in classical prose. 54 ~'llV\KOV!;: 'pagan'. 56 rnetaKp{vet: 'introduces instead'; common in patristic Greek. 57 om:p: 'the same effect'. A{6ot: 'precious stones'. 58 6eocpav{as: 'visions of God'. - Psellos does his best to avoid the suggestion that Zoe's dabbling in magic and the occult casts doubt on her orthodoxy; he was himself well versed in these pseudo-sciences, but may have been shy of admitting it in public. See further B. Tatakis, Histoire de la philosophie byzantine, Paris 1959, 169ff. 1 O"VIJ.j3{c,)atv: 'companionship'; Hellenistic.

80

MICHAEL PSELLOS

ovSev ere 'TWV ~IJOOV 6EAyetv SeSvVT)'Tal, ov axeSul:~ovcra yAooTra 'TOVS A6yovs, ov AE~lS ~ppv61JlO'lJEVT), ov 'TpOlTOS rntElKf}S, OVK 5 ?jeos cplAOO'Ocpov, ov 'TO 'Tt'E~OV 'Tiis YVOOIJT)S Kal vrrnov. Cil\Aa KEA'TOVS ~v Kal "Appa~as &Aoocr{IJOVS -ftiJiV lTrnotf}KaiJEv, Kal KcrralTEcpot'Tf}KaOl Kcrra M.Eos -ft!Jhepov K&K 'Tiis hepas i)lTefpov • Kal 6 1.1ev NeiAos -ri)v yfiv rnapSet 'Tois Alyvrrrfots, 'I'} Se ~IJfl yAooTra -ri)v ~{voov \JN)(T,v· Kav mJeoto 'TWV Tlepcroov, Kav 'TWV Al6t61roov, 10 ~povcrtv oos icracr( IJE Kal 'TE6av1J&Kacrt Kal 'Teef}paV'Tat. Kal wv Se 'TtS ~ 'TWV Ba~vAoovos 6ptoov 000'-re lTteiv 'TOOV ~IJOOV vaiJc:hoov &axhots 'Tais lTp06v1J{ats EAf}Av6e. Kal 'TO IJeV 'TOOV revoov AV){vov crocptas KcxAei, 'TO Se cpoocr'Tfipa 1rpocrovo1Ja~et, Kal &AAot &AAoos IJE 'Tois KaAA{O"Tots 6v61.1acrt StTJpftKacrt· O"U Se !JOt 1.16vos Tiis Avpas 15 O:vf}KOOS, ;; rnf}KOOS IJeV &AA' oV)( 'I'} Spvs lTPOs -niv ·opcptKT,v ~IJIJEAelOV, iva IJT)Sev lTAeov ~poo. 'TOO'Oii'T6v O'Ol 'TO lTEptov 'TOV O"Tacr{IJOV f}6ovs Kal Tiis ~E~TJKVlas \JNXfiS, iva IJfl Myoo TO Kcrra1TecppoVT)KOs 'Tiis lTatSevcreoos.

Pagan and Christian culture (Opera minora I 456)
Taii'Ta Se StT)pt61JTJ0"6:1JTJV 61.1ov 1.1ev VIJas els lTOAVIJa6etav S6~ats lTotov!JEvos ~V'Tpt(3eis. Kal olSa 00s ~v{ats ye 'TOV'Tc.>V aV'TllTEO'Ei'Tat 'TO -f}IJrnpa S6y1Jcrra. eyoo yap oV)( OOO'TE TOV'Tc.>v ~iva aV'TaAAa~acr6at ~O'lTOuSacra

&yoov, 61Jov Se Kal 'Tais v..AT)VtKais

3 SeSvVTJTat : the perfect tense has lost all temporal force. 5 TO m~ov KTi\.: 'prosaic and supine character', an ironic self-description if ever there was one. 6 The identity of these foreigners is a mystery, apart from John Italos. 8 rn6:pSet: 'irrigates'; Hellenistic. 11 Babylon may mean Baghdad. va1J6:Toov: the metaphor goes back to Plato Tim. 76e. 12 trpo6v1J(ats: this strange plural is found at Eur. Or. 708. 12-13 i\V)(vov, cpc.>O"Tiipa: both words mean 'luminary', and in this sense belong to Biblical and patristic Greek. 14 StTJp{JKaat: 'exalted' (not St1Jp{JKaat, as Sathas prints). 14---15 1.16vos KTi\.: compare the proverb ovos i\vpas &Kovoov (Diogenian 7. 33). 17 ~E~TJKV!as: 'established, firm', hence 'stubborn, unmoved'; patristic examples of this usage of the participle are cited in LexPatrGr. Psellos has been citing Plato to prove a philosophical point. 3 0\ITlmaeiTat: 'will be opposed to'.

. 11 KTia1J6cToov: 'created objects'. t<al XPfJaeo&. t<al A6yots SlcxAetcrll<OiS <pVO'lV t<al etalV rnl 'Tfis V1Tep <pVO'lV t<alVO'TOlJ{as 'TOOV Svo cpvaeoov 'TOV 9eov t<al av6poo1TOV AoyolJaxeiv Tietpoo~vots. S6ylJCXTa 'Tij op6oS6~<t> t<al t<a60A11<ij B<i<AT)a{~ TIEpl 10 'TOOV "VV)(OOV av6pooTI{voov t<al ovpavov t<al yfls t<al 'TOOV d:AAoov l<'TlO'lJcXTOOV avatSoos f) lJCXAAOV aae(3oos mlO'CxyOVO'l.EAAf)voov Se Svaae(3t. Tim. 1. Tots oAoos rntxetpovat vtav nvO: ~f)'TT)atv t<al StSaxf}v 'T4S appfJT<t>lVaapt<<t> olt<OVOlJ{~ 'TOV ~oo'Tfipos fllJOOV t<al 9eov rnaye1v t<al ~11-reiv oi<t> Tp6TI<t> a\rrbs 6 9ebs A6yos 'T4S &vepooTI{V<t> cpvpalJCXTl T\vOO'Tal. 7-8 xa\ xpf!aea6e MS. subsequently used by patristic writers.lev -ii-re TipoaKe{IJSVOl. 1182. this and other phrases below are drawn from the technical language that had been created to express the concepts of Christian theology. APPENDIX: some clauses from the decree of the synod condemning John Italos for his Platonism and heresy (edited by T. I. &XA. 420-3). 2 lvaapKC1l olxovo1Jiq:: 'incarnation'. t<al Om:l oihos T't> 6Vpa6ev f3e(3of)6T)'Tal.O: l-lft ~a{<t> AAA. regarded as a mixture or compound (cpvpoo). 319ff. oo{voov Se lJOVOV -n')v eiST)O'lV Exfl-rE. 10 Herakles had the help of Iolaos in fighting the Hydra and the crab (Apollodorus. Zapiski imperatorskago novorossiskago universiteta 69. Tois evaef3eiv lJeV rnayyeAAo~VOlS. Bibliotheca 2. Oxford 1929. Barocci 87: xa-raxpf!aeaee MS. Uspensky. gr. lv ols 1rp0s 'TC>V t<&pt<tvov StT)yoov{~E'To. &XA. 1893. 'TCx 'TOOV . el St 1T1J t<al O"V\1epyolev VlJiV TIPOs 'TC>V &A116ii A6yov StCXKtvSvvruovra. See further G. 6 Wilson . &v&eelJa.MICHAEL PSELLOS 81 s 1rp0s VlJCXs (l-latvo{lJflV yap O:v). the point of the analogy is presumably . aVCxeelJa. 4 cpvpaiJ<XTt: 'human frame'..flVlt<'t> AlTiav10 6e{fl1JSV l-lfls• oo0'1Tep 6 •Hpcxi<Afls aVlJlJOXOV 'TC>V •loAaov axo{fli-\SV. t<al -n')v TipoaAT)<p6eiaav a&pt<a t<CXTa T{va 5 Aoyov retooae. 166ff. 77-80). 14.that Herakles had found lolaos' help indispensable. 2. Paris. 6 ~V Tiepl 'Tfis OAT)6das A6yos aVaiJSlVcXTOO. Anna Comnena. &XA. 7 i\oyo1-1axetv: a word from II Ep. 2.• tva To\rrots l. Buckler.

&v6:6ej.oov 1Jv61Koov nAacriJ<hoov &cp • tOV'Toov Kai. 8. 19 7TAO:aw: 'creation'. Tots IJE'Ta 'TOO V &XA. 'Tals S6~a1s cxV-roov 'Tals IJCX'Ta{alS hroj. -ri}v Ka6• f}IJOs 'TTAcXO'lV IJE'TO'TTACrrrOVO'lV Kai. Kal. 'TEAOS rnl6EV'TOS ~~OVO'lOO"'TlKOOS Kal. npocpavoos Slaj36:AAoVcrl 'TO cxV-re~ovcr1ov 'Tov ST)IJlovpyov &no 'TOV IJfl OV'TOS ets 'TO elva1 napayay6V'Tos 'Ta naV'Ta Kal. Kal. ali6vrr6o-rcx-rov: 'possessing independent existence'. hepovs no'Te iJEv ACcep~ no'TE Se cpavepoos ~vayelV cxV-rais Kal. 'TaS nACX'TOOVlKaS 20 tSeas oos &A116eis sexo!Jivo1s. 15 tyl<et~vots: 'supporting vehemently'. cbs cxVevrr6CTTCX'Tov -rl}v VAT)V napa 'Toov tSeoov 1Jopcpovcr6a1 Aeyovcrl. 20 .livolS Kal. 1Jfl S1a naiSevcnv IJOVT)V 'Taii'Ta na1Sevoj. SeO"TTO'T\KOOS. Kal. o\Troos 1s cxV-rais oos 'TO ~e~a1ov ~ovcra1s ~e11Jevo1s.livo1s. cbs aAT)6ecn 'TTlCTTeVovcn. S1S6:aKE1v avevSolcXO"'T(a)S. avCceej. cbs nolT)'TOV nO:cr1 &pxilv Kal. &:1\Aa Kal. ooCTTe Kal. Tots 'Ta ~11 v1Ka Si) S1e~1ovcn IJcx&fJIJCX'Ta Kal.la.la.82 MICHAEL PSELLOS 7.

Tarretvov aeavTov Kai ~'!'} 1TappT')1 Sovi. 3 TEK-ralvovat: 'contrive'.1J : in classical Greek the aorist subjunctive would have been required for this prohibition. reprinted 1965. Although it is entitled Strategicon it is not a military handbook of the type found in the Corpus Tacticorum. Like most of the linguistic features annotated here.. the book has been called the vademecum of an aristocrat and country landowner. telling them how to conduct themselves not only as soldiers but in public and private life. 3. in classical Greek the middle voice is used. but a miscellany of advice addressed largely to his children. 1076---8. Lemerle in M~moires de I' Acad~mie royale de Belgique 64. St. this is a usage found in the modern language. Among many details with historical significance Cecaumenos twice lets slip (50. 2 xa&E'KcXO'TT\V: 'daily' has become a single word.ruets: 'you are in the service of'. Kai et !-LEv1TpWTOS c5:v6poo1TOS eT TOV j3aatAtoos. Moscow Synod gr. o\JK oTSas yap T{ o1T{aoo aov TEKTa{vovatv. . 1960. He is often believed to be identical with a distinguished general called Catacalon Cecaumenos. The advice given is often such as to justify the modern impression of the Byzantine character as devious and shifty. WassiliewskyV. 68) the revealing fact that the level of taxation led to widespread disaffection and revolt in the provinces.. See also P. one cause of the empire's fall is already visible. 436): B.CECAUMENOS (11th century) The author was a landowner in northern Greece who belonged to a family of Armenian origin. To judge from historical allusions the book was written c. 4 1TappT)atcXl. Et Se SovAe\Jets j3aatAei. From a linguistic point of view the text has the merit of showing the language at a turning point between the ancient and modern forms. Edition (from the unique MS. Petersburg 1896. 1Tp6aexe Kai -ri)v Staj3oAf)v aov &Kptj3ws Kai -ri)v il"Twa{v aov 1Tpo 6cp6cxA~wv aov Ka6eKCxCTT1"\V E)(e. Despite his statement that he did not have the traditional literary education (191) he usually writes clearly and on occasion is capable of a pithiness that raises him far above his sophisticated contemporaries. Jernstedt. Throughout the text there is one dominating principle: do not trust your neighbour.

23 npoaSoKEl shows the form of contraction that this verb had in the Ionic dialect. 10 6!-ltAeis: 'speak'. Kat -rov ~v i\eyov-ros Ka-racppovftcrovcrlv. el 6Ei\e1s. 23. ~ VrrOXOOPT}CTOV. 12-13 els ToiiTo: 'in this way'. 16 &vayy0. N. Kat cpvcrlKft crocp{a Virexpxe1 ~v a\rrois Kat Travovpy{a. Tiapoo-rov Se -ro 6~1ft. but elTa gives better sense. then 'tribute'. 20 Troi\i\ovs yap elSov KlvSvve\Jcrav-ras ~v -roV-ro1s. Trp6crexe. ei-re elpT}veVCTal ei-re Tr6:K"Ta Sovval VrrlCTXVOV~VOS. 1534. el Se K&t<eivos ~V erni\6-rr}-rl oo~{i\T}ereV. 22 n6:K-ra: originally 'terms. TIKVOV. 9 napatTov: 'give up. 14 eiTe: 'or'. though the lexica suggest 'acts unjustly'. rnei i\oylKO{ elCTlV OOS Kat crV. 4. 19 np6~eva: 'causing'.Aos TlS Travovpyos Spa~oov avayyei\1J -raV-ra. Latin pactum. See A. ]annaris. ei-re ~a Travovpyfas Kat cr-rpacpe\s Ka-rCX\f'Eltcre-ra{ crov oos crV 15 -raV-ra elTres. -ra e\n<a-racpp6VT}-r6: cro1 SoKovv-ra· -raV-ra ~Cxi\oov KlvSvvoov elcrt Trp6~va. Kal eiTrep ~~TreCT1J i\6yos S1a -rov J3acr1i\Ea f) -rl)v SeeTTro1vav. i\ai\ei yap 6 O:cppoov 00s Tra{~oov. !ao ytvc:xncoov: the participial periphrasis is extended from the indicative to the imperative. 6. as seen elsewhere in these extracts. -ro crVVOAOV ~T}Se CrnOKpl6iJS. stop'. . 11 Sta: 'about'. itpe~a -roV-ro Tro{T}crov Kat ~a Trp<ft67T}-ros. i\6:J3e 25 -raV-ra· Tri\i}v y{vooCTt<e o-r1 o\Jt< O:yaTroov ere -roV-ro TrOlei. the meaning 'address' is found as early as Polybius 4. 7. Troi\i\ovs yap els -roV-ro KlvSvvevcrav-ras elSov.1J: 'temporises' seems to be the meaning. el Se Kat Kalpos erna1-riJ TrappT}crlacr6fival. para. London 1897. ~exv cro1 6:Trocr-refi\1J 6 ~~ ~vav-r{as ~ev1a Kal Soopa. 29 eiTe: f). &:Ai\a J3ovi\6~evos S1' aV-roov &yopacroo -ro al~6: crov. CfAA. ecro YlVOOCTKOOV 8-n Tro6ev J3of}6e1av TrpocrSot<ei ehe J3ovi\e-ra1 crocp{cracr6a{ ere. An historical Greek grammar. agreement'. ~n Ka-racppoviJs "fOOV ~vav-r{oov OOS ~VlKOOV. ~n cp6ovft<71JS ~11Se ~VT}cnKat<ftCT1Js -r1vf • 6Seve1 yap 6 ~VT}CTlKat<OOV els 6ava-rov. 21 napaJ3tf36:l. Kat eVevv&tlCT'IJ S16-r1 ~eiere Trapevpe&r)s. crV Se &t<ovcras 7-8 6Sruet yap 6 Lemerle: 6 St yap MS. 'Eav ere TrapaJ31J36:~1J 6 ~apes 1') ~epav ~~ 1') ~epas. 27 levtKCOlv: 'foreigners'.1J: the subjunctive is intended as a future form. -rl)v Se ah{av rnt ere &va6{jcrovcn.84 CECAUMENOS 5 cna~11 • 1') yap S6~a Kat 1') TrappT}cr{a bncp66vovs TrOlei. CfA.eiv ~e-ra &-r6:K"Toov Kat Trp6crexe cm6-rav ~e-ra -roov ovv-rp6cpoov CTOV 6~1AeiS ii ~a CiJ\Aov "flv6s. 10 31.

!3o116f)ae1 ao1 S1a 'TT)v "Toov 1TOAAoov aoo. Kal S1aq>VACx~1J ae Kal !3of16f)O'e1 0'01 Ka'Ta 'TOOV ~VaV'T{oov. a Hellenistic usage. 48 iva with the subjunctive ba<61TT1JS ('remove.li) Se1A1Cx0'1JS. 47 laTt aTpov6fov Lemerle: aTpov6foov MS. 51 cSxpas: 'border territories'. as in the title of the Byzantine epic Digenes Akrites.a npoo'Tov "Tov Aaov aov Kal 'TO'TE 'Tf}v O'f)v. means 'border guard'. C:iJ\Aa "Toov noAAoov. 36 The reference to the Psalms cannot be traced. olov yeyovev ~v "Tais f)J.lCxA10"Ta Se els "Tas &Kpas.la{oov. Kal aV J.oTp{c..a J. T. Hellenistic and modern. O'OOO'lJS 'TOV Aa6v aov. 'T{S 6 1TapaJ.p{av.leV 'TO nav els "Tov 8eov &vcXeov Kal Svaoo1re1 aV'Tov 6Ao~oos Kal ~v 'Tij lS{ct: yij Kal ~v 'Tij &XA. editors have suggested the emendation cpvyoov. lS6V"TEs yap ae 6 Aa6s O'OV aO'KVA'TOV &va6apaf)O'OV0'1V O'VVE)(OVO'TlS cxV-roVs" Se1A{as Kal cp6!3ov. 1TAT)v Kal aV 'TO Ka6• 45 ~av'TOV no{e1 Kal &yoov{~ov Kal J.la· xoopls yap 8eov &SVVa'TOV ml O"Tpov6{ov &r)pe0aa1.." J. Tt'OAAal yap xoopa1 ac 'Ta\I'TflS 'Tfis al'T{as &Tt'ooAoV'To Kal oln< 6A{yo1 flV'TOJ.lv1'10'1JS J. Latinfossatum. yp6:cpe 'TCfl !3aa1Aei &vevSo1CxO"TOOS. 52 &vevSot&aTCA>S: 'without hesitation'. 9eov Tt'CxV'TOOS EO"Ta1 Soopf1J. 'encampment'. 40 'T{ yap 0'01 ocpeAOS ~av cp\lyus Kal &Tt'oAtCTrJs 'TO VAa6v.. Kal ~~yayov aV'Ta Ka"Ta 'TOOV •pooJ.l~S6v · cpflalv yap .J. 50 50.ltpas. and the sense is obscure. Kal el ov cpvp6ijs.lOAflaav els Eev.. as in the N.l6vov.ltvas. Tt'OAAOl yap J. rnl . el Se &Svv6:'Toos E)(e1s K6'J'a1 "TaV'Tas. 41 cpoa&Tov: 'army'.x WKTOS Kal f)J. &XA.&Tt'OOAE'TO cpvyeiv &Tr• ~J. this word has not survived to the present day.p{av J. ~av Se a\J Se1A1Cx0'1JS.CECAUMENOS 85 'T1 'TOOV &SoKf)"Toov ehc Kal lSoov J. 42 Svaoo"TTet: 'beg'. Kal 6 8eos lSoov ch1 ov cppoV'T{~E1S ao\i J..JiaAJ. 85 Tt'AflpOcpopfl&r)'T1 yap 8-r1 6 Se1A1CxO'aS ovSe cpvyeiv Svva"Ta1 Ka'Ta 'TOV I.lOV.lv6ovJ.lEvos Kal 6apaono1oov 'TOV Aa6v. c!a<pfTTJs. &XA. abolish') replaces the infinitive.ltpa1s 'ToO 31 &C'KVATOV: 'undisturbed'.lCiAAov ao cnfj61 yevva{oos napa6apcruvoov 'TOVs \rrro at..lflSev elS6'TES ecpvyov Kal &Tt'ooAeaav 'TO cpoa6:'Tov.lOO'{ov ei'TE napa 'TOOV TrpaK'T6poov rn1yeyev. ~av evpf)ae1s aS1K{as ei'TE napa 'TOV SflJ.li) Ka"TaTrtO'lJS· rnav St 'T1 Ka'TOp6000'E1S. 53 f6VTJ: 'barbarians'. 00<61T'T1JS aV'Tas. the usage is as early as Aristotle Politics 1324 b 10. [f)] TrCxV'TOOS Kal 'TO V Aaov Kal aeav"Tov npoaaTroAtae1s.. J. 35 1TATJpocpopf}6TJT1: 'be fully assured'.lEP1J.lOVOV. •Ena1VE'TOV St ~O'T1V iva els 1Taaav xoopav els ftv av 'TpaTrijS.li) 'TT)v af}v aoo.

op.s • Poo~av{as ~vp(oov t<at<oov t<al av~cpopoov 'TaV"T. See Lemerle. The name is best known from the formerly Georgian monastery on Athos. 55 Movothe emperor Constantine IX.86 CECAUMENOS 55 e\Jacf3eCTT&Tov f3aatAtoos 'TOV Movo~axov. 56 •JJ3flp(av: Georgia. 70-71. 61 1TaVOTpCXTEl: the lexica do not cite this word from any author before Origen. cit. ~o\rl} •JJ3f)poov. i'jv ya:p SetVO'Ta'TOS els 1l'CxV'Ta).V brnA11aav. a\rro~oAi. C. but one would not expect it to be a late formation. ot t<al ~~ayay6V"Tes aV"Tov 1l'aVCTTpa'TEl t<a'Ta 'Ti.aat 'To\rrovs 1l'avott<el1l'ape0'1<E\Jaac ao 1rp0s 'T~W f3acnAta 'Toov Tlepaoov. refers to events of 1044. ~axov: .asv. chreA6oov ya:p els ~lf311piav t<al Meao1l'O'Ta~(av 'Tij 1rpoCTT6:~1 a\rrov 6 :Upf3Aias avayp6:\Jiaa6at t<al trn6elvat "liA11 & ovSrno-n: elSov els "'l"ftv xoopav a\rroov ol tl<elac 6:v6poo1l'Ol (a t<al rno(.

a history written in encomiastic style by the daughter of the emperor Alexios I Comnenos (1081-1118). The period was crucial for the survival of Byzantium. Anna drops mysterious hints about the misfortunes of her own career. when in the absence of the emperor Heraclius hordes of enemies surrounded the capital. . the situation was much the same as it had been in 626. since she was able to accumulate the material for her history. 1-12). g. When the plot failed she was forced to retire to a convent. S. aepytVTtOS = serjeant). especially to Homer. It is the account of an empire almost in a state of collapse but saved by the energy and ability of an outstanding ruler. The language is artificial. See G. Anna's history gives a fine panorama of the medieval world at a time when Byzantium was still a power to be reckoned with. R. which seemed doomed to fall. Anna Comnena: a study. :h{~tos = liege. Despite a preoccupation with military affairs and theology. Penguin Books 1969. and evidence has now been found to suggest that she organised a kind of philosophical club. Edition: B. Paris 1937-46. A. A. London 1928. with French translation. the empire had to face a new threat. complicated and full of classical allusions. ProcCambPhilSoc 188. reprinted 1968. it is particularly valuable for its picture of the Crusaders. Browning. but Anna sometimes makes unexpected concessions to the vernacular (e. especially in some works which had not previously received much attention from the commentators (see R. Its main interest was in Aristotle.ANNA COMNENA (1083--c. Leib. in which her passion sometimes outruns her understanding. her husband the historian Nicephorus Bryennius would have become the new emperor. This evidently did not deprive her of social contacts. Buckler. and E. English translations by E. since apart from the traditional enemies. 1962. which though biassed serves as a corrective to Western accounts. We know from other sources that she took part in a plot to prevent her younger brother John from succeeding to the throne at their father's death in 1118. Dawes. and the power of the narrative is sufficient to carry the reader forward. Oxford 1929. invasion by the Normans and Crusaders. Sewter. Such a salon would seem to mark a reaction against the extravagant Platonism which had caused so much difficulty a generation earlier (see the introduction to Psellos above). the Seljuks and Pechenegs. 1153) One of the greatest works of Byzantine literature is the Alexiad.

lCxACX CXAAflV l'A6J. &~· ou s~: &n-o s~ TOU htpou. In the next sentence Anna states the principle of the balance of power.lcx 70VS 700V -rrcxpcx-rvx6noov OO<phovs 10 SleAOOV O'flJ. whereas &pyvp6T)Aa is taken from Homer.lflO'l TrOAlOpKOOV 7o:V-rrtv oln< ~veS{Sov.lEVol -rrpes 7ov (3cxa1A.ov cx\rrov IS{cxv -rrolf}O'fl7CXl.. Kcxi rni 7plai J.. &Ar. .. 6 Se -rrcxpcxxpfiJ. a Hellenistic word.1CXXOJ. but it is already clearly expressed in Demosthenes 23. KpeiTTov Atyovns f}yeta6cx1 SovA. TTpoao\fx Sovvcx1 xeipcxs. the Byzantine general Tatikios intervened as occasion offered. 10 0111-1alas: 'standards'. 8-9 Souvat xetpas: 'surrender'. Latin manus dare. A.-vxeiv. 2 ov yap cS:vrlKpvs l30116oov 7Ci' •A-rreA.llKpov ~ 7o:V-rrtS ~~pcxv Kcxl J. • tvcx 7ov J. Kcxl Kcx-ra J.. ~~ la-rrepcxs IJ. were fighting each other for control of the great city of Nicaea. 3 i'iv J. 16 &-rro!<poliOTJTat: the subject is now the emperor. 17 \rrro TOV i<VI<Aov: 'in the orbit of'.88 ANNA COMNENA 6. 3 hrl: Anna incorrectly uses the dative to express duration of time.11 Foreign policy (c. 6 •ATrEAXCXaftJ. which had been the basis of Byzantine diplomacy for centuries (the invention of the concept is sometimes ascribed to Cosimo de Medici at the peace of Lodi in 1464.v Kcxl Sva1v -rrep1op£~ovacx1. 1086) ·o Se TTpoaoV)( Se1vos 1JS7a Svva~oos.. KCXTaAcx(3oov rnOAlOpKEl -n')v N{KCXlCXV. KCXiiJ.l7ovno "'t'fls ~~ cx\rrov (3o116e£cxs .lft ovacxv V-rro 70V KVKA.lft ~Trl -rrhlov &nE){El V -rrpos 7ov TTpoaoV)( Svva~vo1 SlCXTrEJ.lSfl KCXTCXO"TCXO'CXV.1v ~~EAfl7CXl Kal -n')v 7eoos J. Kcx6cl>s 6 7Ci' TcxnK{'t' \Nl<"t'Qs TrpOO'eAflAv600s 767e ~. D. &XAa 7a "'t'fls (3ofl6e{cxs ~v-reVeev Kcx-ra 7ov vovv 7ov cx\rroKp6:-ropos els Kcx-r&Ava1v 70V •A-rre:Axcxa'liJ.1a~ea6cx1 f) 7Ci'.cx{oov &pxf)v TrACXTV7~pcxv -rrolf}O'fl20 70:1.~cx f.lEv yap (he ot 8po1 "'t'fls 7oov • Poo!J.xcxa'liJ.ov{cxs cxt Cx1J.1~voov ~epoov "'t'fls 7oov • PooJ.cx{oov f}ye!J.lTrEl.102).1evos -n')v 7oov •pooiJ.ovs J.lev &-rroKpoVO'fl7CXl. 12 'but this assistance according to the emperor's intention was due to turn to Apelchasim's disadvantage'. Setvbs (wv) was a more classical way of inserting the epithet. els O"TEVOV KOIJ. 20-21 TO .CXAAOV ~~ chov 70 700V TovpKOOV S6pv rnlKpCXTeO"Tepov yeyovev. o\Jx tv• rnlKpCXT~­ anpos Y~Vfl7CXl.lCX{CXS 7E KCXi O'KfiTr7pCX &pyvp6flACX rnlSovs els apooYJiv 7o\rrovs acrr~J.l <TTpcx-r1av e-rreJ.<p6npcxl 0'7fi'Acx1 i'iaav &vcx-ror. &cp • ov Se -n')v -rr6A.. Svo yap -rrpos &7\Af)A..J'CxJ..l loopCXK6ns Kcxl J.l -rrepltO"Tcx-ro.1cx{oov 15 f}yeJ.loV{CXS eSe1 7Ci' &a6eve<TT~P't' avv6ea6oo.1-rrev.ev cxt 7ov 1 Prosouch and Apelchasim. both enemies of the empire.li. oos flil:rr{~E'To.llSij 7a Kcx-r" cx\rrovs ot ~nbs Kcxl 5 cx\rros s.ovs cx\rrov 6voJ. ~v <TTevCi' Se KOJ. S6pu: 'the armed advance'.

lev ~0"1Tepa:s 70V •ASp{a:v-ros 1TOV"t'OV e&-ro optov.6~vos: 'having dealings with'. • o ye (3a:o-tAevs •AAe~lOS OJ.11: Great Britain. in classical poetry and late prose.leVOS S~ 70\1-rOtS ~<p • 1Ka:v6v. no more than &6-re.lEVf)S Ka:l 70: ~~ hepov J. 27-28 Tfis StCXKEKCXV~VT'\s: 'the torrid zone'. the description of the 1JEYcxA61JNX. 3 avvt')A. !s 700"0\i-rov o-vvt)Aa:O"EV ws Ka:l f3a:o-tAEa: cx\rrov KCX70VOJ.lO:ll<WV O"Kf)1T7poov. ~ Se Tiis &va:-roAfls E~cppO-rf)v Ka:l T£ypf)7CX. 35 1t'Eptopxov~vos: 'rotating'. Ka:l O::v ets -rf)v 1rpo7epa:v e~Sa:tJ.lEVOVS f3a:pf3apovs KO:l Ka:6anep CrnO l<Ev-rpov Tiis Bv~a:v35 7£Sos 1Teptopxovl.. 4 A.lcp6-repa: 40 6 cx\rroKpO-roop J.la: 70 86petov.la:{oov (3a:o-tAe£a:s 7o Kp<hos.la:O"tv &v6poo1roov Aa:cpv~a:t ll.ANNA COMNENA 89 ·HpCXI<Aeovs ovoJ. 40 IJEYcxAOt<lvSvvos: LSJ cites this and the following compound (as a variant reading) only from Aristotle's Ethics 1124 b 7-8. a Turkic tribe living in south Russia.leycxAoK£vSvv6s -re Ka:l 1TVKVOK£vSvvos) 700-rov CrnEO""t'f)O"O:V 70V 6_pl. 2 The emperor plans to crush a rebellion (A.D.lf)J.OS· Anna's application of the words to her revered father is a deliberate and very learned allusion.la:~6J.la:-ros. el J. 1084) ~VI. ~~ ~oo s~ a:t &yxov 1rov tcrraJ. CiAA. 1 The Comans.levoo. f360"1<Et 70 l<A{J. ~ Se Tiis ~0"1Tepa:s of) •ASpta:vov Ka:6£crra:-ro 1r6~ts.leva:t 7ov 25 •JvStKov 1repa:-ros a:t 7ov fltowo-ov.l<p07Ep0:1S 000"1TEp 1TO:{oov xepo-l 70Vs ~a:-repoo&v rnt716sl. CiAA.lEvos .~pvve-ro 7ov 'l<VJ<Aov 7flS (3a:o-tAe!a:s Ka:l ~ J.la~etv f}Sf). 28 SovA..lOV{a:v -rf}v f3a:O"tAe{a:v aveveooo-a:-ro. 30 rn• lt<elv(j) ye &oii Katpoii: an elaboration of various classical idioms.aaev: 'he acquired influence'.lO:V011Tpos -rf)v tS{a:v ern1Jeo-a:v xoopa:v.l1TO:pa:Aa:f36v-res Se 700-rov ot K61. .lEtp61-\EVOt Ka:l Kpewv &v6poo1re£oov 25 The pillars of Dionysus were mountains in India marking the limit of the god's progress in that country. ol S~ a:tl.lf) ye ol rnaAAf)AOl &ywves Ka:l ot 1TV1<vol 1r6vo1 Ka:lK!vSvvot (fiv yap Ka:l &l. support an impostor claiming to be the son of the late emperor. Ka:-ra yap 1TA<hos oVl< ecrrtv el1reiv oo-ov fiv Tiis 7wv •pooJ. rn• M{V<f> ye 70V l<O:tpov ~1< J. 2 avvcxvA.. Hellenistic. Aiyvn-ros Ka:l Mep6fl Ka:l T pooyAoSV"Tt1<1) 1Tao-a: Ka:l 7Cx tyyVeev Tiis StCXKeKO:VJ. 10.tl.l~V ava:-roAflS 6 yehoov 860"1Topos optov 7WV •pOOJ. O"VVO:VAl~OI. oTs l<CX7Cx Kopvcpf)v 6 30 86petos tcrra:-ra:t 1TOAOS.acpv~at: 'gulp'.lEpovs of) 1Tept6pvAAf170S 9ovAf1 Ka:l 00"0: eev.

he wrote on one an affirmative answer to his question.. 10 ~v6ev TOl Kai TaS Svval. To{wv aV-ros ~avTctS Tt'laTEUElV OVK etxev OVTs l. 13 KaTooxvpiliaaTo is cited by LS J only from Paul of Aegina (7th cent. 4.. 24 i!'VKTiots: here 'sheets of paper (or parchment)'.'i' Toii-rov tyl<cx6tSpvaat 6p6v'i'..lEScrrriis rntovva~al.la Kai ~~ &yxtcrre{as aV-rii> Trpoaf!KoVTas ovvayaycbv.lEVTJS KaTa To Trep{opepov eiaetO"l\1 6 Te&tKOOs Kai avcxAal.la~ETo. in the air'... To so ~vS6atl.e{av Tt'OAAftV ~ Ti..lT]V6:1.lEYcXATJV ~T]O"{av ~CTTrepas cpotT~.).. Totyapovv &rravras l. 12 lStwTts: here 'unlearned'. TTO:-rpol<Aov aipTJK6ns Toii-rov Trp6cpaaw KaTa Tiis "Pool....90 ANNA COMNENA 5 ~l.e AOYlO"I... el XPTt KaT• aV-rwv ~~tevat ~~ovAevETo. 302. Tolvvv Reifferscheid: Cxtn:tpy6VToov MSS.l6:vovs l. reading should be kept here. Katpov Se TrapeAT]Av66TOS rnei TO Tlap{crrptov Tous Kol.l<pOpT]6f}Vat Kai i..... Kai aV-rov s..lOV ovv ~i6ev ooaTrEp b<:: 6e{as Ol.levos Tov tepaTtKov Kai crrpaTtooTtKov KaTcxA6yov els Tf}v TOV eeov l. &rrep l<Aetaovpas TJ lStOOTlS olSe yAooTTa KaAeiV.lTJ.. with a change to il'Cx\IT00\1 in the previous line. cp66:aas T. TOV Tt'aTptapxov NtKOAaov Tt'ap6vros..lO:x'llv TJTOtl. But since Tolvvv is so rarely placed first in a sentence perhaps the MS. OOS ~cpaiJEV. a usage of the Atticists..lEI. 20 &i\Aa TO Trav TctS SectS 6:vcx6e1JEVOS ~~ ~{vov Tf}v Kp{atv 'ljTEiTo. 4. 8 c!rrratoopov~\ITl\1: 'in suspense. Hellenistic.lETaKai. .lOiS xpflaaa6at.ea6:1.la{oov Tt'OVO'TpaTl~ xoopfiaat ~~OVAeVOVTO. 11 "'i~1T11: 'valleys'.lV'i'S{as TEAOVI. TravvV)(ov Se Tfis Vl.l<pfis 6 mrroKpchoop 5 hnavva~at is 6 Anna works in an allusion to Iliad 19. 18 6:-rreipyov.lETa Tov 'J'EVSoowl..ST] KaTOOXVPOOO"aTO. Kai c!rnatoopovl.lEVOS TctS Kopvcpa{'i' TrCxVToov TrapEKEAevaaTo KaTcx6ea6at els Tf}v tepav Tp6:Tt'e~av. ~VO"T]I. ~V Svai Se Tt'VKT{OlS Tf}v rnpOOTf)O"l\1 Trepi TOV el Sei 25 ~~EAT]Av66Ta TOiS Kol.. 00s Sfi6ev TctS Tt'aTpq.lElS 00s SVVaTOV ~~OOTt'Al~E TE Kai Trpos TftV Twv j3ap~6:poov l.l6:V01S rnteEa6at f) l.lov KaTcxAaj3eiv l.l~aVETal TOV xapTf)V Kai ~~ayayoov Kai Avaas ~vcbTrtov Tr6:vroov VTt"avey{ vooaKe...laTOS cpepoVTas Kai aV-rous Sf} Tous Kcx6• all..The same means of reaching a decision in difficult circumstances are mentioned at another time of crisis in Alexiad 15..lTt'TJ. Travres Se TrPOs TOVTO aV-rov erneipyov.. Ta yap TEI. naplaTptov: 'the Danube district'.. 30 bS6al~ov: 'signal'. 15 Tovs Ta TrpooTa Tov crrpaTtooTtKov ovVT6:yl.lEVTJV eixov Teoos TavTTJVi Tf}v j3ovAf!v· o\n< ~aee Taii-ra Tov mrroKpchopa.lft\1 Tois olKe{ots t..eei.. Anna's definition by means of the ordinary spoken word shows that she really meant 'mountain passes'..S TJI.la6f!Kot.

avVaTCXKTOS: 'vigilant'. 'Scythian' is a very imprecise term. D.ooaa~vov: the form is Ionic in origin. 45 (see Headlam's commentary). ernaVTES !lSv ovv ol TOTE 1Tap6VTES trray. OvVO'"t'aKTOS yap oov 6 Sov~ ~vppax£ov.1rpos cS:p1crrov" Eq>TJ . 1107) ·o Ss J3aa1:Ae\Js.ANNA COMNENA 91 :AaJ3oov o:Aos tyey6ve1 Tiis b<crrpcrrdas Kal SlCx ypaq>oov ernaVTax66ev ava<cxAEiTO TO crrpO:Tevlla. . To 1rapov TpCX1Toolleea • Ta Se ye KaTa Tov BaillOVVTov aVe1s KaTaaKS'¥61le6a". h1 els -rl}v J3aa1:Aruovaav ~vS1aTp£!3oov. Prince of Antioch and a continuous source of danger to the empire. os rnavl6VTa TOV cxVTOKpa10 Topa Tov KVVT)yea{ov KaTcxAaJ3oov. 14 &TrovapKi}aaVTES: LSJ cite this word only from Plutarch. throw down'. oirrrep El<acrros E-rvxe. 5 S!crrrl. 9 Bohemond's invasion announced (A. (ToiiTo) Sf} TO Tov :A6yov. Bohemond. Kal1rpos llOVT)V -rl}v Tov BaillOVVTov K:Afia•v chrovapKftaaVTEs. 1 els TflV ~aa\f. the word is Herodotean and originally meant 'dash against the ground. Latin dux.ruovaav: 'in the imperial city'. 7-8 ~Kii&T}v \nr6-rt-npov: this messenger described with the highly poetic epithet may have belonged to any nation living north of the empire. was brought. 15 The emperor's calm recalls the story of Sir Francis Drake playing bowls when news of the Spanish Armada. llTJ S1Sovs To 1rc:XpcX-rrav \hrvov Tois 5 6q>6cxAilOiS. Reifferscheid. 2 SoVKos: 'military commander'. 8 (Toirro) add. o Ss cx\noKpchoop. ~KVeT')V llETCX1TEil'¥CxllEVOS \rrr61TTepov. :Avoov Tov lll6:VTa Tov \rrroSftllaTOS . 3 S1crrrepalooa\V: this word for 'crossing' is late. llEila&r}KOOs SlCx ypaq>oov Tov SoVJ<es ~vppax£ov -rl}v Tov BatllOVVTOV SlCX1TEpa{ooalV rnETCx)(vve -rl}v ~~E:Aevaw. had sailed from Bari to A vlona. a word much used by patristic authors. Spo1-1aios elae:A6oov Kal 1TpoaovS{aas -rl}v Keq>cx:Aftv. The title had originally been applied to Rome. 1rpos Tov cx\noKpchopa -rl}v TOVTOV Sla1TEpa{ooalV ~Sft:Aov. 1TATtPTJS 6v1-1ov Kal 15 q>povftllaTOS wv. 12. 11 TrpoaovSiaas: 'bowing'. TTJV TOV BaillOVVTOV S1a1TEpa£ooa1v Tpavoos ~J36a. els is here in its modern sense. but the earliest example seems to be Herodas 2.aav. 'As the saying goes' was a favourite expression of the Atticists. tradition has it that he remarked 'There's plenty of time to win this game and thrash the Spaniards too'. 01TT'\V{Ka S1tyvoo SlCX1TAooaallevov TOV Ba\llOVVTov 1rapa Ttiv Tov •1A:Avp1Kov 1reS16:Sa Kal Tiis VT)Os chroJ3ei3TJK6Ta Kal cx\n661 1TOV 1TT'\~CxllEVOV xapaKa.

9 mptE1rr1CTil~VOS: 'slender'.11v e~1v -rov O'OOilCX"rOS o\he iTEp1E1T710'~VOS o<he iTEp1(3p166jlEVOS -rais aap~fv. -rl}v yarnpa avveO'TaA~vos t<al -ras r. Kovp(as: 'shaved'. 4. &AA • ov 1-1ev oov llfxp1 -roov j.la 6vj.:> j. 13 mptepyal. 10 A portrait of Bohemond ''Hv Se -ro1oiiTos 6 cnn)p otos. wot<a<Vcpoos se !lE-rpfoos -r4l &t<p1J3oos aV-rov iTEp1epyasolltv'tl ~cpafve-ro.:>v.le-rpfoos ac yeve-rfls. New York 1957. a word known from Lucian. 1TEptJ3pt60ilEVOS is quoted by LSJ from Hellenistic poets only.oov -r1 iTEiTov66-roov -rfls 15 pCx)(eoos. ouSels t<cx-r' aceiVOV oocpSr} ~V -rfj 700V •pc.92 ANNA COMNENA 18.lOV t<al ~llJ3pf6e1aV VTrOO'TtllOiVOV. 23 ~llJ3pl6etav: 'dignity'. oos lo1KE. 70 (3AEilllO YAavt<OV t<al aj.le-racppevoov atoopov!lev.11iv: 'stature'.. ov -roov voo-r1afoov O'iTovSvr.:>jla{c.ev6epov rnve1 70V 5 &va6po1. as at Philostratus.la AEV1<6-rcx-ros. See E. De saltatione 75. t<al f) pis a\J-r4lt<al 6 llVl<"T'llp v. 65ff. &Aha t<ovpfas 20 fiv llfxP1 -roov oo-rc. 00s ~v J3pcxxei llev ehreiv. Heroicus 3. as seen in his Doryphoros. .ay6vas.:>V yfj o\he (3ap(3apos o\he "EAA11v· 66:1lJ30S yap fjv ocp6aAilWV 6poollEVOS t<al q>Ttll1~61lEVOS El<TrA11~1s. oUt< S){c. 6 liTrepeA<xVvetv: 'exceed'.. &AA> o\i-rc.:> Aeyl:1v · 6 ~POs yap rne~A6ev aV-ro t<al -r1-ravov 1Tav-ros &t<p1(3eO'Tepov • ~S61<e1 S • oov et va1 t<al -roiiTo 1TVpa6v. 19 hptxo1-16:vet: lexicis addendum. t<cx-ra ll~pos Se \nroyp6:'lJa1 -ro -rov j3apJ3apov etSos. Panofsky. 10-11 Polyclitus' canon. a fairly common word in patristic Greek. t<cx-ra -rovs &Ahovs J3apJ36:povs· ov yap hp1xoll6:ve1 6 &v{Jp. but as a proverbial notion of fine proportions it was probably known to Anna from Lucian. 5 -ro16aSe llai<POs fiv -rl}v &vaSpOilfJV -rov O'OOilCX"rOS wa-re ets iTflXVV eva ll11<pOV 70VS llal<p07cXTO\JS \nrepeAaVVE1V. a very rare and late word. 22 TtT6:vov: here apparently 'marble'. 10 aAA' OOS ap1a-ra t<e~<pajlEVOS t<al o{ov et1Teiv I<CX"rCx -rov noAVI<Aef7E10V t<av6va ~VTIPilOO'~VOS • -ras XEipas &Spes t<al -roov iTOSoov -ras J3aae1s a-reppos t<al -rov a\Jxeva t<al -ra 1-1e-r6:cppeva e\JiTay{Js. t<al -rl}v or. -ro Se yeve1ov ehe 1TVpaov ehe CXAAa -r1 XPWila etxev. t<al -rovs oojlovs t<al -ra a-repva 1TAa-rVs t<al -rovs J3pcxxfovas t<apTEp6s. -rl}v S1CrnA00'1V lO"XTti<E· -ro XPWila t<cx-ra -ro &Aho llev aooj. Meaning in the visual arts. had no practical influence on Byzantine aesthetics. 15 SterrrAaatv seems to be found first in Galen. -ro Se iTpooooTiov 1-1e-ra -rov Aevt<ov ~paoiiTo. t<al f) t<61l11 \nr6~aveos.o~VCfl: 'looking at'. without any of the pejorative overtones that the word had in antiquity.

D. word coming from Maccabees 2. SoKei ~o1. Tt yap cpvats Ste~6Sovs ~SeSooKEt Sta -roov p1 voov -rov cbro Tfis KapS£as TiacpAa~ov-ros Tivev~crros.lj3pll. ~VTaiiea 25 avVTly6pet: perhaps 'assisted'. The acropolis was the rising ground used as the centre of the original Megarian settlement of Byzantium. 7 Alexios' charitable foundation (A. which will not do here. vaov ~<pEVPT'll<OOs ~eyEeet ~Eyla&OV rn• 6v6~CXT1 -rov ~CxAOV -roov arrOCTT6Aoov TiaVAOV. 33 t<opvaaea&at: 'rear its head'. 1116) 4 "Ev yap -rots 1Tpos -nlv &Kp61TOA1V ~peatv. 32 ~l. originally of waves. 37 6:rreptSp6:t<-rov~: 'slippery'. 1-2 a-r61.1a n6vrov (Leib wrongly prints Tr6v-rov) is Thucydides' description of the site of Chalcedon opposite Byzantium (4. -ro Se cpp6VT'}~a cx\rrct> Tiav-roSanov Kal 85 1Tavovpyov Kal 1Tpos cmaaav Aa{3f)v StaStSpCxO'KOV. oAos yap St • oAov 80 -rov aoo~CXTOS a~{All<'TOS i'jv Kal &r)ptooST'IS 6 av6poo1TOS cbro -rov ~eyEeovs cbr6 -re {3At~~crros. Anna regards Bohemond with a mixture of hatred and admiration.la: 'snort' (LSJ seem to be wrong in suggesting 'indignation'). the orphanage is the only one we can identify in the great city. 36 OIJ. T)Sv Se -r1 Kal ~vecpa{ve-ro -rct> &vSpl -ro\n~. St. though very probably there were others. Kal 6 ytAoos cx\rrov -rots &AAots ~~{3p£~11~a i'jv. ai yap 6~1Afa1 -ro\n~ &Kp1{3els Kal -ras cbroKp{aets ~S{Sov 1Tav-rax66ev &1TeptSp&K'Tovs. the LexPatrGr quotes a few cases of the word in the meaning 'incomprehensible'.tA!at by this date can mean 'words'. ev6a Kai "TO cn6~a "TOV TI6v-rov &vo{ye-rat.llll. but the sentence is corrupt. 75). Paul's church and its attached orphanage are first heard of in the sixth century. Kal &~cpo-repovs 6pav TIPOs 1T6Ae~ov.ANNA COMNENA 93 25 &Spa· O"VVT'}y6pel Se -rct> ~VKTi'}pl Sta "TOOV cnepvoov Kal Sta "TOV ~VKTi'}pos -nlv -roov cnepvoov roplrrr}-ra. Reifferscheid marked a lacuna after llVl<'riiPOS· 27 TracpA6:~ovros: originally used of boiling liquids. 29 V7re6pcx\JeTo: 'spoiled'. a. 11. -ro -rov . 35 StaStSp6:at<ov: 'darting in all directions'. the classical sense of 'running away' has been lost. the word was applied to Cleon's blustering (Ar. Knights 919). Kal -rotoii-ros ~v Kal -roaoii-ros ~6v~ -rct> cx\rroKpchopt &Aooat~OS 1'j v Kal "t'Vx1J Kal A6yots Kal -rots &AAots -rots cbro Tfis cpvaeoos TIAeovEl<"l"'ft~amv. oliToos etxe ~fis -re Kcxl aoo~crros oos Kal -rov 6v~ov ~V -ro\n~ 1<opvaaea6a1 Kal -rov epoo-:ra. 1 Alexios' charitable foundation gives Anna the chance of an extended description (~cppaat~) of a kind common in Byzantine literature. 15. &XAa -rots &rrav-rax66ev cpo{3epols Weepa<Je-ro. 9.

John 6.Ltv yap 6 5 vabs rn. &AA. 'Tois &SeA. &v6pcb1Toov A. eV1TpoooSov: lexicis addendum (the reference in Sophocles' Lexicon is false). the word is from the LXX (despite its attestation in Herodian I. 1-11. 28 a-rrovSepyovs: 'energetic'.94 ANNA COMNENA . ol J. J<al yap 'TO 1TapaSo~6'Ta'TOV. drag the~sel ves along'.c. cmov IJ~V 'TV<pAOVs. Attic 1rpc.f}cr6al J<a'TaAa1Jj3avo1Jev.: 'and no less readily if it produced a good revenue' must be the meaning with the reading ei1rep -ljv (Reifferscheid) for el1TEi\l of the MS. &p~aiJEvos 1Tpoot6ev els ~CT1Tepav O:v 'TOV KVJ<Aov crvve&iAecre. 'KVKAC{> Se 'TcxU-n)S ~CT'TCXCTlV o[KTJIJO'TO 1TVJ<Va. a word from poetry and Hellenistic prose.{Sl 1T6A. 5 6 Se J<VKAOS S11TA. 'Tcx\rrov Se ei'lTEp i'jv e\rrrp6croSov. 4. o1Tov yap Si}1To'Te Yiis l<'Tf}IJa i'jv ~v J<ail. 501 L.>i. oV'Te yf}1TeSa 20 exoV'TES oV'Te aiJ'lTEAoovas oV'Te 'Tl OXAo 'TOloO'Tov. cx\rrbs J. ECT'Tl yap 10 lSelv 'TOV'Tovs 1<0'1' cS:vSpa EKOCT'TOV rnepx61JEVOV. 25 ol &J<-niJ. ei 'TlS WEA. l<a'TcX 'TE 1TAchOS 1<al IJi.la"Ta Se 'Ta 'lTPOs 'Tpocpf}v 'TE Kal CTJ<S1Tf)v 1Tapa 'Tf}s j3acrlA11<f}S XElpos cxV-rois rnop{~e-ro. 17 1rpc. 'TO Sf} cp1Aav6poo1T6-repov.loves 00cnrep 'Tlves SeCT1T6'Tal l<'T'I'}IJO'Ta E}(OV'TES J<al 1Tpocr6Sovs 1TaV'ToSa1Tas cppoV'TlCT'TaS E)(ovcr1 J<al 'TOV j3{ov cxV-roov rnliJeAT)'TOS cxV-r6v 'TE 'TOV aV'TOJ<pchopa J<al 'TOVs OIJ<pl 'TOV cxV-ro1<pchopa CT'lTovSepyo\!s. -nlv CT'Toav l:oAOIJOOV'TOS O:v el1TES lSoov IJEcr-nlv &v6poo1TOOV 1TE1Tf)pooiJEvoov 'Ta IJEAT) Kal 8A.> J<E{IJEvov. &Kpo'Tch<{> 'TfjcrSe 'Tfis 'lTOAsOOS EO"TTll<EV oTov &Kp61TOA1S.6A.. 25 CocrTtiJOVES: 'poor'.). 01TOV Se 'Tl Kal OXAo l<aJ<OV E){oV'Tas. J<a"t'OlJ<{al 1TEvf}'Toov J<a{..ooj3f)IJEvoov ~vSlarri}IJO'Ta. 'T01o\i'To1 Se Kal ol 'Tfis 1T6A.ovs 'TE Kal S{SVIJOS. combining the two scenes. 26 cppoVTtcrras: 'curators'. 9 ~vStal"n'U. 1rapao\1poVTat: 'move painfully. 61T6crovs O:v eim.eoos 'TaU-rr}S oll<f}'Topes.>f6ev: 'in the morning'.s1 ~Se{IJO'TO. . T) Se vea 1TOA1S b<a"Tepoo6ev yEypa'lT'Tal els CT'TaS{ovs.l<OS. 'TOlaU-rr} 1-1ev T) 1TOA1S. literally 'is drawn on the map'. cx\rr6J. part of the language of Hellenistic officialdom. 1-4 and Acts 3. But -ra\nov S~ el1retv eV1fp6aoSov can be translated 'which is equivalent to saying "profitable"'. ol Se J<choo J<al 1Tp6crye1o1 1TapaaVpoV'Tal.cpois 0 6 ytyp<XTI"Tat: 'extends'.o\is.eA.LaTa: 'dwellings': Hellenistic. 16 1rp6ayetot: 'near the ground'. 12 Ann a recalls St. 1TEpl o 'TOV &v6pcb1T1vov j3{ov ftcrxoA.Ltv yap cS:voo 1<al IJE'Teoopol 15 J<a"TOlJ<ovcrl 'TOOV 1TE1Tf)pooiJEvoov 'TOV'Toov &vSpoov 'TE J<al yvva11<oov. 22 Job 1... &rrov s~ J<al xooA.1v hepav ~v 'Tfj j3acnA. 29 -ra\nov S~ KTA.a J<a'Ta 'Tov •Jooj3 El<aCT'TOS 1i b<6:0"1'1l -nlv 1-1ev Sf)1Jlovpyf)6eicrav cx\rrois o[J<{av o[J<ei. lexicis addendum. a meaning first attested in Lucian.a 'Ta CTOOIJO'Ta.e1 'ToV'Tovs lSeiv.t 'TlS. 'To Se 'TOV 'KVJ<Aov 1Jeye6os.

~eicre ~ 1TEV'TE ap'TOOV ~opecr&r)crav XlAlaSes.)v MS. not 7. ovSe 'T~ TV<pA~ KEAe\icral 'TO ~Aen~l V ovSe ·~ IJtl ExOV'Tl 1T6Sas rnl'Tprnel V 1TEpl1TCX'TeiV. f}v ~ ~Cxepoov 6 ~IJOS 1Tcx-ritp &veSe{IJCX'TO. 1-8. 44 SovAe\lo!l~vovs: 'being served.>yov~o~EVOV ") and 43 -rrap<XA\novs.ANNA COMNENA SO 95 85 40 45 so 55 'TOVTOlS <pepoov ~VeiiJCX'TO. as are also 40 xetpcxyc. 'TOOV avoo. 9-10. 'TO S • &A'Ao. 6 eYSov eyoo Kal ypa\:iv yvvaiKa Vl'ro ve6:v1Sos ViTT)pE'ToviJEVT)v Kal avSpa TV<pAOV VrrO ~AenOV'TOS &v6pC::mov XElpayooyOVIJEVOV Kal crnoSa 1T6Sas EXOV'Ta ov 'TOVS ~OV'TOV &AAa 'TOVS &A'Ao'Tp{ovs Kal axe1pa VrT' • &vSpoov hepoov xe1payooyov1Jevov Kal ~pe<pfl 'Tl61') vovj.000.. 55 -r(.· ~eiva 1To1ei.>IJEV~ Kal 'Tt)v a\rrJiv 1rp6vo1av 'T16eva1 ·~ 'Ae'Aoo~T)iJEv~. perhaps (~) -r(. ·~ 1-1ev aV'ToKpCn-opl o\JK ~~flv 'T~ 1Tapa'A\rr~ el1Teiv . 'Taii'Ta "1jv 'TOV IJOVOYEVOVS Kal S1• T)IJCXs yeyov6"t'os &v6poo1rov Kal Vl'rep &v6poo1roov ~V'Tav6ot 1T0Al'Tevcraj. . ·~ \ry1a{voV'T1· OOO"'TE ei 'TlS ~OVAOl'TO 'Tt)v veav 1T6AlV KCX'TOIJa6eiv. where the number of those fed is in fact 4. 1TP0s 'TO 'TOV ~IJOV croo'Tiipos 6a\i1Ja. 'TOOV 1-1ev ets Sov'Aevo!Jevovs &pl61JOVIJEVoov.leva 1rap • &AAo•p{oov IJfl'Tepoov Kal1Tapa'A\rrovs Vrr • &A'Aoov av6poo1TOOV Sov'Aevo!JEvovs evpooO"'TOOV.>. a<p • OOV olv6s 'TS cx\nois KCX'TCx 1TO'TOIJOVS rn1ppet Kal ap'TOS Kal ooa rnl 'TOiS ap'TOlS O"l'TOVV'TOl av6p001TOl • ot Se ~0"6{0V'TES Vl'rep &pl61J6V. &AA. not a classical use of the verb. 'TOOV cXIJ<pOTEpOlS 'TOVTOlS e~pe­ TOVIJEVOOV. •oov Se ets Sov'AevoV'Tas. ei1T01 'TlS av. ets ruivov yap &vacpepoo Kal 'TCx IJE'T.Jye1pe Kal 1TEpl1T6:'Tel". assisted •. 'To 'TOOV hrraKlO")(l'A{oov cp111-1l Kal 1TEV'TaKlO")(l'A{oov.)v 'Kcrrc. Kal OAOOS Sm'Aovv ~V 'TO 1r'Af)6os 'TOOV •pecpo!JEvoov. 'TE'Tpan'Aflv av iSol -ri}v 1T6AlV Kai1TOA'Aan'Aflv 'TOOV KCrTOO.000.levov.>: the sense is clearer than the syntax. ooSe Se xopT)y{a ~OO"lAlKtl 'TO aV-rapKES 'TOiS &S~cpois 1TOp{~ovcra. a Hellenistic word. EKEiVOV.)v Kcrrc. 41 ~<XVTOV Reifferscheid: ~<XVT(. VrrT)phas ~aO"'T~ S1S6va1 1TE1Tflpc. 'consisting of'. St. 47f. ~KEiVOS yap acpoop{crCX'TO TaS 6:1fo YflS Kai 6aA. 27-30 (and corresponding passages in the 'other Gospels). 7 aAACx 'T{S ~~apl61Jflcral Svvi}cralTO 'TOVS Ka6• T)IJepav ~0"6{oV'Tas 11 -ri}v Ka6• ~CxO"'TflV San6:VT)v Kal-ri}v YlVOIJEVflV ets EKOO"'TOV 1Tp6V010V. Matthew 9.Cn-'TT)s 33-35 Anna alludes to St. 37 ~~~ETat: 'adheres to'. Matthew 16.. 52 -rt6evat: the classical idiom is !)(etv or -rroteia6at -rrp6votav. Kal •axa 'TOAIJOO Kal Akyoo.. ruicre IJEv 6a\i1Ja. &vacpepe0"6a1 'To •ov cx\noKpCn-opos epyov. & Se 7rpocrf)v. Ka6o Kal 6 9eos 6 6av1JCX'Tovpyoov • ~V'TaVea Se •a 1-1ev 'Tiis cpl'Aav6poo1Tias 'Tiis 6e{as ~~ExE'Tal ~V'To'Afls.

75 •IJ3TJp(Soov: 'Georgians'. 86. After 65 cxV-roKpO:Topos some words may have been lost. see above. 79 StotKovoI-ITJC7CX!-1EVOV: 'provided for'. ae-pE"t'a yap rnl 'TOVTOlS "'TCXO'l Kal Aoyo"'Tpay{al 'T0011 1Tp01100V'-'E110011 KCX'TCx 'Ta 'T0011 "'TEvft'T0011 K'Ti)'-'CX'Ta Kal xpva6J3oVAAOl A6yol rnlf3paj3eV011'TES 'TOiS "t'pecpo~110lS 'TO &11acpa{pE"t'011. 64 arroaTpcrrarrovs: 'disabled'. lexicis addendum. o '-'e11 ov11 •AAe~a11Spos !Kei11os o 80 MaKeSoo11 a\Jxei'Too ~11 rnl 'Tfj KCX'T. I<Afipos: 'clergy'. p. 82-83 aveyep6e(acxts: 'raised' in the sense of founded and brought to greatness'. Reifferscheid. a Hellenistic word. &s '1Ta11'Taxo0 ia'-'e11 Cx110lKOSO'-'fl6e{acxs a\rr'i). 0 Se aVTOKp<hoop •AM~lOS ( OVK 011) oVI"ooal rnl 'Tais Cx11eyep6e£aalS "'Tap • a\rrov 1T6i\ea111 ~11aj3pv11o1'TO. "'TpoKcXet')Ta£ yap avi)p 'TlS 'T0011 !11SO~O'TCrr0011 cppo11'Tla-ri}S 'Tfis '-'vp1<!x11Spov 'TCXV'T'I'lal "JT6i\eoos· opcpa11o"t'pocpeio11 Se 'Ta&n:l 'T0011o"'a. 66 aacpe-rcx: 'offices for the administrators'. opcpa110'Tpocpeio11 Se "'TpoaayopeVE'Tal. provisions'. the compound is a Hellenistic formation. 68 xpva6J3ovAA01 A6yot: 'chrysobulls'. rnl 'Tfj KCX'TCx Mi)Sovs BoVKE<pCxATJ.x. 6ao11 rnl 'Ta&n:l 'Tfj '1T6i\el '-'ey<XAavxei. a very rare and late word. Latin secreta. Aiyv"'T'T011 •Ai\e~a11Spe{<jX.fipos 70 '-'eyas KaTEii\eK'To Kal "'TOAVs Kal cpcb'Too11 SCX\f'{i\ela.9 85 &AA. rna11 els TT} 11 Koo11<Trarn 110V rnlSfl '-'Ttaale11· &XA.av6poo"'T{a 'TOV 65 cx\rroKpchopos • 0&11 Kal 'T0011o'-'a !"JTeKpO:n. . "'TOAAft11 Se cppo11"t'{Sa Kal 'T0011 75 rnl~E110V~110011 'IJ3flp£Soo11 '-'0110X0011 rnE"'TO{fl'TO 6Vpa11 !1< 6\Jpas Cx~l{30V0'0011 'TO 1Tp6"t'Ep011. 67 KCXTa Reifferscheid: J<O:l MS. chl 1i "'Tpos 'TOVS 6pcpa110Vs Kal &"JTOO"TpCX'TeV'Tovs cplA. documents issued and signed by the emperor conferring rights or privileges.96 60 ANNA COMNENA cx\rrois 1Tpo11oicxs • !Kei11os Se T1}11 Sv11cx-n't11 p<jX<TT0011T')11 cx\rrois "'TEplE"'TOlftO'CX'TO. rnl 'Tfj KCX'T. Kal 1Tapaye116'-'e11os els 'TOV'T011l 'T011 11E0011 iSOlS 011 XOpOVS 8<CX'Tepoo6e11 a11"t'*So11'Tas. Aoyo-rrpcxy(cxt: 'accounts'. 81 Lysimachia was in Aetolia. Al6lo"JT{a11 J\va•'-'axic.ae 'TO &"JTo -rf\S 'T0011 opcpa110011 "'TPO'-'fl6das. KCX'Tha~e yap T'i) 'T0011 erno<TT6Aoo11 11e'i) ~So11'Tas Kal c?:Sovaas KCX'Ta 'T011 ~OAO"'OOV'Ta· rnl"'eAes yap Kal 'TO 'T0011 S1aK0111aaoo11 "'TE"'TO{flKE11 gpyo11. is Anna wrong here or should the text be emended? 82 (oVJ< O:v) add. 69 ~o:Aot<ftpVKos: lexicis addendum. •o lnro •fis Reifferscheid: .fis lnro MS. 8 T'i) Se 11a'i) ToO '-'ey<XAoKi)pVKos TicroAov KA. 83 ~vo:J3pv­ vot<o: 'pride himself on'.a Taii"t'a '-'e11 Ta Te'-'e1111 Kal lepa cppo11'TlO"Ti)p•a ela1611'T1 cro1 60 -rrpovo(cxs : here 'resources.a Kal TcxV"t'a•s 1i KflSE'-'o11{a Tov'-'ov "'TCX'Tpos &11eSei'-'CX'To cpp011'TlO"Ti)pl011 ~l<TT011 'TCxS 'TE "t'pocpas Kal 'TaS "'TpOO'flKOVO'OS ~a6f\Tas S1olKo11o'-'flaa~11ov.

b 4> 1ra1Sev-rfts 'TlS 1rpot<a6T)'Tal t<al 1raiSes 1rEpl a\rrov ~<TTaaw.l<XTOV "EAhflVa 6p66')s ~flv{~ona.lEV 1repl tpoo-n'}ae1s 90 ~Ofl~\101 ypal. 95 At this point Anna digresses on the inadequacy of .modern education and the lack of interest in culture shown by the younger generation (of whom she says 1TE"TTEfa TO a-rrovSaa11a Kal l!iJV. 92 ~v: see above. 90-91 axeSwv: 'exercises of parsing and analysis'. 'To1aii'Ta t<al 1repl -rl)v :hoy1td}v_ 1ralSeva1v 'Ta 'TOV 95 •AAe~tov 0'1t'ovS&all<XTa.lEvov t<al l:t<Ve. p. ol Se ~pacpeis 'TOOV AeyO~boov axeSoov.lEVOV t<al 'TOV &ypa~l. G. ol l..l<XTlt<&s.lE'TCX)(Elp1~61. 7 Wil. 176-181. and does not continue the description of the orphanage.- .lll<XTa l.v ~AAflV{~ona t<al •pool.ANNA COMNENA 97 t<<XTa :ha1av chrav-n')ae1e • t<<XTa Se -rl)v Se~1av 'Tov IJSY6Aov 'TE~­ vovs 1ra1Sev-rftp1ov !O'TT'It<e 'TOOV ypa~l.l<XTlt<oov 1ra1oiv 6pcpavols At< 1t'aV'TOSa1rOV y!vovs avvelAey~VOlS. t<all<TTlV ISeiv t<al A<XTlvov tnaiiea 1ra1So'Tp113ovl. cit. see G.a fpya ~J. N. Buckler.ll. 94 71-oytKf)v: 'intellectual'. 1970. Antike und Abendland 16. op. 91. 74-75.llTa).lalov 'Ta 'TOOV •E:h11:ftvoov avyyp&l. Wilson.

ed. contrasting them with the admirable communities in the capital. ll1l CrnOC7)(61lEVOS Se. Aristophanes and Dionysius Periegetes. His tenure of the see was notable for his attempt to reform the monastic communities. &:A:A' h£pav -rpCX'IT6JlEvos. a word found in poetry and late prose. T. 228) says that his oratory was so described by Demosthenes. Frankfurt 1832. and preserves a certain amount of material not known elsewhere. Stallbaum. Leipzig 1822-30. It survives in manuscripts which have been recognised since the time of cardinal Bessarion as the author's autographs. lrn6a)(otTo Tl)v &px~v: 'avoid altogether'. 3 ethytlTpov: 'spell'. For a full list of his works seeR. reprinted 1960. When the city was attacked and captured by the Normans in 1185 he refused to desert his post. the commentaries on Homer. G. where he performed his duties conscientiously. ~ av c!rnocp\Jy1J 70 6eAYfl7pov.JO:Ilevos. 1962. .EUSTATHIUS (d. To this period of his life belong his works of classical scholarship. and an account of the siege which he wrote shortly afterwards shows his devotion to duty and the extent of the sufferings he shared with the rest of the population. Pindar. In 1175 Eustathius was appointed to the see of Thessalonike. 30 Page) calls the Muse a Siren. &:A:Aa Sta 1 The Sirens soon became part of literary vocabulary: Alcman (fr. 186-93. Editions: Homer commentaries. The commentary on Homer is of phenomenal length. perhaps the orthodox Byzantine here shows a qualm of conscience about reading pagan poetry.. 2 i\ &AA •: 'or at least'. Tafel. ed. Browning. F. 1195) Like a number of other churchmen of his day Eustathius made his career as a lecturer at the patriarch's theological senlinary in Constantinople before being promoted to a bishopric. From his preface to the Iliad Toov 'O!li}pov ~tpi}voov KaAov ll~V iaoos ei -rlS c!rn6CT)(ot-ro -rftv &pxf}v ii KflPct> -ras &Koas &Aet'f. L. As a result he made many enemies and had to leave the city for a time. Kyriakidis. a slight extension of classical usage. c. Separate edition of The Sack of Thessalonike: S. Byzantion 32. and Aeschines (3. with Italian translation. Opuscula. he attacked the monks for their ignorance and hypocrisy. reprinted 1964. Palermo 1961.

)s 15 TOOV 'TTEpl 11.{ya la-rop116flae-ra1. et. el Kal •t'TT'TTapxos cpeovei. 195-196. ol Se ooa-re xpelav CrnO'TTATl0'01 T1VCx Kai O'VVE1aEVeyKEiV ~~ cx\rrov Tql 11. 'lis omc olJ.1f}ae1 -r1s Kal &KovaJ. 1.. 2.6yov rn1ppof}.a 'TTav-res 'TTap• cx\rrq> K<X'TEAvaav. 23 ypaiJIJaTlKOl KTA.le66Soov -rexv6:~e-ra1. 15 !~OOTEplKovs: 'pagan'. Many of Eustathius' ideas in this preface derive from Strabo 1.ltvoov: 'studying philosophy'.lEVOS. o<Tre 'TTap~&rJ ~CitSloos. 164-166. 'TTOAAOVs TOOV XPT'lO'J. olJ.. ~f}-ropes 'TTEpl cx\rr6v.l<X'Ta -nva hna-rpocpfls 0:~10. omc O:v. m:pl: i. failed to savour'. 1-2... 00s.l<X'T6: ·rwa. cited for a similar purpose by Quintilian 10. 10-11 Iliad 21.6yo1s 1<eiv-ra1. 'TTOAAT} yovv ~ape1aeppevae -rois aocpois 11. 25 m:pl1TOloov: 'preserving'. 8-10 'which I think not one of the ancient sages. OOO"TTep ee6:J.laA10'Ta TOOV 10 oao1 Tf'is ~~"' aocplas i}pvaav-ro. 6'1Toia -ra epvAAOVJ. o<rre '1Tape11. J. nvela.lev oos Kal S16:ye1V 'TTap • cx\rrq> J.6aocpo1 'TTEpl cx\rrov. 'concerned with. b ols Kal .lOVJ. omc ea-nv os ~~"' T1 TOOV cx\rrov 25 J. 16 OKT!V'I'\v: 'habitation'. el Kal ll'll 'TTaaa.la1 els T1S TOOV 'TTQA01 aocpoov omc ty'eVO'<X'TO Kal J. 46. cx\rrov 'TT0111Ta{.6oov et. Pfeiffer. av b cx\rrois J.lcX l<<X'T~01.ov 'TTOAAov Kal 6aVJ.: 'in the same way students of literature do not achieve their aim except through a reading of Homer'..lEVa hrra b 1l.-ros. 2. 'TTT'lYal 'TTaaa1.. 6'1To{ovs av et'TT01 T1S.~lET• 611. 00'01 Se ~lET.. ypaJ. el yap 'TTOV. &:JV. ouSels yovv o<rre TOOV -ra O:voo 'TTEp1epya~OIJEVOOV o\i-re TOOV 'TTEpl cpV0'1V o\i-re TOOV 'TTepl 'ljeos ova· c!rn11.lOV. ~~ ·nKEavov llEv yap 'TTOTaJ.l<X'T1KOl Se omc &AAoos els ~os.lol 'TTav-res.lffioSov c!rno~eovaa. The metaphor is not found in classical Greek.laA10'Ta Kal . &~evaywYTITOS: 'without receiving hospitality'.1a1.e.6yovs ~~oo-rep1KOVs.111Pl~e1v Svvf}ae-ra1.ol. el ll'll s1· cx\rrov. see further R. 13 Ta &voo m:plepyal. . 5 el Kal 'TTOAAcX SeaJ..lE)(p1 ~ovs Kal TOOV cx\rrov O'V0'0'1T{oov c!rno-rpecpea6a1.l1J. History of classical scholarship..lf}pov Se. av e<i)(ap1s. Oxford 1968. 6 'TTepl -rf}v •AO'KA11'1T1aSoov Sla1-rav 5 e<i)(ap1s: here 'thankful'. &p16J. cppe<X'Ta 'TTav-ra Ka-ra -rov 'TT6Aa1 11. '1Tapfl11. cp11l. especially those who drew on pagan culture. 26 yeooyp&cpol: in the opening chapters of his Geography Strabo defended Homer at length against the scientific and rationalist criticisms of Eratosthenes. devoted to'.. ol J.(..1J. 22 Criticism of Homer by the astronomer Hipparchus is recorded in Strabo 1. &yova1v cx\rrov Kal yeooyp6:cpo1 S1a ~f}11. ·oll11P1Kft 'TT0{110'1S.6y~ T1 20 XPTJ0'1J.EUSTATHIUS 99 Tf'is ci>Sfls M{V11S ~eoov...l<X'TOS.lOOV 'TTPOs ·oll11P1Kftv J.6e -rf}v ·oll11P1Kftv aKTlvf}v &~evaycby. patristic. 'TTEp1'TT0100V. 21 lrno~tovaa: 'polishing'. 'TTav-ra 'TT0100V S1• oov 6J.6yov • ~~ ·oJ.

294 aUTOs yap lq>V. and then outlines the scope of his commentary. Kal IJcXAtaTa ti IAtas. Kal EO'TlV OAT'\600s j3aatAtl<c!>V 1rpCiy1Ja ti ·o!Jf}pov 1TO{T'\ats. YEIJOVO'a s~ IJVp{oov oov av TtS ei1ro1 KaAoov. 34-35 The proverb is well attested in ancient collections (Diogenian 5. rnava1TcxVOOV cx\rrf.le66Sovs. 2. 26). 47 Eustathius goes on to discuss Homeric mythology. 3. 42 001}: in Stallbaum's edition OO'Tl\1 may be a misprint. Galen occasionally cites Homer. aTPaTT'\YtKflS e&rexvtas. 2.1£VOS KTA. 28-29 Cf. 45 lnroCTrEpfa01J: i. It is not clear which doctors are being referred to.KETat cS:vSpa afSTJpos. Odyssey 16. 26 etc.t TtS. much of which should in his view be interpreted allegorically. Vienna 1951. . 33. 43--44 lm&eoopovVTat: 'are observed in'. 9-10. OVK av ovS~ -n. 2. che \nrvovv Seot. e\m:)(vfas: cited by LSJ from Strabo 1. 8.ats -n. 'TOV els apET1'}v rna{petv. 'deny'. 35. 6).\. and especially by Stoics such as Strabo (1.v 1<Ecpa11:J'Iv. 33 q>aVTa~61.oov ols laTopoov !vevSoKtiJEi. E){et TlS Kal S6Aovs rnatVETOVS b<ei6ev j.lcx6eiv Kal 'J'EVSoov KepSaA. !cptAKETal To 1rpCiy1Ja Kal ~aawts • Kal IJapTVpei 6 IJeyas •AM~avSpos. 29 It was a well known part of the tradition about Alexander that he admired Achilles and always had a text of Homer with him (see Plutarch's life. Texvoov OAOOS 1TaVTo{oov 40 Kal WlO'TT'\IJOOV. Tov Tas &Koas f}Svvetv. See also L. StSaO'l<aA{as Tiis 1Tepl f}6tl<OOV ape-roov. Kal 1Tapot1J{a 85 iJEv 'TlS l<al<OOV 'IAtaSa <pT'\a{v· cx\rn'l S~ l<aAOV 1TaVT6s laTtV 'IAtcXs • SpaiJCXTtKooTepov IJ~v O')(T'\IJCXTt~o!JeVT'\ Sta Tiis IJOvoetSovs ~V 1TOAV1Tp00'001TOV s~ acpT'\yf}aeoos. Radermacher. TOOV &XA. so l<EliJT'\Atov eiTe Kal !cp6Stov Kal !v cx\rrais IJcXx. 28 ~pav(~ETat: 'draws a contribution'. 37 1TOAV1Tpoaoo1Tov: 'with many characters'. Rep. Perhaps 1TO(TJ1Ja should be read instead of 1TpCiy1Ja. TOV TCxS '¥V)(CxS 1TatSruetv.v ·oiJTlP•l<Ttv j3{~AOV rnay61JEVOS. cppOVT'\O'lV s~ OVK EO'TlV el1Teiv OO'T'\ 1TEpl1T01EiTal T(j) 1TpoaE){etV letAOVTl. 2. cptAoaocptas. the adjective is cited by LSJ from Strabo 16. iva TcXxa IJT'\5~ !v VrrVOlS cx\rrov ernE){otTO. Tfis 1TOAV1Tetptas. Kal -n. PT'\Topetas. 38 Homer occupied a dominant position in Greek culture. &J\Aa Kal cpaVTa~OIJEVOS ei'Tl ru6vetpos.). 606e) -n'!v 'EAAaSa 1T£1Taf5EVK£v oirros 6 1Tonrn'ls. He was regarded as the father of rhetoric and many other branches of knowledge by Hellenistic scholars. this meaning of the verb is post-classical. Socrates said {Plat. but that is not a sufficient explanation. Artium scriptores. Kal OO'a S~ 'Tij {aTop{~ Elrt6eoopoVVTal O'EIJvcX. cc. e.100 EUSTATHIUS 1<al Ta TPcxVIJCXTa !pav{ ~e-rat Kal cx\rros b<ei6ev &ycxea.eoov avv6eaets Kal O'l<OOIJIJcXToov SptiJ\nr}Tas Kal ~oojJ{oov j.: 'imagined as enjoying pleasant dreams'. 1.v ·oiJf}pov TExVT'\V TOOV 45 Toto&roov ernOaTepf}cn.

4 e\iayyU.1Evos cppoV'TfO'lV. lexicis addendum. 'on occasion quick to attend even to the smallest details'. 3. perhaps TaxVs.af361lEv6s 10 1TO'TE els vovv &oopl VVK'TOs y6:1-1ov ruyevfi ~~ap'TVaa1 (ovSe yap ovSe WKTES &vrnavov ~eivov t)'pT)yop6'Ta wep 'TOV K60'1lOV.laKCXplO"TQs f3aa1AeVs. ~~ -l}s 'J'cxAillKOOs Kal 'liSCX'Ta ~vtO'KoV'Tat aoo'Ti}pta 'Tots ruayyeAlKOOS 1Tfvetv ~OVO'l" Kal ~~Se &r)A.a. the strict Lenten fast had not begun and cheese could still be eaten.oVTa ~CXV'Tov lllKpov Kal ets &vrrvov).tKoos: 'in the spirit of the Gospels'.ay~l A.61ros . KCXlpOs Se f) 'Tfis 15 lley6:AT)S VT)O"TEfas 1Tp6SpOilOS 'TVpocpO:yos. on whom Eustathius wrote a long funeral oration.a: KCX'Ta K6a1-1ov lleyO:Aa StotKOVOilOVIlEVOS 1Tapa<:povETo.axepvats 1To:A6:'Tlov. llVpfalS 1TEplEO"T01XlO'J. Kal yvllv6:. e. otherwise known as f) 1rhpa to distinguish it from 33 other monasteries in the capital dedicated to the same saint.c 'TOla\m. &vcxA. 8 IJEY6Aa: 'the great affairs of the world' (Tafel's !liya is a misreading of the MSS). 5 lt'lKpla. Much of the vocabulary here is biblical.u:&cx ToO ~v &ycx&ots f3aatA. als . John Mauropous was a member of this community before being raised to the see of Euchaita. eO"Tl v oo 'TCXXV Kal 'TOO V O'll1Kpo'T6:'Toov hnllEA. J ac. 15-16 ol rnl Tils &pamlas: 'the servants'..OVO'lV ol s ~ 1T1Kpfas f3too'TtKfiS cx\rrfj 1TeA6:. ~tAe\Jae TeA. E. 7 mptECTTOlXtal!ivos: 'surrounded'. Me1-nn'u. 15 1rp6Spo~o~os: 'preceding'. StolKOVOilOVIlEVQS: a rare alternative to StotKoov.lCXO'CXV. oos Se ol rnl 'Tfis 6epCX1TefCXS l6aVj.eiiat 1Teptl<AV'Tov Mavovt'tA. -l}v Se . 41. g. owep OVK els llCXKpav f) Tlhpa StEO"TCX'TCXl.l rnt'TaO'O'OV'TCXl 1Tp6:y1 mpn<AVTOV: an adjective common in Homer.ov ya1-1ov.. 13 The palace at Blachernae had been an imperial residence since the end of the eleventh century. TVpocpayos: the week before Quinquagesima. . 'Tftv Tlhpav.ea&at. John the Baptist (6 np6Spo~o~os). The construction of the verb with vVI<TEs as the subject is contrary to classical idiom. a typically Byzantine pun on the name of the monastery. Hellenistic. 3 Psalm 104.. et lv oopc. Mtvos Sft 6 j. 11 avbravov: 'gave rest to'. • oiSallEV Kal 'TO lleycxAo1TOAl'TlKov TlpoSpolltKov O'Eilveiov. borrowed as early as the first century by writers such as Dionysius of Halicarnassus. 9 Taxv is difficult.ea&fivat . refers here to the monastery of St.ovres· ets f)v ol KCX'TacpruyoVTES A. 2 IJEYcxA01t'OA1TIK~w: 'in the metropolis'.~vres Tots SatllOVtooSem &r)pfots ~f3afvovatv. The emperor in question is Manuel I Comnenos (1143-1180).EUSTATHIUS 101 Monastic reform: an example of generosity 66. lt'cxAanov: Latin palatium.4' yall<t> To ~v BA. 2-3 ae~o~veiov: a rare Hellenistic word for temple.. 15). 6 Sat~o~ovtooSTlS (from Ep.

Kai ets O'f'lV 1rea6na ""rql 17-18 rntC7TT}I!O\Iapxov: 'master'.o)\1: 'astringent'. 20 EVAoyi}aeCI)S: 'consecration'.. 6-re ovSe!l{a yallftA105 xopfly{a V1T6Ket"t'at. E"t'Oll-105 80 ap"t'05 1Tanoios· 6 SfKflV acppov Kai O'O!l<p6s. 85 1TOAAOi Se Kai O~CA>"t'Of.o)\1: 'wicker baskets'. but it is the reading of the MSS. .102 EUSTATHIUS llcrn Seo!lEv<t> "t'pt~fis Katpov IKavfjs. 'looking round'. 1t'ACXK~S11 should mean 'flaky'. Kai ~ivos Cx0'1Taafoos rnt"t'CxO'C'El &1To"t"ei. 35 6~(A)To(: 'pickled'. avcrrptxet. 6. olvos 1Tp6xe•pos.l!as: 'salted'. 6 lle-T' ~ivov o\i-re "t'Otoii"'ros. txeves ""raptxev""ro{ • ""rtves Se Kai ~K 1rpoacpchov &Af1TaO'"t'ot. 36 Sv&Sa: unintelligible. 23 Sovhe\rral TCX){VSp6I!01: both words are extremely rare. 47 and elsewhere. 005 OVK av elval SoKeiV "t'O 25 KpoVIla e\11Ta{SeV"t'ov.a Kai vaO'"t'65· . "t'Vpos SO'Jit:A{]s.ea6fjvat "t'O apeaav ""rij ~aat:Aefq. 1TOAvetSf)s 1-16:~a. Kai 6 6vpoopbs e\I:Aa~eO'"t'epov O'l<OO'J-'05. OVK ~VEA11TOV ovSe ooa txevoov "t'E"t'aplxev~JEva · yevos a\J"t'a b:Cx"t'epov.. eha ""ro ahtov ""rov "t'apexxov !la6c. this sense is not attested in LS J. Kai &1-1a :A6yos ov-ros. V1TepAevK05. ov 1-16vov 6 crr\Jcpoov.Ov. 41 ~aOTCtyi!CXTOS: 'pack animals'. .a Kai 6 y:AVK6:~oov. 28-29 Tij ~aathrl<jC: 'his majesty'. Kal brVeono "t'OV hnCMT'tllOV6:pxov ~a01At(A)5. 31 vaOT6s: 'cheese-cake'. 32 a"TVq>(. Kai "t'ql 1TpoEO'"t'OO"t'l CxyyEAAel "t'O O'VIl1TEO'OV. o'Tl IJfJ 20 llOVOV "t'cX "t'fi5 eVAOyftC'EOOS • ~iVOS CxVa1TOAft0'05 ets VOVV CxyXlVO{OS AOY't'· Kai ~V aStaO'"t'Ccr<t> XPOV<t> "t'f)v TIE-rpav ~v6vllfl6eis lcp'T) ~i6ev yevf)aea&al av "t'O 1TCXV "t'OV lpyov. O"KE\VOIJE\IOS. as in LXX 1 Mace. . 21 aStaOTCrrct3: 'immediately following'. 30 ao1-1cp6s: 'spongy'. &A!las ~afa. 34 TapfxEVTot: 'salted. 37-38 app(X(. the word is cited from Philo and patristic texts. 33 &). Kai ol Sovi.ev"t'ai "t'axvSp6!lOl aV"t'{l(a rni "t'f)v TIE-rpav· Kai ~61T"t'OV"t'O at rnJAal 6ep!l6"t'epov.oVTa: 'with the colour of'. 1Tapa!lEilEVflKVia 61roopa.. Kai OO'a rni app{XCA>V !lEAava J<txvnat aoop'T)S6v • c'rlv XOPflYOs ~ "t'OOV ~ope{oov 1rpbs &AAo15 "t"61Tots Kai 6 ets ""rov Ev~1 vov ~~Cx:AAoov T 6:va1s. ooa ""re ets Sv6:Sa 1TAaKooS11 1Tap6:KetV"t'al 1Tapavyex~OV"t'a ets \rrrepv6pov. &XA. Kai i)v o\i-roo 66pv~os. originally 'disciplinarian in a monastery'. pickled'. Hellenistic. gives the required sense. &XA. 40 i16polO'"t'O "t"aii"t'a 6!lOV · Kai CxVcxAflcpeEna ~ "t'E 'l')lllOVCA>V Kai :Aomov ~aO'"t'Cxyllcrros &1Tftx61'). &1-1a lpyov ~ivo.. 37 1rapavya/'. Kal e\16Vs rnl"t'Cx~as ~~O'"t'ElAe.. 26 O"K~'fl<lS can hardly be right. 1T00s 1TO"t'E apa Kai ~~avVO'OVO'l "t'O rnhay(.la.

Kal 'ri J3{J3:Aos etxe 1TOAV TO 1Tapaa. notorious'. Kal ~cpe{AKETO TOVs 0 42 fve&TJacxVptaav KTA. KcxAAlAOyf<jt: 'elegance of language'.· An encounter with an abbot 144. tm. I<TT)TEOV oeiv. 6Eo). 6 Kal 6eo:A6yos. then 'marked. Tct' s~ y&~Cf' ~opi}YTlaav O:rrav TO 1Tpoacpopov. Kal \rrrepi<TT)TEOV TOVS ~OVCX)(OVS. . :A6yov ~~ avSpos TOlOVTOV cp6aaas fJKovaa. s. 48 &VTlai)K(o)aJS: 'compensation'. i. Kal rnlI<TT)TEOV. of illumination and binding.e. "Triip 1rvruaas is a phrase derived ultimately from Hesiod's description of the chimaera. Hellenistic.saint will have approved of the generous self-sacrifice of the monks in his own monastery. Eustathius uses an adjective which in the classical language meant originally 'marked falsely. flv rnovi}O"CXTO r P1lYOPlOS. 50 f~aVTAi)aeoos: here probably 'spending all one's resources'. a coinage of Hellenistic or later date. Gregory of Nazianzus. &'AA. oos Seov ronv. o'li-roo Kal To OO"TEpoV cxVTOV I<TT)TlKOV Ti'is npoSpo~u<fis ~ovf'js. 5 f~-yElTo: almost as we might say 'the boak declared its glories'. The verb is lexicis addendum. &Xnrep -n. • oeiv els Seov &A:hoos Kal 6e4' ruanoSEKTov. 4 1t'OAO TO 1t'apaafJI. 3 rnovi)aaTo: 'composed' (the classical meaning was 'work hard'). Olov yap.v 1TcxAalT&-n)v y\J~voomv cxVTov. c1) Yii Kal ovpave. counterfeited'. el Kal ~f) 1rp0s 1TEVTJTas. Kal fty<XAAtaO"CXTO. EVAOYTJT6v in biblical Greek usually means 'blessed'. 1TOAVV ree:Aovaa TOV rnatvov.: 'caused the emperor great surprise'. 2 cp6aaas: in late writers this verb is simply an auxiliary to indicate that a certain action has already taken place.6yos is the regular epithet of St.x rua~'l'a~vos. ~~a6ov KCXTaKeTa6a{ 1rov J3tJ3:Aov lepav. &A:hoos s~ KaAAlOV Al~ct' eavetv cxVTOVS oiKTlO"Ta 1'1 1TEplKEla6at 55 l<Tfiatv &Kav6vtO"Tov. avveSo~aa&r) Kal 6 aytcbTCXTOS np6Spo~os cpt:Ai}aas. 'Tt'\ip 1TveVaas Kal KcxAAlAoy{c.IOV: 'many beautiful features'.EUSTATHIUS 103 J3aa1Aei. h<e{VCf' ~V be&r)acx\1ptaav 6cx\i~a eVAOYTlTOV.KoAOV6el s~ TOVTolS cxVT{Ka Kal J3aa1A1K1'} OVTlai}KOOO"lS St. Theogony 319. 51 e\icrrr6SEKTov: 'acceptable'. Kal ~So~aa&r) 6 45 'Tt'a~J3aatA£Vs 6e6s. Kal lSov tnrepi<TT)ats Kal cxVrrt ~OVCX)(lKi}. 45--47 The ascetic . Kap1TOs cx\iTrt e\Jyvoo~oaVVTJS Kal StaKp{aeoos 1TVEV~CXTtKfis • 50 ~ta6bs ~~an:AT)aeoos. rntKTT}aeoos. ~vre\ieev reepane\J&r) 6 ~as J3aa1A£Vs h<etvos. 5 Kal TO KCXT cxVT'I')v KAEOS ~~yeiTO els 1TOAAOVS.~ov. The next clause is a tacit admission that his example of generosity is not the best that might have been chosen.

ov." OOS S • tyoo -rov 6v~ov ~aJ3aAOOV els j3apvv yeA. p. 1. 5 6:1Tetp01TAT'I&fJ5: 'infinitely great'.A{aiJa: 'delight'.)s. 23 cpV.. Hellenistic.(A)"Ta t~wvetS1cra Vrremcbv . 6:Tre~TrOAT}6i. t<aA'fl fpT}yop{Cf> "TOVTCf>.-r{s yap" cpT}cr{ . ovS~v O:Tret<p{VCXTO. 8 ay<V.Ov i}A. texv -ra -ro1a0Ta j31j3A{a trap• ovS~v Tr01fla6e . -ra ye els t~.. 7. ov i\ -rvcpoos aipe1 f) tr6Ses ~ci>wv.t<al xpe{a -ijv f)~lv aV-rfls . 9 roo-r6x11aa: 'succeed'. rare and mainly poetic.1ov ols at 6 &Kpocrras continues the metaphor: 'admirers'.6yov 6:~101 ~ovaxo{.6e ~01.6~t~AOV: according to LS J this word is first found in Strabo 13.6:~tre1v .apws rnavepw-rWVTOS.6j31J3A.{s: 'ashamed'. t<al l&WVTO a\rn1 V trpbs ecrii~a • t<al -ii V tVTpvcpav -rovs j3AkrroVTas -rols -re tVTbs t<al -r'fl trpocpa1 vo~v'f> els aycxA). il)IJOOV (12) a still later coinage.104 EUSTATHIUS 10 15 20 &l<poCXTas OVTOOS 8<£{ VT}. .A. 005 elva1 eltreiv ot<veiv A. but this meaning is not attested elsewhere. ee~vos OQV t<al tyoo CTITOVS'Ilv tVTV)(elv -rq:. O:AAa \l\IK"Tl toncviav t<al olov tra6a1vo~eVT}v t<al O'JCV6pwtr6:~ovcrav tcp • ols ~cbpa. but I should prefer to read Anrap(.{a~a t<al 'f'VX. 14 tAap(.'' trapi. t<al o\n<h1 S1a j3{ov els O'f'1 v -ijA.iiS t<al O'f'EWS. 64. o~{XAT} yap a\rnlv J3a6ela rnaxvvev ooaelt<al tt< l<OV10p-rov. Thessalonike captured (pp. 2 1Ta6atvo~VT'Iv: 'full of emotion'. a word taken from LXX Psalm 31. t<al ypa~­ ~Ccr(A)V s~ iS~wv). the word is first found in Menander Epitrepontes 687. t<al IA.Va1 eltre Tt)v j3{J3A. J3apvv6els ol~a1 -ro tv t~ol o\Trw cp1A. 0 s~ "TO V -riis Se~1CXS A1xavov l<CXTaae{cras oos els KVKAOV. &rrep ap16~bs ~pei 5 6:Tre1potrAT}ei)S. 460-4) Kal -ijv lSeiv -r'llv f}~pav -r6-re o\n<Ee• f)~epav. 18 StaAevl<ov: perhaps 'explanatory'.twv "T010VTWV f}~eis .ov.)s if correct means 'good-humouredly'. 77.6e ~ 6 O:v6pwtros tVTpatre{s. this meaning of the verb is not classical. a~EAe1 t<al AeAVTrT}~evos ttrve6~T}V "TOV t<a6T}yoV~VOV ('ijv S~ tvape-ros 0 aVJip." tv-raiiea t~ov 6v~ov tvS6~vxov Vrrav&'f'aVTOS. -fiST} S~ t<al trpocpi)vaVTOS f}pe~a. 22 fVTpcxm. 11 tccx6TJyov1Jivov: 'abbot'.els -r{ yap t<al Se6~e6a j31j3A.-r{vos yap t<al Se1tcrea6e ot A. 16 b561JUXOV: 'lying within'. wavlt\flaVTos: see above on Psellos. 'insistently'. TrOi TrO"TE "TOTrOV "TO l<aAOV j31j3A{ov tcrr{ V. ttri)yaye t<al al-r{av tl<elvos o cre~vbs ~ovaxbs S1&Aevt<ov -ro . t~ov s~ tyl<e1~VOV. bapETos is Hellenistic. oUt< evcrr6xT}cra· ~EeT} yap TrWS. .

~01Tl0'1Jtva ~vtiJOV"l'O Kal 'I') IJiV O:cpav-ra.lev Kal IJE-rCx -rr'} v &Aooa1 v ~<p • lKav6v. ot -rij Ka6• 'I')IJCXS 1TpcflT)V rnexoop{a~ov. 15 q>ptKT~)V: 'awful'. 10 'J'cxA~tK(.EUSTATHIUS 105 -roov 6-rrAoov Vl'TepT)\Tya~ov cx\nov AaiJ1Tp6-n. -ro\is Se Kal O:AAoos els -re ~fiv Q:xpe1ooaas. 8-10 Homer Odyssey 7. 25 fs: in classical Greek ~s is constructed with a genitive. eiSes S • O:v Kal 6pvtoov "JTe-roJ. 18 8tevflxoVTo: literally 'swim' (Attic 8ta\lt(l)). Vrt'epavyal. this metaphor is not classical. 20 ola -rov Stovs Kal -rois &A6yo1s 1Tapa1Jtvov-ros.leV a~{V1J S•xaaas. 10£f.-res. originally a technical term of logic and mathematics. axpet~aas: 'made useless'. 'I')IJtpal yovv lKaval Kal ovSaiJOV o\1-re a-rpov6ol o\1-re 1T~1a1 o\1-re K6paKES. ·H Se "JT6AlS. &AA. rnaaxev oaa <plAei Spav &yplOS "JT6Ae1JOS.)s: 'in the words of the Psalm' (43.lSAalve O'KlCxV rnlKcxA\J\vovaav 'I')IJCXS \YcxAIJlK&)s. . slightly misquoted. &AAa -ro\i-ro j. &AA. alaxvVTl Kal cx\no -rov ~avtS. 23 Vrt'e~a(pecnv: 'exception'.leV T!IJrnpol. c'r>v 6 -rfis ~oofis 'I')IJiV i'}AlOS OOTO-rE1Xl~61JEVOS 10 ~J. 267-268. OVK fiv &Acx'AayiJOs ~v -rois 1')1Joov 1TAi}6ea1v. 19). 15.(l) is a fairly common word in patristic Greek. David was the military governor of the city. elO'"ITT)ST)O'CxV"l'OOV -roov OV"l'liJCxxOOV.. "JToAAij 0'1TovSij -roov 1TOAe1J{oov -rr'}v IJT)-rtpa yfiv i}0'1Taaa-ro.. ot Se xees Kal 1TPcfl1l v &Acx'Aay!Jol Kal at Ka-ra 1T6Ae1JOV J3oal Kal 6 ~v-re\ieev epovs oVKtr· fjaav. &AA. Kal s. avna-rpt\Yav-ra -ro \YcxAIJlK6v.6K-rooKa{SEKa 1-lSv 1TAtev f}!Ja-ra 1Tov-ro1TOpe0ov" -ro -rfis 1T6Aeoos aKacpos.. The mixture of classical and biblical quotations within the same sentence exemplifies perfectly the fusion of Christian and classical culture. Hellenistic. o\1-re OAAOS "l'lS opVlS -rev atpa Slevi}xov-ro. 27 cnno: 'this'. o\n< oiS • ei-re S1a -re -rov atpos 15 cnvyvev ehe Kal o-r1 cpplK-rev -?jv Kal b<e{vo•s -ro 1Tp0:y1Ja. Hellenistic.ltvoov KEvev -rov atpa. os IJfl cS:v 1TO"l'E cpvyeiv OOTOIJvVs. 26 Stxaaas: 'cut in two'. both Hellenistic. 21 aVTt~Ocx(I)V: 'enemies'. 01TEp ecpajJEv· ~V ols Ka{ "l'lS BoAtas -roov -rfis 25 b<KAT)O'laO'"l'lKf\S ~VOlK{as.le-raa-rpE"IT"l'l Kae· \nre~a{pealv ruapl61Ji}-roov "l'lVOOV. Psalm 88. Os tyyVs !s -rplclKOV"l'a "l'OVs j. Kal ot j. 20 A few sentences forming a digression are omitted here. ~vveaKooSEKO:n:J s • ~cpaVT) o\Jpea O'Kl6ev-ra".· 5--6 'on those whose brilliant armour outshone his light'. whom Eustathius criticises very severely for incompetence. o\Jx 6 IJEv 6 s· ov. 1Tap~Si)aa1 Se Kal b< 1TcxAa1as MoVO'T)S . eha 1TpoV-rpcl"JTe-ro aoo6i)va1 AV6p~ Q:xpav-ros. OAACx 1TCxV"l'ES ecpevyov Oj. rnl -rct> cx\nov ~£cpe1 "JTeaeiv. .

. avvovl. 33 avvovA<Alaev: 'healed the wound of'. they gave up the idea of taking refuge in the basilica of St. T.• bS6vros.V'Tov l<CXTacpvyf)v.~as. 'TOV 9eov (3ei. Stavet~a~eVOl. the phrase is culled from Iliad 23. &AA. 00s ~VEKEAeVOVTO ol 'TOOV av~cpev­ y6vroov yevvat6-repot. 1TOAAol napaavpf1aovrat 'TOV ~fiv 50 cb6ta~ois Kal 'Tois ~VTEVeev 1Tvty~ois). 49 ~viaKO~\Ic. oov 'TE @~a6e Kal o!s cxV70s 1TOAv-rp61TOOS rnEo-n. 41 ols KTA. 36-38 6:j3ATITO\I KTA. failure of the supply'. 698--699. 'TOV Kopvcpa{ov CTTpCX"n'}yov· Os einep @Set~ 1Tp00001TOV 'TOiS ~6pois.eevaa~eea f}~oov Te cxV-roov 45 xaptv Kal 'TOOV nepl .laa6a1. ~KVaetVTes.ooaev &v 'Ta:x_v 'To 'Tpa\i~a Tf}s n6t. ~s oSflYOs 0 CTTPa-rflYOS yeyove. ~p{~VT')S Se e~~EVOl @~oo Kal -ri}v ets 'TOV cXylOV 'TO<pOV 'TOV MvpoJ?II. 1TpoE~116evaa!JE6cx: the classical form of the verb is 1Tpo~. the city's patron. omc O:v axo£11 &1<pt(3oos 40 'To 1rav avyypcl\j. av6poo1TOS yap.106 80 ~V EUSTATHIUS 1i Ka6tcrropov1JtVT') cpvyi) omc aaVVTCXl<'TQ5. 44 &-rrocncevi)v: 'baggage'. &n. apxas.acpvpa. Kal oo6ov~V01 ~ev Kal l<OVSVAl~O~VOl Kal \i(3pe1s ov 'TOS ~V e6e1 30 KcxthO'Topov~VT'I: 'observed (by me)'. ·H~is ovv Tfis ~ev &Kpo1T61. 00s 1Tpoet<"deerral. rn Se Kal -ri}v ets htpovs 6e{ovs vao\ls (ov yap Sf}1rov6ev ~aveavev f}~as oos. 1ravroov -roov cpevy6vroov ~v 'TOiS 'TOtoV'Tots pviaKo~tvoov.l\1: a rare word. of a saint's relics.: 'in which he was somehow involved'. Kal 'TCf> oiK<t> 1rapa~e£ vaVTEs. oos Kal 1Tp01Ttcppacrrat.terra -rov vovv @xoov. . ol Se 'Tov 1Tol.eoos. here 'streaming'. Kal 1TOAAa Kal ~vp{a 1<01<0 Kal Te6ea~tVOl Kal 1TE1TOv60TES. 55 cpptaa6VT<Al\l: 'bristling'. Kal -ri}v avcxyKa{av O:rroaJ<evftv. 1TAftV ets &rov 'Ta Ka{pta. 640 and 642.e~{ov crr{cpovs aca~vov Kal p{1TTOVTES 85 'TOVs cproyovras Kal acrrr6~vo1 l. Equally unexpected is 6811y6s in the sense of 'cause'. Demetrius.eoos &noyv6VTEs Sta -rl}v -rov ~iae \iScx-ros ~s. a medical term. 43 fKS. ~<p • o{s 6a\i~a 1TEp{etatV f}~as 01TOOS a\~Ttaxo~v. o ·cpaatv. ~vSe6els -rotOV'TCf> KaKCf> Kal 1TpOs ~av-rCf> 'TO ~&~. 'T~OS 'TOV 1Tooyoovos. 46--47 ~vpoj3AVTOV: 'giving forth perfume'. Kal ~pfiv ~v ~v 'TOV'TOlS aJ?IAfl'TOV 'TlVa Kal avoV'Tcx-rov ~ ~eoopov 1T06EV -ri}v ~OxflV aKE1rrea6at Kal 1Tapaa.eov~cxt.y6~a Sta ~l<pOOV ~vp{oov ava-retvo~Jtvoov Kal 55 <pptaa6vroov &lael Kal Af}iov 1TE1TV1<Voo1Jtvov acrra:x_Veal.v 1Tpoe~.~dcxv: 'absence. Hellenistic.~a{vea6at.Eoov anepVKOVTOS ~poof}v..aev. Os 1TEpt~Se-rat ~OOVTa ~pcrrreVElV 'TOV cXylOV. a word mainly used in patristic Greek.: quotations from Iliad 4. a strange metaphorical usage.~{av. 51 1TEpt*SETcxt: 'is famous for'.

'silent'. fiv yap f) KapS{a f)~oov 1<a1o~Vfl !v f)~iv.ot: i. the vocabulary here is almost entirely post-classical. . Kyriakidis...le"Ta Kal yoopVTov 75 Kal cpaphpas. OOS yap ~1) apKEO'CxVTOOV "t'OOV VEKpoov.rc!teTJ KTi\. 1'\~as ·r.> hn-ra~avr1 Kal &va-n:6ev-n:s els h<eivo.. lexicis addendum. AOY't' ~V -re.: 'swords were brandished and daggers waved'.e. Hellenistic. eV)(6~V01 !v "t'010lrr01S elva1· 6-n: Se Kal CTJTCxet) Kcx6" f}~oov !yavpoliTo Kal 1Tapa~1cpls rn). &:AA • !vrcxiiea eV)(al Kal ~6va1 &vrrnpCXT"t"ov f3V61a1. what booty. eha KCX'Ta "t'1~flV ~vap{ov 1<EAEVa6EV'TES rn1f3f}va1 (~'!) yap ov "t'010VTOV h<eivo -ro l1T1TapiS1ov . 00s Kal 1TCxVTa -ra !vr6s.> ~.osoov Svo i\ -rpeis A){e1v Vrr01<E1~EVOVS VEKPOVs. 82 The account of his sufferings continues for several pages.) . 77 &TJ. e011T1TOV ~O'"TflKO"t'CX j. 61 ~V&tat: i... tva \IScrros !~1T1cb~a. 00s 80 -ro l1T1TiS1ov i\ ~1) E){e1v 011"01 yfls ef}ae1 1T6Sa i\ &XA.• a\rrov. 69 ~tt<pot<ai\V~1J: 'tiny hut'. f)y6~a Av&a -ro vaVcrrcx6~ov. 1Te1a6eV'TEs -re. aAfl600s Se Yva SEV"t'Epoov xe1p6voov 1TE1paacb~a. 72 ~vaplov. 1Tpoeveyt<eiv yap a\rras 1T00s 1TOTe DV.EUSTATHIUS 107 ~av6aVOV'TES ~cxt<Cxp10V "t'O 1TCx60S b<p{vo~v. &rrep f} O"EAAls hv)(e cpepovaa. S1" c'r>v 1TE~eVOOV ooSevaa 6ep~ois CxT~1~0VTOOV ai~CX0'1. 78 aoopelas: 'pile'. 73 hrrrap18tov: the indignity of the treatment causes Eustathius to· coin contemptuous diminutives.osp6~ov "t'01alrrfl S1Cxeea1s f}~as e<ievvev· h<ei Se -rov ftSfl arro-n:6evra els 65 ~vfl~flV l:1cpCxVTOV ropOV'TES. "'Q ~01 "t'OOV !vre\ieev Kcxt<OOV. eOnrrrov: here 'on a fine horse'. c'r>v ot 1TAeiovs Ka-n:crrpoo~evo1 1Tpo -rov -n:txovs ~e1vro o\1-roo 1TE1TV1<Voo~vo1. f3paxv yap h<eiae -ra y6vcrra KCx~'JICXV'TES Av -r1v1 ~1KpoKcxAVf31J Kal 10 ~pov O:p-rov arroScxt<6v-n:s. S1a aoope{as hepoov l1T1T6"t'fls 1TEP1flYO~flV. Kai ~oos ~v Kal -rov 1TOA1"r1Kov 1<cx6. Tl av D. 58 a. Maurozomes an imperial military officer from the Peloponnese.>v 6ma6foov) add.a IJE"TCX~ -roov -re 1Tpoa6{oov Kal (-roov 61na6{oov} . 81 (TCi. rnl 1TAEOV 1(01TOV axeiv "t'OV &px1E1T{O'K01TOV.6vroov: 'exuding'. 75 cni\i\ls: normally the form used is the Latin sella.lE"TCx ye Kal "t'OV Mavpo~cb~fl Kal O'KE1T"TO~VOV -r{ av ~01.ay{a~ev oos els 0'1TACxxVCX f3mvovaa J<CXl Sopch1a -ra ~V Av&ev 60 -ra s• h<ei6ev -roov 1TAevpoov eOO\Jvovro OOrE1Afl"t'1KOOs. ~e6e1AK\Ja6fl~V v.ltl. 65--66 Siphantos was a pirate who had joined forces with the Normans. e. j.

his inaugural sermon in high-flown Atticist Greek proved to be incomprehensible to the congregation. StadtmOller. els Tf)v IJT)npa Toov crocpoov IJETaVaCTTEvcraVTl. and after the Latin invaders of 1204 had expelled him he attempted to manage his diocese from the nearby island of Ceos.MICHAEL CHONIATES (c. &:A. the word is first used in the LXX. which was his cathedral. &:A. Metropolit von Athen. reprinted 1968.Aa 1<6"Trl To 3 -ra -rov ?. defending the oppressed population from tax-collectors and pirates.A • ov napa To\iTo neptcrcr6npov 1<al crocpcbnpov. moved him very little. In his old age he had time once again to study classical authors and we find him in letter 102 making arrangements to dissect pigs in order to follow anatomical descriptions by Galen and Aristotle. his letters are full of classical tags.6yov: 'my stylistic ability'. a number of them from Callimachus' poem Hekale. See also G.1222) Michael Choniates (incorrectly known as Acominatos) was a pupil of Eustathius who became a member of the patriarch's staff and in 1182 was advanced to the see of Athens. Lambros. •Aef}VT)6ev To ypex!J!Ja. To him promotion was a mixed blessing: he had failed to foresee the complete absence of intellectual life in the once-famous city. . o\rroos ov JJ6vov oVl< trn5~5ool<E !JOt Ta Tov A6yov. Athens 1879-80. Letter 8 (to Michael Autoreianos) 1. and in confessing that after three years he had scarcely been able to master the local patois he bitterly misquoted Euripides Orestes 485 in the form Nevertheless he continued to perform his pastoral duties conscientiously. Vatican City 1934. P. 1138-c. He carried on an active correspondence with Eustathius and others. and it was doubtless a prize piece in the large library that he had brought with him from the capital. Michael Choniates. he was presumably the last person to own a text of this work. Edition: S. 0:yCX1TT)Tov 5e IJCXAAOV el!Jf) Kal Afav O:ypotl<ll<oonpov. 4 ~avaCM"EVaaVTt: 'having removed. departed'. the beauties of the still intact Parthenon.

otSas ST)1TOV TOV ~e{vapxov.. 23 KaTa TOV 6cptv: cf.1.O.1oves o\ho1 t<al 1Tioves Tiis yfis T~s· tva l.lft Kal ~111. 4.. &AA" ooov 1..lOVS opooVTa t<al Sat<pvoov 1T010VIJEVOV 1Tp6cpa0'1V. 30 This description of Deinarchus is recorded in Hermogenes De ideis 2. 14-15 1rapa ToaoiiTov KTA. TetxTl t<aTEO"t<aiJ~Va t<al 10 Aeoocp6povs ~Pfll.\~V 1TeVeO'Tepovs fuelvovs.llt<pov 1Tapa1. &AAa 1TTOOXlt<ois Kal Toii-ro 1Je1.\lSij evapl61.ea6al.11) Tov &vayt<aiov S1eppooyeva1 20 Sea1.JTov C!iJ.: 'than that they should devour Christ's flock by eating (all the good) bread and not invoking the help of the Lord'. &AA& ye TOV Kpl6{vov ~111.MICHAEL CHONIATES 5 109 xeipov 1Tpoxoopeiv KEKlVSV\IEV'KEV. ots KpeiTTov i'jv KaTCx Tov ocp1v yfiv ~a6ie1v S1a j3{ov 1TaVTbs ii Tov Aaov Kvp{ov ~a6ie1 v ~v j3pooe1 cS:pTov Kal 25 TOV 6eov l. TOVS s· eV"ITopooTepovs 1..\4' eaveiv OVTlj3a{voVTas 1Tap· OO'OV 0 t<p{61VOS apTOS avvexe• TCx All. ovS~ To\!Tovs yoiiv l. wheat kneaded in the blood of the poor' .aoVTat &11a. yVVala t<al 1Tal5Cxpla t<al -rl}v g~oopov 'liAlt<{av 1. 18 Al1111Pc!c first used apparently in Theocritus 10.l 1TE1TOA10pt<Tl~V11V 1Tapa TOOV Baj3VAOOV{oov t<al t<a61JPTl~V11V cpaVTa. 6 j3avaVac.\lO'TlTOVS. 57. if I am not to mention the two or three who eat the luxury of wheat.Jt< &t<p1j300s ovS" aVTCx t<pVnTOVO'l. 25 T6TE Mn<ot Kal &pliES j3oaKt. Isaiah 65. 20-22 005 KTA. oos ot ye t<pl6ocpayovVTEs ~ t<6pov e\.1ov Tfis cpvaeoos. &AAa Kal AliJOV apTOV Kpl6{vov 5 a'!Tav(l. &AA • ftSTl t<al j3ava\laoov a\.1oa6evovs 'TlAOOTCxS TOVS ru{vov 1TOAhas evpOll. Ws Sot<eiv -rl}v 1TaAa1av tl<e{VTlv •JepovaaATll.\Tt t<al1Tpocr6ft1<11 v TOV 1Tev6ovs l.et : impersonal.lEYiO'TTlV.: 'because these eaters of barley are the rich and the fat of this land.: 'who are seen to avoid complete nudity only in so far as . 11 .1ay1.11S a\. oUt< els t<6pov Tpecpoov.. Svo 1Tov ii t<al Tpeis.1vovs &TraVTas 1Tap• oaov p&t<1& Tlva 1TaAa1a t<al aanpa oaa 6E1. Thebes and Corinth were both much more important.ea6al.1~v oov 6 1.JToov.>v: Athens was no longer a centre of trade or industry. '.1V61ov ~oVTas. 1Tapa TOO'OVTOV oUt< rn{1Tav opoo~vovs 15 yv1. 0 ~O'TlV &1TaVTas SvaTVXeis. &n . 6cpts S£ yfjv 00s &PTOV. OTl TOO'OVTOV 0'1Tav{..lft AF:yoo Tovs ~a6ioVTas aTeap 1TVpov.. 00s el l.1flTOOV.ioov 00s j3ovs cpaycrat &){vpa.\ETCx TOOV ~V 'liAlt<{CjX 1<01. 13 oTt 11~ Kal: 'but rather'.1~ s~ a\.. 22 map 1TVpov is a reminiscence of Psalm 147. ~1. 24-25 ft KTA. ot s~ ov 80 IJOVOV AliJOV TOV &Kovaal A6yov.\1. 'there is a lack of'.JSai1.1aa1v.lft rnlKaAeia6al. TOVs S~ 1Tep1Ael1TO~VOVS. Kal ).1evov ai1. 2.el ov Myoo <p1Aoa6cpoov &vSpoov.111V.16:-ra•os c:t'>1. "Eyoo 1. 1Tapa TOO'OVTOV s~ All.10a6evovs 1TcXVTOOS..lTlPCx TOOV TaAal1Toopoov \f/V)(Cxpla.JTois t<pV1l'Tea6a1 o\.. 00s etval TOVS 1.Aov •JepeiJ{av Aoy{.

ov crtS. K&i<ei6ev cxVets &va"JT7i. 35 6-rroopoq>6pov: first in Anth. ~crxa-rta lKavT) Stacr-rt. 53 o-ripTtats: 'deprivation' seems wrong in sense. av-r. ?'. ~A1T{Ses 1-1ev ~v -rois ~oocr1.-ras opvt6as. 54-55 apa KTA. -ro 1Ta!lcp6pov. apa -ra 55 cp{:h-ra-ra VllOOV O'+IOilal 1Tp6croo1Ta.. 56-57 cf. KOV<p11 llE-ravaoae\icrat Kal &AAo-re &AA11s ~1(3t. K&VTE\iesv 'I') llEYcXA11 1TOA1S tpe{1Ttov 1-1eya Kal &AAoos 6pvAOVIlevov.crts 1Te{6el -roov &AAoov O:vtapoov ~t:hav66:vecr6at. 32-34 Ecclesiastes 1. 4.. eeov -ra Kcx6°1'JilCXS 00s (3ovAe-ral Ste~O:yov-ros. v\iv s· E)(ovcrav OVTOOS 00s &1To:yyeA:h6v-roov TtllOOV f}Kovcras.-n'tp.prus 1Tap • ftlliV. cpe\i · apa 1Tpocr6Ttcroo -rov hn(3:he'+'al 1-1e 1TpOs -rov cXylOV -ri. 'I') -roov Mapcx6oovo1-10:xoov hrm't:ha-ros 1TeStas .: 'shall I mention also my hope of living to see again . Kal 1T6-re -ra\i-ra. a reminiscence of Jeremiah 6.. T'ftv Kpa-r{CT71lv oVI< ots• o-re.S yi. it should be the continuation of his friend's prayers which helps him to forget his troubles. . &Ma -r{ -ra\i-ra cp{:hos 1-101 Ste:he~a-ro 6vll6s. an extension of the Attic adverbial idiom (o-nv 45 q>VO'T\TrlP: 'one who works the bellows'. Theocritus 4. -ro eVI<paes. 1T"t'oox'li -rov vovv. 321 (date uncertain). cpe\i. ~etcrt. 1T"roox'li -ro 40 croo1-1a.va1 Ka-ra -rovs &(3e(3a{ovs Kal 1T:h6:v. 4. 7. ets -rov aloova fCT711KEV.." 'I') 1-1ev yap xaplS -ri.110 MICHAEL CHONIATES sva-rvxovcnv ot -rAT}I.. yevea Kal 1Tept-rT'ft T'ftv crocp{av oixe-rat. ov llOXOlp01TOlOS. ye Ka-roo-rCx-r. Pal. m. cpacr{v. anptooats 'firmness' would perhaps be better.:hee Se 'I') &llovcros. elSes -r'i) :h6y~ T'ftv -rov 'I'JilE-repov :hQ:xovs Ka-r6:oaacrtv· ~1-1a6es T'ftv KA1lpovoll{av TtllOOV. 'I') llVCT711PlOO"rlS •EAevms -i}v o-re. ov 45 xa:AKe\Js..s 'I') cx\rni.yevea .. 29 !~tm: q>VO'T\TrlP c!rno -rrvpos 'KTA. S.ropeVe-rat Kal yevea ~pxe-rat. -i}v Se &pa K&l<elvo -rov •EKKA11cnaaaov crocpov . -ra\i-ra Si} -ra xees Kal 1Tp0 -rp{711S E-r1 croo~61-1eva. 85 6 eVycXA11VOS TietpaleVS. 5.va1 -rpocpt'tv llaa&evovcra. 42. oaepyoo llEV"t'Ol -r~V 00s 1Tapa 6eov -re 1Tla&evoov 50 Se~acr6a1 Kal oos 1T6Aat 1Tpos &rrav -rotoO-rov -rapaxooSes Kal 6v1-1a:hyes hotlla~6!-1Evos. vcp.. eappoov Se Kal &A:hoos ~l -rais -roov <plAOVV"t'OOV VllOOV 1Tpocrevxais.loves. 6 lleAlXPOs •yl-111-r-ros.crat llaKp6-repov ft 1Tep 6 66:va-ros. ~cp • 'lis ~oo v\iv Kcx&JlllEvos cx\rniv SoKoo 1Ta-relv T'ftv &Kpav -rov ovpavov· 'I') Se <plAOAOYOS M{V. oov 'I') oaep. 'I') Se yt. -ro 61Toopocp6pov.. 36 i'jv 6n: 'of former times'. ~~tAme Kal cpva. ov StacpvACrrt-010 \iyn'ls -re Kal eOOvllOS· (one of the standard textbooks on rhetoric which well-educated Byzantines were familiar with). &:AA•. -re •AKp61TOAlS cxv-r.S -ro\i 6eo\i ~ocp {as va6v.

Rhod. 4. Treu in BZ 1. KCX"t"{}EtlJEV ovv els Tt)v 1TEphTVO"TOV eeaacxAoV{KT)V. 1881. for a general account of the two see H. 213. 361-6). good deal of satire on medical theory.TIMARION (twelfth century) Timarion is the main speaker in the anonymous dialogue which bears his name.und neugri~chischen Literatur IV.t Ap.LCrpTVpos: according to tradition he was a proconsul martyred in 306. F. On the way home he falls ill. The main event there is his trial before the judges of Hades. Analekta der mittel. There is only one MS. In this case the linguistic competence of the imitation must be rated a little above the average. . Tozer. the patron of the city. Some irreverent remarks provoked a sharp comment from Constantine Acropolites (see M. where he describes the fair and religious festival held on October 26 in honour of St. (Vaticanus gr. 3-10 The festival of St. 1892. in the extract which follows the author has the distinction of describing a scene of some interest which he had witnessed himself. 233-70. JHS 2. Edition with German translation and notes: A.6T)lJT)Tpfov TOV lJOPTVPOS • Kal etxev 1 m:phruo-rov: according to LSJ the first occurrence of this word is a.ris was composed in the early fifteenth century. Like Lucian the author uses many words foreign to Attic prose. after an adjournment the court upholds this view and Timarion is allowed to return to the world. the festival in his honour lasted three days. Leipzig 1860. a popular and much imitated author. There is a freshness about the work which makes it one of the most attractive pieces of Byzantine writing. 2 J. The book contains a. 87). 1Tplv il Tt)v ~opTt)v hncrri'jvat. It is a satire in the manner of Lucian. dies and makes a descent to the underworld. Demetrius. A rather similar but inferior satire called the Maza. Timarion's former tutor Theodore of Smyrna successfully pleads on his behalf that he was brought down to Hades before his destined time. at least in 'the syntax and the general construction of the sentences. Ellissen. who surprisingly include Asklepios and Hippokrates. Demetrius TIMAPIQN. The hero makes a journey to Thessalonike.

since the optative had long since disappeared from the living language... rnl0'7CxO'flS ~{Vfls els -rf)v -rr6i\1v aVets av-rEifavi}i\6o1Jev· Kal -rots 25 6eio1s -rEIJEVeat Kal lepois -rrpoaei\66v-res. 7 KCXTa MCXK£Sova: se.1 etc. 26 "'t'TTYIIV~V1"1V: either 'established. 00s ev-raVea Kal llfl epooaa -rov •t-rr-rroi\V. 9 ~taycXy!<eta: Iliad 4. 3. aw~chtov is classical.. on the assumption that the author had a sufficient command of the syntax of the optative. 7.>s. despite her anxiety to preserve stylistic purity. el Se Kal SflpevelV (3ovi\fl6e{flS.l. 4 avocpcxyetv: lexicis addendum. 26. 16 &ea~vos: lexicis addenda.IJlV -r6 -re l. 6 'A~tov: the Vardar. . yi'jv. 15 6"1t'AtTaywyi'jaat. but he does not attempt to find a substitute for 'Bulgarian' in 7. 45. 10 . ea-rl Se 6 -r6-rros i\6yov rntelKOOS a~lOS · yeoopyois -rraVTo{oov a-rrepiJCx-roov &vaSo-rtKOs &lla Kal -rei\ea1ovpy6s · a-rpa-rtOO. Even Anna Comnena permitted herself the use of the name Vardar (1. xoopa Kal 6:6a1JVOS Kal 61Jai\f) ~ -ra IJCxAlCT-ra. Kal -rf)v 6cpeti\oiJEVflV 711JtlV &-rrove{IJav-res. -rrapa -rf)v -rrai\atav MaKESov{av Kal TIEAi\av KcX-relCTl. 653 etc. an assumption which cannot be made in the case of most Byzantine authors. ch1 lltl -rrepl 5 i\6yovs -rroveiv eixoiJEv. traditional'. 215ff. Kal KVO'l 6oov~a1.os -roov Ka-ra MaKES6va 6 lleyta-ros· 0s ~ -roov Bovi\yaptKoov 6poov ap~CxiJEVOS Kat'Cx IJlKpCx Kal SteO'TT)K6-ra peVIJCx-rla. 15 Kal Se~10s 6-rri\tTayooyflaat. cpa{flS O:v. Kal (3ai\{alS ~CccpOlS ty){phyano. 7. Here and in the next line the author uses classical names. "01-lflPOS av eT-rrev. eha Kal els IJlaycXyKelaV -rrpc)s -rij Kcx66Sct> avvay61JeVOS.vs -re IJ€yas -re". a-rpa7flyois f)Sioov avv-ra~a1 Kal-rrapa-ra~al cp&Aayyas. 13-14 ~vrrrrr&aa~at: first in Plut. (av) is to be inserted. Marius 25.IStov: from Lucian Nav. or referring to the erection of tents and stalls at the fair. Kal OlrrOO Kal fJIJeis KaT • ~eivov -rois -re TJIJE-repots Kal-rra-rpci>o•s ~evo1s f)Seoos avvStayay6v-res Kal avvSflpevaav-res 70V -rrpo -rf)S top-rf)S Katp6v.112 TIMARION i. 453. 18-19 Eur. 3). not in classical prose. Hipp. 11 fi<StSoi: a form known from Hdt.ov fJ <l>a{Spa ~Vllrlt"CxO'al-rO (av) eVcpVOOS. -r6 -re O'OOIJCrt'lOV \ryu:.jiV)(iSlOV eV6VIJoos..ats f)Svs ~vm-rra­ aa0"6at. llflSev •• Staa-rrooiJEVflS -rfls cp&Aayyos· OlrrOOS 6:At66s E0'71V . as at 61. 10 Iliad 2. 24 aVTE"'t'aV1'}A60IJEV: lexicis addendum. OCrroo IJeV 6 Kat'Cx -rov •A~lOV S){el xoopos. 20 4.. rnel Se -ra\rrov fJIJlV -re apyeiv Kal 'JovSa{OlS avocpayeiv. Pal. Kal &lla -rov Katpov ~vStS6v-ros. -rrapa -rf)v e~oo -rrvi\oov lrflYVVIJEVflV -rravf}3 'f'VX. -rro-ra1J6'>V Se oV. Kal Kat'Cx -rf)v EyyVS -rrapai\ov eOOVs El<StSoi. as in Anth. 12--13 O'it'Ep~errwv &vaSOTtKos: quoted by LSJ only from Cornutus ND 28. 80.. ~ -rov 'A~1ov -rro-ra!Jov &Jipas evEKEv ~Ko!Jev.

Ka"Ta 'T1lv aft"' yvooJ.. 32 fi<Aa66~J£vos: LSJ quote only from poetry. not Attic.a J. Atyoo~"' OV\1 O:p~cXJ.ltxp1 Kal ~KV61KflS.l0\10\1 mrr6x6oov OXAOS Kal l6ayevf}s. eloo6e1 yap ~"' •Cil S11'}yeia6a1 J. 1TpQs 'TO olKEtov aVE101\I ?j6os. 45 5.1vf\a6a1. avppet yap rn• alrrft"' ov J. TIMAPIQN. Kal M1Af}O"f01S 'Ta TiaV100\11a· yfvE"Ta1 s~ Kal 1Tap0: MaKeS6a1 J.a&s ·A•ptos vlov. cbs Kal 40 S1aVVK'TEpe\iaa1 O"VJ.11Ta27 'six days before the festival'. Kal W\1. hence "l~TJPES here means 'Spaniards'.TIMARION 113 yvp1v S1e•pfJ3o~v· apxE"Ta1 S~ 1rpo !~ 'Tiis Aop'Tfis 'l'}~poov· Ai}ye1 s~ Ka'TCx .l6vevaev... &-rrapaf'Tf}'Ta Kal 'TVpavvfSos Eyy\ts· Kal oVI< ~vov 1Tapa1'Tf}aaa6a1 'TO brhayJ. KaJ. KY/liQN. but we should almost certainly read ~J.liV.ltpos 1repl 'Tfis 1TaV1'}y\tpeoos S11'}yf}0"6:J. which is unsatisfactory at the beginning of a narrative. &XA. ~"should probably be deleted. 37-38 Iliad 17.. S0-52 The names are expressed in as classical a manner as possible. /ltSo1Ka.11Teaei'Ta1 'I'}J. 1'! 6E\rdpa in Modern Greek). which has now become the main verb.levos.O: 1TcX\I'T06e\l Kal 1Ta\I'Toios.1apfoov A<XV"Tov eytVE'To. llf}Stv '1'1 Ka. •Eop'T1l Si} ~0"'1'1 "Ta ilf}J... aV-rfKa 1Tepl &pxfis Kal •tAovs cxV-rfis ~ll"'1'lJ.loov T1J. oos eo1Kev. 1<Vpla: modern 1<Vptcoc:f}. OOa-rrep hla66J. .lf}V. J. &XA.lOV1'}S &pxfis Kal •tAovs J.I0\1 (Winterbottom).1EYt6ovs "Te cxV-rfis Kal AaJ.O: Tf 1r6:6oo. •a ~"' J.1. Mvaoov "Toov 1rapo1so KOV\I'Toov yt\11'} 1Ta\I'ToSana . but in late Greek applied to the Roman province Moesia. 28 -n'!v 6EV"dpav Tfls 1<Vplas: 'Monday' (cf.. 41 6tacncev&Z. 'it is not for me to . 80 K&1Te1Sav Aa61. '. 48 l6ayevf}s: found in Homer and Ionic prose. cpfAE KvSfoov.lf}V S1aaKEVa~ova1 'T1lv Sn)Y11a1v. 6EV"dpa aa~~chov in LXX Psalm 47 (title). it recurs at 107.. whereas in ordinary Byzantine usage it meant 'Georgians'. efTJ: classical syntax requires~. cbs f}Sf} 1TEp1ypmvoov mrrfKa Kal . &XA.IO""Tpov J. 61Toi6v 1TO'T• O:v eif}. •EAAT)voov 'TOO V &iraV'Taxov. 45 6-la Hase: 6~ MS.ovm: the active is not classical. 8 Wilsoa ..11Tp6'T1'}as 'TOS.ltact> 1Tapefs· Ka6a s. this use of 'Tl'po is common in Hellenistic Greek.lEYfO"'Tf} "Toov 1TaV1'}y\tpeoov. •a •oov cpfAoov 'T01a\i'Ta. but the author's mistake need not be corrected.lE\101. 49 Mvawv: originally of Mysia.OVK D. &pf}tqllA0\1 MevtAaov".lf\S &~1ooaeoos Kal 'Tiis aV-rov \rrroaxtaeoos. 1TAf}6ovs 'TE Kal 1TAOVTOV Kal oovfoov 1TOv:-t"OOV.~a1 Tiavaef}va1a. ooCTrrep ~"' •A6rprr. 43 ~vev: an extension of the accusative absolute.1EJ. TI<XA1v 6 cpfAos 'I'}J. ei ao1 1TE16ofJ."' SEV"lipav 'Tiis KVpfas eOOVs.li}'Tp1a.1EVOS 'Tiis ~J.la.J.."' S1f}y1)0"1\l.

OV'TlTrAeVp'fl 'TlVl StCXO"'TOO"El Ste~oSov ~V IJtO"'fl TrACX'TEicxv rup\/vov'TES. but Hdt. 29. 'ljv Se 'TCx ~v cx\rrij 'TotaSe · ~IJTroptKcxl aKT) vcxl aVTmp6aw-rrot. eyoo Se.1'1 V 8<cp\ryr:\ &6ECX'TOV.. 66 (3. 58 &etcrrov: post-classical in this intransitive sense.j) TrPcXyiJCX'Tl. lovA. 66 eyxapcnai Hase: eyxapata MS. uses the Ionic form in a different sense. 487b21. 9. 54-55 This may be an indication of the writer's own origin. where it is a variant reading. Kcxl -ljv 'TO TrPCXyiJCX rnlElKWS O:~t66eov.x SoKeiv Kcxl 'T(. ~apatcx{ TrOV 'TWV O"'TO{XWV rnpcx1 aKT)VCXl TrCXpe-rrf}yVVV'TO. Svo IJeV 'TOVS O"'Tofxovs eTvcxt 'T(. Kcxl 'TOV -rrpcXyiJCX'TOS IJi}Trw -rre-rretpcx~Jtvos. WS CXV IJf} 'Tl -riJv ~IJflV 01. 74 lov:A~: 'centipede' or 'wood-louse'. vfl "'I'ftv o-ftv 6:y6:Tr'T')v. Avat'TCXVWV KCXl KeA'TWV 'TWV rnEKelVCX "'AA-rrewv· Kcxl avAA. ev Se ~Cj)ov 'Tij eec.ov yevta6cxt 'TOV 6e6:'TpOV KCX'TCx 'Tcx\rrOV 6eCX'Tf}s. YPCXIJIJCxS eTvcxt 'TOVTOVS ~~ OV'Tt6hwv O"'TlYIJWV pvefacxs rnl 1JCXKp6v. &re KCXTrTrcxS6KflS 8< 'TflS Vl'repop{ov. An. .v crljv &y~v: the noun is post-classical.a:~ews -rraptaov. etves: not in classical prose. &:1\A. 'l'TcxAWV. Nicander Theriaca 266 etc. and the oath belongs strictly to a Christian context. rnl IJCXKpov s' o\IK ETl.T)cpws. but it does not enable us to identify him. 68 6A. 72 'Tt'apT)PTflpJ. rnl Hase: '\rrro MS. 71 'Tt'ap{a~: first in Polybius in this non-rhetorical sense. ~s . 19. ~p'Tt'VaTlKOs is found at Aristotle Hist.f}j3ST)v el-rreiv. O"'TOtXT)Sov 8< -rrcxpcxAA. 57 etcrrpov: 'spectacle' as at I Ep..Itvats: this compound of &PTaoo is post-classical. The usual meaning is 'parallel'. 73 vi} -n.o TrVKvov cx\rrwv 0:-rrtSoov Kcxl To Tiis .ov TrT)YvVIJEVCXl. ~cp • 4) KCXl avt)et V rnl -riJv avyKEliJEVT)V 'Tij TrCXVT)yVpEl &Kpwpetcxv. ~K Tiis &Kpwpefcxs aKOTrOVIJEVCfl 'TO St6:ypCXIJIJCX Tiis O"KT)Vwaews.f}A. rni IJCXKpov ot O"'TOiXOl Sn1KOV'TES. rnl -rroal 'Texis TrCXPflP'TfliJtVCXlS ~cxpa{cxts wa-rrep rnepetSOIJEVOV.. KCXl cxV'TCXl IJeV O"'T01XT)S6v. ooKE6:vetot 6ives tmcxs Kcxl 6ewpovs rnl 'TOV IJcXp'TVpCX TrtiJTrOVO"l" 'TOao\i-rov cx\rr(. 'Tt'AeVp~: 'between the parallel lines'. 10 Benner-Fobes).. ~J3ovA. 65 To\rrovs Hase: TOVTO\S MS. LS J cite from prose only Heliodorus 10. Kcxl 'Tij ~)\JIJ'IJ 'TOV -rrA.ct~ 'TO -rrpay!Jcx elKa~etv hnjet. KCXl Tr<XV'TCX Kcx6{acxs ~WIJT)V KCX'TCx O)(OAf}V.61JflV oA. . 62 &vn4.114 TIMARION 55 60 65 70 vwv. Cor. 69 &~t66eov: quoted by LSJ only from Alciphron 3..J31}pwv.. ~IJO{. eT-rres cS:v.j) Tiis S6~s KCX'Ta "'I'ftv E\/pwTrT)v -rrep{ea'Ttv. &:1\A • &Koij IJ6V'Q -rrcxpetA.j) TrVKVCj) KCXt -rrcxpiact~ Tiis O"'Taaews· OAKOV yap -ljv lSea6cxt aKT)VWV. 52 OOKeavetos: post-classical.it6ovs "'I'ftv -rrapoSov Vl'rcxvo{yoV'TEs. wa-rrepel O"IJlKpO'TCX'TOl -rr6Ses ~pTrVO"'TlKOiS OAKOiS -rrcxpecpVOV'TO.Kois: the coils of a serpent.

Kal ooa ~~ 'JTai\{cxs els •Ei\i\flVOS ~J..lCx~ElV rn1jel J.lEl -ri}v .lirOplKal vf}es KOJ.oov yeVfl Kal 90 . oo cpli\o.lCrrOOV EJ.roi\i\oov flJ.lOOl Kal vflJ..lflV. 82 Note the classical names again.la. OTE J. lO'Tovpyovaal TOOV rn{. ~. Kal Aiyv. ~ \!O"TEpov KaTlO. usually for a religious service.l{~ova•v eJJ. OC 340 is the only classical example.laO'lV avSpoov TE Kal yvvalKOOV. &i\i\a TaVTa J.lflKel O"J. 83 la-rovpyovaat: Soph.lOl .w ~ Tiis &Kpoope{cxs !eeaa6:J.roov. irCxAlV rnl -ri}v irOAlV i}yOJ.rai\al MaKESov{av Kal Seaaa85 i\ov{Kflv KOJ. oaa ~V V<pCxO'J. 97 avva~oos: post-classical for 'gathering of people'.lOl.lev i\VI<oov.lflV Kal 6eaJ. supply ~eeaaa­ J. g. In the next phrase the reference is probably to the manufacture of silk in Thebes and Corinth in the middle ages. Kal KVVES j3aV~OVTES. Kal 80 oaa ~ BolOOT{CXS Kal nei\o.raVToiov eiSos. 6Te Se Kal cpoopoov .ravf)yvp1v.lVKOOJ..repl -ri}v aKpoope•av i}SpaaJ. 19.rep•J. and Byzantine authors often use the tense.rp6j3aTa j3AflXOOJ.ropo•· E\J~e1vos Se .lirOOV ~KET6ev Kal oihos KOO'J. 112. e.r.roi\i\oov t. y{VETal s· rnl Tpeis a\1Tfl .llOl. XOlpol ypvi\i\{~OVTES.IT)V.lET{~OVTES. 88 KCXTtC:. 89 fiSpaal-\tv(t): post-classical.roi\i\a avve1acpepe1..llovoov ery6VToov Ta ~ei6ev eryooytJ.lJ.llYflS ~~a\a{oos TOTS ooa{ J. to avoid using non-Greek words.. 6. j36es J. hence 'ascetic.rovvflaov. 84 6:1-\tac.v: more accurate would be Ka-reA6oov.>v: the Byzantine meaning is 'cloth for decoration of an altar'.lirAeOOS yeyova. Kal OirOOS ti ~K TOVTOOV J3oti O'VJ.lflV. epOOTl 6eaJ.lev \!O'TEpov KaTloov hrfli\6ov Kal SleaK6irflaa · ETl Se . monk'.>v: 'Nazirite'.rpc)s To Bv~6:VT1ov Ta ~avTov SlairEJ. here 'cloth'.rav{a Kal •HpcXKi\e1o1 a-riii\a1. .rTOS. .lEVOl.rol XPEJ.r6Scxs. rnoVTal yap Kal OVTOl TOiS Sea. 94 rnel S~ Hase: rnetS"i) MS.ri\oov TO KO:i\i\lO'Ta. an alternative technical term is ayp\llTV(a.TIMARION 115 Os ~v oi\KCj) .llKpcnerrovs Viro yaO"Tepa Kal TI"VKvovs \nrocpa{ve• Tovs .ravvV)(ovs Sla75 78 1raVTotov eiSos: the verb in this main clause is omitted by a simple ellipse. Et Se Kal Ta lvSov ~flTels.lEVa.rpayJ.>s: first cited by LSJ from Alexander of Aphrodisias in Metaph.ri\fl6fl 6avJ.r6TalS. Na~tpa(c. . 95 ytyova: a pluperfect would have been in order.r.lOV haipe.lEO'OOS ~ TOOV xoopoov . rn(lTAc.rpc)s -ri}v .. •ta. Kal TaVTa J.roi\EJ. 87 Russian furs and caviar are meant.rel Se TaVTa o\!Too 95 KaTO axoi\t..lEV OJ.lCrrOOV hepoov Kal TTlS lepe(s Sfli\aSti avv6:~eoos. 79 vn11aaw: originally 'threads'. 97-98 Sta\IVKOEpeVaets: 'vigils'. 91 l~ata(oos Hase: l~cnala MS.lev~ Ta Toov ~c:. .l{~OVO'lV" ai\i\a Kal <l>OlV{Kfl .v !eeaO'CxJ. 162. avvetacptpew in classical Greek means 'to join in paying monetary contributions'. .rpoarnlil"TEV" t.

01. OVK OA{yoov s~ 1TE~OOV -rltv 1TOIJ.oV 1Tape{1TETO. 1TOAAOOV s~ Na~tpa{oov VrrO Svo xopois Statpov~voov. another is o~Aot in 119.66v T10'1 'TWV ~ TOV Sf}!J. t<al ocrov ~ 'TOV Sf}!J. 4). Diss. 104 Iliad. 6av!J. Greifswald 1912.116 TIMARION \1\IK"lCpeVOClS.1.cp{ots -rltv 1Teptj3oAft v t<cxAAVVOIJ. 1. •E1rel S~ 1rpo 'Tfls elcr6Sov ~oopos 1jv 6 Sf\!los.os • Hcbs. 105 ·ollflPOS av el1TEV.>pos: 'in charge of the ceremony'.oov 11T1Ttoov. first in Soph. 117 He cannot resist allusions to Homer. 108 1rpotAevaw: post-classical.a. vat<1 v6{ v'i> cS:v6et 61J. 6 'Tfls xoopas 'liYEIJ.). O'flptt<ais t<al t<aTacrr{t<Tots 6:1J. fr. 120-122 Odyssey 6. 2.as 1jt<e t<6!las.T1TJV Sta01<EVa~6VTOOV t<al T1} v 1rpotAevow.EVOS. 115 'T{ av l<aTcxAEyOliJ. 1TEptepyo'Ttpoos 'TCxs t<6!las [Scbv • t<6:S • ~ t<CxpflTOS 1i cpvcrts aV'Tois OOA.aaT1}v ~VE1To{ovv T1}v 1Tp6oSov.~)V rnl TOV veoov 1Tapay{veTa1. 4. 1TOAAOOV teptoov. 420. 118 &'-'~lots: not in classical prose.ETCx Sopvcpop{as 1TOAAf\S 1Tpoioov t<al Aa!l1Tp6Tfl'Tos.CcpTVpl. 1oo &pxtetc.OV &AAo 1TAf\6os. 2.VCTTat t<al 'Tp6cpt!J. 'To ll~V oi5v cS:O'fl!J. 230f. .OV cptAo6ecbpoov· t<al ocrov crraStaiov StCcO'Tfl!J. 477. 109-110 KapaSoKovvns: common in Hdt. first in Herodas 1. 167f.EVOl.V'i>S{av 1TAflpoVVTOOV T4S 100 !J. This and a few other words in the passage occur also in Heliodorus' description of a procession at Delphi (Aethiop. cS:vSpes "'Apeos ~vvcxA. fvvvxa ~v Srt Taii-ra t<al V1To cpoo'Tl t<al AaiJ.{oto IJ. t<apa110 Sot<ovVTes ocrov o\Trroo T1}v 1Tapovcr{av aV-rov. ~1Tl 'TOVTOlS 6 apxtepe\Js tcrraTal apxt6toopos. oi5Ao1 'TcXS t<o!J.1T6:St 'TEAOVIJ. and late prose. Tode. which may well have been in the author's mind (H. yijeos first in Epicurus fr. IJ. 1ToAA.l. t<al Tatrn:l O'VVT)v-nit<ElV 'T'ij 6eoop{~. ooov ~~ &ypott<ias. de Timarione dialogo byzantino. ~av6ol 'TcXS t<6!las • elnes av 'TO 120 'TOV 1T01f1TOV. 101-102 Sta-rcrTT61JEvos: active in classical Greek. quoted also in Heliodorus 3. avve~flA. 111 CTTaStalov: postclassical. 423. 23. 1TOVTES 6:t<!l6:~0V'TES. 114 &ypotK(a: 'country'. 7. the classical meaning was 'chief of an embassy to a shrine'.. ot St ye Aoy6:Ses aV-rov crricpos av el1T01 TlS 1TEAaTWV. 1TOV'TES crcpptyooV'TES. 112 6eoop(<jt: 'procession' or perhaps 'spectacle'. t<al yfl6os ov 'TO "t'VXOV €crxov ~ 'To\!Tov Srt 'Tov 6e6:!laTOS.Eva.o{as. 35-3. 36f. '"H!los S • 'l'}ptytveta cp6:Vf1 poSoS6:t<TVA. t<al Tt)v VIJ. o{6: 'TlS Tt)v !opT1}v t<a6tcrroov 00s elt<bs t<al nepl 'TOOV 1Tpat<Ttoov StaTaTT6IJ.as.

first as a variant reading at LXX Genesis 1a.: does it mean 'arching their necks frequently to display their decorated harness' ? 129 &AJ. 126 ~v: almost instrumental.l10V. 134 aycxA). without any of the pejorative sense found in Attic. 143 (rnl) "trAOVr'!l KOJ. TIMAPIQN.: the ultimate origin of this encomiastic topos may be Eupolis' famous words about Pericles as an orator (fr. oV'ro1 !lSv o~v o\1-roo 1t'poa{aa1v. oo KaAA1a-re T11-1aptoov. KYLllQN. 125 iS6KOVV: Heliodorus a.lOVO"a1 Kal XCcP1TES 1rpohpexov Kal ~hpexov. 131 Sou~: many administrative terms were borrowed from Latin.lflV. Pratum spirituale.lan: not in classical prose. "'ritv ~VO"l<flVOOaaaav xapj. The genitive of the object after avvt~vat is rare. 'T{S -re oV'ros ~v Kal 'T{VOOV ~<pVS. 141 "trOAV"trpcxyJ. PG 87.TIMARION 117 •hnro1 Se 'TOVT01S •ApaJ311<ol yavp1ooV'1Cs \nreCTTpoovro. El1re o~v. oo(T1t'ep \nro-rep1r6!lEvo1 'Tij -rf\s 1TEp1J3oAiiS cpaVT)'T{Cj(. very common in Byzantine authors. as is normal in Byzantine Greek. 273. a.l(i)v would be the Attic idiom. Kal1t'AOVT<:t> Koj. IJS'TCcpcno1 'TOO 1r6Se Kal 'Tois cXAj. OOT} ~V xpvac. Kal 'TO -rf\S cXyaAA1Cc<Te(A)S 1TA{Ja185 j.. 133 ~\lal<T}vooaaaav: rare.taaeoos: another word from the LXX. LSJ cite Iliad 1.loov. Kal S6~ J3pev6v6llEVOS • Kal yovv ~~ cxV-rov ii 1repl cxV-rov 1TaAa1ol A6yo1 cpep6!lEV01 123 A very contorted expression for 'they were riding on'.-ros -rov Sea-rr6-rov. ~ 1t'OOS cS:v ao1 S1flYfl<Ta{j. -rltv ~~ apxiis 'l)llOOV a~1ooaeoos ~~SXOilEVOS. Kal apyVpct> 'TOVS XaA1 vovs 1t'Ep1EAOil1TEV.lOvfJV 'Tij \IN)(ij llOV 'TO'TE. Kal 6 Sov~ bnJe1 YaAflV4l 'T4) 1<1111'llla'T1. 139 ~~6(JEVOS: the compound is post-classical.lacn Se1KWV'1CS 00s &tpos ~cp{evrm 125 Kal -n. ·o 'TE yap ~ 1TO'TpOs 1t'Cc1t'1TOS aV'Tq> 'TCx 1TpOO'Ta cpepoov 'TOOV ~v 'Tij !leyCcA1J <l>pvy{CjC 1TpOO'TOOV. 140 8. 131132 ~poo-res K-rA. 'l)pooiKov Kal eOSa11-10V ~a"Tepoo6ev. cpavrrrfGt: first in Moschos. Kal 1t'Vl<VCx 'TOVS 'TPOXfJAOVS 1t'Ep1eA{'T'TOVTES 'TOiS (T'TlAJ3001lO<T1V.1Evot: lexicis addendum. 127 wo-rep"tr6(. epoo-res Se aV'Tov Kal j. Kal 'TaAAa l<O'TCx !lEpos S1fJYfl0"01.v yiiv OOrOCTTpecpoVTa1· ~SOKOVV OVV1EV01 Kal 'Ti'js 1TEp11<E1ilfVTJS AOil1t'PO'TTl'TOS. 94) "trEt6oo 'TIS bm<a&t~ev rnl -roTs xetAt:atv. 7 ehres O:v Kal -rcw flnrov cxVrOV avvttvat 'Tfis oopat&n. 128 Kal "trVKVa K-rA. 124 ~apatot: the correct Attic is ~toopot as at 109. KvS{oov cp{A'TaTe. a065a. 144--145 This is a typically enigmatic way .~ov{}aas: 'by inquiry'. 12. To 1-1ev o~v yevos cxV-rq>. 1<a6oos ~ 'TOOV elS6'Toov 1t'OAV1Tpay!lov{Jaas &KftKoa. b e\rt'Ccl<'Tct> 1<1vf)ae1 Kal cXAilO'T1 1ao a-rpa"T100'T1K4) -rltv 1ropetav 1T010V!lEVo1· Kal S1CcAe11llla 1-111<pov ~· 'TOVT01S. Kal 01TOOS 0"01 l<O'TCx "'ritv oSov 'Tij 6eCjC 1rpoamae.

-ra 1Tpoo-ra K&l<eiVT}v -roov 1Tpoo-r(CTToov yevoov cpepo!leVT}V..>v Rase: Alvetavc. npo'ljel llEV ovv. Kai 005 t~ •1-rai\fas Kai -roov Alve1aSoov j. Kai -rij 6vyCXTpi "'TCxVT06ev "TO acr\ry'Kp170V m • eVyeve(q: J3paJ3eVCTaVTa. Byzantine noble families claimed Roman origin.J'aVTa Kai CTTpa"TT}y(als -rais 1-leyfCTTals t~acreev-ra. London 1968. 165 Ka\ . quoted by LSJ only from Achilles Tatius 1. 6av'-'aaT6s: quoted from Aristotle Eth."'TaAOlCx TS "'TOi\i\a TS elSOOs.lO -riis crvvexefas -rov Sp61lOV Stai\el"'TOVCTT}S..: perhaps reminiscence of Lucian Demonax 67. 156 aaVy1cptTOV: Hellenistic. Nic.118 145 TIMARION 150 155 160 rn(KAT}V a\rr(i) -n'}v apxcnoi\oy{av i)vtyKav-ro. 12. 1129 b 28. ai\i\ • rnav(ooj.'' OJ\A. Kai J3acni\eoov t~ aillCXTOS 'KCXTlovcrav. 166-167 xap01t'OtO\ KTA.EVVhw a6i\ov &pe-riis CTTpCXTloo-rlKf}s &"JTT}vtyKCXTo. who had a distinguished career as a general. 0 'KaAOs &vecpaVT} Sov~. the word had earlier been used to translate the Latin consulship. Kai -rf}s 1Tpo6Sov ~~oolleea. Kai CTTpCXTT}yeiv -roov &Ai\oov E\JSot<lllOO"TCXTOS. o Se ye 1Tcx-ri}p ov jlOVOV . 164 'the continuity of the procession being broken'.leV aV61s rni -rov -rov i\6yov elpllOV. -rf}s oSov npOT}yovj. 165 9. 152 AlvetaSc. 146 Odyssey 2. -ro yevos -roV-ro. Kai j. lCTTOpT}eEVTa j. 188 etc. He can be identified as Michael Palaeologus. for that family see D.lacrt'Os oos 'lilliv ~ivos -r(i) -r6-n: "'Tapava-rhai\KE· . For this case see Nicephorus Bryennius p. .le-raJ3av 1Tpos Tl'}v KoovCTTav-r(vov "'Toi\i\ois \rrroi. KCXTa -r1 SlCxCT"TT}j. 00s ecpT}V.lOl. -rcxU-r• O:pa Kai Tl'}v 1<ai\T)v OIJ. 148-149 Michael's father George married Anna Dukaina. 6.a Kai 'KCXTO xeipa yevvaios.E'Tcxt: literally 'whisper softly'. 3-4. ooCT"'Tep &"JToppayev-ros 1<Cxi\oo.J'16vpf~e-ra1.lEyCxi\oov.oVKoov ovcrav ern6yovov.ll'Kpa ~ j.>v MS. (f)pooiKov Se. 153 VrrO'f't6vpil.lEV ovv i')KT}K6e1v ~ -roov -r6-re 1Tap6v-roov Kai elS6-roov -ri}v Ka-r• aV-rov apxaloi\oy(av· oi\(ya fCTOOS ~ "'TOi\i\OOV. for others Polemis pp.: Genesis 49.levov • Ka(. ~pa~aaVTa: 'guarantee'? 158 apxcno:Aoy{av: here no more than 'history'. 00s 0 'KOlpOs tS(Sov -r6-n:. 13.xapO"'Toloi ol 6cp6ai\!loi of indicating that he belonged to the famous family of the Palaeologoi. The Doukai. I. 6:Atya KTA. -rcxU-ra j.) -rov Se ye -raV"TT}s "'TCXTepa -r(s &yvoei -roov "'Tav-roov. 154 wcrrdcns: 'high government offices'. Polemis. \rrra-reia1s tll"'TPei. CTTicpos "'TeACXTOOV. . Kai ooe· ECT"'Tepos ove· ~Ci)os o\i-roo 6avj. Anna Comnena belonged to it through her mother Eirene Dukaina. Kai -roov 6pvi\i\ov!lEvoov l::. oos oTCT6a. a strangely inappropriate use of a rare word. but with a play again on the family's name.

-rrpoo'Tfl cx\hT') 'TOOV OIJIJCx'Toov hnJ3o:hi).J'EOOS cx\n4) rnolt<LAAE'To Sla'TV-rrOOIJO. •EpJJfis Se t<ol t<O'T' o'+'1v ~!Jcpov(.)s Svat<O'TaAfl7r'TOV.lev aoo!JCx ol ooael KV7rCxpl'T'TOS op610V OVlOV. 1106b10. 187 TOV ).. Oecon.ll180 YIJEVO. 'TO aiJE'Tpov ooa-rrep t<OAO~OVaf}S Tfis cpvaeoos.)s S1eSdt<VV'To. ooa"T' elt<o~ 170 elvo1 'TO 6pVAAOVIJEVOV el-rreiv rn' cx\n4).ov<TI'\s: 'correcting'. oos yovv ~!Jol 'TOTE -rropflv.o'lit< ga'Tl -rrpoa6eiVOl.lEvov &AAo . t<ol 'TOV :h6yov 'Tpovoov t<ol SlO'Tl6EIJEVOS els -rre16oo.: Hase altered to avllllhPc. 'TOTE yap J.a IJEAfl t<a:hoos ~oov t<ol aVIJIJctpos. 230.6yov Tpavoov: obscure. 185 yopyov t<ol &yxia"Tpocpov Vn-of3M-rroov..lEAov 168 avaSpollt'IV brtllTJKT)s: neither word is used of a person's height in Attic. 20. 181 Stcrnnrooj. 176-177 The play on words is a normal rhetorical device. Nic.la: DuCange cites this rarity from a legal text. J3ex1J1Jo 6av1Jexa1ov -ri}v 'Tpixo Vn-ef307r'TE.TIMARION 119 o\rrov. 7fOAACx Se t<ol :hvypex.cpexp!Jat<O -rroA:ha 1-1ev ~oov ~a6:ha IJEJ. but here the meaning must be 'appearance'. -ri}v &voSpo!Jf)V rnliJTJl<flS. 175 Kall1TVA6T1'\Ta: a technical term in Hippocra tes and Galen. t<ol J. 186 avvStCX'TE(vea6cn: 'extend over'. . 178 SvaKaTaAfi1TTOV: Hellenistic. 12. cx\nc)s ~OV'TOO -rrpes -rrexvro .ltVOtS: 'make a formal recognition of his presence'.lrnoopos &el 'To f3AEIJIJO.. oos &iro oivov. t<ol IJlt<pov ~V'TpovovV'T( ao1 'TO 'TOV "'Apeoos aVV'Tovov 8< 'TOO V 6cp6aAIJOOV &ve-rraAAE'To. . LSJ cite Hippocrates Acut. 00s . 170-171 Aristotle Eth. 179-180 Odyssey 4. ~ov&rt Se ov 190 -rrexvv· Tfis &t<p6'Tfl'TOS Se 'ToV'Toov t<o:ho~oiJE\Ifls l<El<poJ. 07rflV(t<o S • 1'\JJiV t<ol -rrpoaea'TT} -rrpoala'TOIJEVOlS. 183 &ve-rr&AA&To: not in classical prose. Xen. 'TO 'Tiis OI..lS against the clausula. t<ol 00s 8< IJTJKOVS t<ol SlOa"TTJIJO'TOS. this must be the sense. t<Ol OOS elt<Qs 'Tf}v av\I'TVX(OV acpoatOVJJEVOlS.leV 'TO 'Tiis •AcppoS('TT}S xop(ev -rrpoJ3aA:h6J. -rroV'ToSa-rr6v 'Tl XPfi!Jo ~S6t<e1 t<ol &'Texv(. t<ol Aevt<ol ol 6S6v-res cx\nov ft ya:ho·" Slflp6poo1JEVOS 'TO aoo!Jo. vVV J. ovS • &cpt:Aeiv. however strange it seems. eTxev oO'Toos cx\n4) Tfis 'INXi'iS 'TO t<O'TCxa'TfliJO • t<OIJfl Se cx\n4) IJEAOl vo ovSo!JOOs.. olov yap TlS t<Vt<eoov . t<ol 'Tois -rrpoa-rr{7t"'Toval v ELOliJOS avvSlO'TE( vea6o1 -rrpexy!Joal. 177 Tt'tv C7VVTV)((av aq>OCTtOVj.. 69.lEVOV." 'TO ye J. 169 aVIl~POS MS. 13. since the phrase is borrowed from Gregory of Nyssa. t<ol -rrpc)s -rrav eva"Tp6cpoos gxe•v 'TO -rrpoa7VXov olt<ovo!JOVaf}S -ri}v Tfis Se•pfls 175 t<OIJ7fVAO'Tfl'Tc:!. epistle 1. again at 190. perhaps 'displaying clearly his intelligence'. first in Plutarch. !t<ei -rrov hrl -ri}v Selpf}v ~aliJOii'To t<ol Vn'et<A(vcro. t<ol tubs IJE'T' 6:h(yov 'TO IJEYaAo-rrpe-rres &vecpo{vcro. 173 KOAa/.

lc{) Kal Ta~1 Kal aJ. eVOOVVJ. 193 ~11: probably instrumental.6. 210 ~~cxytal.v OOO'lc:. l:crrrcpoo s~ ns cx\rrc{) Tft\1 6J.lOV6:~ovaa1 1Tepl TO 1TTEp\ry1ov.. Kal yoiiv 6 yevvaSas "'TPOs Tc{) lepc{) TEJ.lEV.lo1J3ij EVTExV~ 1T01K1AAO~Vfl "'TPOs TO xap1~a-repov.lCxpTVpos a[TflO"OJ. so the author deals with it briefly.o)\) (ola TOVTOVS axoVTCo>V TOVS eeoopovs) \j.l"'TaVTa VOJ. "'TPOs Svo xopovs aVT1cpoovovs S1a1pe6e'iaa1. 10.llJ.la. 201 j36:ow: 'position'.eVacrro. 192 Oll~pO:CTT0\1: not in classical prose.l~S{a 6e10T~pa T1S ~~KOVeTO.oVKl Tov lepov avve~A60J.:IJ. The description of the liturgy gives less opportunity for rhetorical display.l1A{av h6pevs.v VOJ.lOV. ToTe yovv Toov KaTCx -ri}v ~op-ri}v J. eVcpflJ. Kal KaTCx -n. ae'ios &VJip • cp6eyyoJ.lOV O'VVETEA~a6fl aVJ. Kal cxiha1 TO 00'10\1 O:"JTeS{Sovv Tc{) J.la "'TOV TOV lepov. 194 h6peve: h6pveve would also be possible. VOJ. 203 llaAAOII f!Kptf3c.J~IIc. Kal -rov apx1ep~a 1Tape'iva{ ol S1EKEA.lcxAJ.l~vov S • &Ko\nn v 1To&f)ae1as.lOP"TVP1 eeoi<A\rrr}a1V ernoS~SOOKEV.lCxp-rvp1.lEV • Kal CrntiA60J.lOVaav 1TE160VS Kal xapfToov Kal J.lOV J3aa1v EO'Tfl.lCXAA0\1 T. where Casaubon emended 9etos to aetos. ~ml s~ 1) 6eoop{a Kal TO TOV ~vay10'J.lOVO'lKfiS ~J.lEV ou KaTEAVOJ. Tc{) STill~ "'TaVTl Kal Tc{) .lcponpoov ~\) &vSpetq: cp~pE1 T0\1 lpooTa. 207 1TTEpVylOII : this adaptation of 'wing' to architecture seems to be rare. 199 9eoi<Aii-rT}ow: first in Polybius 23. Y~J. both words were transferred from crafts to literary criticism.lOV iaoos Kal ToiiTo ii EelJ.l1J. . O:AAa Sf} Kal yvva'iKES &na1 Kal J.lEvos -n.lOVOV VJ. nv s~ OVK &vSpoov J. eeoi<AvTT)aaVTES f}J. -r6-re ~av6ov yvvcnKooSes Kal cS:vavSpov.lEVOS. pv6J.l{a TE t.l0\11. 10.loii: in classical times this would have referred to a sacrifice to the dead.l~Ve1 yev6J.l"'TOJ. 196 aeios Hase: I<EliiOS MS.le'is oos e[KOs Kal TfiS rnav6Sov Tf}v eVKOA{av 1Tapa TOV J.p6fl 1Tapa TOV 1TAT)6ovs.120 TIMARION 195 200 205 210 cxVxllflPOV Kal &v~paaTov. ~~ Eeovs acp00'10V~Vfl Tc{) f}yeJ. but the verb (210) is earlier.JII: 'who had specially practised'. 7.. The phrase comes from Plato Meno 99d. 211 -ri}v: otiose.lllSAs{CXS • el"'TES 0\1 ayaa6els acp6Spa -ro /\aKoov1Kov -roiiTo • BaJ3a{.l1J.l~Vfl\1 Tc{) J.lEV01. "TO s~ KEKpa~vov ~~ aJ.Kp1J300~\)(.lVOS cXVa"'TEJ.

~01<11vo\i-ro Se 1repl -rovs -r61rovs ovs 6vo1. 1')11. Some credit for this is due also to Acropolites and Nicephorus Blemm. Owing to the encouragement of the emperors literary and cultural life flourished to a much greater degree than might have been expected in a defeated nation.J.6ov: perhaps tnij1. Heisenberg. but a government in exile was set up in Nicaea and lasted until1261. A. but "TV)(OV is very similar.ls ElpftVfl. when it was able to return to the former capital.ascaris.f}poo711Ke IJE -rf}v -rt. 00s ea--r1v tK -ro<rrov yvoova1. who acted as tutor to the future emperor Theodore !. 1272) was the leading scholar and teacher of his day.ydes. yvvi) a-oocppov1Kf) TE Kal apXlKfJ Kal 1TOAV -ro IJeyaAsiov hnSelKVVIJEVT'} -ro (3aa-{AelOV.s tt<Ad~.S cplAOO"ocp{as 'I'J~.OIJOOS 1.{ov -rov KapK{vov S1oSe\1ov-ros lTEpl IJEOT)IJ(3p{av. Edition: A. E)(a1pe Se Kal 1l. rne{1Tep a\rros o\i-roo O"VIJ(3av ~V -rois (3aa-1Ae{OlS &1Tfl11. . among his writings is a lively autobiography (ed.6ov is better (Heisenberg). Teubner 1896). Kal a\rrbs 1.J. 9 ~petv: the future form is used by mistake for the present. That was the end of the Byzantine empire proper.IEOOS YlVOIJEVT'}S.>s ah{av.J.~Cxlll'l\1 opy{oov 1Tapa -rov a-ocpov 8AeiJIJVSov S1Sa01<61JEvos . 7 &trij1. 10 The natural order of words is Kal yap c5:pn. Acropolites was an administrator and diplomat. 1197~. In 1261 he became rector of the restored imperial university and later wrote a history of events 1230-61.1ev &Kp1(3oos o\n< etxov ~peiv 10 ap-rl Kal yap -roov -ri.1a Se -ro<rrovs \nrep(3c:xAA6v-roos.GEORGE ACROPOLITES (1217-82) Constantinople was captured and sacked by the Fourth Crusade in 1204. Chapter 39: a conversation at court in 1238 9vf}C1<el Se Kal 'I') (3aa-11l. Kal yap 5 tt<Adi.1Ev-ro1 1rap • a\rrov -r(f> 6 o\i-rcu av11f!!av: this verb is not used in the accusative absolute in classical Greek.va--rpa cruv -rij (3aa-1AiS1 o (3aa-1AeVS . 11 Blemmydes (c.6yo1s Kal a-ocpoov i}Kpocrro IJE"l"Cx 'I')Sovfls · hi1. but not to recover very much of the territories that had belonged to the empire.1a~ova-1 Ilep{KA.6ov .~ec. Teubner 1903. Heisenberg.

S1<x 'To ~~ ftA{ov 'To cpeyyos cruxeiv. a post-classical word. and is almost 'derive'. 16 cxV)(elv with an accusative is found in Aristides 13. first in LXX Gen. 164D and Josephus in Apionem 1.leV b<Ae{1Te1V •ov ilA•ov. o\n< &Afl6ii Se dva1 -ri)v Ti)s cpcrucreoos O"'TEpflcrlv.ov xpeoov" cpflCT{ . &Kpos Se -ri)v olKe{av •exVTlv Kal llcXAlO"'Ta -ri)v 81<x 1Te{pas y•voo20 O"KO!lEVTlv · 1Tavv Se oV. rnav 'T'f) O'KlcXO"j.>s: 'illumination'. ~V 'T'f) j. . Kal SoKelV j. cx\rres Se 1TAEOV ~O"'TOOj. 14 IJiaVaEc. Kal ov 1TcXj.laTl ~ll'Tt'EO"'IJ Ti)s yi.lE ft J3acr1Als j. here the meaning seems to have gone beyond 'boast of'. 'TO V cplAOCT6cpovs A6yovs 1TpocpepoV'Ta o\rroocr{ ye 1Tpocrayopev&i'jva1 1Tap • ftllOOV". 0:\rltp ilKlO"'Ta 1-1ev cp1Aocrocp£as llE'Tacrxoov.Kc:xAEcracra 'Toii'Tov llOOp6v". 1.. &AA' ft j3acrlAlS . 20 &K-Tovap(ov: originally 'paymaster. 15 j. this meaning of the verb is postclassical.os. 15.&1TpE1TooS O:pa elp{}KElV" ecpfl 25 .lE'Ta~v 'TOOV Aeyo!lEvoov CxneKcXAeO"E j.os i}yan&ro •fj j3acr1MS1. eiKocr• yap crVv ~vl •6-re \rrriipxov hoov. rnel yovv OV'TEAeyEV oV. CxV'TEAeye Se 'TOiS Aeyo!lEVOlS 6 larpos NlKoAaos.ov Ka1v6v· llElpaKlov yap ~O"'Tlv".>s: 'over-shadowing'. p.122 GEORGE ACROPOLITES •6-re ooov i'jv elKOs trnyvovs -rl)v 'TE Ti)s C"EATJV11S trn1Tp6a6r}ow al'T{av •iis rnlO'KlcXC"EOOS EAeyov etval. rnel Se 6 A6yos rnl ll{}KlO"'TOV 1Tape'TE{VE'TO. Kal 6 j3acrlAeVs . 1Tpos 'TOV j3acr1Ata O"'Tpacpeicra .11TaV &1T*Se1 'To\rrov 'TO 1Tp6crp'Tllla. 12 rntTrp~aw: 'interposition'.Kov ~pyacrallEVTl. eventually became a title of physicians to the royal family.lVAAOilflV. 26---27 ov TraiJTrCX\1 6:-rr~Sa: 'is not entirely ofi the mark'.lCXAAOV !lEV'TOl 'TO\i-ro 'T'f)v O"eA{}V11V 1TcXO")(ElV. 22.1oop6v • eha Sil oo0"1Tep 'Tl ov 1Tpocri. 13 hrtoxtaaec. 18 Nikolaos was the author of a work on materia medica. accountant'. a Latin translation of it was used as a textbook by the medical faculty at Paris in the Renaissance.s. &tcrovap{ov Se etxe 'TlllTJV.

lov{oov Kal cpvACXKt') 1raV'T6s 1TveVI. who became ruler of the Nicaean empire in 1254..CXI<"'ri}ptov (ovo-nvas ST} TovTovs. Kal TOVTOOV 5 olov YEY11PaK6Toov Kal JJapav6eVToov T't> xp6vct> Kal ooO""'TEp ~v \JO. Florence 1898. Festa.. TraV'TO{OOV 'TE)(V(. 271-6 in Festa).IEyaAVV6j. He founded a school at Nicaea..laiOS. . 'wind' and 'spirit'.. N.. makes it clear that the curriculum was literary and philosophical (see especially letter 217. the idea must be that of distortion or faint reflection.)V. another at the Asklepieion).. ovs· 6aas (sic: ooas ovs· Wilson) 6 rnl 'TOVT(j) j.. the chronicler Scutariota goes so far as to say (p.:>v AaJ.ct> Ttvl T'f}v "'TOTE SetKVVIJEVc.. a Hellenistic alternative for j. which witnessed a considerable literary and intellectual revival. followed the enlightened traditions of his father.lv {yiVETo Ka'TOtKTl'TliPtOV Satj. who were paid by him. pp..J. suitable to describe an acropolis.THEODOROS LASCARIS (1222-68) Theodore.. VrrOATl"'TTEOV)' TtllOS V"'TeSe~CXTO Sva6ecbp11TOS ova-a.IE"T{oopos. &J. and the allusion to this book of scripture is all the more appropriate since Pergamum is represented in it as the throne of Satan. Edition: Theodori Ducae Lascaris epistulae.. 6ecnpoov ova-a !lEa-n'}..Ia'TOS &Ka6ap'TOV K'TA. the intention is doubtless to compare the ruins of Pergamum with the fall of Babylon. o\Jx i}TTOV Se Svaavexj3<XTOS. 6ecrrpoov: 'impressive sights' lin fact there was one large theatre near the summit.lcrroov: apart from the pun on TrveVj. 5-6 {v vliA(j) 'Tlvf: literally 'in a glass'.. ed. the reference is to the fall of Babylon in Apocalypse 18....lcXTOOV K<XTOll<T)T'f}plOV. TT\Ie\/l. and his correspondence with the masters.I(. The longterm results of his activities can be seen in the years following the restoration of the government to the old capital.la.)v 'TE Kal {1T\O"TT''I.• &v6poo1Toov els Sa{JJovas cpvA. He continued to build up good libraries in the empire. 2 Baj3vAG. 297) Kal j3!j3AOVS Se OVVT'IYcXyETO.l"'TPOTTlTa Kal To IJEYaAO"'Tpe1 {vcxr:p!a: 'in the air'.IEVOS n'TOAEj. Letter 32 (to George Acropolites) TlepyaJJOS "'TOAlS olov ~vaep{a OV "'TVEVJ. 4 Svaavaj3aTOS seems not to be attested earlier than Cornutus ND 14.

rep YS1J Kal Cl>etS{as &AAos A.oy{a TOlaVTTl.124 THEODOROS LASCARlS ..YTlS6va. .oovas: 'friezes'. oTov a\JTocpveis TE Kal j. TWV olKTlT6pwv avcx!. OVTWS av ei1T01 TlS Kal Tcrii-ra . not aorist. . &AA. 25 The towers are mysterious.li)V ~OVTa. 15 ov. ws yap els TOVS vVV otKOVS at TWV j.ts KaTovetS{~ovaa.at.laO"j. !lEaov Se TWV olKoSOj. 110). a word governing 6av~o~aa1JOV is required. 10 Tov 1TaTpc1>ov l<Atovs T4) IJEYcxAe{'1'· allepScxt. 17 t6aV1Jaae: a future or optative would be expected. ~cp· 8<aTepots !lEpeat Se Twv Tov 1-1ey6A.{6ovs E)(etv ~TlAOTV1TOVVTES ~cbvas Te Ttvas . Bean.c Ti)v &A..rpos TOVS acpavt~Oj.ea yap elat Tcrii-ra . .lEVOVS. •Aptcrro-rfut: [Arist. London 1966.ovo{as \rrrapxet TcxiiTa llECTTa.. 23 faxov should be taken as perfect. 68ff. 14 KCX'Tayecpvpov~JEvos: lexicis addendum. notes the same contrast between present misery and past glory that Michael Choniates had seen in Athens (see above.AvSpta: perhaps 'huts'. Kav •AptCTToTeA. 16 iS1J Festa: 'CSe MS. they are not marked on modern plans of the site.res Twv Setll6:VTwv cx\rra. 15 So~o~i}Topa: 'builder'.ov Soll{}Topa. ei.lOV 1TpOs TO aVj.ovaa: this compound is first found in Hellenistic writers.rot TlS eTva1 TaVTOS. E.XaAKoJ3crds Soo.ro:AAT)v 20 ~ll1T010VVTa Tij eec. 10 aiJEpSaMa: 'awe-inspiring'.1Qs Se 1-1eaov StepxETat 6:\y{Seat . For an account of the present remains see G.. Aegean Turkey.aTTov &vtaov.rpbs TJilCXS .lWV KEAAVSpta xeaj. oTov ~~ taov Tovs A. The text is defective here.t ves. manifestations'. T.raVTa O'lllKpCx eavj. • EAATlvtKfis yap IJEYcxf. 1TOO"OV eaxov TO KaT• EA. rather than 'monastic cells' as DuCange defines it. avv6hovs ei. et Se Kal . cella = 'room' had already been borrowed from Latin by the second century.ov 25 &chpov 1TEplTE1X1C"IlCrrWV KVA1 vSpcbSets tCTTaVTat wpyot. 1TOTaj. Kal aocp{as Tcx\rrt)S lvSO:AilaTa · SetKvvet Se Tcrii-ra . cpeii Tiis TWV ~WVTWV KaKOTVX{as. which in the papyri means 'rebuilding'. 11 avotKoSollc!xs: a rare word. since the Byzantines no longer made the distinction.. 13 XaAKoov ovpavoov KTA.lOVOA{6ovs.rpos Tas viiv &votKoSo1-16:s. a0'1Tep. 26 l.et SoKij . but not thereby excluded from Byzantine prose vocabulary.t6oK6. &veye{poVTal Se Kal TdXTl XcxAKWV ovpavwv 1T01K{ATlV olKoSoj.rpollTlKECTTepots KaTayecpvpov!lEvos.r6A.] nepl K6aiJOV 39lal8-b3.lVWV ~OVO"l TpwyA. the sense is 'how much inferior is the city that they have inherited'. 18 KU.r6A. tea\Jilaae To KaTa CTT6:ellTlV taov TOVTWV Kal &KA.ros. 9 KCX'TovetSfl. p..rept~wv8 lvScXAIJCX'Ta: here 'signs. 1-10 Tov .: the walls are compared to those of Zeus' palace as described by Homer .lcxACx Kal oTov Ad\Vava Twv Te6vewTwv otKwv ~ll<pa{voVTat.11TaV. a very rare word. an epithet from Homer. w0'1TEp &-rroy6vovs Ttv6:s.

: 'the towers stand on either side of the ascent.la 1<a1v6v· oopoo6Tepa yap el01 TCx 1rp01r0Sa TfiS l<Opvcpfjs 1<ai TCx TOOV Te6vec. he used to carry them across a river. ii KVPTocp6pov.lEV. 32 {T(.MS. who turned out to be Christ and his weight that of the whole world. -The last few lines of the letter.loAVrn:l Kal l<AavCTlY~OOT{ TlVl SlCxyOJJSV. scala paradisi 7. &pv6j. 34 I<Aavcnyt}. TTalOOVElOV s~ Tl OO<rrrep TOV TOV 35 ra'AT)VOV o[l<OV opoov-res.)v) add. 28-30 ol SA JCTA.J: the LexPatrGr cites this word only from Ioannes Climax. 36 St. ~OVTES \rrrovpy6v..c. Kal OOCTTI'Ep ~V xapj. . o\i-re voc)s v6t)1Ja ToiiTo TOOV viiv • bmAf}TTEl yap 1<ai J3krr6JJSVOV. but exists in the modern language. Christopher is the patron of travellers. Talrn)v opOOVTES T)JJSis TI'OOS ~V &eviJOVIJEV. o\i-re xe1p0s ~pyov.lOA\rm. Festa. here omitted.: corr. 33 xapJ. ol S~ iJ!CToV TfJV avoSov ~OVTES S1CX1Top6j. and was once bowed down (KVpTocp6pov) by the weight of a child. avvavacpa{VETal S~ Tij TI'OAel 1<ai 6cxVj. and guide the visitor to the buildings beyond them'.le6a -rl)v oocpfulav.1E\}ov01 1rp0s TCx IJET• cxV-ro\is TI'EplTElX{CTIJaTa -rl)v 80 ~~fuvCTlV.:>v (Toov) TOOV ~OOVTOOV. TI'OOS s~ CTl<lpTOOj. TOV T)IJ!Tepov XplCTTocp6pov. 35 Galen (129-199) practised medicine in his native city Pergamum and was for a time physician to Marcus Aurelius. Both these words are dvandra compounds of a type much more common in the modern than the classical language..THEODOROS LASCARIS 125 vVJJSVOl. ncn&>l/et0\1: literally 'hospital'. Festa) is apparently lexicis addendum.Yt1 (I<Aavao. but he must be referring to the famous temple of Asclepios.::m:. deal briefly with other topics.

KCXT' 'JvSo\Js 6 T~(cppav KTA. 'zero'. subtraction. Akten des XI. 1305) Planudes was an exceptionally versatile man. After explaining the new numerals in the introduction printed below he goes on to demonstrate their application in performing the operations of addition. A description of Arabic numerals Ol TOOV c:Xc:npov6~oov <plAOCTO<pW"TEpOl. They are found occasionally in earlier sources. Planudes is in any case independent of his alleged source in using the Persian rather than the Western forms of the numerals and in adding a section on the . His work on classical texts included important contributions to Plutarch and the Greek Anthology. D'Orville 301). which were slowly coming into use. Wendel in Pauly-Wissowa. Edition: C. Augustine. multiplication. Halle 1865. which he used to translate Ovid. Munich 1960. Gerhardt. foil. elcrl 5 SeTa oxft~CXTa ~vvea ~6va. gr.MAXIMOS PLANUDES (c.. Tannery found in MS. Paris suppl. . J. 00s av TCx TOOV ~V XPTtCTEl &pt6~oov rocruv01TT6-rep6v TE ·KCXTavof}Tal Kal &Kpt~eCT"TEpov.: the etymology is Arabic cifr. but the importance of the cipher was not always appreciated (see K. and is the first known Byzantine scholar to possess a really good knowledge of Latin. internationalen Byzantinisten-Kongresses zu Mtlnchen 1958. division. & Kal elcrl TcxiiTa· I }J J. 387.V 4 V J\ 9 Tt6eacrl Se Kal rnpov Tl O)(f}~a o KaAOVCTl T~{<ppav. On Planudes in general see C. which P. 660--4). but the text has never been printed. Boethius and Donatus. rnel 0 ~V c:Xpt6llOS EXEl TO &rretpov.U ~ C. Vogel. pamphlet written in 1262.extraction of square roots. and his interest in mathematics and astronomy led him to edit Diophantus and revise some sections of Aratus' Phaenomena that had been proved inaccurate. ~<pe\ipov OXTt~CXTcX TlVa Kal ~teoSov St' cx\rroov. The following extract is from a pamphlet on Arabic numerals. TOV s~ arrdpov yvooCTlS OVK EOTIV. Cicero. 1255---c. 163--80. Planudes may have derived some of his knowledge from a. He served as ambassador to Venice. such as Arethas' copy of Euclid written in 888 (MS. sexagesimal fractions and extraction of square roots.

~oov &pxo~evoov TO ~V 1 CTT}~a{vel ev.. Kal Tp{a.. 20 Kal ~ExPl TOOV tvvea. TOVTEO'TlV &iTo TOOV b<aTOV ~pl TOOV ~VVaKocr{oov· ovTOOS TO KaTCx ~V -rit VTETapTT)V xoopav TOOV Xli\16:Soov Aoy{~eTal. TO Se p Svo. To Se p eiKOO'l. To Se KaTa -rl}v tvv&TT)v Toov ~vp1aS1Koov ~vp16:Soov· Kal ei iTpof3a!vel Kal rn' b:eiva. To S' tv Tij SeVTepcr SeKaS1K65. ToU. To Se AoKTOO. 20 ol seems otiose.. &XAa 6 ~V rnl Tfis 4:0 iTpOOTT)S xoopas.MAXIMOS PLANUDES 127 ovSev· Kal TCx ~vvea Se CT)(ft~aTa Kal aVTCx 'lvSlKO tcrnv· . TO se~ TEa-crapa. To se v trn-a. ot iTCxVTES ~ovaSlKOi aple~oi Aoy{~oVTal. To Se KaTa -rftv 6yS6T)v Toov XlAlaSlKoov ~vp16:Soov. S1a To mxVTas a\JTovs tVTbs Tfls SEK6:Sos Keicr6al Kai ~i}TE aVTflS E<plKVEicr6al ~ftTE \rrrep aV-ri}v tKiT{iTTElV). Kal Tecrcrapa. To Se KaTa -rl}v SooSEKO:TT)v Toov X1AlOVTaKlcr~vplaa5 S1Koov ~vptaSoov.. TOOV (sic) Gerhardt. x&lpav: 'position·. To se 4 e~. . 0: ~E){p1 TOOV tvvea iTpo(3a{vovcrlv erno ~ov6:Sos &px61. ToVTe<rTl v 25 &iTo Toov SEKa ~E){p1 Toov tvvevi}KoVTa. To Se KaTa -rl}v EK-n. TO Se KaTa -rftv iTe~iTTT)v Toov llVplaSoov. tva Se Kai rnl \rrroSe{y~aTCS cracpes yeVT)TOl TO Aey6~vov. To S~ J-U TplcXKoVTa. Kal ~~s· Kal KaTCx TCxs AOl"lTCxS Se xoopas WO'aVTOOS y{vETal.. To Se KaTa -rl}v Tpl<rKalSEK&TT)v Toov ~vp1ov­ TaK1cr~vp1aS1Koov ~vp16:Soov • Kal ei TlS rn\ iTAeiOV xoopoov SvvalTO.v Toov SEKaS1Koov ~vp16:Soov.. To se WiTeVTE. To Se KaTa -rl}v ~f3S6~T)V Toov b<aToVTaSlKoov ao ~vp16:Soov.oov TOOV 6' CT)(T)~Cx-roov El<aO"Tov Ka6' a\JTo ~6vov Kei~evov 10 f}TOl KaTCx -rl}v iTpOOTT)V xoopav CrnO Tiis Se~lCXs XElpOs . TO S' tv Tij TPlTTJ ~KaTov­ TaS1K6s. Se T~{cppa ypacpETal oll"roos o. &iTo Tfis Se~lCXS xelpos O:pxo!J.EVOOV O'Tl~aivov 10 i\T01 (or Eh. EKKe{cr6oocrav ot TVX6VTES aple~oll\1 fJ) 4 J'V~W? V elcriv oov ot TOlOVTOl SEKa xoopas KaTExOVTES. Ka~ Ws KaTCx ~ev -ri}v iTpOOTT)V xoopav WS ~ovaSes TCx O'Tl~ia Aa~f36:voVTal. TO Se p SlaK60'1a. WS TO{VVV KaTCx ~ev -rl}v iTpOOTT)V xoopav TO TVXOV tv a\JTfj CTT}~iov ws ~ovaSlKOS Aa~f36:veTal &p16~6s.V Tp{a.U TplaKOO'la. TO Se J.1eva (Kal yap Kal Ta Svo. TO ~V KaTCx -rl}v SeKO:TT)V TOOV SEKaKlO'~VplaSl­ KOOV. TO Se J. ws eipT)TOl. To Se KOTO -rftv ~vSeK&TT)v Toov ~KaTOVTaK1cr~vp1aS1Koov ~vp16:Soov. TO Se 9 tvvea· KaTCx Se -ri}v Sev-dpav xoopav TO lleV 1 SEKa. Kal ~~s · KaTa Se -ri}v 15 Tp{TT)V xoopav TO ~ev I h<aT6v. oov) Wilson: ft or as we should say 'column'.

O~eTal Svo.Vpla.16s.16vCA>v.OVOSCA>V ecrrlv OO"CA>V a\rros 6 apl61. Os lO"Tl V bcaTOVTaSlKOS apl61. Os lO"Tl IJ.VplaSes Kal TPlO")(iAlal ~~a~<6a1a1 ei1<oa1 Kal hrra IJ.lExPl TOV 6yS6ov' ev a\nc.vp16:Ses Kal h1 IJ. os EO"TlV bcaTOVTaKlO"IJ.Vpla. To Se ~ TETpaKlO")(iAla· Kal EO"Tl To 1.VplaSes Kal TETpaKlO")(iAla 1TEVTaK6ala evvevi)KOVTa Svo.10s TOO"OVTCA>V IJ. TO Se 9 evvevftI<OVTa.vplaSl~<os &pl61. 000"1Tep tv T't> Sev-rip~ evvevf}KOVTa.vplaSlKos &p161.OVaSucas apl61.128 MAXIMOS PLANUDES T)l. 26lvva~<oa(c.lExPl Toov -reaaapCA>v O"fliJ. Kal 70 oliTCA>s e9. -ro CJJ 1TeVTa~<6a1a.VplaSas. oo0"1Tep tv T't> 1TpcbT~ Wyo~J.lOS SflAOi. 00s l. 6 y ST}AO! Svo.VplaSlK6s &pl61.ltVTol CX".>V: this seems to be normal Byzantine orthography.lbs f}Tol S1a Set<aSCA>v avv10"T6:1J.Evos 1.iTQs IJ. oliTCA>S lVTaVea w 25 lvvevf}KoVTa.1ev V hn-0: IJ. 1Tp6elO"l l.l(36:VCA>V OVOIJ.Ev Svo.VplaSes.16s · 6 Se rnl Tfis Se~<OTT}s 6 A 6ySoflKov-r6:Kls IJ. 6 Se rnl Tfis evv6:TT}s 6 I IJ.VplaSlKoos.l't> ov e\lp(aKETal EXCA>V.aTOS CXVCA>6ev TO ~V y O'T}IJ.VplaSas. Os lO"Tl Set<aSli<Qs apl61.lOOV. ·EVEKev Se 1TAe(ovos &1ToSei~eCA>s ~flTtov Kal oliTCA>s· 6 1. ov l.VplaSli<Qs apl61.1TTT}S 6 V hrrai<lO"IJ.VploVTaKlaiJ.16s· 6 Se rnl Tfis 1TEIJ. 6 Se rnl Tfis ~(3S61. whereas classical inscriptions have forms in lve-.VplaSlKOS apl61.Vpias 1J. .v55 ptaS11<os &p161.1ev 60 l<aTCx TT}v 1TpOOTT}V xoopav KE(IJ.e((3CA>V TCxS olKE(as 6VOIJ.1TaS 6 1TpoTe6els ap161.16S.1TT~ TO TOV 1TpcbTov Aal.a.a(vel Kal 6VOIJ. 65 'IO"Ttov Se Kal ToGTo. 6 Se rnl Tfis TETapTT}S 6 3 TETpaKlO")(iAla.1T}S 6 4 ~~aKoa(as IJ.16s.Vp(as IJ. OO"fl1Tep f) 1Toa6TT}s a\rrov Tov &p161.6VCA>v· 6 Se rnl Tfis Tp(TT}s 45 xoopas 6 1TEVTaK6cna.lOVaSli<Qs ~V SlCx IJ.Os OIJ.16s· 6 Se rnl Tfis SEVTtpas xoopas 6 9 tvvevf}KOVTa. 6 Se Sewpos TOO"OVTCA>V Se~<aSCA>v.l(36:vCA>v ovo1. 6 Se rnl Tfis EKTT}S 6 y elKOO"aKtO"IJ.OVcXSCA>V IJ.> TO TOV TeTapTOV Aal.s 1Tpo(3a(vel· oTov rn) TOV 1Tpo-re6tVTos \nroSe(yiJ. Kal 6 Tphos Toao\JTCA>v bcaToVTaSCA>v. To Se V ei1<oa1 75 IJ. oo0"1Tep 6 1Tpo a\rrov 6 Svo l.VploVTa~<laiJ.16s· 0 Se rnl Tfls 6yS611s 6 }-V TPlO"XlAias IJ. os EO"Tl IJ. os lO"Tl IJ. os lO"Tl XlAloVTaJ<laiJ.O~OS.Vplal 1J. os EO"Tl SeKaKlO"IJ. eaTl Se oos ehreiv aVIJ.aa(as· eha 1TaAlV ev T't> 1TEIJ. &AAO: crVV T't> apl61.10s 6ySoflKoVT6:Kts IJ. Kal ~9'\s.1ov ecrr1v.E(CA>v 1Tp6elO"lV &pl61J.Vplal IJ.1a.16s. Kal 6 ThapTos XlAlaSCA>v.Vpla50 Sas. Os lO"Tl XlAlaSli<Qs &pl61.16s.VplaSes. Os lO"Tl SeKaKlO"IJ.Vpl6:Sas. o\JT(A)s Kat eVTaOOa hrra 1TAT}v IJ.EVOS ap161.

lEVal • olov 00s rnl woSe(yllaTOS j. TO Se 1T'OAAa1t'AaO'laO'j.l(a T'(cppa rnl TOV &t<pov l<El~Vfl Set<aSlt<OV 1T'01Ei TOV ap161lOV.lo(oos. "Ev TOTS ap16j. cilv TO J. WO 1T'evrftt<ovra yovv.L'O 11 90 Tp1at<6a1a Svo yovv · el Se Svo t<etvra1. 94 Elm:lv Wilson: Ehr6lv Gerhardt.l(av. TO Se O'Vv6t0'1V.lj3CcVETa1 t<al 6 ap161l6s.l(a t<eiTal.leV TOOV O'flj.. Svo A1<aTovraS1t<6v.. ~oo TETpat<6ala yovv. TO Se acpa(pealV.t!v 66:Tepov ~POS rnl TCi) &t<p~ TOOV ap161lOOV TCi) 1rp0s -ri)v apla-repav 'l')llOOV xeipa ovSrnoTE T(6eTal. 6aov cxv stt. t<al mpl j.JJ' A~at<lO"XlA(a naaap6:t<ovra Tp(a yovv.aTT6VOOV ap16j. t<aTa Se TO ~O'OV TOOV 80 ap161lOOV t<al 66:Tepov lltpos TO 1rPOs -rl)v Se~l<l:V. ~TOl TO ~POS TOOV V. -rl)v Se O'Vv6ea1v ll£Taxe•pftaoll£v ToiiTov Tov Tp61t'ov.t· 00a1rep Se at xoopal aV~CcVOVO'l TOVs ap16j.l6V.lois To(wv e~ TlVOOV Se6j.lE(oov ftSfl elpflTal. 1rp0 cx\rrils t<al ev ll6VOV O'flllEiOV' Al<aTOvraSlt<OV 1T'01Ei TOV ap161l6V' J. t<al A~fls 6j. t<al A~s 6!-loioos • '!') ll~vro1 T'(cppa. t<al ~cp. 1lVp1aS1t<6V. .lo(oos· t<al arrA(.O A~at<lO'IlVpla naaap6:t<ovra Tp(a yovv. lfOOW A~at<1axtA•a 1r~vre yovv· el Se Ilia j.40~J.MAXIMOS PLANUDES 129 eft<oa1.)s elmtv t<aTa -rl)v TCc~lV 95 Tfls xoopas. o\JToo t<al at 85 T'(cppal rnl TOOV xoopoov t<eij.lE6a O'VIlj3aAAo~voov 'l')lliV els Tf)v aO'TpoVOj. TO Se mov e\/pealV Tfls 1t'Aevp(Xs 100 1t'avrbs ap161lOV &ls TETpayoovov.lOVS. Set<aS1t<ol yap t<al a!lcpoo ol ap161lo(. t<aTa J. 1rpo cx\rrils Se Svo. rnl Se TOV ~O'OV el j. O:AAa t<al Svo t<al Tpeis t<al T~aaapes. X1AlaS1t<6v. 400~ J.lev t<eiTa1. ~V 15 t<eiTal TO O'flllEiOV.looV. O'flllaive1 x1A•aS1t<Os.leV j.t!v l<aAOVO'l O'flll£ia TlTOl axitllaTa. ooO'"Tl'Ep t<al ol 1rpo cxV-roov llovaS1t<ol. Aaj. rnl Tql &l<pql T(6£Tal· t<al T(6£Tal t<aTCc Te TO ll~aov t<al TO elpfl~Vov hepov ~pos ov Ilia ll6vov. TO Se llEP10'1l6V. el Se Svo. t<al A~s 6j.

lEV TT'}v Kp{cnv OAOOS -re Kai Tovpyov. 35 VIII. cptpe XPT'IO"a{I. M. e. pp. Editions: Miscellanea. His most important book is the Miscellanea.\E6• OlnJOVV wv elva1 S1a1povvTes. but the idea must be 'in a full and serious manner'. g. KaTCx TOV ~aTEPct> "'Tapa TOV xp6vov "'TpVTavevetVTa 1-2 61-"'S -re 1<al To\:ipyov. He was a man of encyclopaedic knowledge and fluent pen. Earlier in his career Metochites had been responsible for the redecoration of its church with new mosaics and frescoes. Saggio critico su Demostene e Aristide. On Demosthenes and Aristides 8. 34. Theodoros Metochites. they include a portrait of Metochites himself kneeling before the enthroned Christ with a model of the church in his hand. then later allowed to end his days in the seclusion of the Chora monastery in the capital (now the Kariye Cami). lo1KE To{wv. 6. Beck. and when his master was dethroned in 1328 he was at first exiled. G. a series of 120 chapters on various subjects ranging from the difficulty of achieving originality in literature to the constitution of Genoa. M. 1t'pVTa\le\J6WTa: 'controlled. Jahrhundert. Plat. . they tell us a great deal about the outlook and mental processes of an able and not entirely conventional Byzantine intellectual. an introduction to astronomy and a series of essays. ed. Etudes sur la pol~que entre Th~odore M~tochite et Nic~phore Choumnos. Munich 1962. regulated'. See also H. Mtlller-Th. as at Dem.. ed. which are regarded as one of the great achievements of late Byzantine art. Sev~enko.136f. C. •Erre1ST) Kai VrrECTT'I)J. 2 viiv elvat: TO viiv elvat is an Attic pleonasm. There are also poems. for a description by his pupil Nicephorus Gregoras see below. Leipzig 1821. an obscure phrase. Rep. 1260-1332) Metochites was the chief minister of the emperor Andronikos 11 Palaiologos. 3 1<crra appears to govern all the nominal phrases as far as 7 cpvcnv. I. G. Kiessling. die Krise des byzantinischen Weltbildes im 14. Milan 1969. reprinted 1966. paraphrases of Aristotle. Gigante. Brussels 1962. 606e.THEODOROS METOCHITES (c. 6. one of which compares Demosthenes and Aristides.

10 mptvofats: 'flashes of ability'.s xpe{as. 20--21 hraATJ6eVovaav Tots 1Tpay~acn: 'appropriate to the situation' seems to be the meaning. Kal J. 17 cp1A6-n~os J<TA. ~fl(. op. 26-27 J<CXT' a6Tov is obscure. •AplO"TE{SflV cx\rrov eixev. ooe· oos av EVO"TOJ..lov{as. The concept of fortune is much in evidence in M. Kal <plA6VEll<OS Kal l<CX'TcX <pVO'lV OVK EVKOA{<iX ~oov. .lEV'TOl rnl l<OlV6'TTl'TOS Kal fuv6ep{as 15 Sf]J.laA • 0\I'E'Tal.l{:hhoo 1TCXO'l oxeSov 'TOOV erno 'TOV 1TaV'TOs atoovos avSpoov • oOKovv ye EO"TlV O'Tct' 'TlS av 1TAe'iov lV'TaVea So{fl 1rpo 'ToivSe 'TOiV avSpoiv.l{:hhoo 'TOO avSpe Kal &"Texvoos &napaJ. oos apa l<CX'T.lflSEV ~cplels ev 'TE 'TOTS 20 l<OlVO'iS Kal 'TOiS tS{<iX SlacpepoVO'l.laO'l Kal &vayKa{av oVl< &l<{vSvvov eixev. et 51] 'TlS Kal &AAos.lO.S 25 l<CX'Ta 1TCxV'TOOV O)(eSov av6p001TOOV 'TTlVll<cxii'Ta KpCX'TOVO'flS 'TOOV Ka1aapoov •pooJ.e.S cpvaeoos Kal 'Tais 10 1TEpl vo{alS ~<p • 8<CxO"TTlS ~VO"TCxO'EOOS 8<CxO"TO'TE Kal 'TOV 1Tp01<El~VOV 0'1<01TOV Kal Ti. : 'ready to expose himself to danger at all times in the interests of his country and his fellowcitizens'. 96ff. see Beck. 25 J<CXTcX would not be needed in correct Attic..lEAftS 'TfjSe Kal SpaO"Tl1<6s 'TE Kal qnAepy6s.. perhaps av should be transferred to the next clause.l~V yap yov{(. 1<al qnA6'Tl(.: strict Atticism would require o6S'. perhaps equivalent to a6Tov.l{as 'TOV'To J.. ooO"Te Kal 81• &1TpayJ. but the lexica scarcely offer a parallel. a usage found as early as Euripides. Wilson. 'innate'. rnl J.: del. 5 ~vtAcxxov: 'to which they were assigned by the lottery of fate'.:lV 'TlS ev J. where the sense should be 'as he would have in Aristides' own day'.S 'TVx. 'TOV'To s.laiKiiS ityeJ. [Kal] TJiv 'TOV Aty'elV ~~lV Kal 'TO Kpchos &nflV"t'TlJdVal acp{O'l. ~ av seems to be a mistake for ~. TJiv 'TOV AEyElV xpflcnv rnaAf16evovaav 'ToTs 1TpCxyJ..oov Kal 1TOAl'TEV6J.1ov Kcx-r• 4 'I'!AtKt(. Vrr61TlKpos Kal J. Kal Ti. 7 ofKo&v: i.lOV J31ovs Kal 1Tpa...lftV n-• aJ.. ols ~~CX)(OV apa 'TTlVll<cxii'Ta. lcpaJ.lEVOS Kal 1TOAV J.v: this kind of partitive genitive seems very common in Byzantine Greek.laO'l 1TapaJ3&AAe0"6a1 'Tfj 1TCX'Tp{Sl Kal 'TO'iS l<OlVOOVO'iS 'TOV J3{ov. 'T(i) J.flS Kal Ti.lchOOV. 13. cit. Kal1TpOO'O')(C. 12 1TCX01 axeSov Ta. some such correction is needed in order to end the chain of nouns governed by J<CXTa. Kal MS. &AA.lct' Ti.l~V OO'l<flO'lV oll<OVO(.lOS rnlEll<OOS 1TCXO'l 1TpCxyJ.leiV. as in Andocides 4.lOVapx{as aveve\ivov Kal cx\rro1<pchopos J310VV'Ta Kal Ti.htv: 'contemporary'.'s writings. 22 oOO' MS. 9• .l00'6EVf1S J. ~vcrraae(A)S: 'situation'. rn{Sel~lV 1TOlei0"6al.S 1TOAl'TE{as &yooyf}v 1<00 i\V afpecnv ~V 'TOVrOlS efAOV'TO.laAlO"T• rnlJ.el Kal 'TO 1}6os cx\rro Kal TJiv of1<o6ev <pVO'lV.THEODOROS METOCHITES 131 Kal SeSo~vov J3iov Kal TJiv T)All<l&rrlv ~oof}v Kal TJiv 'TOOV 1Tpay5 J. 14 ~ J<Otvchr}Tos: 'in a time of equal political rights'.

48 Cnrp60'K01t'OV: 'unerring'.fcrt xafpovaav. Kal 0 0 27 IStOTpomG': probably a mistake for IStc. absolutely'. acpelSftO'aVTa 6pCxO'OVS' Kal 1TCxO'flS' OyaVOKTf}O'E(A)S' iaoos O:KpoCXTOOV Kalncxaav ~V Sev-rep'i' VEIJEO'lV 6e&JEVOV. 31 ~ a\1 ~OVAOITO: 'just as he pleased'.132 THEODOROS METOCHITES 80 85 40 45 cx\rrov f)6os Kal cpuow lSloTpcrrrfcrt Kal e\n<o). 44 1t'avlVEpyov: 'having effect upon'. . 1t'OAV ~&Ata-ra: a variant of the classical ~ ~&Ata-ra and the like. 1TCXO'aV ape-ritv Kal 1TCxVTa Tp01TOV Ti. : 'in all respects Aristides is similar to Demosthenes'. eaviJCx~ElV &JEv \rrrep(3cx).). av is a mistaken insertion. nacn. choice expressions and ideas.T• m-· ~~ovafas av etxeJ. 'intensity'. IJOAlO'TCc ol Kal Tov Ka1pov ~oopovVTos.:m:(G'. S(ap~ 'elevation'.Kal 1TAeiV ii KCXT 'AplaTE{SflV iaoos. el o{6v T 1jV Ta olKEi• 0:AAf}A01S' ~CXTEP'i' Kcx-ra avvef}Kas O:AA6:~aa6a1. 41 ~aaavov in the literary sense of 'examination' is not classical. To 1TaVTEAelOV Kal 'liKplj300lJEVOV ~vepyov TOiS' 1TpCcy1JaO'lV rnl T(i) Kalpf'i' TOOV AeyOlJEVOOV. ~&Jol SoKE'iv. XXXIV. aVEv66Tc.>S: 'unremittingly'. neither word is classical.6yov.bSe j36:aaVOV. naVTa s• 61J010S' •AplaTE{SflS' ~cp· ~6:a-ro1s ols cxv cp6eyyo1To ToTs Te aUTOs cxVTov Kal Tois Afl&JOaeEvovs ea-r1v ov KCXTa xpefav rnlAEKTOlS' Kal 1TCxVTa 1TOAV IJOAlO'Ta 6av1JCx~ElV KCXTa AfliJOa6EVflV a~lOS Kaf. 33 1t'Cx\1Ta KTA. 'private station in life'. Kcx6enra~: 'simply. naVT6:naa1v a~fl&Jfoos f1M6:~aVT·av Kal OVK av IJ1}1TOTE PcrtSfoos f)v e\Tpeiv 6T'i' ye a&Jcpoiv n)..omov TT)v nepl TOO pf}Tope Tc. 35 trrtAmots: i. another example occurs at 33-4. whose notions of ancient history are normally rudimentary at best. naaa1s 0'1TovSapxfalS'. ncxa1 npay&JaO'lV cbrefnaa6a1 Kal ~iiv alpeia6a1 ~avT(i) IJOV'i' Kal Tais Tiis pflTOplKi. . el Se Sei Tl Kal TOAIJflp6npov ~~eme'iv nepafvoVTa ).Eov Tl yeyovev fl TovvaVTfov. Kal yap KTA.: 'as indeed was within his power'. both words are terms from Hellenistic literary criticism. Kae· 0 s. The argument of this chapter has some affinity with the views expressed in Tacitus' Dialogus de oratoribus and Longinus On the Sublime (of which the former certainly and the latter probably was unknown to M. 47 T6vov: -riAEtov: 'pure perfection'.S' Xap1a1 Kal 6e6:Tpo1s bnSef~eoov. . 40 Aonrov: 'finally'.t 1TOAlTEfcrt.A6VToos eyooy• &~100 Tov Afl&Joa6evovs ). e.S' TOV AEyElV xpf}aeoos . a faulty attempt to manufacture an indefinite clause as in the classical language. 00s av J30VA01TO Ka6erna~ a~f}&Jla (Kal yap St.Kal Tov T6vov cx\rrov Kal To Sfap&Ja Tiis cpoovfls cbrp60'K01TOV naVTCxnaO'lV lov avev56Toos OlT1JOVV..The influence of social and historical factors on classical authors is very rarely appreciated by Byzantine scholars.

864r] eipfl'Ta{ J. . compete with him.lOO'TCXTOS 'TOiS 'TTelpOOJ.10lOV ~avT4' Ka66:rra~ cpepol'TO • &-rap Sfi'T' aV 'AplO"Te{SflV 'TOiS ~V 'Tci> vVV ye eTval 'TOV xp6vov Kal 'TOOVSe Ka6''1illCXs 'TOOV 'TTpayJ.• aV-rov 'TTE1paa6a1 Kal Tp{(3e1V Kal rrapa(3CxA:Aea6a1. ev J. 58 -rrapaj3tcAAea6cxt: 'approach'.ev6Eplq> -rrpes TI'Jv cpopav: 'and in the bounty of its crop'.lc.'s command of the language is so uncertain one should probably not try to emend.lOl rrpo (3paxeos. XXXV. SoKOO J. ae{povv.1EVOS Kal TftV 'TEAel6'l'fl'Ta Tfis KaAA{O"TflS ~V 'TC1l :AeyelV e~oos.lrrcrros: 'as beneficial as Aristides' is almost certainly the sense. 'TTPOs 'TO aVV'TOVOV o\hoo s.10a6EVflS yap. eV J. but since M.lOl.: 'to those who are exactly in Aristides' position'. acpvpf)). 57 ~).lOlS Kal cSao1 'TTepl TftV cS:O'KflO'lV 'TOV :Aeye1V O'TTOVSa~OVO'lV eTva1 ~A:Aayx6:velV Kal TfjSe Kcx-r. 00s aAfl6oos. ov TTOAV XOPflYOVO'aV Kal Kcx-r' •AplO"TE{SflV 'TOiS vVV XPOOJ.)s.ayxavetv: 'to come into the hands of'.THEODOROS METOCHITES 133 50 55 60 65 70 Aeooa6eve1 acpvpft:Acx-ros 6 :A6yos 6 LlfllloaeEvovs eipfl'Tal rrpoacpv(. &AAa Kal aV oos av llCxAlO"Ta 0 49 Leosthenes' dictum comes from Lucian.1Evo15.16vov llft Sfi'T' ~~ov aJ. oos av Sft TlVOS aVCxyKflS rnlKElJ.lEVOlS Kal avvaaKovJ. 'TC1l Tfis TExVflS rn1Se1K'TlKC1l 'TTAeiV f) KCXTCx 'TaAAa 'TOOV aV-rfiS eiSfl Kal ~ev6ep{C{) 'TTPOs 'Tf}v cpopav.crros: 'wrought as if of iron'. i5rrep [fol. oos 6TT6Tepov cS:v TlS 'TOiV Svoiv eanpov 'TTpOO'EAOl'TO.e. Demosthenis encomion. 'A'Texvoos yap rnl Tfis aV-rfis OVO'lV 1'JiliV &yooYfis Tov (3{ov Kal 'TOOV 'TTpay!lO:Toov Kcx-r' aV-rov Kal Tfis aV-rfis Tov AEyelv xpftaeoos 'TTAeova~OVO'flS. 66 <XV: the position of the particle is suspicious. a:AAOlS ~ll(31cbaas rrpayllaa1 Kal 'TO llEylO"Tov 'TTepl aV-rov Kal Tfis cpvaeoos 6aVJ. One might expect Tots Kal KCXT' •A.1a rn1Se1~CxJ.. 69-70 Kal KTA. vVV xpoo!livots.lEVOlS 6peye1 'Tf}v 'Tt"flya{av avaSoalV. &cpopoovn. i.).1a 'TTflYaiov. 'T{S av yevol'TO Kcx-r' 'AplO"TE{SflV 6VflO'lJ. 62-63 Kal V. 6J.10V Tfis YAOO'T'TflS Kal OOO'TTEp av el Ka6. ~v KaAA{O"TolS 'TE O:v ei11 Kal 'TTOAVKEpSeO"Tcx-ros TC1l O'KO'TTC1l Kal 'Tfj xpftael. Kal ae{ TTOOS rnllleAOOs 'TOV Sp6J. cSJ.1CxAa 'TOV VOVV 'TTpoaexova1 'Tfj 'TTo:Avcpop{(\X TOV &vSp()s Kal P<\XO"TOOVTJ IJE'T' eVxPT'lO"T{CXS CxTTCxO'flS Kal &Kpl(3e{as aV.1aAOV Sft 'Tl vos 'TTES{ov peiiJ.16:Toov AVO'lTeAEO"TEpov CxJ.lflybnJ 'TOiS ruoy{J. LlflJ.lEVflS tvc)s TVXeiv J. 63 Kcrr' •AptCTTE{ST)V 6VT)atl.lEV'TOl ye Kal 'TOVT aV oTSa.1cpoiv.

\lOVIJEVOS.'s devotion to Attic models does not seem to help him construct clear and easy periods.'s reply was that the obscurity and difficulty of Thucydides' style had not impaired his fame. see the notes on Nicephorus Gregoras below. . . 136. p.. Part of M. q~ip11v 76 xcxM-rr&>s . and his contemporaries found much to criticise in his writing. IJ.• q>ipEl\1 Gigante: MS.M.. xcxM-rras •.aAlc-r' O:v elK6TOOS &yavaKTo£11 "JTpOs TJiv afpeaw Kal XcxAErrOOS ~01 cp~pElV.134 75 S1a THEODOROS METOCHITES 6Cx-repov ~111.

I.v at Aesch.IJ. History 7. 2-3 Theodorus Metochites l:ooiJ.ap6TT)"Tl 1TCxV'TCXS elAKE 1TP0s lCX\fToV ocp6cxAIJ.Olp{GX 1rp0s A. .lSAoov Kal llSpoov <rVIJ. to describe Longinus (the third-century professor of rhetoric).1295-1359/60) Gregoras.aaev. 1. Essai sur Nic6phore Gr6goras.6yovs Kal Kap-rep{GX 1rp0s 1r6vovs Kal IJ.Vftll11S \ryle{GX Kal Ka6ap6TT)-rl aocp{as arrexa. where he was introduced to the emperor.lAOVO"l. 6). which was afflicted by great poverty (even the royal family used imitation jewellery. but his main work is an enormous history of the years 1204--1369. 4) and such natural disasters as the Black Death (16.IJSTP{GX Kal ocpecxA. as a result of his firm stand against the doctrines of Gregory Palamas he was virtually imprisoned for a while in the Chora monastery.c is not the most obvious noun to apply to memory.crros yap !J. Bekker. Schopen-1. 362 Wright). See also R. s o\i-roo S • e\hropos 'i'}v &rraVTa -rois ~11-rova1 1TcxAalCx -re Kal v~a 1Tpocp~pElV 00s 8< j3lj3A. He was brought up in Heraclea and came as a young man to the capital.s is "TO &Kp6-ra-rov 1'\A. 4 Oytefc..oov tA. Among his writings is a treatise on the construction of the astrolabe. Vitae sophistarum 4. 11. like his tutor Metochites. another Hellenistic word. Guilland. and Oytefa !ppevCZ.{oov -rois OIJ. 1. Bonn 1829-65. it gives a full and vivid account of the weakened empire of his own time.c: 'excellence'. 16. 11. cpvaeoos S • EVIJ.NICEPHORUS GREGORAS (c. Paris 1926. who sent him on a diplomatic mission to Serbia in 1326.lKpcX i\ ovS~v eSel J3•j3A. Much of his later life was occupied by the bitter and prolonged ecclesiastical controversies of the day.EYEeel Kal J. Edition: L. Eum. 535 is scarcely analogous. The longer of the two specimens below outlines a proposal for changes in the calendar which would have anticipated the Gregorian reform.{ov -rf\s YAOOTTT)S.fiV)(OS oihos Kal 2 V. 3 ro~otpfc. 3 (p. ooa-re IJ. j3lj3Al0eftK11 yap 'i'}v eiJ. which is not the classical meaning. Kcx6ap6-nrn: perhaps 'lucidity' (of style).OVS. 7 J3tJ3Ato&f}KTI f~'fiV)(os: a phrase used by Eunapius.ap6-rrrn: a Hellenistic coinage. was a polymath.

v 'TOV O:vSpbs ~v 'Tois A6yo1s Svva&. but Metochites perhaps did not subscribe to the usual views (cf.l{\lfla1V. 134.Aoov 'TE Kal -rroi..lv6eia6oo ~\lj3p16ts. cit.4> 1-lhP"'' -rraptSpa~v. 1<a66:1fep -niv 'TOOV 'TpvyooV'TOOV 1TaACxj.lvaae1 l<al 'KV{~e1 'TOOV bn6V'TOOV -niv O:l<of)v.x cpvaeoos Ka'TCXKOAov&f}aas XE1\loov6: 'T1Va Kal 66:Aa'T'TaV YAOO'T'TflS -rrpotaxE'Ta1· l<aV"T'Eiieev aj. lAap~ 'T1V1 Kal ~1S1000'1J YAOOa01J 'TO 'Tiis S1avotas -rrapal. ovSev -?iv 0 'TOV 25 O:vay1 voocr~<e1 v Kal yp6:cpe1 v O:-rrflax6Aflae -rroolTO'TE • CiJV\ • oV'Toos eTxe -rrpbs CX\lcpc. a sense not cited by LSJ. but see Demetrius De elocutione 128. 9ff..::w ~fl'TOV~voov -rrp6xe1pos e\mop{a· oV'Too -rr6:V'Tas \lCXKP4> .6VTc:. 35--41).l{Cj(. 13 1rapa11v6ela6at: 'soften'.ltc. 30 oxoAacrrnc6s: 'scholar'. 13-18). who was like himself an imperial administrator (Keeper of the Inkstand) and man of letters (see Sev<!enko.l6V'Toov 'Tiis oocpeAe{as j31j3A{oov. ovSe 'TO 'Ti\S cpvaeoos -rr6:vv 'T01 y6V1\lOV XaA1 v4> 'T1 v1 1<ati)(e1 v 1TpO"l'C6V\lfl'Ta1 • CiJV\ • lS1o'TpolT{Cj( 15 'T1vl Kal cxU-rovol. e.Afis Kal -rro11<fAflS yel.. The criticism is typically Byzantine. to the reader..136 NICEPHORUS GREGORAS .>V: for the gender see note on Photius above. ch1 -rrpbs ovStva 'TOOV -rr6:Aa1 ~fl'TOpoov &vacptpe1 V (3ej30VAT)'Ta1 'TOV 'Tiis cxU-rov ypacpiis xapCXK'Ti)pos -n. 16 1rpofO')(E"TCX1: 'offers'. As a stylist he was attacked also by an important contemporary. 12 IAap~: 'genial'. Nicephorus Chumnos.nv.. a usage seen in Polybius. .c. p. his Miscellanea.> Se~1oos.v l. lv 'T1 \lOVOV 10 faoos cxU-rov l<a'Ta~\l'IJa1'T6 'T1S. 24 hni<Avl. 0001 -rro'Te A6yoov 11'4-'aV'To... ~~ c'r:>v 20 avVE'TE'TQ:xe1 -rroi. ooa1rep av el axoAaa'T1l<Os 'T1S -?iv Kal 'TOOV -rrpay\l6:'TOOV 1TaV'T6:1faa1v m6s.lflV ft 1repl 'TO ~6Sov &l<av6a.lflp1ova6a1 -n. 0 Se 1l"CxV'TOOV \laAAOV eav\lCx~E1V £xo1 'T1S &v 'TOV avSp6s. pp. 9 1raptSpa1JEv: 'excelled'. IJEl5tcb01J: 'graceful'. 41. 15 cxV-roVOil{Cjt: in classical Greek usually applied to states. e~ea71 Se Kal -rraa1 'Tois (3ovAo~vo1s 'TE1<l. 14 l8tOTp01T{Cjt: post-classical. i. ch1 'TOaoV'Tov -rrpbs 'TOO V 1<01 voov -rrpay\l6:'TOOV eopvj3ov Kal l<AvSoovos rn1l<E1~VOV l<al cppoV'T{Soov CXAAO'TE CiAAoov rn1KAV~OV'TOOV cxU-rov -niv S1CxV01aV. 25 c!rrn)0')(6ATJOE: post-classical. 132. OOa'T' ~ -rrpootas \lEV ~S ~a1rtpav ~v (3aa1Aefo1s 'TCx 1<o1va S1011<oov -?iv oV'Toos oAOC')(EPOOs Kal ~v ye 1TOAAij l<al ~EOVC1J 'Tij -rrpo6vj. op. ooamp &v el 'TOO V A6yoov e~oo -rraV'T6:1Taa1v h'Vyxavev · 6'4Je S' a061s ooi6ev 0:-rraAAa'T'T080 \lEVOS oV'Toos OAOOS 'TOOV A6yoov ey{yVE'To. ovS.

l 71 vl 7ij oJ. 005 el1reiv. D. f)aav yap ot 76-re 1TOAACx IJOl 1rapeaxov 1Tpay1Ja-ra.pe Kal 1rp0s 7EAElOV otovel XPOOIJaTlO'IJOV 7aAAa 1J011TCxv-ra 1Ja6'1i1Ja-ra f)yaye. 77. 24--25 ~veti\oxans: the lexica do not suggest . 7a\h• apa J<alJ<alpOVAaj361Jevos. IJft ~ve11 The text of this passage is found in almost identical wording in a letter of Gregoras and as a separate treatise. in classical Attic the reference is usually to time in the past. 12-13 ToiiTo J<al yap 1.taTtaJlOV: 'colouring'. p. 1JE7a 1Jtv-ro1 ye 700V CiAAoov 1<al o 70V ITaaxa Aoyos &vEI<v\jJev.101: for another example of this strange word order see the excerpt from George Acropolites.lS: 'for a while'. 1<al 70la\i-ra 0:-rra ~IJol J<cx6viroj36:AAoov 1rp6cpaa1v 70V AEyelv. 'for the time being'.nAfc. a sense not attested in the lexica.l{as 1<pa-ri}poov ~vaav-ro. i. 1TOAAftV yap 1TP0s fliJCXS -rl)v ru!JEvelav E-rpecpev. the expression recurs below at 62. eyoo s. 5 (ov) 1ravv TOt Wolf. 13 TO o1TT11<ov Tiis Stavo(as: 'the visual powers of the mind'. 1<al l!iAAoos 071Kal cbS{voov f)v S1a IJaKpov 1rp0s j3aa1Ae{ovs 20 7o 1rpay1Ja &vevey~<elv &l<oas.t ~\I'TE"r\l)(i}Ke1v.Aa~as. 3 Tlvt Tij: one or other of the articles would have to be deleted if this were a classical text. J<a{1TEp ov-ra J<&J<eiva aej. 19 oo8(voov ~v: for the construction see the note on Photius above. 70VTO J<al yap IJ.Ol 70 61TT11<6v. Tfis S1avofas ~O:e. l<aTa yap 70 elooec)s &vu:~w ~ 7a j3aaiAela 7olcx\rn..NICEPHORUS GREGORAS 137 History 8. 00s E<p11V. 005 &i<p•l31is IJOl 7o 1TpCXy1Ja 1TapeO'TT'laev epevva. VrrOAaj3oov rnalVOV Sle~elV 1TOAVV TOV IJaei}IJaTOS.6eiv J<al &ra Ka-ra 70VTOV 70V xp6vov 1Tepl 70V ITaaxa AaA116flVal ~vej3. line 10. 00s iJEpos ov-ra J<al 70VTOV 70V 7010VTOV IJaei}IJaTOS. 1TAftV i) 00'01 700V Tfis &a-rpovoj. 9-10 1TAaVOO~VOOV Kal arri\avG'>v: 'planets and fixed stars'. IS O'l<laypaq>{c. 42. 4 Tic:. ~IJOV 7o\i-rov IJE-ra~ 1Tapa~p{"!'av-ros. 13 Calendar reform (A. e. &naA.Ol SoKEi a1oo1rij 1TapeA.1324) 0\n< e<IK:a1pov Se IJ. pi}yVVIJl -rl)v ooSiva. &1T6~p117ov ov.lVa J<al O'OIJ>OOV &J<oals a~la • 70 S • oov Tfis &vay~<a1o-rEpas TJIJiV OIJlA{as 1<al f)s O:v 715 &l<ovaas f}a6e{11 7a IJaAlCTra · A6yov KEI<{ VT'll<ev o J3aa1AEV5 1Tep{ ye &a-rpoVOIJ{as 1<al acpa1poov ovpav{oov J<al 1<1vi}aeoos 1TAavoo!JEvoov J<al 10 ernAavoov. 1ToAAa -re 5 ov-ra Kal OV 1TaVV 701 &vay~<aia 1TCxVV 701 ~OV01J O"XOACx~elV &J<oij. OVK &)(efiJaO'TOS IJEV ovSe 76-r. 14 XPOOI.oov: 'laying before me'. 21 1ri\'i!v ft &rot: 'except to those who'. J<al 7a ~v l!iAAa 1rapefa6oo ye 7EOOS.t yap 00s OA11600S ~{J<aO'l 70VTOV xoop{s. 10 J<cx6vtro(3CUV. oaa1 J<a-r• &v6pcb1Tovs elal Texva1 1<al 0'1TovSaaiJa-ra. first in Dioscorides.

36 ~cpCxllT}V: the form is not found in classical prose.ET' lO'TliJ. a usage common in patristic Greek.EP{a ~V eapos oop<.TlV 'T1"}v ~apnn'}v lO'TliJ.6yov O"K01T6v. a<eivo Se Tij IJ. TO Ka6' 'l'tllCis.aavpovs) el IJ.eV mETal TO 1'!1-lhepov naaxa. &Kptj31'}s To{vvv yivETat lO'TliJ. yiVETat To{vvv &Kptj3'1is 10'11IJ. IJ. ~vl 1-1ev &pxo!J.Ol TO 1TP00'11Ves xapt~OIJ. Kal1Tepl 1-1ev 'Ti. 61TOTE 1Tepl IJ. v. H. 80 O:v To TeAev'Taiov Toii'To 1rovf)poos Kal &yevvoos a<eteev Cnn111. Tlf> VOiltKCj): 'deriving from the Law of Moses'.EP{a ~v IJ..CxAa ye Tot 1TAeia-ros.eyetv ~IJ.S <p6tV01TOOptvfiS lO'TliJ. De comp.Oipav 1TPOO'T11V 6 TJAlOS yevotTO that ~Mtyetv can mean 'understand'.Evov T. 27 lST}IlOa(EVe: 'displayed'. 45 StEVKptvi'jaat: 'examine thoroughly'.<pO"t'Epoov Ka6hov. cbs 1Tpoi6VTES ~poviJ. Toii'To yap aiTtov errraO'Tls 'Tiis ~~s \nro6eaeoos.OVots Sval Tov ~VlavTOV VVX&rtiJ. 40 ylyvotT' av: a misplaced optative. 34 Kp111TlSas: 'foundations'. understand as ylyVETat. oos E<pTlV. Kal Si) Seov eTvat 1TpOOTOV ~<pCciJ. laT}IJEp(av: 'equinox'. 39 1ThT}atcpcxls: post-classical.EP{av ~ T&Kptj3es ~pevvfiaat.AOV O:v ei.EP{av 1TavO'eA1')v~.&T}!lipots: a Hellenistic technical term.OVOS 'ijv avvtels a SteWetv aV-r6s· &cpopll'l'tv yap eiATl<pOOs elleVs KCxKeiVOS rneSe{KVV'TO Kal ~S. rnel oov T(i) VOIJ. 1TpooTov IJ. Seov 45 ~Keiva SteVKptvfjaat 1Tp{v· eha Tois &rraatv euS.1')v.EVOS S{oSov ~VE1TO{et T(i) AOY'i'· TcXx.Evov eapos eVeVs. 29 SloSov: 'safe-conduct'.'I'}V 'TfiS so flptvfis Kal IJ. cp6tV01T~pov: 'autumn'. ~~6Tov 1Tepl -nlv alrr'l'}v ~v Tmrr(i) avv€A6ot T(i) 1'!11. 'l'tlliV 6 j3a0'1AeVS -nlv Ka'TCxO"TaO'tV rnou')O'a'TO Tov 1-1ev 11.Oipav 'Tiis Toov ~ooS{oov acpa{pas.eVT'ls &iJ..eV • eha -nlv ~<pe~s IJ.oov. rnel oov 1TCXO'aV.t.s.TlV. verb..ox6Tes a< Tov ~*a-rov TC>V Tov 11.o{.AaTTov.1Tapovat. but the semantic shift seems likely in view of Latin colligen. . 1Tava€A11vov Se cpaiJ.IJ.ET' lO'TliJ. Tov S • &Kovetv Tois O'VIJ.{~ IJ. 25.Ev. Kal el ll'l't 6 j3aatAEVS (a<eivos yap IJ. eha St' 85 alrrOOV Tas &noSe{~ets rnotOVIJ. 40 TOVTO Se y{yvotT' av.6yos.S11 cp6tV01Toopov.OO'{eve 'Tiis ~AfiS aV'Tov avveaeoos TOVS &.tK(i) IJ. ~P'i' S • &pxo!J.EP{av 1Tava€A11vov.EP{as ouSels 'l'tlliV ~V T(i) 1Tap6VTt 11. O:StKOV T1Va -nlv Ka'TaS{KTlV 6 S{Katos 6cpe{11. On naaxa as Passover and date of Crucifixion see the material assembled in LexPatrGr s.TJ oov a<eivos 1TAeiaTOV ~IJ. 43 Kcx6trov: 'perpendicular'.138 NICEPHORUS GREGORAS 25 11.lCXS myaiJ.EV 000'1Tep Ttvas opovs Kal Kp. 61T6TE j3paxv T11TAEOV i1 'TEO'O'apeO"KatSEKaTa{av 1't aEAi)VTl -nlv 1'!1-1epav &yot. 47 wx. 6rr6Te 1TATlO't<paEs ei11 TO 1TpOs 'l'tllCis 'l'tlltO'<pa{ptov 'Tiis ae11.rriSas \nro6els Ta Ka{pta. 25 tK TOV ~CTTov: this alternative to ~~CTTa is found in Dion.Epots. 1Tep{ ye IJ.

eoos.6KA. where it meant 'attendant on'. Gregoras himself made still more refined calculations.loat: a word not found before the fifth century. i\v a<pcxA. 48m.lTJV ovSe ye TO Tt. LSJ s. 61 o<iTe 111'tv o\tSt ye: these particles are either corrupt or testify to Gregoras' inability to handle this feature of the classical language.c.11pov· 00$ S • eyooye cxVTQs t~aKpti3ooaas evpov. 61Jo{oos tv &rraat V heat V. 66 1rapa: 'because of'.1 / 280 • The modern estimate is shorter (366 days 5h. c5Tt 1.lEpc.li3Pfav Tiis elKoaTt. tv s~ Tois <l>tA.{ov y{veTat K{VT)atv. TptaKoatoaTov SeoVTos T)1. y{ VeTat s~ oVx.i Kai 61Jo{oos &eL TOVTO s· ov 'Tt'apex TT)v TOV T)A.epoos cx\nol it'OtOVIJe6a. 'TTPOs yap Tois TptaKoa{ots ~~KoVTa 'TTEVTE VVX~I. which fell in the reign of Philip Arrhidaeus.NICEPHORUS GREGORAS 139 Tov Kptov · oTn'l Kai 6 laru. 71 Ptolemy (.. 11 IJCXAAOV el'Tt'eiv 'Tt'epl IJEO'T}V b<e{VT)V TT)v vVK-ra· v\iv S • t<p • T)1.lt~ y{veTat Kai St.{it'it'OV TOV •AptSa{ov 'Tt'epl 1. IJE{~OVOS Kai TJKtaTa TptaKOO'tOO'TOV TEA.s oopas l. otn< 6<pe{A.6KA. 6A. et 1.1oov brraKat60 SEK~v &vlloVTos cx\nov. a marginal note in one MS.1'11 Stcx-Tpti31l 1.1'11 'Tt'aw TOt 'Tt'pocrl}Kovaa Tij xpe{<j(.ovns o\hoo. C. 62 &n 111'! must here be taken as equivalent to &AAO:. 'Tt'oAA.liTTT)S Kai elKoaTt. v. oaoov hoov 6'Tt'ta66'Tt'OVS 6 xp6vos 65 T)l.lEpats 6 XptaTOs \nr~p T}IJOOV teava-roiiTo Tp{T'Tlv Kai elKocrniv StavVOVTOS cx\nov. some event in his reign on 26 February 747 B.lEpas oopav. 55 m.s. The calendar was not revised to allow for this refinement.oyov1.1eyas <p11al TlToA. tv l. &AA.1at S • o<rre IJTJV TT)v Tiis TJI.tept ves Tois aaTpo6ea1. gives the figure of 365 + 1 / .oos ftKpti3ooaaiJT'lV • et Se 1. .Almagest 7. 12s.1oat Staypa<pETat KVI<Aos.> iTp6TEpov iTplv 11 &va-reiAat Tov f)A.tov. C.1epas 1.1EO'Tll.1ev &a<pcxA.l~V Tois TOV Naj3ovaaapov 'Tt'epl A. e~eO'Tt avAA.).11pov ThapTov VVX~I. 54 Nabonassar was an obscure king of Babylon. oaoov aVets hep<j( l. .).lEpos. oos yap 6 1. C Ill 7. ov yap &vayKaiov v\iv.c l.lepov ~v6s.s TETcXPTTlS cx\nov • tv als S • T)l.1ev 70 Kai 6A. 2) reports that Hipparchus discovered the precession of the equinoxes and calculated the length of the year as 365 + 1 / . as is seen from chronological tables found in Ptolemy and elsewhere. OOO'T. 64 6moe61t'ous: 'in arrear'. 52 &a-rpo6eaJ. Aii~tv ~O"TTEp(av: 'late evening'.lepots Tf6e1. 46s.fl~tv ~O'it'ep{av Tiis Tov IJapT{ov 55 it'EI. o\he l. . otn< &Kpti3oA.1cxATJV yap b<eiVOS aei Ta\rrr) V it'OteiTat Kai Cxit'apEyKAtTOV • OJ\Aex 'Tt'apex TT) V TOOV lvtava{oov T)IJEpoov Cxit'ap{61JT'l<7tV.1 / 800 days (= 366 ·days + 6h.lt<. 61.1epovs Sei ToiiTo 'Tt'poaT{6ea6at Kai oVx..oy{~eaeat TT)v TOOV IJETO~ xp6voov Sta<popexv KCxVTeV6eV Kai St. a rare word from classical tragedy. 55 Another ancient era was based on the date 12 November 324 B. was used as a convenient basis for calculation.11}.eiJaios.

J3paxv 'Tl nMov ii Svo VVX6Tl~epoov V<pa{peaw 'Tt'Ol1)0'a~V01S. elp1)~EVOV 'Tt'OAAOO"TT'l~OplOV 'Tfis 'l')~epas ~V ~~V 'TOO'OVTOlS rna1 1<al ~6:Aa rn{S1)AOV f}S1) Ka6{CM"a'Tal · ~V S~ 'Tpun 1<al mpaa1 1<al 'Tt'EV'Tl: 1<al SEJ<a 1<al 'Tpls 'Toao\rro1s. 'TO S • ~~ 90 ~{vov ~~p•s 'l')~oov oVI< oTS • onoos ~~P<t6v~11~vov 'TO npay~a 1<a\ aS16p600'TOV f~e1ve. o~oos fCM"oo l<a'T ~ivov. T.atas O:v6pOO'Tt'Ol 'Tf}v apxf\v 'Tfis 'TOV TI6:oxa napa'T1)pi}aeoos npo 'Tfis 'TOV ~ap'T{ov Eyyl<TTa no1eia6a1 el~<:oO"Ti)s.vov 6~o{oos oVI< O:AAoeEv no6ev f) 'Tfis 'TOV 'I')A. o\i'Too yap avi}I<ElV 'TOTS ~80 'Tt'Oi\AOOTT)'fraction'. oVI< O:v Si}nov. 85 vcpatpov~vot: 'subtracting'. p~S1ov S • av ei11 J3ovA.: 'round about the year 6300' (A.i 'TO 'li~rnpov l<cXKdVCj> 'Thal<'Tal rnea6a1 olove{ 'TlVl 1<p1)'Tt'iSl 1<al 6e~eA{Cj). OVK 6p6oos ye 95 'Tt'OlOVV'TeS 'TOV'TL rnel yap OVK O:AAoeEv no6ev il 'Tfis npbs 1<p1ov 'I')Ala~<i)s ela6Sov 'Ta 'Tfis lO'fl~eptas O:'Tt'o<pa1v6~a. the sense is post-classical. ol s· ~ 'Tfis aV'Tov Sev-ripas Kal elKoO"Ti)s 'Tt'OlOVV'Tal. l<cXKe{VCj> S • a\5 Si}nov av~napaAACx'T'TelV xpeoov 1<al 'TO 'l')~pov. napCX'TTlPTl-riov o\5v.{ov S1a~p•l<fls O:'Tt'o<TT6:aeoos Kal E'T1 ye 'TO TI6:oxa 'TO vo~11<ov oVI< O:AAo6ev no6ev ii 'Tfis naVO'EAi}vov· ruS1)A. oos 'Tfis lO'fl~ptas 100 ~e-ra'Tt'eO'OVO'fiS ~eae 1<al 'Ta 'Tfis navaeA. 'Tf}v Se ye navo-EA. D.6yo1s.i}vov· Kal 'Ta\rn. 1<a\ vVV o<pefAOV'TeS ol 'TfiS 1<a6" 'l')~as ~. 00s l<a'T" ~ivov 'TOV ~EylO'TOV s. eyoo yap ov 0 O)(OACx~OO 'TOVTO vVV SlaO'a<peiv.t ye rno~voos O'V~'Tt'api}AAa~ Kal 'TO 'TOOV "lovSa{oov TI6:oxa. 89 fyytcrra ICTA. npas yap ~iv6 ye a<pop<.v~avei'Tal 'T(j) A. S1a 'TO n6:vv J3pax\rra'Tov 'Tfis npoaeftKfiS· O'Tt'ep Si} Kal l<a'T • ~Vlav'TOOV napaSpo~f}v 'Toaoln'oov ol npo 85 'I')~OOV 'Ta ~e-reoopa <ppOV'TlCM"al 1<a\ aCM"po6ea~OVES V<palpOV~VOl aa<paAOOS 'TO 'Tfis l0'1)~ep{as VVXeft~pov evplO'I<OV · 1<avreV6ev ye ~f}v cXO'<paAfl Kal 'Tf}v 'TOV TI6:oxa Sl6p6000'1V rnolOVV'TO" 1<al 'TO 'Tfis S1op6ooaeoos 'Ta\rrfiS ey{ve-ro ~p1 'Tov ~~ •ASa~ ~~al<lO)(lAlOO'TOV 'TplaKOO'lOCJ'TOV E'Tovs Eyyl<Tt"a. 'TO s.A. ~6ptO\I: . 792). fj'T'TOV yap A.o105 ~evo•s 'I')~Tv no•i}aaa6a1 'Tf}v S16p6ooa1v. a usage found in the N. 84 'Tt'apaSpo~o~iJv: 'passing'.ov cS:pa. 106 avf!ta:t\1: 'to be right'. OAOOV 'TplaKOO'{oov ~Vlav'TOOV 80 vvxeft~pov OAOV avv6:ye-ral.6yct> npbs ov n6:w 'TOl noAAovs 'Tovs xp6vovs S1a'Tpfl3oV'T1.aST} TI'TOAE~aiov Sl. 90 fppCjl9\111flllivov: 'neglected'.140 75 NICEPHORUS GREGORAS Old~~a 'TOVTO 'T{6T)~l 'TOiS ml'T• aCM"poA. 98 StaiJETptKf'iS' lmcxrracn(o)S': 'diametrically opposed position'.

~f3SoJJ6:Sa -roov -rov Xpl<TTOV ncx6f)JJ6:-roov. . Kal -ra ~~s -rov acpO:AJJa-ros ~vre\ieev yvooplJJa -rots &rraa1v. -ro\rrov s~ JJ'Ii YlYVOJJSVOV "t'O acpaAspov ov J. O"VJ.llKp6v.NICEPHORUS GREGORAS 141 -ra~ -roaOVTOlS hsow 1'! -rf\S a<TTpOVOJ.C:a<1s ftSfl yey~Vf)-ral. The emperor liked the idea but hesitated to implement it owing to the difficulty of persuading all his subjects to understand and accept the reform. oiea6a1 JJ~v elva1 110 ll'aVcnAT)VOV -rf}v KVplaKf}V Kal ll'pOO"ff)V 'l'liJSpav -rf\S JJEAAOVO"f)S ~f3SoJJ6:Sos· oiea6a{ ye JJi}v -ro\i-ro \f'EVS~· yeyevi)a6a1 yap ftSfl npo Svo vvx6fliJSpoov Ka-ra -rf}v EK-n. 114 a~ooacn~ov !~So~Sa: 'the week of the Resurrection'. Kcx6a Kal noAA..li&oSos..The chapter continues with observations about the Jewish Passover and the celebration of Easter on 25 March. .lSve1v KVplaKf}v Kal no1eiv -rf}v &va<TTaO"lJ.v Sf)AaSf} -rils napeAT)AV6v{as ~f3SoJJ6:Sos 'l'liJSpav • Kavre\ieev acpaAA.lSvovs aAAflV &v-r• aAAflS ll'Ep1J. which is the change recommended by Gregoras.lll'hrtcl yap ~ae· O-re.lOV ~f3So115 JJcXSa.l{as rnayy~al J.oJ.

who entertained him to a feast on Christmas Day. .le&eoop6v -re eOOVs ~crrava1 Kal SeV'Tepav j. ov "'TOAACxs. A few months later. The following specimen describes his experiences in England and is addressed to Manuel Chrysoloras.lE"T • b<e{VT)V acp{~cr6al 1Tpoa5oK0:V. he began a long journey to Western Europe. Edition: E.. Among the emperor's many writings are letters which portray a conscientious and cultivated ruler. New Brunswick.>Tipcxs: 'the latest.MANUEL II PALAEOLOGOS (1350-1425) The situation of the empire was so grave that in 1899 the emperor Manuel II sent a letter to Venice asking that he and other members of the imperial family might take refuge there if the Turks captured Constantinople..lEVOV -rT}v rnlCTTOAf}v. 1969. Kal Tp{TT)V aWlS htpav aj. . who had recently begun to give lectures on Greek in Florence. iaoos Se Kal ilaKpOTepas Kal "'T:he{ovs.la{ ae Se~Cxj. Manuel II Palaeologus (1391-1425): a study in late Byzantine statesmanship. See J. reprinted 1962. where the king set aside part of the Louvre for his use. last'. e.lE{voo Ti'\s SEV'Tepas "'TOAA~. The rulers of Spain (i. Legrand. At the end of 1400 he paid a short visit to the English king Henry IV. xoopeiv S1SCx~OVO"aV T&ycx66v. j. but little was done to help him. ovSe 6 Tfis 'IIEc. Letter 38 'Hyovj. made a deep impression in Western Europe.tav. backed up with offers of precious relics from the Crucifixion that had been brought from Constantinople. to raise financial and military help against the invaders. Aragon. ae{ Tl "'TAEOV ~OVOT)S Tf\S VECA>Tepas • &AAa 51} Kal TOVVaVT{ov OVK &-rr€1KOS. and the mere fact that the head of a once great empire was so desperately in need of aid. Castile and Navarre) and Portugal also received appeals for aid. as in Modern Greek. 0"01 Tt)v KaAftV b<6j. W. Kal ETl ye s htpav Kpe{TToo "'Taawv. travelling through Italy to Paris. Paris 1893. j. Barker.llaev &yyeft. Manuel's character and ability.lETa yap -rT}v "'TPWTflV b<e{VflV. a superlative.

liV erooefival.r{aw. Tij cpvere1 XP1ler6:J. Kal S1a ..rapaSpaJ.ltvo•s.l115aJ.1EVOS. ifOAV TOV StoVTOS ~{it'ElV J.. Tfis SEVTtpas. oos av eiit'Ol TlS. Kal \rrrepj3o:Aais ~v c!rnaer1 KE)(PTlJ.lEVOS.l{av .11J . 23 mptppe61JEvos: 'surrounded by'.rap· "JiJ.l'llV ~oov J.rovs Tovs cx\rrov KaT1JpK6er•v· . AaJ.lclTOOV ~. .lOV Se crrpaTlCXS J. 1: 6:v6paJ<£S 6 &{Jaavpos -rricpT}vev: brl Toov ~cp • ols f\Amaav StCX\fiEVoelvroov. 8 T~>V hrecrr<XAx6Ta: 'the writer'..lCxAlCTTa Kal cplAOOV o\fx i')KlCTTa. Kal v\iv. KaAOS TE ..ITl s• oO ns -rral. ov5aJ.lJ.1Evos.lEv rnlCTTOAal .raw Kal &ya6as ~.lW\lcrra Se . TOV TE Tfis oopas TOV TE Tfis TVx'llS.lOOS eeov overav.laTOS ere VOJ. CiA}.ltvos Tois elpyaerJ.lVTlJ.lOOV apeTais.1evos. tyoo Se cS:pa ~er{yoov.r{Soov ~"''evcre. olKoVJ. Kal Tij J.rapOlJ. 32 J. 25-27 Hesiod.l{~overal· J. Tfis J.lifPOTaTOS J. &M. .lEJ.raVToov 'lil-lO:s e\Jcppafvoov Kal TlJ.rais KOJ.lOOVOS.reiv.l'llV.16:Aa cpalv6J.w: 'discuss.IETa: he means 'after'.leV ieroos TOlaVTa. Kal XEipa ifCXerlV opeyoov. Tij Se avvtae1 cp{AOVS iT'OlOVJ. • cx\rrfj Tfj 6t<j( TOOV ~iT'lcr6tVToov e\Jcppa{voVTa. cptpelV rnl CTTOJ. aVTl :A1J. despite the genitive. perhaps emendation is required. cx\rrov ~i-LE TOV rneCTTaAK6Ta.ltVTlV Sei~al TOV cS:v5pa "Ji:A{KOV i} iT'Eipa . &XJ.lEVOS 6:ya6ois Kal ifaVTo5a.rov rn{Kovpov .lOOV ypaJ. ovKt-n ere .111Sev Kal vov ~e1 v el.lEVOS Tois XP~~overl l30116e{as.lEv ovv er1yiis .lOVTOS Kal ifOAAOOV erol . Kal TOiS J.lev pOOJ.rapaJ.rap{CTTTlerlV.ravTOSa.la.raVToov 6 cS:pxoov .liv KaTtCTTTl J.ltvm.eravpo{"· Kal TO era J. 0 Tfis BpETav{as Pft~ Tfis J.lETCx Slit'AOV TOV XElJ.. ·Hs.v.raVTas ~:Af}TToov.roA:Aal J.llKpov SoKEi Kal ~pv6plCXV.1v60VJ.rpc)s 5 • a\5 Tovs c!rna~ l56VTas :AaJ. els cx\rr6v TE Kal Tovs Tp6.11J 6avJ.lifPOOs -nlv cpTJJ.:Ave6TOOV rnp6: TlVa SlaAaJ.l{~oo T"Jiv .lEv cx\rrov OVK el56erl Tfj cpTJJ.lal · 6e6s w TIS (an xa\ cnrn').lCXS acp1yJ. Kal Tfj er1yfj ere 5l5CxCTKOOV J.la~6J.cS:v6paKES ot e.ltVTlS.rap• eT> Tawv 5laTp{j3oJ.lifPOTaTOS Se T"Jiv yvooJ. J. 13 ~v: instrumental. 15 Zenobius II. . deal with'.MANUEL II PALAELOGOS 143 10 15 20 25 SO 85 J.lOOV OOS J. &-re 51) 1-lft SvvaJ.lEVOS ols rntCTTaAKa.lEYCxATlS. Oi5Tos 0 AaJ. • apKOVJ.lOVOS crrraVTOOV ol6J. ~V als ~CTTl T"Jiv ifOAlV "JiJ.roA:Aax66ev els i}J. Kal ~avTOV .l~aVOVTOOV. Works and Days 763-764: cpTU. flvrtva -rroAAoi / Aao\ cpT}I.If~c:. 12 8taAaiJ~av6vrc.ltvoov Kal ~0116ElOOV htpoov.ltvos "JiJ.leV TO crxiiJ.1Evos Tais crvvover{a•s.rp6cpaer•s f) Se· Tfis Se wv rnlCTTOAiiS .rapE)(OJ.rayye:A{as KOJ. o ifOAAOiS iT'EplppEOJ.svs Se J.1Ev.laKpas bncrro:Aas 6"1'ea&al.1EVOV Tais ~.l-rrav &1T6AA\Tl"at. St TlVOS xp6vov . o\Jx <h1 Toov ~.

first found in this sense in Plutarch.v -ro1 yevva16-repos mpl -ro -reA.1-roov xal -ro~o-roov xal XPTI~6:roov xal veoov. xal el Sei avcneiAal "t'OV A.(OtS: the metaphorical use is common in classical poetry. 44 1<opoovlSa: 'end.ov • 45 1rapE){e1 yap f)~iv av~~cxxtav s1• o1TA. completion'. &ycx6es S~ xal -rov Spo~ov awoov xal xcxe• f)&Jtpav xpeh-roov YlYVOJJEVOS. . 40 'TTpOOIIJ.144 MANUEL II PALAELOGOS OVrOO IJEYcxAO'JNXOS 6 avi)p. his predecessor Richard II had granted Manuel a subsidy of £ 2.000 in May 1399. at l<O~{O'OVO'l -rl)v crrpa-rlaV ev6a Seov. &ycxees ~~V OVroS Av 1Tpool~{OlS. 1roA.oyov 40 'Tf\POVV"t"as vo~ov rnlCTTOAOOV.os ~cp&Vfl. 1rpoa6els xal xopoov{Sa -rois 1rp(xy~aa1 v ~cnrrCi) xal -rolho1s ~cpa~1AA. xal <plAOVEll<OOV cxV-rov xcxe· oopav xpa-reiv ~V -rots 1TPOs f)~as. 45---46 In fact the king did nothing.

begins his advice to Constantine: careful -retxfaas: a wall had been built across the isthmus at Corinth in 1415.andmorethanoncecamenearto being elected Pope. apla-ra t<al CTCX\J'TOV ~(3ovAe\Jaoo. Mohler. 343-8. G. where his skilled diplomacy and theological learning led to the short-lived Union of the Greek· and Roman churches. then ruler of the Morea with his capital at Mistra near Sparta. Kardinal Bessarion als Theologe.CARDINAL BESSARION (1403-72) Though he is best known for his activity at the Council of Ferrara and Florence (1438-9). (3aa1An<oo-ra-re O:vep. See also A. Cambridge Historical Journalll. 32--45. the Goths in the third century and the Huns and Slavs in the sixth century. neAOlrOVVfiO"ICXJ<cX J<al ncV. MS. It stood on the site of previous fortifications against the invasions of Xerxes. he spent the rest of his life almost entirely in Italy in the service oftheCuria.ato1. 633): S. a letter of his written after the disaster of 1463 outlines the idea of forming a complete library of Greek literature. Athens 1930.. and the annotations in his manuscripts (donated to the Marciana Library in Venice in 1468) are sometimes valuable indications of his wide reading in classical literature. Marc. His most substantial book was Adversus Platonis calumniatores. Keller. Defence policy a~{oos Telxiaas jlEV ovv -rev fa6!l6V. On Bessarion in general see L. 10 Wilaon .6yeta IV. In Rome his house was frequented by the leading Greek and Italian scholars of the day. later the last emperor of Byzantium. The following specimen is from a letter sent in 1444 to Constantine. L. Labowsky's article in Dizionario biografico degli I taliani. but two of his opuscula mark significant advances in the history of philological method applied to scripture and theology. llft llexpl Se -ro\rrov SlaVOT)6els 1 After a fulsome preface B. Editions (based on Bessarion's autograph. Bessarion should not be regarded as solely a theologian. Rewarded with a cardinal's hat for his part in the Council. gr. Lambros. 439-49. Paderborn 1942. Humanist und Staatsmann Ill. P. military policy will reduce the Turkish power in Europe. 1956.

22 T<i:>V &AAc. 1<aho1.> 'TS Sla 6ai\6:0"0"T}S -re.lEVfl -roov cS:i\i\oov yeVOl"TO 'TfOAlS..lEVOV pT}6e{T).lO{ 'TS Kal J3eJ3a101 eJev. el llft Kal -ra J3aati\e1a ~ei lSpv6e{T} Kal 'TrpoKa6T}15 j.lai\i\ov Se ye Kal &vcxyt<a{oos Kal ov xoopls OVK cS:v 'TfO'TS axo{T} l<aAOOS ovS' av epyov -re-rei\eO"j. o\11< &vEi\'Tf1a-rov 00s cS:i\i\ovs faoos 80 E~Oj.. OVK av SvVfl6dT} -roaoV-rov. h1 j. -roov yap lv-rbs Tfls nei\o'Tt"ovvf}aov c:nJv 6e4' llT}S~v SeS16-roov..lEAAOV"Tl Kal -ra yovv ov-ra aooa Sla"TT}pf)ael. o(h' av lv OOrOO"l Kai "TOiS OVcxyt<O{OlS KalpOiS Svvoov-r' av ~ "TOV 'Trpoxetpov 'Tt"apeival.. Kai yap cS:vev ll~V cpvi\OO<oov ovS~v cS:v 5 'TfO'TS SvVfl6eiev j. but although the Union of the churches gave some hopes of beginning a new crusade. -ra S • ~SpallOVIlevov lv -rois 'TrpocniKoval xp6vo1s Kcrra -roov 'Tfapa20 1<e1!-lEvoov l)(6poov Kal llft -rovs 1<a1povs &'Tt"oi\i\vv-ra -rij &'Tt"ova{<iX· li\'TfiS ll~V yap la-rl cnJV eec.l{oov. 8 b: TOV -rrpoxdpov = -rrpoxdpoos: ~ -rrpoxdpov (without the article) is found in authors of the second century.> 'TS 'TfE~ll<Ci> VllOOV "TS Kal -roov cS:i\i\oov Xp1a-r1avoov a-rpcrrc. -ra ll~V rnlKOVpf)aov-ra -rois lS{OlS.lai\i\ov cS:~la 6aVIlCX'TOS ~oy{aoo.Aa 'Tt"poahl Kal 'Tt"6i\lV ~iae ISpvaaa6a1. 9 -rra6{UlaTa: the wall had already been destroyed once by the Turks and evidently Constantine was trying to strengthen the defences by founding a large town nearby to help man it. Kal -roV-rov j...lCX'TOS KCX'Ta "TOOV aaeJ3oov a<1vf)6T}aav. & Kal &'Tt"o-rvxova1v. ef "TlS rnEi\601 "TOOV 'TfOAej. cpvi\CXKES s~ cS:vev 'Tt"apaKel~VflS 'TfOAeOOS 'TS Kal 'TfOAl'TS{OS o<h' av lKavo{. (f).va1 Kal tillO:s lv 'Tfav-rei\ei 25 eaea6a1 ~P{Cit llT}S~v SeS16-ras.> -re.. 06eV el ~V yEyOVEV 10 ehe Kal y{ve-ral.lOVa -ra n{xT). o'Tt"Ep &'Tt"dT}..lOVlj.lopovv-ras. ot m:Xv-res -rav\iv oocrrrep l~ ~VOs 6e{ov avvef)j... l<aAOOS av €){01 Kai cS:p~aa6a1 Kai -rei\EO"al.>... lKEiva !lEv-rol J3ovi\eVea6a1 Kal 'Tt"poKcrrai\allJ36:velv &v6:yl<T}. Kai -ro\1-rov yeyEVflllEVov. cS:i\i\oos 'TS Ka{. j. B.leV 6j.146 CARDINAL BESSARION a-rfjva1.. 'Tt"Epl -rov la61lOV oos rnl -ro 'Tt"oi\v Sei -rov cS:pxov-ra lyxpov{~elv. o<:h' av j..>v Xpto-nav&v: various unsuccessful attempts were made to raise armies from Western Europe. . the usage does not seem to be classical.lap-rvs 6 XPOVOS Kai "TO 'Trpoi\aJ36v-ra 'Tfcx&tlllCX'TO. lliJ-re -roaaV-rT}s cpvi\aKf\S Seo!lEvovs. Tolhov . -ra\i-ra ytve-ra1 Chrsp fSe1 yevea6a1· el S • o<rrroo Kai vVV apxf}v fAaJ3e. &vepoo'Tt"OVS 'Tf6:v-roos ov-ras Kal -rois &vepooit was overrun in 1422 and did not prevent the Morea from falling in 1462.'s expectations were too optimistic. avvo{ael -re lv -re. "TOOV v\iv l)(6poov &'Tt"olKla6ev-roov. -rei\eoos aV-rovs Tf\s Evpcb'TfT}s &'Tfei\a&i. aTiivat: 'stop at this point'.•. 2--3 ~pt .> j...

Seflcrav.)s ~ovaav: 'badly managed' rather than 'an unfortunate necessity'.eyoo Tov crlTov. the prospect of a great new kingdom developing in the Morea. the position of the participle at the end of the period is idiosyncratic. 00s o\JK 6'><pe1:.CARDINAL BESSARION 147 1ri vo1s 1rcXeecn v lnrOKEliJEVovs. ~ &vTEtaayooYI'lv -re: 'and correspondingly the import'. 00s OliJal. 11 Sefiaav: 'if need be'.: a more natural expression would be ov "TQS 1TpOs "TOvayKaia jl6vov.lft <pv:hc:XTTE1v ~v Tij lS{Cj( &pxij. 13-14 ov TQs KTA. the philosopher Gemistos Plethon (1355-1452). .1hepo1. 205-206). &Ta~{a TT)peiTal. Ta IJCxAlCTTa 1.6:rreaea1 Kat Tas b<e{ VOOV 1TpOKaTcxAaiJJ3CxVEl V rnlXElpf}O'ElS VOVV CcV EfT) ~6VTOOV av6p001TOOV. Economic policy Tiep{ ye l. in an address to the ruling faiQily in 1415. 5 KCXK(i. OVTElCTayooyf}v Te Toov ~11r6noov.\ev. The Morea was economically very much under the influence of Venice at the time.l1Tl1TAoona1 Se ot &AA6Tp1o1. neither being strictly classical. TI)v Tfjs Wilson: TI)v aiis Mohler: Tfis Lambros. 7 TTIPEiTat: the sense might be 'is observed' or 'continuous'. &~{oos· Kat Tf} v Tov crhov IJCxAlCTTa KOOAVCTElS ~~ayooyf} v· Kat il 1rept TaVTa.'s teacher. <ppon{O'ElS. 1rpos Se 1 B. Lambros' edition nU. Social and political thought in Byzantium. 15 1TE1VOOCT1 1. 2 l~ayooY1'Jv: the economic concepts that follow ~e not original.01TOIIIIT)O"ICXKa Kal ne~AatoA6yeta III 263-264 (English translation by Sir Ernest Barker. see especially the passage in s. 00s l.1ev ol it1. the last and most interesting part of his letter indicates his awareness of Italian superiority in understanding of economics and technology. yet another example of the accusative absolute so popular with Byzantine authors. &<p • d>v <pvA.leAslcXV TE Kat TftV TOOV Kap1TOOV <pvA.aKf}v Kat TOOV 1. the word is not found elsewhere in this meaning. the lasting fame that Constantine may ensure for himself as an enlightened legislator.1ev 1TEplTToov ~~ayooyf}v ~at S166eaw. OVT(A)S cXVayKal6TaTOV oVTa Kat ov avev ~flv OVK ECTTl.1ev &vayKaloTc:XTT)v 5 ovcrav. P.lftV TftV TfiS xoopas rnll. Toov S • &vayKa{oov Te Kat ov 1TCxW &<p66voov avVTf}pT)OW. Ta\JTT)v 00s J3:haj3epav SlcxAVO'ElS. KCXKOOS Se Kat a\JTftv E)(ovcrav. ovSets OVTOOS &aeevf}s &pxoov Kat Ta1TE1V6S. but had been put forward by B. ~l. Kat TOVTO yap ovSe!J{a ~CTTtv OVT(A) CTIJlKpa 1T6AlS ~V 10 'hcxA{Cf:. has dwelt on a variety of themes such as the glorious past of Sparta. "TQS s~ (or &Aha "TcXS) ICTA. Oxford 1957. Kaho1 T{ A. TOS T~vas a'VTas Kat To\rroov ov Tas 1rp0s T&vayKaia.

slips into a traditional Greek prejudice. SlSCxcrKOl V'TO s. emoScbcrelS cxOOls 'Tctl yivel. Kal Taii'Ta 'TOTS -rrap • fJIJooV -rraV'Ta -rrapcxA.leAE{as -rrapa<pVACrrrOVO'lV ~OO"TOl Kal OOcrre IJft hepOlS S1aSo&i}va1 ovSev o 'Tl ov IJT}XOVOOV'Tal. 6elO'TO'TE Sia-rro'Ta. 30 KCXTE1t'atpo~vo1s: 'who are arrogant towards us'. 12. 4> J. 29 "TEMtOOTas: first found in Ep. Kal OVK avi~ 'TOO'aVTIJ &Aoy{<jX avvixe0'6al. 'E-rrl 'TOVTOlS Kal 'TO XPfiiJa Toov A6yoov. 24 aAoyic. el'Ta. f!IJO:s Se oos avSp<hroSa rne0'6al.Kal o\i-roo -rrapa14 S1ayooyr)V: 'everyday life'. 20 T&v J3apJ3apoov •f:AATtVES: B.leV ~{vovs oie0'6al xoopav. oos ana1SeV'Tovs Kal aJ.ovs TE rn{'TT}Ses els 'I'Tai\{av -rriJ. CXAA.l6vos 'TOOV 6r)p{oov 20 c5:v6poo-rros S1acpipe1 Kal 'TOOV j3apj3apoov ·EAAT}ves SlaKp{vov-ral. Hebr. K&l<e{vovs J. fil-lETS Si. eVpE'TCxs.l~as SlSCx~Ol'TO. LatinoYUm Gyaecissimus. 2. IJCxp'TVO'lV aVTOTS 'TOVTOlS 'TOTS WV K<X'TE-rt'alpO~VOlS fJIJOOV. . the verb is known in patristic texts. o~e{as elcrlv e·n Kal viiv Slavo{as ol TtiJi'TEpol viol. O:v 005 Sei.l6vov cpepovaas 6poo1JEV IJE'TcX -rraO'T}s rnlJ. ov -rTOAAOTS aVcxAOOIJOO"l V anoAOOAO'TOS aVaKcxAiC71J 'TOVS i\6yovs. Kal 'Taii'Ta OVK apxT}yovs IJOVOV Kal.aj36VTes aocp{av ii Kal AT}~61JEVOl. the lexica fail to record this sense.liVOVS. rnaveA60V'TOOV els -ri}v -rraTp{Sa.aj3ovalv. el K<XTa Tp6-rrov S1SCxcrKOlV'TO. elal S • oVt-o1 -rro7\Ao{ Te KalKcxAOl veav{al. TliJCXS Se !Ja&r.l06E'TeTv. Kal SlSacrKCxAOOV J. 32 rnavaaooO'TJ: this compound is apparently first found in Gregory of Nyssa.leV ~)( 'TOV \nrepixoV'TOS ooa-rrep VOj. 'T1') V crocp{av rnavacrcbC71J 'TC{) yivel • IJEYCxAT}S yap e\lcpvtas.c: here apparently 'lack of culture'. !v ols -rt'O'TE 'TO fJ~pov TtKIJaKE yivos Ka~ OOV -rr5:cra rnlCTT{}IJT} Kal yvooO'lS Kal 'TixVTl ~j3ACxO"TT}cri 'TE Kal f)v6T}crev. (005) op&!JEV would make the construction a regular parenthesis. Lorenzo Valla called him GYaeccwum Latinissimus. • T\ST} Kal 'TEAelOO'TCxS -rt'CxO'T}S crocp{as 80 yeyeVT}J. but at 101 below the idea is rather 'amusement'. -rrapa yap /\aT{voov Tl)v -rro'Te. fJIJETipav -rrapcxA.148 15 CARDINAL BESSARION S1ayoo'Y1iv il XP111J<XTlO'IJC>V J. which gives a better idea of his more considered views. CiJV. IJlKpois -rr6VOlS.la6eTs -rrapa 'TOTS 25 CXAAOlS VOIJ{~e0'6al. 'TCW cri'TOV 'TC{) j3ovAo~vct> -rrav-rl avyxoopov!JEV &Aoy{o-roos ~~aye1v.. aV'Tol ~v{o'TE AliJOOTTOV'TES. IJeyCxAT} ~A-rrls 85 aV'Tovs ~V j3paxeT rnlScbcrel V els 1-lEyO aocp{as. S1' a1hoov Kal 40 Tovs CXAA.'TooV Seiv rnE){elV. el Tovs 'TE -rrapa /\aT{vo•s -niv ftiJETipav SeS•Say!Jivovs S1SacrKO:Aovs 'TlS aV'ToTs E-rna-n)cre1ev.ovs -rra1Srucre1ev. OOO"TE. cpe\i.

t<al 'TTOAAOVs 'TOOV A6yoov. cxVelS rnaveAeVCTOVTal 'TTPOs 'l')llCXs a1-1a llETCx aocp£as.>t<lCTTal. 67 O"Tra\llc.x· OOV OllOOS omc 6A£yal 'TTapa 1\aTiVOlS rn t<al wv CTOO~oVTal • • E'TTel ~VTOl l<EXOOPlCTTal Tiis ala&1.CARDINAL BESSARION 149 Aal36vns 00s cx\no£ 'TTO'TS ot f)!Jhepo1 aV-ri}v 1TapeS£Sovv. t<c:xAov O:v ei11 t<al 'TOVTOOV 1T01i}aaa6a1 A6yov t<a£ 'TlVOS 65 lKAe~CxllEVOS vtovs els "I'TcxA£av 'TTtll\f}al.l&')ll: fllll\1 would be expected.v 'TOV 45 l<cxAOV 'TOVTOV &1.• i\eahiEl: obscure.lova6tKoov: 'men of rare or unique ability': J. 1'!1-lEiS St ovSt ~6Tp16v 'Tl A1l'fJ61-1E6a. ii !36:p11 'TE !AJ<ETal 70 t<al t<aTacpepo!lEVO p~CTTa 'TTAi}'TTEt 'TE t<al Aea{vel 'TO 'TOVTOOV 48-50 'they are obliged to return at our request the superiority of knowledge which they did not recover. is probably referring to rotary grindstones.lOva6tK6s in this sense is usually applied to the divine nature. 56 f!J. c:xrr• omc b 'TTOAACfl 'TOVs 1TapaS6vras vu<i'iaal. 'TOVS St 1Tp6:TTe1v elS6Tas t<al t<aTa A6yov 'TTOlovvras c!cyvoeiv OllOOS "Tov A6yov. 64 T1\ICXS Lambros: Tl\la MS. oaa1 'TTPOs 'Tf'is aocp£as t<al "Toov ~v cx\nij Slal3oi}'TOOV yevo~voov n~poov 'TE t<al •fAAi}voov rupe6el55 CTal 'l')lliV 1TapeS66r}aav. 70 1TAftTTE1 .. a' • . . f) !lOO V arrOAO~VTJ CTVVCXlTOOAOVTO 'Tij aocp£c.Aov St. omc O:v els "T6Se aocp£as 1Tpoi}x6ftaav. OOCT'TTEp acp. ov Set S • alCT){VV1J -n. St" ala&1. 50 ~a 1Aa!3ov. rnlCTTi}llovas ovras ovStv elStva1 'Tf'is 1Tp6:~oos. 00s "Toov A6yoov rnavaaooeivroov 1'!1-liV t<al at ~vreiieev 13AaCTTi}CTaCTal nxval t<al OCTal 1Tp6s 'TE 'TO ~f'iv 1Tp6s 'TE cpvAat<f}v Ti &llvvav 6:vcxyt<ala1.v 6pyavtt<i}v 'TE t<al llTlXOVtt<i}v. ~a 'TO cx\noov 'TTapa 'TOOV 6cpelA6vroov arrOA1l\fJ61lE6a· 6cpe£AOVCT1 yap OVTOOS 'TOV arralTOVVTOS arroSovvoo 0: llfl c!nriAal3ov. b<avo£ elcn t<a\ &AAovs S1S6:~oo t<a\ Olloiovs arrOTSAtO'a1.aeoos St ye t<al 1Tp6:~oos p~CTTCx 'TE t<al ov 'TTOAA4) xp6VCf> gCTTlV cx\nas StSax&i'ivat• cx\n£t<a -n. 'TOOV 7EXVOOV lla6ftCTo~VOVS TCxS avcxyt<a£as.naroov n J<alJ. trre£.aeoos 6 A6yos t<al f) arro 60 'TOOV V01l'TOOV rnl 'TO CTOOilaTll<Cx 'Tpomi 'TOOV "TEXVOOV OVTOO Slc:. since the second verb can mean 'grind' or 'polish': but B. but simply gained from us': note the assonance of the compound verbs. rnel Sla A6yov ~V 'TTPOs 'TaVTa ~&iv 'TOOV CT'TTavLoo"T6:Toov 'TE t<al llOVaStt<oov. elt<al/\cxTivol '()CT){Vv&r}CTav 'TTap• •f:AAi}vc. Omc &S. but the prepositional construction is induced by the antithesis with 1TpOs flllCXs· 62 ovS~v: classical syntax requires llTJSiv. 00s Slat<E1<pl~vas Sot<elv arr· ~i}AOOV.pav arrOAl'TTEiV. 69 6pya\11Kflv: 'the construction and use of tools'.:w 0: llfl cx\nol etxov 'TTapc:xAa~eiv.

Sta 'TE'T'Tapoov il 6K'Too vec. Oxford 1962. 00s 'TcX IJEylCTTO: C:. 106-107 In antiquity iron ore deposits had been exploited in the region between Asopos and Boiai.at nepmol'llO"OIJEVOS. Medieval technology and social change. ci>v &vev OVK av 'TcX 'TTOAeiJlKcX KaAOOS y{yvolV'TO..:>v Kcx-rcxaKEvi)v 'Te Kcxl no{... oa.:> j.Aov is always 'mine.v oiSa O"'TEpO!lEV11V Kcxl xp'lj~ElV hepoo6ev. aplO"'TE SeO"'TTO'TO:. IJVAc. Ov IJftV &AAa KO:l "1'1}v VCXV'TT'IlYlK{}V. Steam-bellows are described by Vitruvius 1. ~V'TcxVea 'TlS av e\Jxepc. 'TOOV 'TE cpVACXK'TlKOOV 'TOOV 'TE OIJVV'T'IlP{c. OOV 'TTAe{O"TTJV ~V fleAO'TTOVvf}O"Cf> KO:i KaAA{O"TTJV E)(ETe VATlV. oa..:> Se aVayKO:{av &v6pOO'TTOlS.. 'TE 'TTEpl 'TcXS <pOP'T'IlYOVs Kcxl crrpoyyVAO:S Kcx-rcxy{VE'TO:l vf\O:S. but not recorded again until the thirteenth century..:>v crtS{}pov. 'TcX IJhaAAcx Tfis ~vova.:>V aO"Kol ~V'TE1V61JEVO{ 'TE Kcxl aVlEIJEVOl.:>Ve{O:lS KO:l StaKp{crecn IJETaAAc. 1235.:>VES 'TcX)(tcrra 'TE Kcx1 00s ~VECTTlV 6~cx-ra KlVOVV'TO:l. oV'Tc.:>v o:VT. IJTlXO:VlK{}v.)s Kcx-rcxjJCxeOl. 9. oos avev aVTOV IJTJ 'TCx 'TTOAej. 79-80.llKa. but the application of the idea to other processes seems to belong to the Western Middle Ages....:>S. (In classical Greek ~cV.16vov 'TOOV OVayKO:{c.v eiva1 nA{}PTl IJETaAAc. 82---83).. 418. 'Tf}v ye IJTJV 'Toov onAc. i')Kovov Se Kcxl "1'1}v TleAon6vV'Ilcrov.leV OVO"O:V xpf}crlj. ~VAO: np{~ETO:l O:VTOIJCrrc.cpeA{}crovcrav oVl< &netK6'Tc.:>v ~V'TcxVecx IJETCx 'TOV npocrf}KOV'TOS 'Tp6nov Kcxl 00s av IJTJ noAAois eiev Kcx-racpaveis no:payevo!lEvoov ~s •EAAaSa IJE71 Saws driven by water power are attested by Villard de Honnecourt c. and not near Taygetos.\OV. Water-driven grain mills existed in antiquity. IJTJ 'TCx elp'llVlKO 'TE KO:l 'TTOAl'TlKCx Svvacr6cx1 KaAOOs E){e1 V. oV'Tc. 'TE nepl 'TcXS IJaKPcXs KO:l 'Tplf}pets. ..150 CARDINAL BESSARION 75 80 85 90 95 Se61JEVO:. Kcxl IJaAlCTTO: el crtS{}pov IJhaAAcx ~v 'Tij XOOP<\X E){ets Kcxl 'TOVS 'ToV'Tov ~pyacro!lEvovs npoO"K'T{}O"lJ. quarry'). 6..:>v.pas 'TE Kcxl yeooSovs StaKp{vovcrtv VATlS· •f}v 'TE no{Tlcrtv •ov crtS{}pov. oos &vayKa{O:S 'TE Kcxl XPTlO"{iJovs 'Tois eV ~flv reEAovcrtv.atv. 'ToV'Tov Se j. crtSTlpo'TTOl'll'TlK{}v. IJTlSEIJlCXS xetpos \nrovpyoVOT}S.:>S nepl 'TTAe{crrov rt'Y1i0"1J· To:V'Tas 'Tmcxpas •exvas. Kcxl IJaAtcrro: 'TcX nepl "1'1}v l:nap'T'Ilv o:VT. 72-73 X(A)VE{CX1S T1l Kal 8tCXJ<p(aecn ~QAA(A)ll: 'smelting and refining of metals'. KaAOOS 'TTOlf}O"elS O"CXV'T(f> KO:l 'TOiS ·EAA. Pal..s IJOX&r. see Anth. the reference to them in Ausonius Mosella 362-864 is regarded sceptically by some historians of science (Lynn White Jr. oi 'TE <pVOT}TfipES 'TOOV ~V Xc.... cmAO'TTOl'll'TlKTJV Kcxl VCXV'TT'IlYlK{}v. in the extreme southeast of Lakonia.

. oos ov TrpOs &vCxyi<T)v.6yov.S. elal ~v-ro1 t<al CXAAal Tmapes O:~lal A. S{Sa~al Tf]v aV-rov TrO{flO'lV TOVS IS{ovs. 105 &vepevv{)aas To{vvv TO TrpooTov t<al &Kp1~00s ~~e-raaas eiTrep ~a-rlv &A..a TrPOs Tpvcpf]v t<al S1ayooyf]v llaAAOV &v6pcb1To1s ~~EVPfl~voov.apas l<"r'f)aa0'6al.!<pOTSlOO poov ~acp{).e~s c3-rrep i.CARDINAL BESSARION 151 Tayayeiv SvVT)ei}01J t<al S1a8cbacls Tois f!IJE"ripols. ov TroA..lal t<al aVTl~OAOO TOV Trprnov-ra A. veovs TlVCxS ll1JTE TrapflKilat<OTas ll1JTE acp6Spa CrnaAOVs.as. fl TOOV ~~ ~p{ov TrO{flO'lS hlcrr{oov t<al Trpoaen fl Tolr-roov &!.{yov t<al 'fl ~llfl Trapova{a ~v-raVea avvo{<rel. . 97 StaSooae15 Lambros: StKatooaets MS.ooaaav lla61Jaov-ral 00s avveivoo TOOV A. a1S{)pov l. oi t<al -nlv yA.eyollEVoov. ev-raVea ~~aTroaTE{A.Kovaa TroAA. fl TOOV O'TlPll<OOV.6yov TrOlOVIlal Trpo TOV TOOV &vayt<a{oov 'TV)(eiV. lKav&)s E~El TO wv ru{vas TCxS .a ~O'OVS uo Tlvas.a Trepl Tf]v l:TrCxPTflV Kal TO TaOye-rov evp{O'KE0'6al. Trepl c'r>v OllOOS. Trepl c'r>v acp6Spa O'OV Seol.vv A. Trpos 6eov t<al Tiis afls ~aO'lA.efas.6:t<1s. &AA.. fl TOV v€Aov.6yov 1TOl{)O'a0'6al. &AA.lkaAA. TrPOs o oVt< oA.

7 i~ ~l. v. 8 -ri)v fv(A)O'l\1: the Union of the Greek and Roman churches made at the Council of Ferrara and Florence in 1438-1439 was rejected by most of the Greeks.. &AA. below ot l!<StiCTITal TOV eeoii.. 1470) The fall of Constantinople had been foreseen by intelligent men already in the fourteenth century (see further I. 169-86).os avap{6~T}TOS. A~pov: here 'means of deliverance'. ~1av6ij 51Cx TO lepovpyiicra1 evSov TOVs -rltv evoocr1v Tiis lKKAT}cr{as a0'1t'a~o~vovs. Bukarest 1968. 'vestibules' would be better..l(.)v. Edition: V. who was employed by the Gattilusi family. T~>V va6v. 5 1rpo -ri)v: note the breakdown of classical syntax. viiv eva<a Tiis rne1. Greek. 9 6pyi]s: cf. 1961. OV lKcxAe'iTE X6Es Kal1rpo TTtV X6£s crrn')l. The Turks enter Hagia Sophia (39. An extract is here given from the one by Ducas. a rare and late word for 'courtyards'. but Ducas himself was a warm supporter of the new Uniate church.)v: the preposition is characteristic of N. but when the city finally passed into the hands of the Turks in 1463 a great era of Greek history ended. l<As{craV't'SS Se TCxS evpcxs elO'Tf}Kecrav -rltv 1rap • cx\noii crooTT}p{av lA1t'{~oVTEs. DOP 15. 1400~. and in the next few lines bitterly reproaches his fellow countrymen.101. he wrote a history of events in 1341-1462. Several Greek accounts of the fall survive. in classical Greek the clause would have begun o~Sels ~l. 4. then In control of Lesbos. Sev~enko.s tKETvos vaas 1t'AtiP11S avSpwv TE Kal yvva1KWV Kal KCrtOO Kal avoo Kallv TO'iS 1t'Ep1cxVA01S Kal lv 1t'OVTl T61t'~ oxt. see LexPatrGr s. 18-20) 'Eyeve-ro o~v ~v ~1(ii wp<iX o \rrrep~Ee. perhaps 1TpoavAtots. 6 etaitpxn-o Bullialdus: etaipxn-o MS. tvSVEaee: 'cling to'. Grecu. 5 . W 6:6!.6ovO'T}s 6pyfls oos crooTT)p10V AVTpoV lvSveaee. ovSe Tiis 51Ka{cx5 2 mptaVAOtS MS. w SvO'TT}V01 •poo~a'io1. and the peoples of Western Europe had to recognise the presence of the Turks in Europe as a permanent feature of their world.DUCAS (c. tva ~.l(. T.a1ov Kal (3oo~ov alpe-r1Kwv Kal 6:v6poo1ros oln< elaf}pxe-ro l~ ~~W\1 lVT6S.

17 J<OVpaeVOVTES: 'seize.l<pEiTTOV ~~1TEOCiV els xeipcxs TOOV Tovpl<OOV i1 <l>pcXyl<oov". C).v elpTIV11<1}V l<CXTCxCTTCXO"lV Tfis ~TIO"{CXS. ravage'. apXl~cxvSp{'TT'IS aVV TCfl 6vpoop(i).v ~VOOO"lV l<CXi -n. 14 'J'eVSos: this almost adjectival use is classical (see LSJ s. T{S Tovs yeyovoTcxs TOTE l<Acxv6~ovs 1<cxi . J3pcxx1ovoov acraac1s. &:Ai\os s~ svvaO"'TT'Is ap1Ta~oov ~Seo-~1 • f} s~ Tfis 6:p1TcxyfiS 1<cxi Tov ~l<Va~ov cxlT{cx 1Ti\61<cx~o1 Tplxoov. . gcpeaaav: 'arrived'. Tis ~CTTlV 8s SlT'IYi)ae-rcxl -niv ~et ov~cpop6:v.-Callisthenes 1. ~l<O~EVCXl. TOTE ot Tovpl<Ol l<OVpaeVOVTES. el s~ l<CXi ovve-rteeaee. S1<:~~oo 'TOVS ~6po\fs ~ Tfis 1T6A. Ill). 1Tcxp6evovs as o\fx ~oopcx f}i\1os. T. 6 7VXOOV Tovpl<OS -n. Hellenistic in this sense. from late Latin cursus.-rr • ovpcxvov ~POOTOOV v~S:s . 35 TTpatSav: the lexica cite this Latin loan from the fourth century onwards.v TpvcpepooTepcxv ~pevv(i(· T'ijv oopcx{cxv ~V ~OVCX~OVO"CXlS 1TpoKCXTetxe ~~v ets. El<CXCTTOS TOV iSlOV cxlx~Cxi\OOTOV ~SeO"~l' ov yap fiv ~l<Ei 6 OVTlAEyoov ft 6 ~1} 1TpoS1Sovs ~CXVTov 00s 1TpoJ3CXTov. O"TTI6eoov Keel ~cxa6oov emoKai\\1\yels. O"<pCxTTOVTES. 1<ai pcxJ3S1~6~EVCXl' 'liJ3ovi\e-ro yap 6 O"l<VAeVO"CXS els T01TOV CXyElV l<CXi 1TCXpCXl<CXTcx6e~e35 vos ev &acpa:Ae{C\( CTTpcxcpfival l<CXi Sevnpcxv 1TpcxiScxv 1TOlfiO"CXl l<CXi 10 bdVT')aev av can scarcely be translated. 19 (MS. 11 Trepta-raaet: 'predicament'. 26 -n.el St)(ea6e -n.. 'f'eVSOS &v fjv TO 15 OVVT16t~VOV.'' OVK &v ovve-r{6ea6e. 'plunder'. 'TiS SlT'IYi)O"E"Tcxl. 20 ~60VTES s~ ~l<pf}pelS ~VTOs l<CXi lS6VTES 'TOV ~Vp1Cxpl6~ov Sfi~ov.a:s cpoovas Toov V111Tioov 1<cxi Ta o-Vv J3oij SC:cl<pvcx Toov ~TlTepoov 25 1<cxi Toov 1Tc:xTEpoov Tovs 6Svp~ovs. {O"CXO"lV o{ AkyOVTES 1Tp0 oi\{yoov fl~pOOV . Tpvcpepoi VEOl aVV 1TCXp6eVOlS. which is also the ultimate source of English 'corsair'. v. which expresses the superlative in this way. 27 SvvaaTT)S MS.: the sense would be much improved by SvvaaTT)V. perhaps b<nn'}6T).v TpvcpepooTepav: Ducas lapses into modern Greek. 33 s~ Bullialdus: yap MS. 20 11Vptapt61lov: first in Ps. 1<00 yap ~V 'ToacxVn:l 1TEplCTTCxOCl el ayyeAOS l<CX'Tf}pxe-ro 6.DU CAS 10 153 opyfjs rneA60VCT)S ~{VT\OCV &v 'TcX C'"TTAcX)(vcx V~OOV 1TP0s elpi}VT\V. el S~ 1<ai J3{~ OVT0060VVTO.. cxlx~cxi\oo'T{~OVTES ~cp6cxacxv ~V 'TCfl vcx(i) o\i-rroo 1TPOOTTIS oopcxs 1TCXpeA6oVCT)S 1<cxi ~p6VTES 'TOS "'TVi\cxs KEl<Ae1a~evcxs o-Vv 'Tois 1TEAE1<ea1 v ~!3cxi\ov 1<Cx'Too ~1} J3pcxSvvcxVTEs. SeC'"TTOTTIS aVV 'TCfl &pyvpoovi}T'!'. 29 llaaeoov: post-classical spelling of llaCTrooV. TOTE 30 eSea~iTO Sovi\1'1 aVV Tij l<Vp{~. 1Tcxp6evovs as 6 yevvf}acxs ~6i\1s ~J3AE1TEV. a usage found as early as the N..eoos.

38 aovSap(ots: a Latin loan found already in the N. oSvp61JEVOl Kal 6 Vl..loo6eV"Tas.. 40 wO"TTEp Bullialdus: \nr~p MS. 2.a{OV'TES. 'TOVs IJEV O:ppevas cruv KcxAooS{ots. 37 ~" Bekker: ~"MS.la60Vs ~~PXOIJEVOVS &-rrdpovs 8< 'TOV vaov Kal 8< 'TOOV &S\rroov 'TOV vaov OOO"'Tt'Ep &yO. perhaps 'scarf' is the best translation. .as Kal 'Tt'O{IJVla npof3Cx-roov.154 DU CAS 40 'Tp{'TT)V. which is perhaps right ('more numerous than'). 36 b<StKT}Tal: the word is found at LXX Psalms 8. KA. Kal naV"Tas -i}v ISeiv ~v IJl~ oop<iX SeaJ.eoov OVK -i}v. 'TCxS Se yvvaiKas cruv "Tois aovSap{ots cx\rroov • Kal -i} v lSeiv opJ. 8EO'IJ006t\ITCXS: the verb is a late alternative for Sea!Jtoof-rooo. ~f3lCx~OV'TO ot apncxyes. T. ot 8<StKT}'Tal 'TOV &ov.

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