Laser Communication


TRISHA PAUL Dept. ECE(8th sem) Roll No. 08182003028 Reg. No. 081820110199

What Is Laser Communication?
Laser communications systems are wireless connections through the atmosphere. They work similarly to fiber optic links, except the fact that, in lasers, beam is transmitted through free space.  A laser is a device that emits light (electromagnetic radiation) through a process called stimulated emission.  The term "laser" is an acronym for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation.

Amplification by Stimulated

Emission of

Free Space Laser Communication
 Transmitting information via a laser beam
 Video  Data  Sound

 Terrestrial / Space based systems
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Properties of Laser Light
Laser light is very different from normal light.

 Monochromatic: One specific wavelength (Color) determined by the
amount of energy released when the electron drops to a lower orbit.

 Coherent: “Organized” -- each photon moves in step with the others. All of
the photons have wave fronts that launch in unison.

 Directional: A laser light has a very tight beam and is very strong and
concentrated. A flashlight, on the other hand, releases light in many directions, and the light is very weak and diffuse. To make these three properties occur takes something called stimulated emission. This does not occur in ordinary flashlight -- in a flashlight, all of the atoms release their photons randomly. In stimulated emission, photon emission is organized.

 A laser makes light by passing

electricity through a gas.  This makes the gas emit (give out) light waves at a precise wavelength.  The light waves bounce back and forth along a tube between two mirrors.  This encourages the gas to give out more light exactly in step with the original light waves. It also amplifies (makes brighter) the beam of light

How Does the Transmitter? What is it Work?
► The

transmitter involves:

Transmitter Signal  Signal processing electronics

(analog/digital) Signal  Laser Receiver modulator  Laser (visible, near visible wavelengths)

 Easy with gas lasers, hard with diodes

PWM (Pulse Width Modulation)
PFM (Pulsed FM)
 Potentially the highest bandwidth


What is the Receiver?
► The

receiver involves:

 Telescope (referred to as ‘antenna’)  Signal processor  Detector

-PIN diodes
-Avalanche Photo Diodes (APD) -Single or multiple detectors

Often both ends will be equipped with a receiver and transmitter

Laser Diode
Laser Diodes include Photodiodes for feedback to insure consistent output

Types of Lasers
Lasers are designated by the type of lasing material employed:

Solid-state Lasers: Lasing Material Distributed in a Solid Matrix
ruby or Nd:YAG (Neodymium: Yttrium- Aluminum Garnet ;1,064 nm). lasers emit energy in the far-infrared, used for cutting.

 Gas Lasers: He, HeNe, Most common gas lasers; visible red light. CO2  EXCIMER lasers: (the name is derived from the terms excited and
dimers) use reactive gases, such as chlorine and fluorine, mixed with inert gases such as Ar, Kr or Xe. When electrically stimulated, a pseudo molecule (dimer) is produced. When lased, the dimer produces light in the ultraviolet range.

 Dye lasers: use complex organic dyes, such as rhodamine 6G, in
liquid solution or suspension as lasing media. They are tunable over a broad range of wavelengths.

 Semiconductor lasers: diode lasers, are not solid-state lasers.
These electronic devices are generally very small and use low power. They may be built into larger arrays, such as the writing source in some laser printers or CD players.

Human Spectral Response

Laser Classes
 Class I – Sealed systems

 Class IA- Output < 4.0 mW
 Class II – Output <1mW  Class IIIa – Output 1mW - 5mW

 Class IIIb – Output 5mW – 500mW
 Harmful to eyes, diffuse viewing OK

 Class IV – Output >500mW
 Harmful to skin and eyes, diffuse viewing


In medical

Industrial and commercial
Atmospheric In Space

 The



use of lasers has revolutionized medicine.There are six different types of lasertissue interaction illustrated as:

(Heat,Photochemistry,Photoablation,Florescence,Ioniza tion).

 The accuracy of the laser assures that only the    

desired portion of a specimen is affected by the laser. The strength of the laser provides any medical treatment with adequate power to ablate the plaque. The efficiency of the laser provides a better medical treatment because it takes less repetitions of the treatment to complete the procedure. A laser beam fired into the heart can help people suffering from angina pectoris Lasers can be used to correct defects of the lens and cornea as well as repair tears and holes in the retina.


Industrial USE


 Laser cutting,
 Laser welding,  Laser brazing,  Laser bending,  Laser engraving
Blind hole obtained by using an excimer laser beam on CFC

or marking,  Laser cleaning, weapons etc.

Passing hole obtained by using an excimer laser beam on CFC

 Target designation and ranging,  Defensive countermeasures,

 Communications
 Directed energy weapons.



Revolver equipped with laser sight.


HP LaserJet 4200 series printer

Laser printer

Lasers used for visual effects during a musical performance.

Laser engraving

Atmospheric Use
Airborne Laser (ABL)

•Operates autonomously, above the clouds, outside the range of threat weapons but sufficiently close to enemy territory •Engages early, destroying ballistic missiles in their boost phase of flight over launch area •Cues and tracks targets, communicating with other joint theater assets for layered defense system

In Space
Two-way laser communication in space has long been a goal for NASA because it would enable data transmission rates that are 10 to 1,000 times higher than traditional radio waves. While lasers and radio transmissions both travel at light-speed, lasers can pack more data. It's similar to moving from a dial-up Internet connection to broadband.

The new communication system

Advantages over RF?
 Bandwidth
 for Laser Communication (LC) is 100 times greater than for


 Power
 in LC is directed at target, so much less transmission

power required. Also the power loss is less.

 Size / Weight
 LC antenna is much smaller than RF.

 Security
 Due to low divergence of laser beam, LC is more secure

than RF.


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