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Bi 1. Most ghost stories are (1) in mysterious, old houses or castles.

The ghosts themselves whose (2) wander the earth at night, are usually the victims of some horrible crimes. This is not always the case as the following story (3) .When my friend, Paul, was a schoolboy, he often used to chat to Mr. Scott, an elderly gentlemen living on his own. Mr. Scott was a keen gardener. He would always be looking after his lawn or his flowers and Paul was (4) the habit of saying a few words to him over the fence.One summers evening, as Paul was on his way home from school, he saw, as (5) Mr. Scott in his garden. The old man was busily weeding his flowerbeds. When he saw Paul, he invited him into the garden with a (6) of his hand. Slowly, they strolled all around, admiring the various flowers. Then, to Pauls surprise, Mr. Scott bent down and picked a (7) of his finest dahlias. Here boy, he said. Give these to your mother.No sooner had he arrived home than he (8) the flowers to his mother. He then told her that they were with Mr. Scotts compliments. His mothers face went red with anger. You wicked boy! she shouted. How (9) you say such a thing! I (10) into his daughter in the supermarket this morning. She told me that the poor old chap had passed away in his sleep last Friday.\' Bi 2: The Southwestern States of the United States suffered one of the worst droughts in their history from 1931 to 1938. The drought (1) the entire country. Few food crops could be grown. Food became (2) and prices went up (3) the nation. Hundreds of families in the Dust Bowl region had to be moved to farms in other areas with the help of the federal government. In 1944, drought brought great damage to (4) all Latin America. The drought moved to Australia and then to Europe, (5) it continued throughout the summer of 1945. From 1950 to 1954 in the United States, the South and Southwest suffered a (6) drought. Hundreds of cattle ranchers had to ship their cattle to other regions because (7) lands had no grass. The federal government again (8) an emergency drought-relief program. It offered farmers (9) credit and seed grains (10) low prices. Bi 3:

CONCORDE, the worlds fastest and most graceful (1) plane, will soon be 25 years old. It first flew on 2 March 1969, from Toulouse in France. Concorde was developed by both France and Britain. From 1956 these two countries had a (2) of a supersonic passenger plane. In 1962 they started to work together on the (3) The plane cost over 1.5 billion to develop. It is the most (4) plane in the history of (5) It was given over 5,000 hours of testing. Concorde flies at twice the speed of sound. This means that it takes only 3 hours 25 minutes to fly between London and New York, compared with 7 8 hours in other passenger jets. Because of the five-hour time (6) between the USA and Britain, it is possible to travel west on Concorde and arrive in New York before you leave London! You can (7) the 10.30 am flight from London, Heathrow and start work in New York an hour earlier! Concorde is much used by business people and film stars. But its oldest passenger was Mrs. Ethel Lee from Leicestershire in England. She was 99 years old when she (8) from Heathrow on 24 February 1985. Each Concorde is built at a (9) of 55 million. Twenty have been built so far. Air France and British Airways (10) the most. They each have seven planes. Bi 4: Ever since humans have inhabited the earth, they have made (1) of various forms of communication. Generally, this expression of thoughts and feelings has been in the form of oral (2) When there is a language (3) communication is accomplished through sign language in which motions (4) for letters, words, and ideas. Tourists, the deaf, and the mute have had to (5) to this form of expression. Many of these symbols of whole words are very picturesque and exact and can be used internationally; spelling, however, cannot. Body language (6) ideas or thoughts by certain actions, either intentionally or unintentionally. A wink can be a way of flirting or indicating that the party is only joking. A nod (7) approval, while shaking the head (8) a negative reaction. Other forms of nonlinguistic language can be (9) in Braille (a system of raised dots read with the fingertips), signal flags, Morse code, and smoke signals. Road maps and picture signs also guide, warn, and instruct people. (10) verbalization is the most common form of language, other systems and techniques also express human thoughts and feelings.

Bi 5: "My home is in the air I do an enormous amount of traveling. It is a fast life and (1) of work, but I like it and that is the only way( 2) me. Everything is tiring music, traveling but what can I do? I am not (3) to complaining. It is hard to imagine now (4) I will ever be very long in one place. My home town is on the Caspian Sea. There is sea, wind, sun and (5) many tourists and hotels. I have my own flat with four or five rooms, but I am seldom there. If I am there for a day or two I prefer to (6) with my mother and grandmother. They live in a small house, (7) it is very comfortable and my mother cooks for me. I like good, simple food. I have no wife, no brothers or sisters and my father (8) when I was seven. He was an engineer and I dont (9) him very well. He liked music very much and wanted me to (10) a musician."

Bi 6:
(1) of the garbage we produce every day is a major problem in cities around the world. In the United States, over 160 million tons of garbage are produced every year. Ten percent is recycled, ten percent is burned, and the rest is put in landfills. But finding (2) for new landfills is becoming more difficult. A city that has solved this problem in an unusual way is Machida, in Tokyo, Japan. They have developed a totally new (3) to garbage disposal. The (4) to the operation is public cooperation. Families must divide their garbage into six categories: Garbage that can be easily burned (that is, combustible garbage), such as kitchen and garden trash. Noncombustible garbage, such as small electrical appliances, plastic tools and plastic toys. Products that are poisonous or that (5) pollution, such as batteries and fluorescent lights. Bottles and glass containers that can be recycled. Metal containers that can be recycled.Large item, such as furniture and bicycles. The items in categories 1 to 5 are collected (6) different days. (Large items are collected upon request). Then the garbage is taken to a center that looks like a clean new office building or hospital. Inside the center, special equipment is used to sort and (7) the garbage. Almost everything can be reused: garden or kitchen trash becomes fertilizer; combustible garbage is burned to (8) electricity; metal containers and bottles are recycled; and old furniture, clothing, and other useful items are cleaned, repaired, and resold cheaply or given away. The work provides (9) for handicapped persons and gives them a (10) to learn new skills. Nowadays, officials from cities around the world visit Machida to see whether they can use some of these ideas and techniques to solve their own garbage disposal problems.

Bi 7:

The person I am going to write about is Charlie Chaplin. He has always been one of my favorite actors and I really (1) his films. Charlie was born in London in 1889. Both his parents were music hall performers. His father was a drunkard and his mother later (2 mad. Life was hard and Charlie and his half brother, Sidney, were sent to a(n) (3) for a time. He first appeared on the stage when he was seven and by the time he was ten he was a regular performer. When he was 17, he went on a tour of the USA where he was (4) and given a part in a Hollywood film. His early films were not particularly successful but in 1915 he made his (5) "The Tramp", in which he first appeared in the baggy trousers and with the hat and cane. Soon he had had his own (6) built and was making his own films which included "The Gold Rush", "Modern Times" and "The Great Dictator". In the 1940s his reputation in the USA started to (7) Silent films were no longer so popular. Chaplin went to Europe but was not allowed to return to the USA because he was (8) of being a communist. The authorities finally let him back in 1972 and he was (9) an Oscar, but by this time he had made Switzerland his home. Chaplin did not have a very happy personal life and was married four times. He only found happiness with his fourth marriage in 1943. When he died on Christmas Day 1977, the world had lost one of the greatest (10) comedians.

Bi 8: I have always found it difficult to say (1) certain what my memories from my early childhood are. Are these memories learnt at a later age from overhearing our parents tell of our exploits? However, there is a particular (2) that I would love to claim as a (3) memory. When I was just three years old, I went to the post office with my mother where she was going to buy some stamps. While she was being served, I happened to(4) a small stocking which was hanging from the counter. It was there to collect (5) for a (6) for the blind. While her back was (7) I took the stocking and emptied the (8) into my coat pocket. Of course I was too young to know any better. When it was realized what I had done, everybody roared with laughter except, that is, for my

mother who was a little embarrassed. She quickly emptied the money back into the stocking (9) incidentally, a few pennies of my own. One of the clerks was something of an amateur cartoonist and he did a drawing of me robbing an old lady. This cartoon was (10) in the post office for the next couple of years. Bi 9: Ever since humans have inhabited the earth, they have made (1) of various forms of communication. Generally, this expression of thoughts and feelings has been in the form of oral (2) .When there is a language (3) communication is accomplished through sign language in which motions (4) for letters, words, and ideas. Tourists, the deaf, and the mute have had to (5) to this form of expression. Many of these symbols of whole words are very picturesque and exact and can be used internationally; spelling, however, cannot. Body language (6) ideas or thoughts by certain actions, either intentionally or unintentionally. A wink can be a way of flirting or indicating that the party is only joking. A nod (7) approval, while shaking the head (8) a negative reaction. Other form of nonlinguistic language can be (9) in Braille (a system of raised dots read with the fingertips), signal flags, Morse code, and smoke signals. Road maps and picture signs also guide, warn, and instruct people.
(10) verbalization is the most common form of language, other systems and techniques also express human thoughts and feelings.

Bi 10: Drugs are one of the (1) professions most valuable tools. Doctors prescribe drugs to (2) ... or prevent many diseases. Every year, penicillin and other (3) drugs save the lives of countless victims of pneumonia and other dangerous infectious diseases. Vaccines prevent attacks by such diseases as (4) polio, and smallpox. The use of these and many other drugs (5) helped millions of people live longer, healthier lives than would (6) have been possible. Almost all our most important drugs, however, were unknown before the 1900s. For example, the sulfa drugs and antibiotics did not come into use (7) the late 1930s and early 1940s. Before that time, about 25 percent of all pneumonia victims in the United States died of the disease. The new drugs quickly reduced the (8 ) rate from pneumonia to less than 5 percent. Polio vaccine was introduced in

1955. At that time, polio struck about 30,000 to 50,000 Americans each year. (9) 1960, the use of the vaccine has reduced the number of new polio cases to about 3,000 a year. In 1900, most Americans did not live (10) the age of 47. Today, Americans live an average of more than 70 years, in great part because of the use of modern drugs. Bi 11: A lot of people like to play their records as loudly as possible. The (1) is that the rest of the family and the neighbours often complain (2) they don\'t like the music. One (3) to this problem is to wear headphones, but headphones are usually uncomfortable. An armchair which has a record-player system built into it has just been (4) by a British engineer, Stephen Court. The armchair looks like an ordinary armchair with a high back. However, each of the two sides of the chair has three loudspeakers inside to reproduce middle and high sounds. Low sounds are reproduced by a pair of loudspeakers in a hollow (5 under the seat. Anyone who sits in the chair hears sounds coming from all round his / her head. Because we cannot tell the exact (6) from which low sounds come, it doesn\'t (7) that they come from underneath or behind. It is the higher sounds coming from the side of the chair that create a stereo effect. These sounds travel only a few inches to reach the listener\'s ears. (8) it takes only a little power to make the music sound very loud. Only a small amount of sound leaks out from behind the chair into the room to (9) others. Most of the sound is (10) by the listener. Bi 12: One in six drivers in Britain is aged between 17 and 25. But more drivers in this age group are responsible (1) a greater number of accidents than older drivers; in (2) one accident in four is the fault of a young, inexperienced driver. A team of researchers has (3) . two years studying the driving performance, attitudes and behaviour of young people. The report (4) that not all young drivers are dangerous, (5) a large number of males, particularly those aged 17 to 20, do not drive as carefully (6) . other age groups. These young drivers are more likely to have (7) accident in their first year of driving (8) when their experience increases. The report also notes that men are more likely to (9) driving rules than women, and that

a girlfriend or wife in the car has a calming (10) on the driving pattern of young men. Bi13: I have always found it difficult to say (1) certain what my memories from my early childhood are. Are these memories learnt at a later age from overhearing our parents tell of our exploits? However, there is a particular (2) that I would love to claim as a (3) memory. When I was just three years old, I went to the post office with my mother where she was going to buy some stamps. While she was being served, I happened to (4) a small stocking which was hanging from the counter. It was there to collect (5) for a (6) for the blind. While her back was (7) I took the stocking and emptied the (8) into my coat pocket. Of course I was too young to know any better. When it was realized what I had done, everybody roared with laughter except, that is, for my mother who was a little embarrassed. She quickly emptied the money back into the stocking (9) incidentally, a few pennies of my own. One of the clerks was something of an amateur cartoonist and he did a drawing of me robbing an old lady. This cartoon was (10) in the post office for the next couple of years.

Bi 14: If you are looking at a modern laptop computer, it\'s hard to believe that computers were once huge devices (1) only to government or big businesses. Today\'s computers are often not much bigger than a typewriter and are taken for (2) in homes, schools, and offices. Technological (3) made the small personal computer possible, but two electronic whiz kids working in a garage actually brought it about. Steven Jobs and Stephen Wozniak first met at Hewlett-Packard, an electronics firm in California. Jobs was a high-school student when William Hewlett, the president, took him (4) as a summer employee. Wozniak, a college dropout, was also working there, and the two got along right away. Jobs and Wozniak went separate ways in 1972. When they got together again in 1974, Wozniak was spending a lot of time with a local computer club, and he (5) Jobs to join the group. Jobs immediately saw the (6) for a small computer. He (7) up with Wozniak, a brilliant engineer, to build one. The two designed the Apple I computer in Jobs\'s bedroom, and they put the prototype (8) in his garage. With $1,300 in capital (9) by selling Jobs\'s car and Wozniak\'s scientific calculator, they set up their first production line. Apple I, which they brought out in 1976, had sales of $600, a(n) (10) beginning. By 1980, Apple Computers, which had started four years earlier as a project in a garage, had a market value of $1.2 billion.

Bi 15:
You have probably never heard of Charles burgress Fry but in the early years of this century , he was the most famous man in England . He become famous while(1) at university , mainly on(2) of this achievements in sport .He was at the same time captain of the university football , cricket and athletics teams and(3) . the world record for the long jump . He was also a(4) sport journalist .He was so famous that letters addressed to Mr . Fry Oxford were(5) . to him without any difficutly . His college , (6) . it had quite a different name , was(7) as Fry`s College . Some people have(8) Fry`s sporting achievements . They(9) out thet he lived at a time when standards were quite(10) and it was much easier to(11) well in several sports. It is certainly true that athletes of thet time did not have the totally deticated(12) of modern athletes . However , it is only(13) to judge him(14) the standards of his own time . There is no doubt that he had extraordinary skill(15) with an ability to write about with style and intelligence .

Bi 16: Money is something we all take for granted in our lives.Some of us may (1) . we had more of it but we all recognize it when we see it , whether in the (2) of coins , notes or cheques . It is difficult to imagine how people(3) without money . In the earliest periods of human history , poeple used to exchange goods directly . They would exchange things they had(4) of for things that they were in(5) of . For example , they might offer food for tools . This(6) of exchange ,which is known as \'barter\' , has many disadvantages . Certain goods may be difficult to carry , they may not(7) long , or may be impossible to(8) into smaller units . It can also be difficult to know the(9) of something compared with other goods. (10) historians , the first money , in the senes we(11) it today,(12) of good coins produced about 2,500 years ago . Gold , being a very precious metal , was a(13) material .The introduction of gold coins was(14) to everyone and they were still being used at the beginning of this century , althrough they have now been (15) by paper money and coins made of ordinary metals . Bi 17:
For many people the island of Mauritius in the Indian Ocean means one thing :a tropical paradise . But for scientists , it(1) the heart of an age-old mystery: the mystery of the dodo . There are so many stories that(2) this bird , which could not fly , thatit is difficult to separate fact from(3) . The dodo was one of the most famous birds of all(4) , yet we know very little about it . Within a few yeras of being discoverd it had ceased to(5) and there are not many good eye-witness reports that describe it , It(6) in Mauritius , but after its discovery in the late sixteenth century , the dodo was(7) around the world as a(8) , a flinghtless bird wich attracted and fasinated veryone who saw it

. But some birds occasionally suffered a wrse(9) ,They were cooked and eaten by starving sailors who(10) across dodos when they landed on the island . There are(11) from the seventeenth century which record(12) of the bird in its island home and beyond . However , nobody can be really(13) about the history of the dodo and(14) .......the truth is never going to(15) easy

Bi 18:
According to a group called The Voices Foundation , everyone has a singing voice as well as a speaking voice somewhere inside them . This, they say ,should be encouraged from an early (1) because it provides the best, and the cheapest,(2) on which to build an understanding of music. (3) ..the Foundation ideas, lies the teaching of the Hungarian composer Zoltan Kodaly, He observed that song can (4) as key part of the relationship between mother and child almost from birth. This is especially(5) of more traditional societics, like those of West Africa, where some small children are (6) ...to sing literally hundesds of songs, all of which have been learnt by (7) . But many modern children first (8) to an understanding of music when they learn to play an instrument, and (9) some teaching of the theory of music is usually a part of thix , their relationship with the music on the(10) .. is often a mechanical one . The(11) of the Voices Foundation is that a natural (12) for rhythm , harmony and musical structure , the very(13) we appreciate in the greatest musicians , can only be achieved through the exploration of music with the voice from the start . The foundation has , therefor , (14) itself the task of developing a singing -cectred musical education progamme that could(15) .. junior pupils all over the world.

Bi 19:
The first London to Brighton run took place on November 14th 1896.It was organised to celebrate the(1) of a law which made it easier for cars in Britain to be driven on the roads .Before the , the law(2) . driver and an engineer in the car and a man walking in front of the vehicle with a red flag(3) . of its approach. Since then, this anual run has become one of the most popular events on the British motoring calendar,(4) .crowds of over one million lining the route. Only the(5) . oldest cars, constructed during the ten years betweem 1895 and 1905 , are allowed to(6) . in it .Lovingly polishedby their drivers , who aer dressed in the clothing of the(7) . the cars leave Hyde Park in London at 7.30 am and arrive ,(8) in Brighton some three hours later. The 60-mile runis not race-there`s an official coffee shop on the(9) .. an the cars are restricted to an avegae speed of only 30kph . The only(10) for finishing is a medal , wich is awarded to everyone who(11) . Brighton before 4pm . The run traditionally (12) particpands from all four(13) . of the world , including Europe, Asia , Africa and Australia . Since the yougest car is

neraly a hundred years old , some of them(14) . down of course . But for the owners of the 400plus vehicles , it`s simply being there that(15) the greatest pleasure .

Bi 20:
o the passer -by , number 7 Blyth Grove , in Workshop , looks just like any other fairly old house in Britain , But inside and you go back into a vanished world , William Straw`s house is exactly as his parents left it when they died in the 1930s. William Straw , who died in 1990, lived in the house with his brother Walter after their parents deaths . They lived a strict routine , never married and had no friends.They had no social life and callers were never into the house Their parents had a successful grocery shop and the family moved into the house in 1923 , immediatly spending $70 a huge in those days on redecoration . Their father died in 1932 and their monther in 1939 , when William , then the history lecturer at London University , returned to Workshop . He his job and set up house with Walter , who had been the shop since their parent`s death. the two cut themselves off from the rest of the world . Nothing that their parent`s had owned was ever moved or away . Towards the end of their lives, it seems that they became of value of what they had done ,because hey began to put various pictures and items of furniture , explainning where they came from . Today ,the house is open to the public , and visitors quicly that it is the closest they are ever likely to come to time travel .