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Summary of the various types of probability sample.

A probability sampling method is any method of sampling that utilizes some form of random selection. In short, it is the concept of random selection. TYPE Simple Random Sampling DESCRIPTION ADVANTAGE Every member of the ideal for statistical purposes population equal selection. has chance an of highly representative The sample will be free from Bias

DISADVANTAGE Due to its very randomness, "freak" results can sometimes be obtained that are not representative of the population. requires an accurate list of the whole population expensive to conduct as those sampled may be scattered over a wide area The process of selection can interact with a hidden periodic trait within the population. Can introduce bias where the pattern used for the samples coincides with a pattern in the population.

Systematic Sampling

The researcher first randomly picks the first item or subject from the population. Then, each will n'th select subject

Add a degree of system or process into the random selection of subjects. Assurance sampled. Can eliminate other sources of bias that the population will be evenly

from the list.

Stratisfied Sampling

The

population

is

guarantee a balanced sample

Not useful when the population cannot be exhaustively partitioned into disjoint subgroups

divided into mutually exclusive such as GROUPS drawn from groups, AGE and each is Less expensive and time

random sampling are group. The population

Cluster

Not a genuine random sample

Sampling

divided into mutually exclusive such as BLOCKS groups CITY and the

consuming Can

than

fully

Likely to yield a biased result (especially if only a few clusters are sampled)

random sample show "regional" variations

researcher draws a sample of the group to interview.

Explain Non-probability Sampling Non probability sampling does not involve random selection and probability sampling does. TYPE Convenience Sampling DESCRIPTION ADVANTAGE DISADVANTAGE The researcher Convenience sampling is Often suffers from a number selects the most very easy to carry out with of biases accessible few rules governing how population the sample should be Since the sampling frame is not known members. collected. The relative cost and time required to carry out a convenience sample are small in comparison to probability sampling techniques. May help to gather useful data and information that would not have been possible using probability sampling techniques Lower cost & lesser time lesser chances of having people who will distort the

the sample is unlikely to be representative of the population being studied

Judgment Sampling

It involves the choice of subjects who are most advantageously placed or in the best

It can be subject to experimenters bias and stereotypes that may distort the results.

position to provide the information required. In other word, the researcher selects population who are good prospects for accurate information. Quotas Sampling The researcher finds and interview a prescribe number of people in each of the several categories. Maximum Variation Sampling Maximum variation sampling, also known as heterogeneous sampling, is a purposive sampling technique used to capture a wide range of perspectives relating to the phenomenon Researchers use this sampling method if the sample for the study is very rare or is limited to a very small subgroup of the population.

data

The group selected may not represent all the population It might not be possible to accurately identify the sample using this method in case the population is very large. Limits decisions Does not allow much variety It is not possible to assess sample error as it is not random

Good method for pretesting instruments like questionnaires.

Simpler to undertake than a stratified sample Preventing decisions to be polluted by unnecessary input It saves money and time It is quick and easy to arrange.

Not used when sampling size is big

Snowball Sampling

The chain referral process allows the researcher to reach populations that are difficult to sample when using other sampling methods. The process is cheap,

The researcher has little control over the sampling method. Representativeness of the sample is not guaranteed. Sampling bias is also a fear

simple and cost-efficient. This sampling technique needs little planning and fewer workforce compared to other sampling techniques.

of researchers when using this sampling technique

Estimation Sampling/Sampling Error

It is the amount of inaccuracy in estimating some value that is caused by only a portion of the population rather than the whole population.