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# Based on flow of material Open Die Forging Closed Die Forging/ Impression Die Forging Based on equipment used

## ed - Smith forging - Drop forging - Press forging

Let us assume that length (l) is much larger than width and thickness and it remains constant. So, it is a case of plane-strain deformation. Lateral flow of material causes increase in width. Let us assume the width has increased to 2a. Let us try to estimate load required (P) in forging to reduce the thickness of the plate to a thickness h.

## Substituting in equation (1)

In cold working under well lubricated conditions, the frictional conditions at the toolwork piece interface are such that there is a sliding motion between the two. The work piece slides over the tool surface. It is called sliding friction or slipping friction.

If sliding friction conditions exist, friction is described by Coulombs law of friction: = p where is frictional shear stress at the interface p is normal stress and is coefficient of friction (0.1-0.3)

So,

## Substituting in equation (4)

The pressure increases exponentially as we move from edge to the centre of the plate and builds up to a maximum at the centre. This is called friction hill. Centreline is neutral surface.

At centre,
So, peak pressure At the edge, , So,

At any point
At centre, At the edges,

Where

An alternative approach to treat friction in metal working operations is to consider the friction to be sticking. Sticking friction conditions exist particularly in hot working processes and in those situations where lubrication is inadequate. This approach considers that the work piece in contact with the tools can be represented as a material of constant shear strength.

This interface shear strength can be expressed as a fraction of yield strength of the material in pure shear (k): =mk where m is the interface friction factor. Values of m vary from 0 to 1. m = 0 indicates perfect sliding. m = 1 indicates perfect sticking. Since accurate determination of m value in hot working is difficult, m is taken to be 1 in the analysis.

## Where m is the interface friction factor and

k is YS in pure shear.
according to Von-Mises yield criterion

Applying
At

, ,