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: Absolute Deviation: The absolute deviation is the absolute difference between each value of the statistical variable and the arithmetic mean. Di = |x - x| Average Deviation: The average deviation is the arithmetic mean of the absolute deviations. The average deviation is represented by

**Q2. What is Mean, Standard Deviation and Variance? Ans.: Mean:
**

The mean is the average value of the distribution. The arithmetic mean is the value obtained by adding all the data and dividing the result by the total number of data.

Is the symbol of the arithmetic mean.

A frequency distribution shows how often each different value in a set of data occurs. These charts can help show the most frequent. What is histogram? Ans. It is used to graphically summarize and display the distribution and variation of a process data set. the graphic presentation format usually makes it easier to see relationships. Q3. The main purpose of a histogram is to clarify the presentation of data.Variance: The variance is the arithmetic mean of the squared deviations from the mean of a statistical distribution. Standard Deviation: The standard deviation is the square root of the variance . You can present the same information in a table.: A histogram is one of the basic quality tools. It is a useful tool for breaking out process data into regions or bins for determining frequencies of certain events or categories of data. The standard deviation is denoted by σ. however. . The variance is denoted by .

: . and low bars indicate less points. the histogram can be misleading. The first is that histograms can be manipulated to show different pictures. Weaknesses / Drawbacks: There are two weaknesses of histograms that you should bear in mind. consequences. High bars indicate more points in a class. based on the analyst's experience. What is difference between 3 1/2 and 61/2 DMM? Ans. A histogram can typically help you answer the following questions: • What is the most common system response? • What distribution (center. so that you can get an idea of how frequently data in each class occur in the data set. variation and shape) does the data have? • Does the data look symmetric or is it skewed to the left or right? A histogram is a specialized type of bar chart. If too few or too many bars are used. causes. This is an area which requires some judgment. and perhaps some experimentation. Q4. Individual data points are grouped together in classes. etc.Typical applications of histograms in root cause analysis include: • Presenting data to determine which causes dominate • Understanding the distribution of occurrences of different problems.

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