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MHD

Science concerned with the interaction between magnetic field,flow of hot electrically ionised fliud(gaseous or liquid) and generation of electrical field. MHD generators are used to convert thermal energy to electrical energy directly (without rotating machines).New system of power generation. High efficiency and low pollution. When an electric conductor moves across a magnetic field, a voltage is induced in it which produces an electric current.-principle of conventional generator. In MHD solid conductors are replaced by gaseous conductors(an ionized gas) which is passed through a powerful magnetic field, a current is generated and can be extracted by placing electrodes in a suitable position in the stream. The flow (motion) of the conducting plasma through a magnetic field causes a voltage to be generated (and an associated current to flow) across the plasma , perpendicular to both the plasma flow and the magnetic field according to Fleming's Rt Hnd rule. *Combustor-or:fuel,hot compressed air and seeding material are admitted in the combustor.The fuel is burnt to obtain hot gases at high temperature(2500-3000 K) and high pressure.The seeding(ionising) material is mixed with hot gases to obtain ionised gas.Seeding material is potassium or cesium. *Duct(channel):the hot ionised gases flow through the duct.it has a convergent-divergent shape such that the gases attains supersonic velocity in the divergent portion. The hot ionised gas is the working fluid and is accelerated to almost supersonic speeds in the divergent portion of the duct. *Fuel:coal,gasified coal and natural gas. *3.Electromagnetic field coils:superconducting magnets(tin nobium etc). *.Air heater:duct is connected to air heater.hot air is used for driving the air turbine compressor unit. *.Seed recovery,flue gas cleaning,heat recovery:exhaust gases from duct passed through these chambers and released through stack into atmosphere in case of open cycle. * 6.Electrode system:two sets of electrodes are placed in the direction of electrical field(copper caped with boron nitride)* .Inverter:Dc to 3 phase Ac. *8.Output of MHD is fed into 3 phase AC network via the inverter and main substation. OPEN CYCLE coal is processed and burnt in the combustor at high temperature (2750 to 3000 K) and pressure (7 to 15 at atmosphere). With preheated air to form the plasma. The plasma is then seeded with small fraction (1%) of an alkali metal (potassium) or cesium. The hot gas is then seeded with a small amount of an ionized alkali metal (cesium or potassium) to increase the electrical conductivities of gas. The gas expand the rough the generator surrounded by powerful magnet. During the motion of gas the positive and negative ions move to the electrodes and constitute an electric current. The rejected gas passes through an air heater for preheating the inlet air. The seed material is recovered for successive use. The nitrogen and sulphur are remove for pollution controlled and then gasses are discharged to the atmosphere.The exhaust gases of MHD unit are still at a sufficiently hot temperature it is possible to use for additional power generation in a steam turbine alternator unit. This is increase the efficiency of process. Such cycle is known as hybrid MHD-steam plant cycle. CLOSED CYCLE As the name suggests the working fluid in closed cycle, is circulated in a closed loop. The working fluid is helium or argon with cesium seeding. Figure show a closed cycle MHD system. Thecomplete system has three distinct but interlocking loops. On the left is the external heating loop, coal is gasified and the gas having a high heat value of about 5.35 MJ/kg and temperature of about 530C is burnt in a combustor to produce heat. In the heat exchanger HX, this heat is transferred to argon the working fluid of MHD cycle. The combustion products after passing through the air preheater (to recover a part of the heat of combustion product) and purifiers (To remove harmful emissions) and discharged to atmosphere. ADVANTAGE MHD Power Generation. 1)The conversion efficiency of a MHD system can be 50% as compared toless than 40 percent for the most efficient steam plants. 2)Large amount of power is generated.3)It has no moving parts, so more reliable .4)It has ability to reach the full power level as soon as started. 5)Because of higher efficiency, the overall generation cost of an MHD plant will be less. 6)The more efficient heat utilization would efficient heat utilization would decreases the amount of heat discharged to environment and thecooling water requirements would also be lower .7)The higher efficiency means better fuel utilization. The reduce fuel consumption would offer additional economic and social benefits. 8)The Closed cycle system produces power free of pollution.

FUEL CELL Is a controlled chemical-electro energy conversion device that continuously converts chemical energy into electrical energy. It consist of anode(fuel electrode). Electrons are drawn from the anode to the cathode through an external circuit, producing direct current electricity. At the anode a catalyst oxidizes the fuel, usually hydrogen, turning the fuel into a positively charged ion and a negatively charged electron. The electrolyte is a substance specifically designed so ions can pass through it, but the electrons cannot. The freed electrons travel through a wire creating the electric current. The ions travel through the electrolyte to the cathode. Once reaching the cathode, the ions are reunited with the electrons and the two react with a third chemical, usually oxygen, to create water or carbon dioxide. Molten-carbonate fuel cells (MCFCs) are high-temperature fuel cells, that operate at temperatures of 600C and above. Molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFCs) are currently being developed for natural gas, biogas (produced as a result of anaerobic digestion or biomass gasification), and coal-based power plants for electrical utility, industrial. MCFCs are high-temperature fuel cells that use an electrolyte composed of a molten carbonate salt mixture suspended in a porous, chemically inert ceramic matrix of beta-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE). Since they operate at extremely high temperatures of 650C (roughly 1,200F) and above, nonprecious metals can be used as catalysts at the anode and cathode, reducing costs. Anode Reaction: CO3-2 + H2 H2O + CO2 + 2e- . Cathode Reaction: CO2 + O2 + 2e- CO3-2 O.overall Cell Reaction: H2 + O2 H2O.. Here ion conduction by carbonate ions..During the operation they can oxidize CO to CO2 as well as hydrogen to water.Important aspect of MCFC is that discharged gases, consisting mainly of the steam and carbon dioxide products and N2 from air., are at T exceeding 540 C. The hot gases could be used to provide industrial process heat, too. ADVANTAGEEfficiency 90%. ..No moving parts. So little maintenance.Simple and safe.It can be installed near the use point, thus reducing electrical transmission requirements and accompanying losses..No atmospheric pollution. Bcz waste pdct waterAs fuel cells do not make noise, they can be readily accepted in residential areas. FUEL CELL POWER PLANT: MAJOR SYSTEM COMPONENTS..1.fuel processing section; receiving, processing, filtering, purifying, storage heating and supply..2.Fuel cell power pack; fuel cells are located in this section. It delivers dc power..3.Power conditioner; receives dc power and delivers controlled, regulated 3 phase or single phase Ac power. .