Genetics 1/6 GENETICS Reviewer Terms: Gene – coded by the arrangement of nitrogenous bases in DNA Recall: Nucleic Acids are

made up of: 1) Nitrogenous bases a. Pyrimidines: cytosine, uracil, thymine b. Purines: adenine and guanine *tricky tricks: PurGA and PyCUT 2) Sugar backbone – 5-carbon ring where others attach a. Ribose for RNA b. Deoxyribose for DNA – from the name, missing one Oxygen atom 3) Phosphate Locus/Loci – location of gene in the chromosome Allele – alternative forms of genes, e.g., tall or short, purple or white Dominant Recessive – masked by dominant in case of heterozygous* *heterozygous- inherited allele pair is composed of two different alleles, i.e., dominant AND recessive *homozygous- inherited allele pair composed of similar alleles, i.e., both dominant or both recessive

MENDELIAN Genetics Law of Segregation – inherit one allele per gamete Recall: Meiosis… gametes are haploids! Examples monohybrid cross: 1) In pea plants, having purple flowers is a dominant trait, whilst having white flowers is recessive. If you cross a heterozygous purple flowered plant with a white flowered plant, what are the genotypic and phenotypic ratios of their offspring? Let P-purple, p-white The genotype of the parents is heterozygous purple = Pp, white = pp

Mnrosario (marga_abacus) 04.21.2012

Genetics 2/6 Since there’s more than one way to skin a cat, here are a few ways to solve: (color-coded for easier understanding and not just pPpprandompPppPp… so if you’re colorblind, sorry…) Case I: Punnett Square Pp x pp P p p

p

Pp pp Pp pp

So easy! I am Thor, son of Odin,
and you’re attempt to confuse me is futile.

Genotypic ratio: 2/4 or ½ Pp ; 2/4 or ½ pp Phenotypic ratio: since Pp=purple and pp=white, then ½ purple and ½ white Case II: FOIL (aka first, out, in, last) Pp x pp First: Pp Out: Pp In: pp Last: pp Genotypic ratio: 2/4 or ½ Pp ; 2/4 or ½ pp Phenotypic ratio: since Pp=purple and pp=white, then ½ purple and ½ white Case III: Probability Rules For independent events, the probability of event A and event B happening at the same time is just the product of their probabilities. P(A B) = P(A)P(B) In the case of Pp x pp, For Pp, the probability of passing dominant P allele is ½, and the probability of passing recessive allele p is ½. For pp, the probability of passing recessive p allele is ½, and the other p, also ½. So, the probability of getting P from one and p from the other is just Pp = ½ x ½ = ¼. And so on and so forth… Pp = ½ x ½ = ¼. pp = ½ x ½ = ¼. pp = ½ x ½ = ¼. sh!t got serious… Pp and Pp are basically the same genotype, so you can add their probabilities… ¼ + ¼ = ½. In the same way, pp and pp are the same, so ¼ + ¼ = ½.

Mnrosario (marga_abacus) 04.21.2012

Genetics 3/6 Genotypic ratio: 2/4 or ½ Pp ; 2/4 or ½ pp Phenotypic ratio: since Pp=purple and pp=white, then ½ purple and ½ white

Gets mo na? gets ko na! Aaaaah. Coca cola! Law of Independent Assortment – inheritance of one trait does not affect the inheritance of another Example Dihybrid Cross: 2) In pea plants, tallness is dominant and shortness is recessive. Cross two heterozygous tall, purple-flowered pea plants. What are the genotypic and phenotypic ratios? Let T-tall, t-short, P-purple, p-white Genotype of parents: TtPp x TtPp It’s actually your choice if you’d like to make a big-ass Punnett Square or whatever (hey it’s a free country, as PNoy says, walang basagan ng trip!) Here’s what I do: Solve for the probabilities per trait… Tt x Tt T T TT t Tt facepalm?

t Tt tt

Pp x pp P P p

p

PP Pp Pp pp

*tricky trick: Actually, more often than not, the probability of crossing two heterozygous thingies, the end result is usually: ¼ homozygous 1st allele (usually the dominant) ½ heterozygous ¼ homozygous 2nd allele (usually recessive)

Mnrosario (marga_abacus) 04.21.2012

Genetics 4/6 In other words, TT = ¼ Tt = ½ tt = ¼ PP = ¼ Pp = ½ pp = ¼

To get the genotypic ratios of the “bigger picture”, you can use probability rules. TTPP = ¼ x ¼ = 1/16 TTPp = ¼ x ½ = 1/8 = 2/16 TTpp = ¼ x ¼ = 1/16 TtPP = ½ x ¼ = 1/8 = 2/16 TtPp = ½ x ½ = ¼ = 4/16 Ttpp = ½ x ¼ = 1/8 = 2/16 ttPP = ¼ x ¼ = 1/16 ttPp = ¼ x ½ = 1/8 = 2/16 ttpp = ¼ x ¼ = 1/16

dafuq did I just read…

*tricky trick: for heterozygous all (as exhibited by example), pattern of 1-2-1-2-4-2-1-2-1 After analyzing the genotypes above, you can deduce that the phenotypic ratio for this example is 9/16 is tall and purple flowered, 3/16 is tall and white, 3/16 is short and purple, 1/16 short and white. *tricky trick: for heterozygous all (as exhibited by example), usually 9-3-3-1

NONMENDELIAN genetics Incomplete Dominance – intermediate or mixing Example 3) Red blah crossed with white blah. Red and white are both homozygous dominant traits, and crossing them both will yield offspring with heterozygous alleles, whose phenotype will yield the intermediate of red and white, pink. CRCR x CWCW = 4/4 of CRCW Don’t believe me? CR CR W R W C CC CRCW CW CRCW CRCW It’s basically just like how you solve normally. The main difference is the phenotype of the heterozygous alleles, which is in this case the intermediate. HULK SMASH DAT PROBLEM! Mnrosario (marga_abacus) 04.21.2012

Genetics 5/6

Co-dominance – spots or patches (since both are expressed) Example 4) Red asdfghjkl crossed with yellow asdfghjkl Basically same banana as previous problem. Red and yellow are both homozygous dominant traits, and crossing them both will yield offspring with heterozygous alleles, whose phenotype will yield spots of red and yellow. CRCR x CYCY = 4/4 of CRCY Don’t believe me? CR CR CY CRCY CRCY Y R Y C CC CRCY

Y U NO ORANGE?!?

It’s basically just like how you solve normally. The main difference is the phenotype of the heterozygous alleles, which is in this case a spotty both.

Multiple Alleles, i.e., blood type. Dominant allele A (IA) Dominant allele B (IB) Recessive allele O (i) Blood Type A = IAIA or IAi Blood Type AB = IAIB Blood Type B = IBIB or IBi Blood Type O = ii Example 5) Can a couple, both with blood type AB, have a daughter with blood type O? IAIB x IAIB IA IA IA IA B I IA IB

IB IAIB IB IB

Genotypic ratio: ¼ IA IA, ½ IAIB, ¼ IBIB Phenotypic ratio: ¼ A, ½ AB, ¼ B

Mnrosario (marga_abacus) 04.21.2012

Genetics 6/6 So, the answer is NO, they can’t have a daughter with blood type O. Actually, they can’t have a child (whatever sex it is) with blood type O. Actually, they can, in the case where the child has this disease or disorder with his/her blood cells, and in the case that they adopt a child…

SEX-related inheritance Normally, girls are XX and boys are XY (unless disordered, e.g., XXX, XXY, XO) Questions are usually X-related.

How do we solve this?!?

Examples 6) What is the probability of a carrier mum and a diseased dad having diseased daughter, if said disease is X-linked recessive? Let D-normal, d-disease XDXd x XdY XD Xd XD Xd Y

Xd XdXd

There is ½ probability that daughter is diseased. (½ probability of a carrier daughter) *carriers are phenotypically normal. 7) What is the probability of a homozygous diseased mum and normal dad having normal son, if said disease is x-linked dominant? Let D-disease, d-normal XDXd x XdY XD Xd Y XD Y

XD XD Y

There is a 100% chance that son is diseased (probably since all his X chromosomes will come from the mother, and his father will only give him Y chromosome).

Bill Gates says, “I will always choose a lazy person to do a difficult job, because he will find an easy way to do it.”

Mnrosario (marga_abacus) 04.21.2012

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