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SUPERCHARGING AND TURBOCHARGING IN TERMS OF ISENTROPIC EFFICIENCY
SUBMITTED TO LEC MUBASHIR GULZAR
SUBMITTED BY NS MUDASSAR HUSSAIN DE-32(MECHANICAL ENGINEERING)
DATE: MARCH 25TH, 2012
SUPERCHARGING AND TURBOCHARGING INTRODUCTION
Turbocharging or supercharging is a method of increasing engine volumetric efficiency by forcing the air-fuel mixture into the intake rather than merely allowing the pistons to draw it in naturally. Supercharging and turbocharging in some cases will push volumetric efficiencies over 100 percent. Engines must be modified to operate properly in some cases, because the extra airfuel mixture will cause higher compression pressures, resulting in detonation. Superchargers: To increase the output efficiency of any engine we have to burn more fuel and make bigger explosion in every cycle. We have two options for this. One way to add power is to build a bigger engine. But bigger engines, which weigh more and cost more to build and maintain, are not always better. Another way to add power is to make a normal-sized engine more efficient. We can accomplish this by forcing more air into the combustion chamber. More air means more fuel can be added, and more fuel means a bigger explosion and greater horsepower. This can be done with the help of a supercharger. A supercharger is basically an air compressor used for forced induction of an internal combustion engine. It does the same work as that of a compressor, i.e. it compresses the air being delivered to the combustion chamber of an engine. The greater mass flow-rate provides more oxygen to support combustion than would be available in a naturally-aspirated engine, which allows more fuel to be provided and more work to be done per cycle, increasing the power output of the engine. Thus a supercharger is extra equipment provided in an engine so as to boost the capacity and the torque of an engine. Benefits of using superchargers: A supercharger is used in an engine for various reasons. Some of the advantages of superchargers are as follows: Increases the power of an engine. A supercharger spinning at 50,000 RPM translates to a boost of about six to nine pounds per square inch (psi). Increases the torque produced. An efficiently working engine with supercharger can achieve the same speed in one third of the time taken by the same engine without supercharger. Necessary in airplanes and jets as they have less oxygen at high altitudes. So they provide the sufficient amount of air by compressing it to higher pressure. And ensures complete combustion. Higher amount of oxygen in compressed air from supercharger ensures complete combustion of the fuel. Complete combustion reduces pollution to some extent.
Diagram of a working engine equipped with a Supercharger. Turbochargers: A turbocharger uses the force of the engine exhaust stream to force the air-fuel mixture into the engine. It consists of a housing containing two chambers. One chamber contains a turbine that is spun as hot exhaust gases are directed against it. The turbine shaft drives an impeller that is located in the other chamber. The spinning impeller draws an air-fuel mixture from the carburetor and forces it into the engine. Because the volume of exhaust gases increases with engine load and speed, the turbocharger speed will increase proportionally, keeping the manifold pressure boost fairly uniform. A device known as a waste gate is installed on turbocharged engines to control manifold pressure. It is a valve that, when open, allows engine exhaust to bypass the turbocharger turbine, effectively reducing intake pressure. The waste-gate valve is operated by a diaphragm that is operated by manifold pressure. The diaphragm will open the waste-gate valve whenever manifold pressure reaches the desired maximum.
Benefits of using Turbochargers: One of the surest ways to get more power out of an engine is to increase the amount of air and fuel that it can burn. One way to do this is to add cylinders or make the current cylinders bigger. Sometimes these changes may not be feasible. A turbo can be a simpler, more compact way to add power, especially for an aftermarket accessory. Turbochargers allow an engine to burn more fuel and air by packing more into the existing cylinders. The typical boost provided by a turbocharger is 6 to 8 pounds per square inch (psi). Since normal atmospheric pressure is 14.7 psi at sea level, you can see that you are getting about 50 percent more air into the engine. Therefore, you would expect to get 50 percent more power.
How a turbocharger is plumbed in a car
Inside a turbocharger
Turbocharger Efficiency: The isentropic efficiencies of the compressor and the turbine can be found using the following equations. Eq. (A) given below shows the efficiency of the compressor: ………………………………………………………………. (A) Eq. (B) shows the efficiency of the turbine: ………………………………………………………………. (B)
Note that the isentropic efficiency of a turbocharger is usually a good method to compare the real work of the turbine to the actual work produced from the system. The isentropic efficiency of a radial flow turbocharger is usually 75 percent for the compressor and 70-85 percent for the radial flow system. Performance: The performance of a particular turbocharger can be determined by looking at a turbocharger compressor map. The compressor flow map gives the amount of air compression as a function of the mass (or volume) flow of the uncompressed air entering the turbo itself. At first glance, these charts may seem quite difficult to read. The curved lines on the map with numbers ranging from 46,050 and 125,650 represent the rotational speed of the turbine in RPM. The isentropic efficiency of the compressor is represented by the elliptical curved lines which range from 50 percent to 73 percent for this particular turbocharger. The pressure ratio on the vertical axis is the ratio of the exiting air pressure to the incoming ambient air pressure. The air flow rating on the horizontal axis gives an output of . An interesting side note concerning the wheel speed of the compressor is that at Turbocharger compressor map certain high wheel speed values, it becomes very difficult to raise the output pressure of the turbine. At these speeds (which are faster than the speed of sound), the diffuser in the housing becomes choked and does not permit notable increases in flow. At this point, the turbine has become inefficient and a larger unit may be required. In addition, when the turbine is spun to a very high speed, engine damage may occur.
This danger is usually overcome through the use of a waste-gate valve. Waste-gate operation may vary depending on its design. One of the simple and common mechanical waste-gate designs involves the use of a calibrated spring which regulates manifold pressure by directing flow around the turbine wheel and directly into the exhaust system. Turbocharger-related Sources of Engine Failure: The damage that may occur from a turbocharger usually concerns pre-ignition or “engine knock.” This sometimes occurs from setting the timing of the spark ignition system at a value which is too far advanced. The combination of increased cylinder pressure and early ignition causes combustion substantially before the piston has reached TDC. This early ignition produces a knocking sound and is accompanied by very high pressures. This high pressure causes high stress on the piston and ring assembly as well, and has been known to crack ring lands and severely damage piston assemblies, along with other internal parts. In addition to advanced spark timing, a high compression engine will be less effective at making power than a lower compression engine if a turbocharger is applied. This stems from pre-ignition due excessively high cylinder pressures. A lower compression motor will accept a larger amount of the highly dense intake charge produced by the turbocharger. It is important to also note that an engine running lean will also be susceptible to knock and pre-ignition. Besides reducing the compression ratio and retarding the timing, it is also effective to reduce the probability of knock and increase performance through the use of an intercooler to reduce the temperature of the incoming intake charge. The power level of the engine may be increased with an intercooler since the density of the incoming charge may be increased substantially. If the inlet temperature is reduced, there will be less thermal loading on the engine. The equation showing the efficiency associated with an intercooler is shown below as Eq. (C).
The cooling medium used in intercoolers is usually air or water. Sometimes water in the form of ice for high performance applications such as drag racing where the car will travel short distances. In some cases, engine coolant is used; however, due to its high temperature, it is not the best choice as a cooling medium. Note that with an intercooler, some losses in flow might be present through the intercooler. As such, it is sometimes necessary to increase the output pressure of the turbocharger itself to compensate. Also, due to the increased mass flow rate of air into the engine, the fueling system must be altered to provide more fuel to the engine.
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