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IB BIOLOGY CORE

Kerri Humphreys

Science Press 2010


First published 2010
Science Press
Private Bag 7023 Marrickville NSW 1475 Australia
Tel: +61 2 9516 1122 Fax: +61 2 9550 1915
sales@sciencepress.com.au
www.sciencepress.com.au
All rights reserved. No part of this publication
may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system,
or transmitted in any form or by any means,
electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording
or otherwise, without the prior permission of
Science Press. ABN 98 000 073 861

Copyright statements IBO 2007 refer to the


syllabus guide published by the International
Baccalaureate Organization.
Thanks to the International Baccalaureate
Organization for permission to reproduce its
intellectual property.
This material has been developed independently
by the publisher and the content is in no way
connected with or endorsed by the International
Baccalaureate Organization.

Contents

Introduction

Command Terms and Verbs to Watch

vi

Dot Points
Statistical Analysis

vii

Cells

ix

The Chemistry of Life

xi

Genetics

xiii

Ecology and Evolution

xv

Human Health and Physiology

xvii

Questions
Statistical Analysis

Cells

The Chemistry of Life

37

Genetics

63

Ecology and Evolution

83

Human Health and Physiology

109

Answers
Statistical Analysis

151

Cells

153

The Chemistry of Life

165

Genetics

175

Ecology and Evolution

185

Human Health and Physiology

195

Appendix
Index

215

Science Press

Dot Point IB Biology Core

iii

Contents

Notes
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Science Press

Contents

iv

Dot Point IB Biology Core

Introduction

What the book includes


This book provides questions and answers for each dot point in the IB Biology Core syllabus from the
International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme for Biology:

s

3TATISTICAL!NALYSIS

s

#ELLS

s

4HE#HEMISTRYOF,IFE

s

'ENETICS

s

%COLOGYAND%VOLUTION

s

(UMAN(EALTHAND0HYSIOLOGY

Format of the book


The book has been formatted in the following way:

1.1 Subtopic from syllabus.


1.1.1

Assessment statement from syllabus.

1.1.1.1 First question for this assessment statement.


1.1.1.2 Second question for this assessment statement.
The number of lines provided for each answer gives an indication of how many marks the question might be
worth in an examination. As a rough rule, every two lines of answer might be worth 1 mark.

How to use the book


Completing all questions will provide you with a summary of all the work you need to know from the syllabus.
You may have done work in addition to this with your teacher as extension work. Obviously this is not covered,
but you may need to know this additional work for your school exams.
When working through the questions, write the answers you have to look up in a different colour to those you
know without having to research the work. This will provide you with a quick reference for work needing further
revision.

Science Press

Dot Point IB Biology Core

Introduction

Command Terms and Verbs to Watch

account, account for State reasons for, report


on, give an account of, narrate a series of events or
transactions.

draw

analyse

evaluate

Assess the implications and limitations.

examine

Inquire into.

estimate Find an approximate value for an


unknown quantity.

Interpret data to reach conclusions.

annotate

Represent by means of pencil lines.

Add brief notes to a diagram or graph.

apply Use an idea, equation, principle, theory or


law in a new situation.

explain Give a detailed account of causes,


reasons or mechanisms.

assess Make a judgement of value, quality,


outcomes, results or size.

extract
details.

calculate Find a numerical answer showing the


relevant stages in the working (unless instructed not
to do so).

extrapolate

clarify

Infer from what is known.

identify Find an answer from a given number of


possibilities.

Make clear or plain.

justify

classify Arrange into classes, groups or


categories.

label

Support an argument or conclusion.


Add labels to a diagram.

list Give a sequence of names or other brief


answers with no explanation.

comment Give a judgement based on a given


statement or result of a calculation.

measure

compare Give an account of similarities and


differences between two (or more) items, referring to
both (all) of them throughout.
construct

Choose relevant and/or appropriate

Represent or develop in graphical form.

Find a value for a quantity.

outline

Give a brief account or summary.

predict

Give an expected result.

contrast Show how things are different or


opposite.

propose Put forward a point of view, idea,


argument, suggestion etc for consideration or
action.

deduce
given.

recall Present remembered ideas, facts or


experiences.

Reach a conclusion from the information

show

dene Give the precise meaning of a word,


phrase or physical quantity.
demonstrate

sketch Represent by means of a graph showing


a line and labelled but unscaled axes but with
important features (for example, intercept) clearly
indicated.

Show by example.

derive Manipulate a mathematical relationship(s)


to give a new equation or relationship.
describe
design

solve Obtain an answer using algebraic and/or


numerical methods.

Give a detailed account.


Produce a plan, simulation or model.

determine

Give the steps in a calculation or derivation.

state Give a specic name, value or other brief


answer without explanation or calculation.

Find the only possible answer.

discuss Give an account including, where


possible, a range of arguments for and against
the relative importance of various factors, or
comparisons of alternative hypotheses.

suggest
answer.

Propose a hypothesis or other possible

summarise

Express concisely the relevant details.

synthesise Put together various elements to


make a whole.

distinguish Give differences between two or more


different items.

Science Press

Verbs to Watch
Command
Terms and Verbs to Watch

vi

Dot Point IB Biology Core

Statistical Analysis

Dot Point

Page

Dot Point

Page

1.1.4

Comparing means and the spread


of data.

1.1.5

T-test.

1.1.6

Causal relationships and variables.

1.1

Statistical analysis

1.1.1

Error bars.

1.1.2

Mean and standard deviation.

1.1.3

Standard deviation and 68%


of the values.

Answers to Statistical Analysis

151

Science Press

Dot Point IB Biology Core

vii

CORE 1 Statistical Analysis

Notes
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CORE 1 Statistical Analysis

viii

Dot Point IB Biology Core

Cells

Dot Point

Page

Dot Point

Page

2.1

Cell theory

11

2.4

Membranes

29

2.1.1

Cell theory.

11

2.4.1

Membrane structure.

29

2.1.2

Evidence for cell theory.

12

2.4.2

Properties of phospholipids.

29

2.1.3

Unicellular organisms.

13

2.4.3

Functions of membrane proteins.

30

2.1.4

Comparing relative sizes.

14

2.4.4

Diffusion and osmosis.

31

2.1.5

Linear magnication of drawings.

15

2.4.5

31

2.1.6

Surface area to volume ratio.

16

Passive transport across


membranes.

2.1.7

Multicellular organisms.

17

2.4.6

Protein pumps and membranes.

31

2.1.8

Differentiation in multicellular
organisms.

18

2.4.7

Vesicles and transport.

32

2.4.8

32

2.1.9

Stem cells.

19

Membrane uidity and


endocytosis/exocytosis.

2.1.10

Therapeutic use of stem cells.

20

2.5

Cell division

33

2.2

Prokaryotic cells

21

2.5.1

Stages in the cell cycle.

33

2.2.1

Ultrastructure of bacteria.

21

2.5.2

Tumours.

33

2.2.2

Function of structures in
bacterial cells.

22

2.5.3

Interphase.

34

2.5.4

Phases of mitosis.

34

Identifying structures in
bacterial cells.

22

2.5.5

Mitosis daughter cells.

35

2.5.6

Uses of mitosis.

35

2.2.4

Prokaryotic cells and binary ssion.

24

2.3

Eukaryotic cells

25

2.3.1

Ultrastructure of an animal cell.

25

2.3.2

Function of structures in an
animal cell.

26

2.3.3

Identifying structures in an
animal cell.

26

2.3.4

Comparison of prokaryotic and


eukaryotic cells.

27

2.3.5

Differences between plant and


animal cells.

27

2.3.6

Role of extracellular components.

28

2.2.3

Answers to Cells

153

Science Press

Dot Point IB Biology Core

ix

CORE 2 Cells

Notes
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Science Press

CORE 2 Cells

Dot Point IB Biology Core

The Chemistry of Life

Dot Point

Page

Dot Point

Page

3.1

Chemical elements and water

39

3.5

Transcription and translation

53

3.1.1

The most common elements in


living things.

39

3.5.1

Structure of RNA and DNA.

53

3.5.2

Transcription.

53

3.1.2

Other elements needed by living


things.

39

3.5.3

Codons and triplets.

54

3.5.4

Translation.

54

3.1.3

The roles of the elements in living


things.

39

3.5.5

One gene, one polypeptide.

54

3.1.4

Structure of water molecules.

41

3.6

Enzymes

55

3.1.5

Properties of water.

41

3.6.1

Enzymes and the active site.

55

3.1.6

Uses of water in living things.

42

3.6.2

Enzyme-substrate specicity.

55

3.2

Carbohydrates, lipids and proteins

43

3.6.3

Enzymes and pH, temperature,


substrate concentration.

55

3.2.1

Organic and inorganic compounds.

43

3.6.4

Denaturation.

56

3.2.2

Structure of organic compounds.

43

3.6.5

Lactase and lactose-free milk.

56

3.2.3

Monosaccharides, disaccharides,
polysaccharides.

44

3.7

Cell respiration

57

3.2.4

Function of sugars.

45

3.7.1

Denition of cell respiration.

57

3.2.5

Role of condensation and hydrolysis.

46

3.7.2

Respiration produces pyruvate.

57

3.2.6

Functions of lipids.

48

3.7.3

Anaerobic cell respiration.

58

3.2.7

Use of carbohydrates and lipids.

48

3.7.4

Aerobic cell respiration.

57

3.3

DNA structure

49

3.8

Photosynthesis

59

3.3.1

DNA nucleotide structure.

49

3.8.1

Denition of photosynthesis.

59

3.3.2

Four bases in DNA.

49

3.8.2

Electromagnetic spectrum and light.

59

3.3.3

Linkage of DNA nucleotides.

49

3.8.3

Chlorophyll.

59

3.3.4

DNA double helix and


complementary bases.

50

3.8.4

Absorption of red, blue, green light


by chlorophyll.

60

3.3.5

Diagram of DNA structure.

50

3.8.5

Light reaction.

60

3.4

DNA replication

51

3.8.6

Carbon xation.

61

3.4.1

Replication.

51

3.8.7

Measuring the rate of photosynthesis.

61

3.4.2

Signicance of base pairing.

52

3.8.8

Factors affecting the rate of


photosynthesis.

62

3.4.3

DNA replication is semi-conservative.

52

Answers to The Chemistry of Life

165

Science Press

Dot Point IB Biology Core

xi

CORE 3 The Chemistry of Life

Notes
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CORE 3 The Chemistry of Life

xii

Dot Point IB Biology Core

Genetics

Dot Point

Page

Dot Point

Page

4.1

Chromosomes, genes, alleles


and mutations

65

4.4

Genetic engineering and


biotechnology

77

4.1.1

Eukaryotic chromosomes.

65

4.4.1

Polymerase chain reaction.

77

4.1.2

Allele, gene and genome.

65

4.4.2

Gel electrophoresis.

77

4.1.3

Gene mutation.

65

4.4.3

DNA proling.

78

4.1.4

Base substitution mutation.

66

4.4.4

Applications of DNA proling.

78

4.2

Meiosis

67

4.4.5

Problem solving using DNA proles.

78

4.2.1

Denition of meiosis.

67

4.4.6

Sequencing the human genome.

79

4.2.2

Denition of homologous
chromosomes.

67

4.4.7

Transferring genes between species.

79

4.4.8

Technique for gene transfer.

80

4.2.3

Steps in meiosis.

67

4.4.9

81

4.2.4

Non-disjunction and heredity


disorders.

69

Current examples of genetic


modication.

4.4.10

81

4.2.5

Denition of karyotyping.

70

Benets/problems with genetic


modication.

4.2.6

Karyotyping and amniocentesis.

70

4.4.11

Denition of clone.

81

4.2.7

Analysis of a human karyotype.

70

4.4.12

Technique for cloning.

82

4.3

Theoretical genetics

71

4.4.13

Ethical issues of therapeutic cloning.

82

4.3.1

Genotype, phenotype and alleles.

71

Answers to Genetics

4.3.2

Punnet grids.

72

4.3.3

Multiple alleles.

72

4.3.4

ABO blood groups.

73

4.3.5

Sex chromosomes.

73

4.3.6

Genes and the X chromosome.

74

4.3.7

Sex linkage.

74

4.3.8

Examples of sex linkage.

74

4.3.9

Females and sex-linked genes.

75

4.3.10

Female carriers.

75

4.3.11

Monohybrid crosses.

75

4.3.12

Pedigree charts.

76

175

Science Press

Dot Point IB Biology Core

xiii

CORE 4 Genetics

Notes
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CORE 4 Genetics

xiv

Dot Point IB Biology Core

Ecology and Evolution

Dot Point

Page

Dot Point

Page

5.1

Communities and ecosystems

85

5.3

Populations

97

5.1.1

Species, habitats, populations


and communities.

85

5.3.1

Population size.

97

5.3.2

Sigmoid population growth curve.

97

5.1.2

Autotrophs and heterotrophs.

85

5.3.3

Phases and the growth curve.

98

5.1.3

Consumers, detritivores and


saprotrophs.

85

5.3.4

Factors that limit population


increase.

98

5.1.4

Food chains.

86

5.4

Evolution

99

5.1.5

Food webs.

86

5.4.1

Denition of evolution.

99

5.1.6

Trophic levels.

85

5.4.2

Evidence for evolution.

99

5.1.7

Food chains and webs and trophic


levels.

86

5.4.3

Overproduction of offspring.

101

5.4.4

Constructing a food web.

88

Consequence of overproduction of
offspring.

101

5.1.8
5.1.9

Light and communities.

89

5.4.5

Variation in a species.

101

5.1.10

Energy ow in a food chain.

89

5.4.6

Sexual reproduction and variation.

101

5.1.11

Energy transformations.

90

5.4.7

Natural selection and evolution.

102

5.1.12

The energy pyramid.

90

5.4.8

Examples of evolution.

102

5.1.13

Recycling of matter.

90

5.5

Classication

103

5.1.14

Decomposers and recycling.

90

5.5.1

Binomial system of nomenclature.

103

5.2

The greenhouse effect

91

5.5.2

Levels of classication.

104

5.2.1

The carbon cycle.

91

5.5.3

Plant phyla.

105

5.2.2

Atmospheric carbon dioxide.

91

5.5.4

Animal phyla.

106

5.2.3

Atmospheric gases and the


greenhouse effect.

92

5.5.5

Classication key.

107

Answers to Ecology and Evolution

185

5.2.4

The precautionary principle.

93

5.2.5

The precautionary principle and


actions.

94

5.2.6

Temperature and arctic ecosystems.

95

Science Press

Dot Point IB Biology Core

xv

CORE 5 Ecology and Evolution

Notes
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CORE 5 Ecology and Evolution

xvi

Dot Point IB Biology Core

Human Health and Physiology

Dot Point

Page

Dot Point

Page

6.5

Nerves, hormones and


homeostasis

131

111

6.5.1

Components of the nervous system.

131

Amylase, protease and lipase.

111

6.5.2

Motor neurons.

131

6.1.4

The digestive system.

112

6.5.3

The nerve impulse pathway.

132

6.1.5

Function of stomach and intestines.

113

6.5.4

133

6.1.6

Absorption and assimilation.

114

Resting potential and action


potential.

6.1.7

Intestinal villi.

114

6.5.5

Nerve impulses.

134

6.2

The transport system

115

6.5.6

Synaptic transmission.

135

6.2.1

The heart.

115

6.5.7

The endocrine system.

136

6.2.2

Coronary arteries.

115

6.5.8

Conditions controlled by
homeostasis.

137

6.2.3

Function of the heart.

116

6.5.9

Monitoring and homeostasis.

137

6.2.4

Control of heartbeat.

117

6.5.10

Control of body temperature.

138

6.2.5

Arteries, veins and capillaries.

118

6.5.11

Control of blood sugar.

140

6.2.6

Composition of blood.

119

6.5.12

Diabetes.

142

6.2.7

Materials transported in the blood.

120

6.6

Reproduction

143

6.3

Defence against infectious disease 121

6.6.1

Denition of pathogen.

121

Male and female reproductive


systems.

143

6.3.1
6.3.2

Antibiotics, bacteria and viruses.

121

6.6.2

Hormones in the menstrual cycle.

144

6.3.3

Skin and mucous membranes.

122

6.6.3

The menstrual cycle.

145

6.3.4

Function of phagocytic leucocytes.

123

6.6.4

Testosterone.

146

6.3.5

Antigens and antibodies.

123

6.6.5

In-vitro fertilisation.

146

6.3.6

Antibody production.

124

6.6.6

Ethical issues and IVF.

147

6.3.7

HIV and the immune system.

125

Answers to Human Health and Physiology

6.3.8

AIDS.

125

6.4

Gas exchange

127

6.4.1

Ventilation, gas exchange


and cell respiration.

127

6.4.2

Need for ventilation.

128

6.4.3

Alveoli.

129

6.4.4

The ventilation system.

129

6.4.5

Mechanisms for ventilation.

130

6.1

Digestion

111

6.1.1

Digestion of large molecules.

111

6.1.2

Enzymes and digestion.

6.1.3

195

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xvii

CORE 6 Human Health and Physiology

Notes
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CORE 6 Human Health and Physiology

xviii

Dot Point IB Biology Core

DOT POINT
CORE 1
Statistical Analysis

Science Press

Dot Point IB Biology Core

CORE 1 Statistical Analysis

Notes
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Science Press

CORE 1 Statistical Analysis

Dot Point IB Biology Core

1.1

Statistical analysis. IBO 2007

1.1.1

State that error bars are a graphical representation of the variability of data. IBO 2007

1.1.1.1

Dene error bars.

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1.1.1.2

If time is measured using an analog stopwatch, what is the error or uncertainty for recorded
measurements?

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1.1.1.3

Identify areas that are not included in determining experimental uncertainty.

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1.1.1.4

Describe how random error can be reduced when conducting an experiment.

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1.1.1.5

Distinguish between accuracy and precision when taking measurements.

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1.1.1.6

Discuss how systematic error can affect accuracy and precision.

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Science Press

Dot Point IB Biology Core

CORE 1 Statistical Analysis

1.1.2

Calculate the mean and standard deviation of a set of values. IBO 2007

1.1.2.1

What is meant by the mean?

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1.1.2.2

Explain the following equation: x =

x
n

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1.1.2.3

What is meant by the standard deviation?

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1.1.2.4

Explain the following equation: s =

( x x )2
n

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1.1.2.5

In statistics, what is meant by frequency and frequency distribution?

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1.1.2.6

Calculate the mean for the following data.


3; 11; 15; 16; 28; 30; 42; 55; 60

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1.1.2.7

Four IB students collected data and pooled results for


an experiment investigating growth rates in pea plants.
Each student grew a certain number of plants and
recorded the mean height of their plants at the end of
the investigation. The table shows their results.

Sample size

Mean height
of plants (cm)

6 plants

14.5

4 plants

15.5

5 plants

13.1

5 plants

12.3

Calculate the weighted mean for these results.


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1.1.2.8

Distinguish between a discrete variable and a continuous variable.

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Science Press

CORE 1 Statistical Analysis

Dot Point IB Biology Core

1.1.3

State that the term standard deviation is used to summarise the spread of values around the
mean, and that 68% of the values fall within one standard deviation of the mean. IBO 2007

1.1.3.1

What is the Gaussian curve?

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1.1.3.2

The diagram shows a normal distribution curve. In many biological situations, where there are large
numbers of values, the frequency graph shows this shape.
Identify useful features of the normal curve.

Normal curve and standard deviation


50%

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50%

Frequency
of occurrence

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68%

95%

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99.7%

sd
ea

+3

sd
+2
ea

n
m

n
ea
m

+3

+2

sd

+1

ea

0
m

sd

sd
ea
m

n
ea
m

ea
m

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Mark

sd

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3
3

Z-score

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+1

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1.1.3.3

What is the Z-score?

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1.1.3.4

What is meant by variance and state the symbols used for sample variance and population variance.

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Science Press

Dot Point IB Biology Core

CORE 1 Statistical Analysis

1.1.4

Explain how the standard deviation is useful for comparing the means and the spread of data
between two or more samples. IBO 2007

1.1.4.1

Explain the use of standard deviation when using several samples of data.

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1.1.4.2

Outline why the Z-score is often called a test statistic?

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1.1.5

Deduce the signicance of the difference between two sets of data using calculated values for t
and the appropriate tables. IBO 2007

1.1.5.1

What are tests of hypotheses and signicance?

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1.1.5.2

What is the t-test?

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1.1.5.3

Outline the use of the t-test.

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1.1.5.4

What is meant by an unpaired t-test?

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Science Press

CORE 1 Statistical Analysis

Dot Point IB Biology Core

1.1.6

Explain that the existence of a correlation does not establish that there is a causal relationship
between two variables. IBO 2007

1.1.6.1

Outline the usefulness of plotting collected data.

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1.1.6.2

Sometimes you need to compare two sets of data to see if there is a correlation. Outline how you
would nd the relationship between two sets of variables.

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1.1.6.3

Draw sample scattergrams that would show positive correlation, negative correlation and zero
correlation.

Positive correlation

1.1.6.4

Negative correlation

Zero correlation

When designing an experiment, an initial step involves stating the experimental hypothesis. What is
meant by a two-tailed experimental hypothesis?

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1.1.6.5

When looking at results, the level of signicance needs to be determined, that is, the results are
signicant and probably not due to chance.
When are results considered to be due to chance?

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1.1.6.6

Spearmans rho is a test which gives a correlation coefcient, from +1 to 1. A correlation coefcient
very close to +1 it means there is a strong relationship where every rise in one set of variables is
reected by a rise in the other set of variables.
What would be the meaning of a relationship with a correlation coefcient of zero and a relationship
with a correlation coefcient of 1?

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Science Press

Dot Point IB Biology Core

CORE 1 Statistical Analysis

1.1.6.7

Outline why correlation does not imply causation. Use an example in your response.

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1.1.6.8

A statistical hypothesis is an opinion about the value of a population parameter that may, or may not,
be true. Distinguish between a null hypothesis (H0) and the alternative hypothesis (H1).

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1.1.6.9

The diagram shows the regions of rejection and non-rejection.


Explain how this diagram is used to determine if a null hypothesis is false.

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Critical value

Critical value

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Region of
rejection

Region of
non-rejection

Region of
rejection

Science Press

CORE 1 Statistical Analysis

Dot Point IB Biology Core

DOT POINT
ANSWERS

Science Press

Dot Point IB Biology Core

149

Answers

Notes
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Answers

150

Dot Point IB Biology Core

CORE 1 Statistical Analysis

1.1.1.1

Error bars are a graphical representation of the variability of data to show the range of data or the standard deviation.

1.1.1.2

Analog stopwatches have an error or uncertainty of 1 s.

1.1.1.3

Uncertainty does not account for faulty equipment, human error or invalid assumptions.

1.1.1.4

Random errors occur in a non-reproducible way. In an experiment, random error can be reduced by repeating the measurement,
taking the average and using the variation from the mean to show the reproducibility of the measurements.

1.1.1.5

The accuracy of a measurement refers to its closeness to the true value. In an experiment, accuracy is taken as the difference
between the average of the measured results and the true value of the quantity. Precision in an experiment refers to the range
of values in the results and the reproducibility of the measurement.

1.1.1.6

Systematic error can occur in several ways, e.g. in the equipment, the way the equipment was used or by the observer making
the measurement. Systematic errors can be caused when instruments are not used under normal conditions, e.g. temperature
and humidity can affect measuring devices. If the instrument is used correctly in adverse conditions, measurements can
have high precision but reduced accuracy. Systematic errors occur if the instrument is not correctly zeroed, or the observer
consistently misreads the instrument, e.g. reads the wrong part of the meniscus. Accuracy is low, but results can have high
precision.

1.1.2.1
1.1.2.2

The mean is the sum of all the values divided by the number of values (often called the average).
_
The equation states that the mean x equals the sum of all the values x divided by the number of values n.

1.1.2.3

The standard deviation summarises the spread of data around the mean.

1.1.2.4

The equation states that the standard deviation s equals the square root of the mean square deviation of values from their mean.

1.1.2.5

In statistics, frequency refers to the number of times a value occurs and is called the frequency of that value. Frequency
distribution can be shown with a table or graph to show how often that value occurs compared to other values.
The mean for the numbers: 3; 11; 15; 16; 28; 30; 42; 57; 60 is 261 = 29.
9
The weighted mean is (14.5 6) + (15.5 4) + (13.1 5) + (12.3 5)/(6 + 4 + 5 + 5) = 13.8. Thus the weighted mean for the
height of the plants at the end of the experiment for the four students was 13.8 cm.

1.1.2.6
1.1.2.7
1.1.2.8

A discrete variable has exact values, e.g. number of test tubes set up, while a continuous variable can have any value in a given
range, e.g. temperature.

1.1.3.1

The Gaussian curve is a bell-shaped curve which has a centrally located mean. It is the normal distribution curve.

1.1.3.2

The normal distribution curve is symmetric about the mean and the range of values is unlimited. In the normal distribution
curve, 68% of all values are within 1 standard deviation of the mean. If using the Z-score, this means that 68% of values have
a Z-score between 1 and 1. The normal distribution curve also shows that about 95% of all values are within 2 standard
deviations of the mean. This means that it is highly likely that a value is within 2 standard deviations of the mean. The normal
curve also shows that 99.7% of values lie within 3 standard deviations of the mean. This infers there is a very high probability
that any value is within 3 standard deviations of the mean.

1.1.3.3

The Z-score is a standard score that states how many standard deviations a raw score is from the mean.

1.1.3.4

The variance of a set of data is the square of the standard deviation. To distinguish between the standard variation of a
population and the standard deviation of a sample drawn from this population, sample variance is given the symbol s2 and
population variance is given the symbol 2.

1.1.4.1

The standard deviation is useful to show how far a set of values is spread away from the centre. This is important when
comparing different samples of data. A small standard deviation can infer high precision in measuring techniques and other
aspects of experimental procedure and results can also be inferred by comparing the standard deviations of different sets of
data.

1.1.4.2

The Z-score is often used in tests of hypotheses and because of this important role it is often called a test statistic.

1.1.5.1

Tests of hypotheses and signicance are procedures that are carried out to determine if observed results differ signicantly
from the expected results. The results of the test hypotheses and level of signicance assist in either supporting or rejecting an
hypothesis.

1.1.5.2

The t-test is a statistical means used to determine the likelihood that two sets of data are basically the same. The t-test is an
extension of tests of hypotheses and signicance where the Z-score is replaced with a suitable t-score.

Science Press

Dot Point IB Biology Core

151

CORE 1 Statistical Analysis

1.1.5.3

The t-test is used in hypothesis testing to deal with investigations with small sample size and the issues related to inferences
made from the results of these investigations. As sample size increases, the discrepancy between the standard deviation and
mean decreases, so t approximates a standardised normal distribution. Thus, when using small sample size and comparing two
samples where the statistical units are non-overlapping, the t-test will show if the sets of data are basically the same.

1.1.5.4

An unpaired t-test (or independent sample t-test) compares two separate independent and identically distributed samples from
two populations.

1.1.6.1

Plotting data on a graph provides a visual means of showing the relationship between the dependent variable and the
independent variable.

1.1.6.2

To show the relationship between two sets of variables, you can draw a scattergram and plot each point.

1.1.6.3

Positive correlation

Negative correlation

Zero correlation

Variable 2

Variable 2

Variable 2

Variable 1

Variable 1

Variable 1

1.1.6.4

An experimental hypothesis is an educated guess about what will happen if a particular condition changes. A two-tailed
experimental hypothesis will look at both sides of the mean (i.e. both tails of the distribution).

1.1.6.5

If there is a 5% or less probability, then the results are considered to have occurred due to chance rather than changes in the
independent variable.

1.1.6.6

A correlation coefcient of zero means there is no relationship between the two sets of variables. A correlation coefcient of 1
means that there is a strong relationship and for every rise in one set of variables, there is a fall in the other set of variables.

1.1.6.7

Correlation between two sets of variables may mean one may cause the other, however the correlation method does not conrm
causality. Experimental investigations are needed to study cause and effect. In an experiment the independent variable can
be manipulated and extraneous variables controlled to discover how the dependent variable changes in different conditions.
Tests of correlation, e.g. Spearmans rho determine linear relationships. For example, there could be a high positive correlation
between teenagers that watch the news each night on TV and those who own a pet dog. This does not mean that watching the
nightly news causes teenagers to own a dog, or owning a dog causes teenagers to watch the nightly news.

1.1.6.8

A null hypothesis (H0) states that the population parameter equals a specic value, or the population parameters from two or
more groups are equal. The alternative hypothesis (H1) states that there is a precise difference between a parameter and a
specic value. When designing a hypothesis test, the rst step is to state the null hypothesis and the alternative hypothesis. The
null hypothesis is considered to be true until the evidence and results show otherwise. If the null hypothesis is false, then the
alternative hypothesis is true.

1.1.6.9

The data collected to test the hypotheses is analysed by determining the level of signicance and the critical value for the test
statistic values. The diagram shows how the null hypothesis is rejected if the test statistic values are in the critical region. This
region shows there is a large difference between the postulated parameter value and the corresponding point estimate for the
parameter.

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CORE 1 Statistical Analysis

152

Dot Point IB Biology Core