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9 Bio Essays

Bryan Le p.5

1. Explain the importance of mitosis and meiosis in the life of an organism. Compare and contrast the behavior of the chromosomes in mitosis and meiosis I. The importance of mitosis is to replicate the DNA molecule to repair the damaged tissues in body cells whereas meiosis is to create variation within a species for a better chance at survival. In meiosis I the members of each homologous chromosome pair first join together then separate and move into different nuclei. The purpose of meiosis is to divide to reduce the chromosome number by . Mitosis is a single nuclear division in which sister chromatids separate from each other. Homologous chromosomes do not associate physically at any time in mitosis. 2. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of sexual reproduction and sexual recombination the process allows. When is sexual reproduction advantageous? Asexual reproduction? Because the offspring produced by sexual reproduction is not identical to their parents or to each other, some offspring may be able to survive environmental changes better than either parent does. However the disadvantage is the offspring may be worse in environmental changes than their parents. Sexual reproduction is advantageous because it allows variation in the offspring, which gives it the ability to surpass its predecessors. Asexual reproduction is advantageous when a species need to clone because it gives the same genetics to its offspring and also does not need to expend time and energy finding a mate. 3. Describe the method by which variation is produced during sexual reproduction. When a sperm and egg fuse at fertilization, each gamete is a haploid, contributing one set of chromosomes. When the zygote divides by mitosis to form the first two cells of the embryo each daughter cell receives the diploid number of chromosomes. It is during meiosis when the diploid undergoes two cell division, potentially yielding four haploid cells. During meiosis, the genetic information from both parents is shuffled so each resulting haploid cell has a virtually unique combination of genes, which leads to variation. Also Synaptonemal complex forms between the synapsed homologues. This structure holds the synapsed homologues together and is thought to play a role in chromosomal crossing-over, process in which paired homologous chromosomes exchange genetic material (DNA). The genetic recombination from crossing over greatly enhances the genetic variation. During meiosis the maternal and paternal chromosomes of homologous pairs separate independently. The chromosomes are then shuffled so that each member of a pair becomes randomly distributed to one of the poles at anaphase I. In addition variation is also added by the exchange of DNA segments between maternal and paternal homologues during crossing-over.

Ch. 9 Bio Essays

Bryan Le p.5