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INTRODUCTION TO THE TEXTILE INDUSTRY The textile industry is one of the longest and most complicated industrial chains in manufacturing industry. It is a fragmented and heterogeneous sector dominated by Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs), with a demand mainly driven by three main end-uses: clothing, home furnishing and industrial use. The importance of the textile (and clothing) industry in the European economy is shown in Table 1.1. The figures in the table cover only a part of the total number of manufacturing companies in 2000 (i.e. they only cover companies with more than 20 employees); represented 3.4 % of the EU manufacturing industrys turnover, 3.8 % of the added value and 6.9 % of the industrial employement. .


Turnover Added Employment value EUR Billion at f.c. EUR Billion 31. 2 18.2 49. 4 4756.8 0 1308. 23.62 0.89 0.73 1.62 Million

Turnover Added Employment value % % %

Textile Clothing Total Textile cloth. Total Manufacturing &

100.5 61.5 162

2.1 4 1.3 3.4

2. 1.4 3.8

3.8 3.1 6.9




Table 1.1: Share of the EU-15 textile-clothing industry in the manufacturing industry (only companies with 20 employees or more).

The textile industry as such produces yarns and fabrics, in undyed, dyed or printed form for use as carpets, interior textiles and technical textiles, or for further processing into knitted or

woven garments. It is very largely automated and capital-intensive, whereas the manufacture of cut-andsewn garments even today remains highly labour-intensive. Both textiles and clothing are however typified by a lengthy processing chain involving raw material preparation, spinning, weaving or knitting, dyeing, printing and/or finishing, through to cutting, and sewing. These operations more often than not occur in a number of different mills which are under different ownership. 1.1. History of the Textile Industry

The textile industry is one of the oldest in the world. The oldest known textiles, which date back to about 5000 B.C., are scraps of linen cloth found in Egyptian caves. The industry was primarily a family and domestic one until the early part ofthe 1500s when the frst factory system was established. It wasnt until the Industrial Revolution in England, in the 18th century, that power machines for spinning and weaving were invented. In 1769 when Richard Arkwrights spinning frame with variable speed rollers was patented, water power replaced manual power (Neefus, 1982). In the early 17th century of colonial America, textiles were primarily manufactured in New England homes. Flax and wool were the major fibers used, however, cotton, grown primarily on southern plantations, became increasingly important (Wilson, 1979). In 1782 Samuel Slater, who had worked as an apprentice to Arkwrights partner, emigrated to America. In Blackstone River, Rhode Island, he started building Arkwright machines and opened the fist English-type cotton mill in America (ATMI, 1997a). In the early nineteenth century, in Lowell, Massachusetts, the frst mill in America to use power looms began operations. It was the fust time that all textile manufacturing operations had been done under the same roof (Wilson, 1979and ATMI, 1997a). The twentieth century has seen the development of the fist manmade fibers (rayon was frst produced in 1910). Although natural fibers (wool, cotton, silk, and linen) are still used extensively today, they are more expensiveand are often mixed with manmade fibers such as polyester, the most widely used synthetic fiber. In addition, segments of the textile industry have become highly automated and computerized (ATMI, 1997a). The textile industry is characterized by product specialization. Most mills only engage in one process or raw material. For example, a mill may be engaged in either broadloom weaving of cotton or broadloom weaving of wool. Similarly, many mills specialize in either

spinning or weaving operations, although larger integrated mills may combine the two operations. 1.2.Textil industry in Romania The Textile and Clothing, with a tradition of 100 years in Romania, has grown more pronounced during 1965 -1980 with equipment, facilities and technologies primarily in the country. Structure of production of the '70s and '80s was so constructed as to meet domestic market in textiles and clothing, and exporting the surplus products preponderant CMEA countries and then in other countries. Since 1990, demand for textile and clothing products on the domestic market fell sharply CMEA markets collapsed and the competitiveness of textile products was less then similar products from competing countries. Apparel clothing industry in Romania has qualified human resources, who accept lower wage costs in the absence of other alternatives favorable labor market in our country. Reduced demand for textiles and clothing to domestic purchasing power due to erosion and the decline was due to lower production of raw materials supply sectors. Renowned brands of spinning and weaving mills, cotton, wool and silk, which were left in irresponsible to fail were Dorobantul Ploiesti, Brasov Carpatex, Tricodava, Bucharest. The textile industry is a very important branch of Romanian economy which ensures the biggest part of the confections-textiles and clothing existing on the domestic market, and on the world market too. If our country adhered to the European Union, the enterprises in the textile industry must perform efforts to look for new sale markets of the domestic products, knowing that until present the entire system has been based on lohn. The textile industry will reach a level of 7.5 billion euros in 2010, two billion euros lower than this year; Gheorghe Caescu, general manager of Iasitex company, said here on July 10. The number of players will almost halve over the next four years, as domestic companies will reposition themselves so as not to directly compete with products coming from Asia. Wages in the industry will triple, getting to 300-400 euros per month. In Romania, companies such as Zara and others.

1.3.Textil industry in U.E.

The textile industrys activities are distributed right across Europe, but mainly concentrated in only a few EU states. Italy is the leading European producer, far ahead of Germany, the UK, France and Spain (in that order). These five countries together account for over 80 % of the Community textile and clothing industry. The industry is also characterised by regional concentrations in most of the countries of the enlarged EU. In addition, it is made up of more than 95% small and medium-sized enterprises. Although specialisation may in itself be an advantage it may too add to the vulnerability of the latter in the event of predatory pricing from outside the European Union. Exports of textiles and clothing in the year 2003 in major EU countries.

1.4.Textil industry in U.S. The geographic distribution of the textile industry in the U.S. is largely governed by its history in this country. The industry began in New England and moved to the South as cotton became the primary source of fibers. The five major states for employment in the textile industry are North Carolina, Georgia, South Carolina, Alabama, and Virginia. Though the majority of mills are located in the South, northern states such as Maine, Massachusetts, New York, New Jersey, Rhode Island, and Pennsylvania are still important to the textile industry. Many finishing and dyeing (SIC 226) operations are located in New Jersey. Narrow fabrics and manmade fiber mills (SIC 224) are more concentrated in Rhode Island and Pennsylvania. Knitting mills (SIC 225) and miscellaneous textile mills (SIC 229) are scattered through several southern and northern states.

1.5.Industry Category and Geographic Distribution 1.5.1.Cotton industry The largest producers of cotton, currently (2009), are China and India, with anual production of about 34 million bales and 24 million bales, respectively; most of this production is consumed by their respective textile industries. The largest exporters of raw cotton are the United States, with sales of $4.9 billion, and Africa, with sales of $2.1 billion. The total international trade is estimated to be $12 billion. Africa's share of the cotton trade has doubled since 1980. Neither area has a significant domestic textile industry, textile manufacturing having moved to developing nations in Eastern and South Asia such as India and China. In Africa, cotton is grown by numerous small holders. Dunavant Enterprises, based in Memphis, Tennessee, is the leading cotton broker in Africa, with hundreds of purchasing agents. It operates cotton gins in Uganda, Mozambique, and Zambia. In Zambia, it often offers loans for seed and expenses to the 180,000 small farmers who grow cotton for it, as well as advice on farming methods.Cargill also purchases cotton in Africa for export.

Leading producer countries Top ten cotton producers 2009

(480-pound bales) People's Republic of China 32.0 million bales India United States Pakistan Brazil Uzbekistan 23.5 million bales 12.4 million bales 10.8 million bales 5.5 million bales 4.4 million bales

Australia Turkey Turkmenistan Syria

1.8 million bales 1.7 million bales 1.1 million bales 1.0 million bales

Regarding Romania, processed raw material (cotton) is ensured from import: Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Egypt, Sudan, India, the latter being the main supplier. Cotton industry is present in Bucharest, over 26% of manufacturing industry in the west country, the cities of Timisoara, Arad, Oradea, Satu Mare. In the north-east of the country were imposed by higher production centers: Botosani (here is created the first combination of cotton after the war), Iasi, Gura Humorului. Centers in the central part should be mentioned: Talmaciu (near Sibiu), to attach, Odorheiul Secuiesc, Medias, Sighisoara, Saint George (integrated combined) and in the central-southern: Pitesti, Smelly (integrated in enterprises), Galati, Giurgiu, The Vedas Rosiori Buftea Ciulnita, Oltenita, Dragasani, Buzau (Open-end integrated combined).

1.5.2.Wool industry Global wool production is approximately 1.3 million tonnes per year, of which 60% goes into apparel. Australia is the leading producer of wool which is mostly from Merino sheep. New Zealand is the second-largest producer of wool, and the largest producer of crossbred wool. China is the third-largest producer of wool. Breeds such as Lincoln, Romney,Tukidale, Drysdale and Elliotdale produce coarser fibers, and wool from these sheep is usually used for making carpets. In the United States, Texas, New Mexico and Colorado have large commercial sheep flocks and their mainstay is the Rambouillet (or French Merino). Global woolclip (total amount of wool shorn) 2004/2005
1. 2.

Australia: 25% of global woolclip (475 million kg greasy, 2004/2005) China: 18%

3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

New Zealand: 11% Argentina: 3% Turkey: 2% Iran: 2% United Kingdom: 2% India: 2% Sudan: 2% South Africa: 1% United States: 0.77%

1.5.3.Silk industry












The art of producing silk cloth reached France, Spain and Italy in the 12th century. The weaving of silk was introduced to England by Flemish refugees in the 16th century and was greatly developed after 1685 when the Huguenots from France established themselves in London. The industry developed slowly because the shortage of raw silk and competition from the cloth being made in Italy, France and China. The main centres of the silk industry in England in the 16th century was London, Coventry and Norwich. The cultivation of silk is called sericulture. Over 30 countries produce silk, the major ones are China (54%) and India(14%). To produce 1 kg of silk, 104 kg of mulberry leaves must be eaten by 3000 silkworms. It takes about 5000 silkworms to make a pure silk kimono

Top Ten Cocoons (Reelable) Producers 2005 Country People's Republic of China India Uzbekistan Brazil Iran Thailand Vietnam Democratic Republic of Korea Romania Japan People's Production (Int $1000) 978,013 259,679 57,332 37,097 20,235 16,862 10,117 5,059 3,372 2,023 Footnote Production (1000 kg) Footnote C C C C C C C C C C 290,003 77,000 17,000 11,000 6,000 5,000 3,000 1,500 1,000 600 F F F F F F F F F F

No symbol = official figure, F = FAO estimate, * = Unofficial figure, C = Calculated figure; Production in Int $1000 have been calculated based on 1999-2001 international prices Source: Food And Agricultural Organization of United Nations: Economic And Social Department: The Statistical Divisio

1.5.4.Flax and hemp industry Fibre materials from flax Flax fibre is used to produce linen, a tough and durable textile and is produced from a bast fibre, within the outer layers of the stem. Longer fibres are used for spinning into yarn and making textiles. Shorter flax fibres are not long enough for the linen process and can be suitable for spinning into yarns, often mixed with cotton. Flax fibre is hollow and able to absorb up to 12% of its own weight in water, and its strength increases by 20% when wet. It also dries quickly, and is anti-static. For some applications it is a suitable substitute for man-made synthetic fibres such as heavier fibreglass. The fibres

are twice as strong as those of cotton and five times as strong as those of wool. Fibre materials from hemp Hemp fibre (Cannabis sativa L.) has been used for thousands of years, and Cromack 1998 cited its long history of production in the UK. Hemp produces 25% more long fibre than flax, and modern uses are many and varied . Hemp produces long bast fibre, medium fibre, and the short shiv fibres, or hurds, as well as other useful materials, especially the seed oil. There are very many sources of fibre from crops and alternatives to hemp and flax, depending on uses include cotton, jute, sisal, abaca, ramie, coir, kenaf, wood fibre and cereal straw. Other sources of fibre include recycled fibres (especially waste paper), synthetic fibres and animal fibres. China is by far the largest producer of flax and hemp. FAO data suggest that China produces around 51% and 33% of world flax and hemp production respectively (averages, 1998-2003), although the accuracy of some of the data may be questionable, with possible confusion between weights of strawand fibre. In the EU, France, Belgium, Netherlands and Spain are important flax producers, and France is the main growing region for hemp. 1.5.5.Jute industry The jute fiber comes from the stem and ribbon (outer skin) of the jute plant, then they will be processed. The production is concentrated in Bangladesh and some in India. Pakistan, China are jute growing country. the large buyers of local jute while Britain, Spain, Ivory

Coast, Germany and Brazil also import raw jute from Bangladesh. India is the world's largest

1.6.Exports of textiles and clothing in Europe Textiles and clothing are among the most traded goods in the global economy. After China, the EU is the world's second largest exporter of textile products with 31% including intra-EU trade. Excluding intra-EU trade, in 2009 the EU exported 30.4billion worth of textiles and clothing

products and continues to dominate global markets for upmarket and high quality textiles and clothing. Switzerland is our first export market (12.7%), Russia has become the second export market of EU textile and clothing (T&C) products with 11.9% of total exports, followed by USA (9.4%), Turkey (6.3%) and Tunisia (5%). In terms of value the EU's main suppliers in 2009 were China (41%), followed by Turkey (13.3%), India (8%), Bangladesh (7.2%) and Tunisia (3.3%). The textiles and clothing sector was severely affected by the economic crisis. Production as well as consumption levels have experienced a sharp decrease from June 2008 to June 2009. Since July 2009 a slow stabilization of these levels can be observed. For the entire year 2009 a general decrease of -11% of imports took place in comparison to the previous year. These downward trends are also reflected in EU T/C export figures, where exports in T/C products have decreased by -17% with a decline of textile exports by -18% and by -16% of clothing exports. Since January 2010 a recovery is observed. In parallel to these downward trends, export in textile products has decreased by around 20% whereas trade in clothing products has decreased by 15% in comparison to 2008 figures.

EU textile exports in 2009: 30.4billion EU textile imports in 2009: 74.9billion EU share of global textile exports in 2009: around 3.6% Biggest markets for EU textile exports in 2009: Switzerland, Russia, USA, Turkey

and Tunisia.(

Economic Trends This important industry was restructured, modernized and refurbished since 1990, to adapt quickly to the specific conditions of market economy, ranking in the national economy, a place from the following considerations: Clothing clothing industry products are present, depeste 30 years, the domestic market; industry is well represented in all counties;

concentrates a significant workforce, well trained, nprincipal women (over 250,000 employees); has the ability to support their imports and foreign crearesurse and other needs of the economy, contributing to a positive balance in the country's trade balance; Against the backdrop of the rise of international competition, the competitiveness of the garment industry in Romania has increased greatly. For the first time at the end of 1999, our country ranks first in wearing exporturilede Central and Eastern European countries, European Union, Poland managed to emulate, which in previous years, it was in the position I nierarhia providers clothing to EU countries. A notable aspect of the evidence is that apparel alexporturilor positive trend in the EU, was supported not only the system deproducia "CMT", but the trend becoming more evident in recent years, the processing system fabrics produced in the country, purchased from foreign partners (from joint ventures). Textile and apparel meet the consumption needs of the population of textiles, made a significant surplus for export products are also sold, provides more than 350,000 jobs and activities which are suitable for work and skills of women. Estimating the evolution of key indicators and actions needed Estimation of main economic indicators of industry clothing should be based on the following criteria: - development prospects of clothing production clothing by increasing indigenous raw materials (fabrics, trimmings, thread, supplies, etc..) - raising living standards; - apparel export growth and the contribution export industry in Romania; Endowment business perspective - equipment performance; - clothing industry's comparative advantages clothing in national and international context;

production to production of complex products that processing and higher degree of recovery in domestic and export in accordance with fashion trends.


The main environmental concern in the textile industry is about the amount of water discharged and the chemical load it carries. Other important issues are energy consumption, air emissions, solid wastes and odours, which can be a significant nuisance in certain treatments. Air emissions are usually collected at their point of origin. Management

It is recognised that technology improvements need to go together with environmental management and good housekeeping. Management of an installation that uses potentially polluting processes requires the implementation of many of the elements of an Environmental Management System (EMS). The implementation of a monitoring system for process input and output is a prerequisite for identifying priority areas and options for improving environmental performance. General good management practices General good management practises range from staff education and training to the definition of well-documented procedures for equipment maintenance, chemical storage, handling, dosing and dispensing. Improved knowledge of the inputs and outputs of the process is also an essential part of good management. This includes inputs of textile raw material, chemicals, heat, power and water, and outputs of product, waste water, air emissions, sludge, solid wastes and byproducts. Monitoring process inputs and outputs is the starting point for identifying options and priorities for improving environmental and economic performance. Measures for improving the quality and quantity of chemicals used include regular revision and assessment of the recipes, optimal scheduling in production, use of high quality water in wet processes, etc. Systems for automated control of process parameters (e.g. temperature, liquor level, chemicals feed) allow a tighter control of the process for improved right-first-time performance, with minimum surplus of applied chemicals and auxiliaries. Optimising water consumption in textile operations starts with controlling water consumption levels. The next step is reducing water consumption, through a number of often-complementary actions. These include improving working practices, reducing liquor ratio in batch processing, increasing washing efficiency, combining processes (e.g. scouring and desizing) and reusing/ recycling water. Most of these measures allow significant savings not only in water consumption, but also in energy consumption because energy is used to a great extent to heat up the process baths. Other techniques are specifically focused on optimising the use of energy (e.g. heat-insulation of pipes, valves, tanks and machines, segregation of hot and cold waste water streams and recovery of heat from the hot stream). Quality management of incoming fibre Information about textile raw materials is the first step to tackle pollution carried over from upstream processes. Information from the supplier should include not only the technical

characteristics of the textile substrate, but also the type and amount of preparation agents and sizing agents, residual monomers, metals, biocides (e.g. ectoparasiticides for wool) present on the fibre. Various techniques are available that can significantly reduce the environmental impact originating from upstream processes. Emission,Poluttent A large percentage of the total emission load from textile industry activities is attributable to substances that are already on the raw material before it enters the finishing process sequence. Typically these are: _ sizing agents _ preparation agents _ natural fibres impurities and associated material. Sizing agents are used to assist the weaving process. They are removed from the woven fabric before the finishing process, thus producing high levels of organic load in the water. A number of chemicals that may be used in the textile process are worth specifically mentioning for their potential negative effects on the environment. These are: -alkyl phenol ethoxylates (detergents, wetting agents, levelling agents, etc.): their metabolites (octyl- and nonyl phenols) are highly toxic to aquatic life and are reported to disturb the reproduction of aquatic species by disrupting the endocrine system (octyl and nonylphenol are on the list of Priority Substances targeted for priority action under the Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC, in particular nonylphenol is identified hasPriority Hazardous Substance) _ polybrominated diphenyl ethers and chlorinated paraffins (flame retardants), halogenated phenols and benzenes (reagents in the production of flame retardants): some members of these classes of substances (e.g. pentabromodiphenylether, C10-13 chloroparaffines) have already been identified as Priority Hazardous Substances for their toxicity, persistency and liability to bioaccumulate or they have been evaluated under the scope of Regulation (EEC) 793/93 on the evaluation and control of the risks of existing substances. For other members of these classes the debate about their potentially negative effects on the environment is still on-going _ mothproofing agents based on permethrin and cyfluthrin (carpet sector) and other biocides: these are highly toxic to aquatic life _ sequestering agents such as EDTA and DTPA and NTA: these are capable of forming very

stable complexes with metals (EDTA and DTPA are also poorly bioeliminable) _ chlorine and chlorine-releasing compounds such as sodium hypochlorite (bleaching agent) and sodium dichloroisocyanurate (wool anti-felting agent): these are capable of reacting with organic compounds to form adsorbable organic halogens (AOX) _ metal-containing compounds such as potassium dichromate _ substances with carcinogenic potential, such as a number of aromatic amines, formed by cleavage of some azo dyes, or vinylcyclohexene and 1,3-butadiene, which can be present in polymer dispersions due to an incomplete reaction during polymerisation _ carriers such as trichlorobenzene, o-phenylphenol, etc. With regard to emissions to air, volatile organic compounds are released from particular activities such as: _ printing processes, in cases when organic solvents are used (e.g. they are contained in pigment printing pastes) _ cleaning with organic solvents _ heat treatments (e.g. thermofixation, drying, curing) when the textile materials contain substances that evaporate or degrade thermally (for example, oils, plasticisers, finishing agents and residues from upstream processes). Emissions of formaldehyde and uncombusted methane can be particularly significant in poorly maintained, directly heated stenters

The environment pollution The textile industry is an industrial field having serious problems referring to the environment pollution. In the world the annual production of 2 million solid wastes, 3 million of carbon dioxide as well as 7 million cubic meters of waste waters was recorded (Protectia mediului in Romania, nd). The polluants proceeded from many sources. Thus, the cotton growing requires 25% of total amount of pesticides used in the world, these chemical substances being recognized as carcinogens (Green shoping, march 2009). The used chemical substances for dye and discolour textile materials contain chlorine, chrome and other polluants that affect the environment, being dangerous for the life of farmers, process workers,

and also of those who wear the closes (Ape uzate, nd). Moreover, during the dyeing process of materials huge amounts of water are used which remain concentrated with pollutants and, therefore, require cleaning. As, an example (National Research - Development Institute for Textile and Leather, 2006), some alkaline and coloured waters result from the fibre preparation and textile manufacturing. It is well known that in the textile industry, beside of natural fibers the synthetic fibers are commonly used; these fibers consume the potential exhausting resources of the world regarding oil and natural gas. In this respect, the ecofashion intends both the environment protection and consumers health together with the workers health by improvement of their working conditions. The ecological clothes are made from organic natural textiles, as the cotton cultivated without pesticides or the silk obtained from silk worm grown in organic medium. During a technological process the environment preservation may be accomplished by the following measures (Bunaciu & Durbac & Roman, 2008; Surfactant, nd): the ecological technologies of finishing able to reduce the values of pollution indices; modern technological solutions for waste water cleaning; diminution of water and energy consumption; reuse of cleaned water; sustainable management of wastes; elaboration and application of a advanced system of environment management by new concepts of environment protection and by obeying the stipulations of European Community Acquis for environment. Since 1990 year, a reason for the removal from activity of many companies involved in textile production (spinning mills, weaving mills, knitwear and ready-made clothes factories) was also related to nonconformity with environment requirements and, hence, to unfulfilled the conditions necessary to obtain the environment licence as a consequence of financial impossibility for refurbishment (Bunaciu & Durbac & Roman, 2008) Surfactants based chemical reagents for textile industry.

2.INDUSTRIAL PROCESS DESCRIPTION This section describes the major industrial processes in the textile industry, including the materials and equipment used and the processes employed. The section is designed for those interested in gaining a general understanding of the industry, and for those interested in the interrelationship between the industrial process and the topics described in subsequent sections of this profile -- pollutant outputs, pollution prevention opportunities, and Federal regulations.

This section describes commonly used production processes, associated raw materials, the by products produced or released, and the materials either recycled or transferred off-site. This discussion identifies where in each process wastes may be produced. This section concludes with a description of the potential fate (via air, water, and soil pathways) of processspecific waste products. The textile industry includes a number of industries or sectors differentiated by what process the raw material, namely cotton, wool, hemp, silk and synthetic fiber and vegetable. For a better understanding of processes in the textile industry, it is considered advisable to present schematically the main branches of the textile industry, with major sections corresponding to technological processes, as the basic raw material.

Cotton Sector: Spinning Weaving Finishing Garments Knitwear Wool Sector: Laundry Spinning weaving Finishing Garments Knitwear Flax and hemp Sector: Knitwear Melting Spinning

weaving Finishing Silk Sector: Spinning weaving Finishing Garments Synthetic fibre Sector: Spinning weaving Finishing Garments Knitwear

2. Technological process to obtain cotton

Figure 1. A flow diagram for various steps involved in processing textile

Principal manufacturing processes Cotton pretreatment includes various wet operations, namely: singeing desizing scouring mercerising (and caustification) bleaching.

Some of these treatments are obligatory steps only for certain make-ups (e.g. desizing is carried out only on woven fabric). Moreover some of these treatments are often combined together in one single step in order to respond to the need to reduce production time and space as much as possible respond to the need to reduce production time and space as much as possible. Nevertheless, for practical reasons they will be described as separate treatments, leaving the discussion about possible process sequences for specific make-ups to the following sections. Singeing Singeing can be carried out both on yarns and woven fabrics, but it is more common on fabrics, especially on cotton, cotton/PES and cotton /PA substrates. Protruding fibre ends at the fabric surface disturb the surface appearance and produce an effect known as "frosting" when dyed. It is therefore necessary to remove the surface fibres by passing the fabric through a gas flame. The fabric is passed over a row of gas flames and then immediately into a quench bath to extinguish the sparks and cool the fabric. Desizing Desizing is used for removing from woven fabric sizing compounds previously applied to warp and is usually the first wet finishing operation performed on woven fabric. Mercerising Mercerising is carried out in order to improve tensile strength, dimensional stability and lustre of cotton. Moreover an improvement in dye uptake is obtained (a reduction of 30 50 % of dyestuff consumption can be achieved thanks to the increased level of exhaustion). Mercerising can be carried out on yarn in hanks, woven and knitted fabric through one of the following different treatments: _ mercerising with tension _ caustification (without tension) _ ammonia mercerising. Scouring Scouring (also known as boiling-off or kier boiling) is aimed at the extraction of impurities present on the raw fibre or picked up at a later stage such as: _ pectins _ fat and waxes _ proteins _ inorganic substances, such as alkali metal salts, calcium and magnesium phosphates,

aluminium and iron oxides _ sizes (when scouring is carried out on woven fabric before desizing) _ residual sizes and sizing degradation products (when scouring is carried out on woven fabric after desizing). For yarn and knitted fabric, scouring is usually a batch process which is carried out in the same equipment that will subsequently be used for dyeing (mainly autoclaves or hank dyeing machines for yarn and overflows, jets, etc. for knitted fabric). Woven fabric is scoured in continuous mode using the pad-steam process. Bleaching After scouring, cotton becomes more hydrophilic. However, the original colour stays unchanged due to coloured matter that cannot be completely removed by washing and alkaline extraction. When the material has to be dyed in dark colours it can be directly dyed without need of bleaching. On the contrary, bleaching is an obligatory step when the fibre has to be dyed in pastel colours or when it will need to be subsequently printed. In some cases, even with dark colours a pre-bleaching step may be needed, but this is not a full bleaching treatment. Bleaching can be performed on all kinds of make-ups (yarn, woven and knitted fabric). The most frequently used for cellulosic fibres are oxidative bleaches, namely: _ hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) _ sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) _ sodium chlorite (NaClO

Processes and technological processes for obtaining the cotton yarn Process for obtaining the cotton yarn is given importance. For the fiber cotton yarn is to be transformed into a sequence of operations needed technology, after which the result was a thread with the desired properties. According to these properties that he wants the final product you have, the process is drawn, which represents all phases and operations that move raw materials to be transformed into

final.In product is prepared according to the process flow technology which is the sequence of machines that made the stages and process technology operations. For cotton, the main operations that are necessary to obtain the corresponding parameters are thread: Mixing: is the operation of mixing the fiber constituents participating in the surgery amestec.Aceasta recipe is very important, because homogeneity influences the final product, and such resistance is achieved sa.Operatia intense im mixing machinery and technology continue to flow gradually beginning , the entire "length" to. Cleaning: is surgery to remove impurities from cotton table fibroasa.In case, this operation is very important and intense because cotton is a natural fiber and in the process of harvesting it contains many impuritati.Curatirea is intense bataj at the beginning of the technological flow, and continue to comb and, if applicable, combing machine. Unraveling: is surgery in which fibers are individualized, eliminating ghemotoacele formed during harvesting and storage of cotton bales. Occurs extensively in bataj, comb, and continues until near the end process flow. Rolling: is the operation of straightening and parallelization of the fibers and thinning of plunder fibroase.Are the first place intense technological flow machines, and continues until its end. Carding: is the operation of individuation, straightening and parallelization of fibers in the plunder fibroase.Are place largely in the machine called the comb, where straightening and parallelization is done at the rate of 50-90%, and continue throughout the process flow. Torsion: is the operation that gets fibrous string twists in order to increase strength and cohesion occurs flaier fibroase.Torsionarea plunder, and finally, very hard to machine filat.Torsionarea greatly influences the quality and appearance of the final product, which is thread. Coli: is the operation of the plunder fibrous deposition in various formats, depending on utilaj.It is important, because an improper winding can lead to losses in the manufacturing process of wire.

Flow diagram technological

Flow includes all necessary equipment in the process of obtaining technological firului.Fluxul is largely related to the chosen method of spinning, yarn properties and therefore we want to get. In cotton spinning, the main tools used are: B Bataj - is more equipment that carries out the mixing and cleaning unraveling. C Card - is the machine which takes place carding operation. L mill - on the machine is made laminerea, plunder fiber straightening and parallelization. F Flaier - rolling operation takes place and twisting a fibrous insiruiiri. MP combing machine - combing operation occurs. MFI ring-spinning machine - the final product is obtained by twisting and winding

MFCL-machine open-end spinning OE (open end) has the same role as the MFI.

Description of the plant and flows of existing technology in textile industry It performs the following categories of activities: - Spinning; - Weaving; - Finish; - Garments; Production base consists of yarns, fabrics and garments. Production of yarn is designed fabrics (warp and weft) knitting and sewing thread, bobbin is submission format. The yarns can be made unique and twisted assortment are: combed yarn with the following composition 100% cotton fibers. 100% cotton spun yarns can be in the form of coils or gassed-mercerized cotton hanks and are used for fabric, knitwear and hosiery. Depending on the destination fabrics can be bleached, yarn and piece dyed, printed, complex finish. Technology and facilities used in the textile industry and serve the technological phases of work consisting of the following: -Reception and auxiliary materials and their storage in special places. To conduct constitutes a technological process the raw material bales of cotton fibers that are made in lots, and stored in special places. -Processing combed yarns in spinning department Bales of cotton fibers are processed type passing through the following operations: Fiber-cleansing by driving through the crossing bataj cars. Fiber-based mixing raw recipe for getting a certain wire gauges Combed yarns for parallelization-rolling by passing the fiber mill, reunitor and combing machines -Strands with cars getting Flayer Getting thread-on ring spinning machines and moving the wire coil, the winding machine. Spun yarns and webs can be single or double double machine.

The bales of cotton yarn manufactured as polyester spun yarn and combed yarn results that are subject to the neutralization process of mercerization and finishing the yarn shop. -Mercerization is performed by treating the yarn with sodium hydroxide solution, penetrating agent, emollient-Timerol, Natrona, Floran. Thread-neutralization is accomplished by treating mercerized yarns with sulfuric acid solutions. The wires are then treated through a process of washing, centrifugation and drying. Threads made of cotton and cotton type are supplied to third parties or used for getting inside the fabric of society. -Processing threads in weaving department. Deposited on the coil wires are processed directly or passed through the finish-bleaching, dyeing, reeling and then plotted are written, glued, pass and weaving. The fabrics are controlled on the control pad, yards and passed the raw fabric store. Processing of raw fabric-finish-in section is prepared in partizi raw material after it is passed to phase degreasing, boiling, bleaching, washing and drying. Some of the material is termofixat, realbit, dry, controlled, yards, and packed adjusted for surrender. Another part of the material is subjected to impregnation process Termosol, Termosolat, small, dry, controlled, adjusted and packed. Studio-produced clothing made of fabric articles according to the order, passing through phases of quilting material, sablonare, acquisition details, assembly details, finishing, inspection, storage in order to delivery.

Raw materials, emissions and waste Raw materials used in textile industry

To ensure the production process requires: Raw materials: cotton and cotton type spinning processed in cutting, finishing and garments, purchased and imported raw materials stored in the repository. Ancillary materials: The profile of activity, the objective necessary chemicals used in the process of weaving and textile finishing purchased from authorized suppliers in original packaging, labeled properly stored, handled and used in strict compliance with the recommendations of the safety data sheet and for which kept a strict record, according to Table:

Processing departament

Name of material Sizing substances: starch emolan tallow

Glycerine cetex inex Acetic Acid Soda ash Salt Weaving Hydrosulphite Dispersil WAS Optavon Sirix 2U Stabilizer Perhydrol NIP Grandlev Belsoft Datasoft Optical agent

Tissccil Optavon Caustic Soda Perhydrol Finishing-Bleashing Stabilizer HD Granterge NPS Grandfoam Sirix 2UD Gr Granterge Belsoft 001 Dispersion dyes Reactive dyes Teroceli Caustic Soda Soda ash

Perhydrol Salt Urea Finishing- Painting Sodium hydrosulphite Nitrite Sodium hypochlorite Dispersil WAS VAS Viaco Alginate SV Optavon Acetic Acid Hydrochloric acid Belsoft Sodium hydroxide Spinning-Mercerising Sulfuric acid Oil RAYOLAN LORAMITLT DURON 1405 TIMEROL

The amounts vary depending on the types and quantities of orders beneficiaries painted or printed fabric. Dyeing and processing solutions are aqueous solutions that are used to exhaustion, the concentration of organic substances in the treatment bath is decreasing with the passage of the fabric or yarn through from the bath. Auxiliary materials are packaged in PVC barrels, packaging board, POLSTIF tanks, polypropylene packaging, wooden pallets, cartons that are stored in special warehouses and disposed in compliance with current legislation on waste management The amounts vary depending on the types and quantities of orders beneficiaries painted or printed fabric. Dyeing and processing solutions are aqueous solutions that are used to

exhaustion, the concentration of organic substances in the treatment bath is decreasing with the passage of the fabric or yarn through from the bath. Auxiliary materials are packaged in PVC barrels, packaging board, POLSTIF tanks, polypropylene packaging, wooden pallets, cartons that are stored in special warehouses and disposed in compliance with current legislation on waste management Environmental issues The main environmental issues associated with cotton pretreatment arise from emissions to water. The characteristics of the emissions vary according to a number of factors: the make-up, the sequence adopted, the fact that some treatments are often combined in a single step, etc. The most relevant issues are highlighted below for the various operations involved in pretreatment. The textiles industry has always been regarded as a water-intensive sector. The main environmental concern is therefore about the amount of water discharged and the chemical load it carries. Other important issues are energy consumption, air emissions and solid wastes andodours, which can be a significant nuisance in certain treatments. Air emissions are usually collected at their point of origin. Because they have been controlled for quite a long time in different countries, there are good historical data on air emissions from specific processes. This is not the case with emissions to water. The various streams coming from the different processes are mixed together to produce a final effluent whose characteristics are the result of a complex combination of factors: the types of fibres involved the types of make-ups processed the techniques applied the types of chemicals and auxiliaries used in the process.


Raw cotton is a much cleaner raw fibre than wool and initial operations are mainly dry. The fibres are supplied to the spinning in compressed bales. The fibres are sorted by grade, cleaned to remove particles of dirt and blended with fibres from different bales to improve the consistency of the fibre mix. Sorting and cleaning is performed in machines known as openers.

The preparation agents (conditioning agents and spinning lubricants) applied to the fibre during the spinning process have significant environmental implications for the subsequent finishing steps of the textile chain. Since these auxiliaries, together with spin finishes added in primary spinning (in the case of man-made staple fibres), need in general to be completely removed before dyeing, they are found either in the exhaust air from the high-temperature processes or in the water from wet treatments. In the first case they give rise to air pollution, whereas in the second they contribute to the organic load of the final effluent. Spinning lubricants may be responsible for the emission not only of hard-to-biodegrade organic substances such as mineral oils, but also of hazardous compounds such as polyaromatic hydrocarbons, APEO and biocides.The resulting pollution depends on the type and amount of lubricant applied to the fibre. In this sector, wastewater, waste resulting mainly from the operations of preparation, bleaching and dyeing tasaturilor. Bleaching, waste water containing sodium hydroxide in albitorie, detergent, sodium hypochlorite, hydrogen peroxide, sodium silicate, sodium sulphate, etc.. Mercerization improves the quality of fabrics, it is made with concentrated solutions of sodium hydroxide, followed by washing and neutralization of the fabric. Wastewater from the mercerization are alkaline, and organic impurities content is low. Painting, the largest amount of wastewater is obtained from dyeing operations. These operations are varied, due to the diversity of types of ink and coating systems. Printing, we use the same classes of dyes, with the addition of starch, gum shoot, vegetable gum, carboxilmetilceluloza. Wastewater from printing of polling for the most part, from washing prints, the printing machine and the drum. When printing with the fall colors, because oxidation is performed with potassium dichromate, wastewater is high in chromium. Finishing. Final finishing operations consist of dressing, ironing and equipping of fabric properties and necontractibilitate nesifonabilitate. Wastewater discharged from these sections are very small in quantity and therefore is irrelevant.


The best way to reduce pollution is to prevent it in the first place. Some companies have creatively implemented pollution prevention techniques that improve efficiency and increase profits while at the same time minimizing environmental impacts. This can be done in many

ways such as reducing material inputs, processes to reuse by-products, improving management practices. Some smaller facilities are able to actually get below regulatory thresholds just by reducing pollutant releases through aggressive pollution prevention policies. The Pollution Prevention Act of 1990 established a national policy of managing waste through source reduction, which means preventing the generation ofwaste. The PollutionPrevention Act also established as national policy a hierarchy ofwaste management options for situations in which source reduction cannot be implemented feasibly. In the waste management hierarchy, if source reduction is not feasible the next alternative is recycling of wastes, followed by energy recovery, and waste treatment as a last alternative.

technological scheme of machinery Spinning Process Stages Spinning is the process of converting cotton fiber into a yarn. This involves various process stages. The various process stages involves Blow Room, Carding, Comber Preparatory, Combing, Fly Frame, Ring Frame and Winding. For better understanding, the process stages of a Spinning yarn manufacturing mill is given as a flow chart here. Blow Room

Blow Room involves a set of machinery which opens and cleans the raw cotton. The raw cotton will be automatically plucked by the first Blow Room machine called Bale Plucker. From there a series of machinery which opens and cleans the cotton. This removes the trash from the cotton and makes the cotton clean. At the end of Blow Room there will be a Chute Feeding system which transfers the Blow Room output material to the next process stage Carding. Carding

Carding involves a machine called CARD which also opens and cleans the trash from the cotton. Also the main function of a carding machine is to remove neps. Neps are the

entanglements of fibers which need to be removed to manufacture a good quality yarn. There are latest carding machines manufactured by companies like Rieter, Crosrol, Truetzschler, Lakshmi machine Works etc. The output material from a carding machine is in the form of a continuous thick strand called sliver. Comber Preparatory

This department involves a set of machinery with which the card sliver is converted into a wound lap form called as Comber Lap. This Comber Lap is later taken and fed into a machine called Comber. Comber Preparatory involves a set of machinery like Sliver Lap, Ribbon Lap, Super Lap, Uni Lap, Pre Comber Draw Frames etc. This process makes the sliver material more uniform since many carding slivers are combined and fibers are parallelised here. Combing or Comber

Combing is the process of removal of short fibers and neps from the laps formed by comber preparatory section. Multiple laps are fed into the Comber machine and each lap is taken into the machinery components where the removal of short fibers and neps takes place. Here only the average length of the fibers will get improved and the short fibers are removed from the laps and this waste is popularly called as Noils. Noil percentage removal directly influences the quality of the material whereas more removal of noil involves higher production and material cost and lower realization of final yarn. Usually noil % ranges from 8% to 26% Draw Frame

Draw Frame is the machine which combines many comber slivers (usually 8 numbers) and gives a single combined sliver. The combined slivers are stretched by the machine and taken out as a single sliver. Due to this process of combining and stretching, the output sliver will become more uniform and hence the quality of the final yarn will be improved. There are many Draw Frame manufacturers and the most famous companies are Rieter, LMW and Truetzschler. Fly Frame or Simplex

This machine is used to convert the Draw frame sliver into a thin material called Roving. This material contain a mild amount of twist to withstand subsequent process called Ring Frame. The Fly frame machine will also have a drafting system which stretches the Draw frame sliver and makes it thin. the subsequent component called Spindle imparts a mild twist to the output material. Finally the material is wound on a package called Bobbin. This bobbin will be taken to the subsequent process called Ring frame. Usually about 120 bobbins are simultaneously wound in a Fly frame machine. Some machines may have more winding positions also. The popular manufacturers are Rieter, LMW and Electrojet. Ring Frame

Spinning process is done by the machine called Ring frame. Ring frame converts the bobbin into a yarn. The bobbin taken from the previous process Fly frame is mounted on Ring frame either automatically or manually. The Ring frame stretches the material using a drafting system and then twist is imparted to the material coming out from the drafting system of Ring frame. Once twist is imparted, the material is converted into a yarn. The yarn is then subsequently wound on a package called Bobbin or Cop. Recent days there were more than 1000 simultaneous cops wound in a Ring frame. A Ring frame contains two sides. For example, if a Ring frame contains 1008 yarn delivery positions, then there will be 504 deliveries on both sides. The delivery cop will revolve continuously with the help of an element called Spindle which usually revolve at a speed of about 20,000 rpm. Recent days, the maximum possible speed limit is 25,000 rpm. Delivery yarns are classified as "Counts" based on the linear density (thickness) of the yarn. Auto Winder

Auto Winding is the process of converting the cop yarn from Ring frame into a larger package, especially cones by combining many Ring cop yarns together. There are many Auto Winder manufacturers like Muratec, Schlafhorst, Veejay Lakshmi and Savio. There is a special component in Auto Winder which is called as Electronic Yarn Clearer. This clearer clears the faults from yarn. Faults like Mass faults and color faults are cleared by this clearer. Popular clearer manufacturers are Premier Evolvics, Uster and Loepfe. Two For One Twister

Two for One Twister is a modern machine in textile manufacturing process which combines two untwisted doubled threads and twists them into a single thread. In this machine the doubled untwisted thread will be fed into a cylindrical pot and the thread will be taken out through the twisting spindle which gives the preset amount of twist to the double yarn and combines it into a ply yarn. The ply yarn will be taken out from the twisting element and wound on Cone or Cheese which is the final package of two for One Twister.

Raw materials Fibres Two general categories of fibres are used in the textile industry: natural and man-made. Manmade fibres encompass both purely synthetic materials of petrochemical origin, and regenerative cellulosic materials manufactured from wood fibres. A more detailed classification of fibres is: _ Natural origin fibres - Animal origin Raw wool Silk fibre Hair - Vegetable origin Raw cotton fibre Flax Jute - Mineral origin Asbestos (not used in the textile industry) _ Chemical fibres (man-made) - Natural polymer fibres Viscose, Cupro, Lyocell

Acetate Triacetate - Synthetic polymer fibres Inorganic polymer Glass for fibre glass Metal for metal fibre Organic polymer Polyester (PES) Polyamide (PA) Acrylic (PAC) Polypropylene (PP) Elastane (EL) Cotton and flax Cotton fibre consists mainly of cellulose and some other components, as shown below.

Table 2.1: Chemical composition of cotton fibre Cotton production may use chemicals such as pesticides, herbicides and defoliants and these may remain as a residue on raw cotton fibres that reach the textile mill. In fact, tests of cotton samples from around the world, performed from 1991 to 1993, reported levels of pesticides below the threshold limit values for foodstuffs [11, US EPA, 1995]. Emissions to Air Air emissions may be categorised as: Fugitive Emissions These are emissions that are not released through a vent or stack. Examples of fugitive emissions include dust from stockpiles, volatilisation of vapour from vats, open vessels, or spills and materials handling. Point Source Emissions These emissions are exhausted into a vent (excluding roof vents) or stack and emitted through a single point source into the atmosphere. Table 3 highlights common air emissions from textile and clothing processes. Table 3 - Common Air Emissions from Textile and Clothing Processes Substances

Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) Carbon Monoxide (CO) Particulate Matter (PM10) Source: Queensland Department of Environment and Heritage, 1998 Air emission control technologies, such as electrostatic precipitators, fabric filters or baghouses and wet scrubbers, are commonly installed to reduce the concentration of particulates in process off-gases before stack emission. Where such emission abatement equipment has been installed, and where emission factors from uncontrolled sources have been used in emission estimation, the collection efficiency of the abatement equipment needs to be considered. With regards to emission controls for PM10 emissions (particulate matter with an equivalent aerodynamic diameter of 10 micrometres or less ie. 10m), in the absence of measured data, or knowledge of the collection efficiency for a particular piece of equipment, an efficiency of 90% should be used in the emission factor equation to calculate actual mass emissions. This default should only be used if there is no other available control efficiency. Pollution prevention and control measures include: Air removed from the processes by the exhaust ventilation should be transported to a recovery system; Use of emissions control techniques (e.g. absorption and chemical scrubbing).

Emissions resulting from the processing of cotton

Emissions to Water Emissions of substances to water can be categorised as discharges to: Surface waters (eg. lakes, rivers, dams, and estuaries); Coastal or marine waters; and Stormwater. Because of the significant environmental hazards posed by emitting toxic substances to water, most facilities emitting NPI-listed substances to waterways are required by their relevant State or Territory environment agency to closely monitor and measure these emissions. This existing sampling data can be used to calculate annual emissions. If no wastewater monitoring data exists, emissions to process water can be calculated based on a mass balance or using emission factors.

The discharge of listed substances to a sewer or tailings dam does not require you to report to the NPI. However, leakage and other emissions (including dust) from a tailings storage facility are reportable. (See also Section Three of The NPI Guide.) Wastewater Characteristics

Emissions to Land Emissions of substances to land on-site include solid wastes, slurries, sediments, spills and leaks, storage and distribution of liquids and may contain listed substances. These emission sources can be broadly categorised as: surface impoundments of liquids and slurries; and unintentional leaks and spills.

Noise Activities performed to produce noise: - technological activities inside the hall by working through the process of weaving yarns,urzire; - circulation inside the car by running the vehicles on access roads; - collateral for the production activities by central heating utilities, compressors, pumps,fans. Waste / loss: Features From activities in the textile industry could result in food waste and industrial waste. Waste products: - recyclable waste:

1. textile waste (heads of yarns and fabrics) are plotted results from the machines,weaving and winding; 2. waste paper, cardboard from the packaging film; 3. metal waste from equipment maintenance and repairs; - Waste recoverable: 1. household waste 2. cleaning sludge from the basins of the pre-treatment station; 3. Plastic drums and containers that are purchased chemicals used in manufacturing; Sludge derived from pre-treatment station and municipal waste landfill are handed over to the city. Temporary storage of recyclable waste is as follows: - for scrap iron and steel covered concrete platforms; - textile waste, paper, polyethylene and nonspecific and are stored in warehousesimbalotate properly; - waste oils are collected into categories according to GD 1159/2003, in a specialwarehouse where they are protected from fire and contamination in metal containersbeing removed from the site Pena; - are designed to collect household waste sites in cans.

Opportunities for pollution prevention and control 4.1.Posibilitati pollution prevention 4.2.Posibilitati Pollution Control Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control is a concept supported by EU environmentpolicy, which is a set of states in which Romania is part of January 2007. Environmental management is an activity that focuses on eliminating or reducing as much as possible pollutants from the socio-economic activities, production processes,service sector. It is known that the activity (industrial, social, etc.) are usually associatedwith the generation of pollutants inevitable. Therefore, these systems must be designedand operated so as to generate a small amount of loss or pollutants. This can be achieved in two ways: 1. be applying effective technologies for pollution control; 2. be approaching modern methods to prevent pollution; 4.1.Posibilitati pollution prevention Pollution prevention is an integrated management approach available to all environmental factors, which aims: reducing or eliminating and reducing (to the power generation). Attempts to stop the pollution potential from the moment of generation. In a strictly engineering pollution prevention means: efficient use of materials and on the other hand and use those techniques that avoid the generation of pollutants as possible. Some pollution prevention goals can be mentioned: -Elimination or reduction of waste or pollutants Materials, natural resources conservation Energy-conservation and use of unconventional energy Leakage and leak-preventing accidental mediu.etc Given the new system of textile activities (threads, fabrics, finishing tex-tyloses, household textiles, industrial textiles, woven and knitted articles), these possibilities can occur to prevent

pollution in the textile industry: If the textile finishing: - Reduce waste by coloring solution: - Minimal use of application techniques (eg foam application, spraying) or reducing volume of padding devices; - Reducing energy consumption through automatic dryers: - Use of mechanical devices to remove water to reduce the water content of the future fabric; - Installation of heat recovery systems; - Installation of insulation systems; - The use of optimization methods for air emissions. In case of money: - Substitution of money / rinsing with water in excess of curing methods or techniques of "quick rinse" - Reduce water consumption and energy continuous processes by: - Installation of high efficiency washing machines; - Introducing heat recovery equipment; If the effluent treatment and disposal: - Isolation since the effluent source, depending on the type and quantity of contaminants before mixing with other waters, this ensures that a treatment facility receives only those pollutants which can cope; - Avoid placing the components in the wastewater biological treatment systems, if the components of these systems could cause failures; Opportunities for Pollution Control Pollution control is achieved through end-of-pipe "(the end of the pipe), which consists of catching or capturing efluientilor pollutants from industry or other fields and by treating their physical, chemical and biological in order to reduce toxicity or Average amount of undesirable compounds. This solution was applied first to protect the environment and time has proved that it is not very efficient.

If the textile finishing: - Without using formaldehyde cross-linking agents in the carpet and without formaldehyde cross-linking agents or a low (0.1% formaldehyde) for other activities in the textile industry. - Easy-care material handling: - Moth-proofing treatment of yarns produced by dry spinning through: - Combining subsequent acid treatment to increase the absorption of active antimolii with reuse rinse bath for the next stage of painting; - Use a separate further treatment to reduce emissions from the dyeing process. - Use a softening treatment by: - The application of wetting agents with scarf-ing or / and nspumare spray application systems, instead of applying this treatment by exhaustion dyeing machine directly dis-continuous. In case of money: - Use of closed circuit apparatus, can not be avoided when halogenated organic solvents (eg,

where abundant fabrics impregnated with preparations such as oils, which are difficult to remove with water). If the effluent treatment and disposal: -Allocating contaminated wastewater leakage most appropriate treatment; - Treating the residual leak important part nonbiodegradabil appropriate techniques before, or instead of a final biological treatment. significant environmental issues in cotton production The Deadly Chemicals in Cotton - new report exposes the human health and environmental cost of pesticide use in global cotton production.
As the fashion industry gets together to celebrate future fashion, The Deadly Chemicals in Cotton, a new report by the Environmental Justice Foundation, in collaboration with the Pesticide Action Network UK, reveals the routine use of harmful chemicals, including nerve agents and neurotoxins, on cotton crops. Vomiting, paralysis, incontinence, coma, seizures and death are some of the many side effects suffered by farmers and children in the developing world who are routinely exposed to pesticides, many of which are banned or restricted in use in the West. Cotton, the most valuable non-food agricultural product, is labelled as the world's dirtiest crop:
US$2 billions worth of chemicals are sprayed on the worlds cotton crop every year, almost half of which is considered toxic enough to be classified as hazardous by the World Health Organisation.

Cotton is responsible for the release of 16% of global insecticides more than any other single crop.

In total, almost 1kg of hazardous pesticides is applied for every hectare of global cropland under cotton.

Aldicarb, a powerful nerve agent, is one of the most toxic pesticides applied to cotton worldwide. Despite its World Health Organisation classification, extremely hazardous, US$112 millions worth is applied to cotton crops each year.

Endosulfan - attributed to serious health problems, including coma, seizures, convulsions and death remains as one of the most widely used pesticides in the world: in India, over 3,000 tonnes is applied to cotton crops annually. Endosulfan is thought to be the most important source of fatal poisoning among cotton farmers in West Africa.

Children are inherently more vulnerable to the negative impacts of exposure to pesticides. In countries such as Uzbekistan and India, children work in the cotton industry, live near cotton fields or are at high danger of pesticide exposure from reused pesticide containers and food.

Steve Trent, Director of EJF, says With no less than 99% of the worlds cotton farmers living in the developing world, the pesticides are applied in fields where illiteracy is high and safety awareness is low, putting both the environment and lives at risk. He adds The dangers faced by poor illiterate children and farmers, to keep our clothes cheap, is unacceptable. Today, only 0.15% of the worlds cotton is guaranteed to be pesticide free. This means that the majority of the cotton we wear is likely to have contributed to the poisoning of lives and the environment in some of the worlds most vulnerable communities, says Linda Craig, Director of PAN UK. If the fashion industry is truly concerned about its impact in this world, then it needs to clean up its act and demand organic cotton. Leading fashion designer Katharine Hamnett, says By insisting on organic cotton and fair pay for garment workers and by paying 1% more for a t-shirt, you can change the world and make it a better and safer place. Consumer demand for organic cotton currently stands at between US$800 million and US$1 billion, demonstrating that organic cotton offers a strong economic option; currently demand outstrips supply. EJF and PAN UK believe that the dangers associated with pesticides is too high a price to pay and calls on all buyers of cotton to Pick Your Cotton Carefully and choose organic, fairly traded cotton.

Measures that can be taken as an alternative to the current production of cotton

Organic Cotton Cotton is one of agriculture's most water-intensive and pest sensitive crops, it is estimated to consume 11% of the world's pesticides. (Kooistra, K.J., et. al. 2006). A sustainable alternative is Organic cotton having social and environmental benefits includes: Organic cotton cultivation helps in decreasing pollution. Organic cotton cultivation helps in improving soil fertility. Organic cotton farming helps in preventing water, soil and air contamination. Equivalent/ better fiber properties help in diversified products development- suitable for all products. Certification of Organic Cotton that provides a comprehensive system for ensuring that certain standards of organic production and processing is met. It authenticates the product and increases its credibility. Organic Organizations (European Union & USDA) & Certification Agencies certify the organic processing that typically, organic cotton standardization follow steps include: Settings of standards Inspection and verification against those standards Certification: recognize the producer who successfully meet the standards

Life Cycle Impact Mapping Clothing/ Textiles

Environment Agency 2003