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Electronic Communications System By Wayne Tomasi
DIGITAL T-CARRIERS AND MULTIPLEXING
Transmission of information from one or more source To one or more destination over the same transmission medium (facility).
Unsophisticated form of multiplexing that simply constitutes propagating signals from different sources of different cables that are contained within the same trench.
Considered as transmission medium.
Form of phase-division multiplexing (PDM) where to date channels (the I and Q) modulate the same carrier frequency that has been shifted 90◦ in phase.
Modulates a sine wave carrier.
I – Channel Bits
Modulates a cosine wave carrier.
Q – Channel Bits
Three most predominant methods of multiplexing signals.
Time-Division Multiplexing; Frequency-Division Multiplexing; Wavelength-Division Multiplexing
Transmissions from multiple sources occur on the same but not on the same time.
Most prevalent encoding technique used for TDM digital signals.
Prepared By : MA. ELAINE L. CORTEZ
dial pulsing. Framing Bit 19) PCM encoders & decoders with a seven-bit magnitude. Multiplexer 12) One eight-bit PCM code from each channel (16 total bits). TI or Transmission One 16) Voice band channel bandwidth. DS-O Channel 11) Simply an electronically controlled digital switch with two inputs and one outputs. Signaling Frame Extended Super Frame Format 72 Consist of 24 193 bit frames. totaling 4632 bits. ELAINE L.BOOK REVIEW IN COMMUNICATIONS Electronic Communications System By Wayne Tomasi 10) Use an 8-kHz sample rate and an eight-bit PCM code. such as on hook. and so forth. which produces a 64 kbps PCM line speed. Signaling 21) 22) Only seven-bit resolution. CORTEZ . 300 Hz to 3000 Hz 17) Special conditioned cables. Time it takes to transmit one TDM frame. of Prepared By : MA. Digital Channel Banks 20) Supervision between telephone offices. off hook. Digital Carrier System 15) Specifies a digital carrier system using PCM encoded analog signals. TI Lines 18) Used to maintain frame and sample synchronization between TDM transmitter & receiver. TDM Frame 13) Frame Time 14) A communications system that uses digital pulses rather than analog signals to encode information.
Data Service Unit / Channel Service Unit 29) Upgrade from one level in the hierarchy to the next higher level. C Bit 27) Signaling bit in frame 24. Prepared By : MA. CRC-6 ( Cyclic Redundancy Checking ) 23) Used for an error detection code. Three-Bit Code 34) First bit of the code. ELAINE L. Digital Cross Connect 31) Provides frequency shifting for the master group signals. 24) Signaling bit in frame 6. Signal Processor 32) Low quality video transmission for use between nondedicated subscribers. Multiplexers / Demultiplexers 30) Provides a convenient place to make patchable inter connects and perform routine maintenance & trouble shooting.BOOK REVIEW IN COMMUNICATIONS Electronic Communications System By Wayne Tomasi which 24 are framing bits. Picturephone 33) Identify when transitions occur in the data and whether that transition is from a 1 to a 0 or vice versa. B Bit 26) Signaling bit in frame 18. CORTEZ Address Bit 73 . D Bit 28) Digital interface that provides the physical connection to a digital carrier network. A Bit 25) Signaling bit in frame 12.
Bipolar 38) Categorize the type of transmission. Unipolar 37) Two nonzero voltages are involved ( a positive voltage for a logic 1 and an equal-magnitude negative voltage for a logic 0 or vice versa). Biphase M 45) Commonly called the Manchester Code and specified in IEEE standard 802.3 for Ethernet local area networks. Digital Line Encoding 36) Involves the transmission of only a single nonzero voltage level. DC Wandering 42) Popular type of line encoding that produces a strong timing component for clock recovery and does not cause dc wandering. Prepared By : MA. Nonreturn to Zero 40) Less than 100% of the bit time. Digital Biphase 43) Uses one cycle of a square wave at 0◦ phase to represent a logic 1 and one cycle of a square wave at 180◦ phase to represent a logic 0. ELAINE L. Return to Zero 41) Produces a condition in which a receive may lose its amplitude reference for optimum discrimination between received 1’s & o’s. CORTEZ Biphase L 74 . Duty Cycle 39) Maintained the entire bit time.BOOK REVIEW IN COMMUNICATIONS Electronic Communications System By Wayne Tomasi 35) Converting standard logic levels. Biphase 44) Used for encoding SMPTE(Society of Motion Picture and Tele vision Engineers) time-code data for recording on videotapes.
BOOK REVIEW IN COMMUNICATIONS Electronic Communications System By Wayne Tomasi 46) Forms of delay-modulated codes where a logic 1 condition produces a transition in the middle of the clock pulse. and a logic 0 produces no transition at the end of the clock intervals unless followed by another logic 0. minimizing the chance of an error occurring. Added-Digit Framing Robbed-digit framing Added-channel framing Statistical framing Unique-line code framing 54) Methods of Interleaving PCM transmissions: Bit Interleaving Word Interleaving Prepared By : MA. Regenerative Repeater 51) Different version of T carriers used in Europe. E-Lines 52) Used for frame alignment pattern and for an alarm channel. ELAINE L. Miller Codes 47) Used for the transmission of PCM-encoded timedivision multiplexed digital signals. CORTEZ 75 . T Carriers 48) Filters and shapes the incoming digital signal and raise its power level so that the regenerator circuit can make a pulse-no pulse decision. Timing Clock 50) A threshold detector that compares the sampled voltage received to a reference level and determines whether the bit is a logic 1 or a logic 0. Amplifier / Equalizer 49) Recovery circuit reproduces the cocking information from the received data and provides the proper timing information to the regenerator so that samples can be made at the optimum time. Time Slot 0 53) Digital carrier frame synchronization.
Digital Companding 58) Used to gate the PCM word onto the PCM highway when an external buffer is used to drive the line. intelligent TDM. CORTEZ . Encoding / Decoding. Time Slot Strobe Buffer 59) Data are input and output for a single channel in a short burst. Variable-Data-Rate Mode 61) Data from the PCM highway are clock into the codec on the next eight consecutive negative transitions of DCLKR. or simply stat muxs. Analog Sampling. Stacking 64) 65) AT&T’s communications network is subdivided into 2: Short Haul. Shift Register Mode 62) Multiple sources that originally occupied the same frequency spectrum are each converted to a different frequency. Frequency Division Multiplexing 63) Process is accomplished without synchronization between stations. CODEC 57) Three functions of codec. Long Haul Message Channel 76 Basic building block of the FDM Heirarchy. Prepared By : MA. Statistical Time-Division Multiplexing 56) Large-scale integration (LSI) chip designed for use in the telecommunications industry for private branch exchanges. ELAINE L.BOOK REVIEW IN COMMUNICATIONS Electronic Communications System By Wayne Tomasi 55) Used more often for the transmission of data when they are called asynchronous TDM. Burst Mode 60) Allows for a flexible data input and output clock frequency.
BOOK REVIEW IN COMMUNICATIONS Electronic Communications System By Wayne Tomasi 66) Separate signals with different wavelengths in a manner similar to the way filters separate electrical signals of different frequencies. Demultiplexers / Splitters 67) Similar to regular multiplexers and demultiplexers except they are located at intermediate points in the system. Synchronous Optical Network 72) Has a 51. STS-1 73) Second level of SONET multiplexing. WDM Couplers 70) Three basic types of WDM couplers: Diffraction Grating .84-Mbps synchronous frame structure. CORTEZ 77 . Add / Drop Multiplexers / Demultiplexers 68) Direct signals of a particular wavelength to a specific destination while not separating all the wavelengths present on the cable. ELAINE L. OC-48 Prepared By : MA. Dichroic Filter 71) Multiplexing system similar to conventional time division multiplexing. WDM Routers 69) Enable more efficient utilization of the transmission capabilities of optical fibers by permitting different wavelengths to be combined and separated. Prism .
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