1. During the 1500's Spain emerged as a great power.

Through the conquest of the Americas in the early 1500's Spain became very wealthy. Great monarchs like King Philip II also contributed to Spanish success. Philip II was very selfless and devoted his time to government issues. He also centralized royal power and became Spain's first absolute monarch. American gold and silver paved the way for the golden age of literature and art. The last half of the 1500's is referred to as Spain's siglo de oro, or "golden century". Painters like El Greco and Diego Valaquez added to Spain's grandeur by producing vibrant paintings, some of which were portraits of Spanish royalty. Spain's golden age also produced many great writers such as Miguel de Cervantes and Lope de Vega. Cervantes wrote a novel called Don Quixote that poked fun of medieval Spain. By the end of the 1500's Spain started to slowly decline due to less able rulers than Philip II, and various economic issues. 2. In 1610, France's ruler, Henry IV, fell victim to an assasin. His 9 year old son Louis XIII took power. Unable to rule at such a young age, he appointed Cardinal Armand Richelieu as chief minister. Richelieu was very faithful to his king, and helped him to centralize royal power by crushing the noble's power and defeating their private armies. He then, tied the nobles to the king by giving them high positions at the court or in the royal army. Richelieu also defeated the Huguenots, but still allowed them to practice their own religion. Through Richelieu's guidance, and Louis XIII's rule, France thrived. In 1643, King Louis XIV took power, with the help of another able minded minister named Jules Mazarin. Before his untimely death, Mazarin helped King Louis XIV centralize the royal power furthermore. King Louis XIV went on to become the most powerful ruler in all of Europe. King Louis XIV established the strongest standing army in Europe, made up of over 300,000 highly disciplined soldiers. This army helped to enforce Louis' policies at home and abroad. King Louis XIV's minster, Jean Colbert, helped to make France the wealthiest state in all of Europe. He promoted trade, mining, and enforced tariffs. The wealthy residents of France were avid patrons of the arts. In painting, music, literature, architecture, and decorative arts, French styles became the model for all of Europe. 3. France and England ruled during the 17th century in a relatively successful manner. However, there were some major differences in the government that must be observed. France thrived under the rule of absolute monarchs such as Louis XIII and Louis XIV. These rulers were very wise, and did their best to keep their people happy to avoid revolt, while still maintaining a sense of absolute power. England, on the other hand, was unluckily littered with numerous power hungry monarchs, such as King James I and Charles I. At first King James I promised to rule accordingly, but was soon giving Parliament lectures about his divine right as a ruler. When Parliament said they wanted to discuss foreign policy, James I dissolved Parliament altogether. James I's son, Charles I, inherited the throne in 1625. He behaved much like his father by flaunting his divine right as ruler. In 1628, he was forced to summon Parliament, to raise taxes. When he did this Parliament decided to agree as long as he signed the Petition to Right. This said that he could not imprison anyone without just cause, and more importantly had to consult Parliament to raise taxes. Charles I agreed, but soon after dissolved Parliament, voiding the petition. Charles I eventually called Parliament back into session again to get money to fund his wars. This time Parliament revolted. They executed all of his chief ministers, and raised an army to defeat the unruly monarch. While the forces of royal power won in France, in England revolution triumphed. Eventually the king was executed, and so began the age of the Commonwealth. The Commonwealth abolished the House of the Lords, the Church of England, and declared England a republic. Instead of improving conditions in England, Parliament was actually more restrictive than previous monarchs. They exiled Catholics, suppressed the poor, and enacted laws that made it illegal to do anything remotely fun on Sunday. The Commonwealth was not all bad though. For the first time in 350 years Jews were welcomed back into England. Also, boys as well as girls began getting an education. Women even began preaching sermons in Church for the first time, to the dismay of some men. However, the majority of people in England resented the Commonwealth, and there was a huge sigh of relief when Parliament's leader, Oliver Cromwell died. His death marked the return of absolutism. After being exiled for many years, Charles II was asked to return. Charles II ruled virtuously, and was very well liked by his people. 4. After Frederick II of Prussia used his disciplined army to conquer the mineral rich Silesia from Austria it forced all of Europe to accept Prussia as a great power. After that, Frederick boldly battled Austria for control of the German states.When Prussia emerged as a new Protestant power, it gave other nations, who already had various alliances set up, another power to contend with. 5. Peter the Great of Russia was greatly influenced by more modernized European states, and sought to apply these customs to his own nation. First off, he centralized royal power in a way that gave him complete control over all Russians, including the Russian Orthodox Church. Using autocratic methods he began his economic and social reforms. He imported western technology, improved education, set up academies, and encouraged trade by improving waterways and funding local trading companies. Peter, not only wanted to act like the other European countries; He also wanted to look

like them too. He insisted that noblemen shave their long beards, and replace their robes with fashionable Western European clothes. Peter also sought to end the seclusion of women. He held grand parties, and for the first time in Russian history upper class women were invited to dance with the men. There were a lot of people who revolted against Peter the Great's reforms. However, Peter had no mercy for any who resisted his new order. He had over 1,000 rebels tortured and executed as an example of his power. When Peter died, his successors ineffectively ruled for a short time. Nobles began to regain their power, and ignore their duties to the state. In 1762, Peter III died, and his wife, Catherine, took over the throne. She ruled with a iron fist. Much like Peter the Great, Catherine embraced Western ideas. She codified the law and centralized the power once again. She is most well known for her accomplishment of gaining a warm water port on the Black Sea. Also, to avoid war she agreed on a partition of Poland. 6. The Glorious Revolution is considered "glorious", because it required no bloodshed. Instead of fighting, King James II fled to France and allowed William and Mary to rule. The Glorious Revolution also established a constitutional monarchy of sorts, where Parliament and the monarchs could coexist harmoniously, thanks in part to the Bill of Rights. 7. a) Divine right is the belief that a king's authority comes directly from god. All the major absolute monarchs during this time period, held divine right as their reason for ruling. b) During the Age of Absolutism there was an international balance of power, so that no one nation ruled all of Europe at once. Many alliances were built. For example, The Dutch and English combined to check French ambitions of expansion. c) There was also an internal balance of power among nations, made up of social classes, and political parties. Parliament and monarchs would be a good example. They helped to check each other, so that one didn't become too powerful. d) Germany was divided up into 360 nation-states as a result of the Thrity Years' War. Each state had its own government, coinage, state church, armed forces, and foreign policy. Germany could've easily been the most powerful nation in Europe, if it were not for the division into lesser nation-states. Discuss the causes of the Industrial Revolution. What factors led to Britain taking the lead in Industrialization. There were three main factors that helped to trigger the Industrial Revolution. Oddly enough the Industrial Revolution came about from new agricultural achievements. New mechanical devices such as the seed drill were used to spread seeds in rows, rather than scattering them sporadically. These mechanical devices made it possible to farm with less workers, and still make a profit. Not soon after that, the process of enclosure became popular. Enclosure is the process in which a landowner fences off land formerly shared by farmers. As land was widened, it required even less of a workforce. Many people unfortuantly lost their jobs, but it was not a total loss. These unemployed people would eventually find jobs in the city tending the machines of the Industrial Revolution. Another factor that contributed to the Industrial Revolution was the population explosion. This population boom was due to a declining death rate and rising birth rate. With the agricultural revolution in full swing, it reduced the chance in famine and starvation. Other advances in medicine also helped to prolong the average life span. The third, and most important factor of the Industrial Revolution is known as the "Energy Revolution". For most of human history work had been accomplished through human and animal muscles, but in the 1700's scientific advances led to some key inventions such as the water mill, the wind mill, and the steam engine. The steam engine which ran on coal was the most vital power source of the early Industrial Revolution. Describe the significance of the ideas of each of the following in relation to the Industrial Revolution: Thomas Malthus, Jeremy Bentham, Karl Marx, Adam Smith , and David Riccardo. Thomas Malthus of England was a economic philosopher. He predicted that the population explosion would progress so rapidly that there would not be enough of a food supply to support it. He encouraged people to have fewer children. In the 1800's people began to accept Malthus' point of view, and slowly but surely the food supply grew rapidly enough to support the also growing population, which was a key factor in the development of the Industrial Revolution. Jeremy Bentham preached an idea called utilitarianism, which basically said that laws should provide more happiness than pain. He and his partner, John Mill, pushed for reforms during the Industrial Revolution concerning child labor to public health.

Karl Marx was the leader of the communist movement in the 1840's. He despised capitalism, which he said provided happiness for few, and misery for many. He insisted that the wealth of the people should be shared equally. He encouraged a international communist movement, where the working class of many countries would come together and fight for the cause. However, this never happened because most people felt stronger ties to their own country. In the end nationalism prevailed over communism. Adam Smith was a Europeon thinker during the Enlightenment Age that believed an unregulated exchange of goods would eventually help everyone, not just the rich. He said that a free market would produce more goods at lower prices, making goods affordable to everyone. David Riccardo was a very englightened fellow from Great Britain, who had a similar view to Thomas Malthus, on the issue of the poor having too many children. He eventually concluded that the poor were always going to be poor, and there was no getting around it. He reasoned this conclusion with the fact that when wages were higher, poor families had more children. When they had more children, it increased the work force. By increasing the work force, wages were lowered. It was a terrible cycle that he observed had been happening throughout history. List and explain three technological advances that helped industry grow. There were three main technological advances that contributed to the Industrial Age. The first was the invention of steel. Steel was lighter, harder, and more durable than iron. It could also be produced very cheaply. It rapidly became the primary material used in tools, railroads, and bridges. Another contribution was the advance in chemistry. Chemists created many new products, ranging from medicines, to perfumes, to margarine, and even to dynamite. These new products meant more industrialial growth. The final technological advance was the new power source, electricity. Electricity became the main power source during the second industrial revolution of the late 1800s. The invention of the electric light bulb meant that factories could still operate at dark hours. Dynamos, which produce large quantities of electricty, also meant that larger factories could be built. Describe how the lives of workers who lived in cities changed in the later portion of the Industrial Revolution. During the later portion of the Industrial Revolution life became very harsh for the working class. Many families were forced to live in unsanitary one room apartments, or even on the streets. High rates of crime and alcoholism soon came about. It made city life unsafe if you were poor. Eventually the working class revolted. They protested long hours, unsafe conditions, and the constant threat of being fired. They eventually made progress which led to the formation of labor unions. Pushed by unions, reformers, and voters, governments eventually passed laws regulating working conditions. Life began to improve again. Explain how the way Brazil achieved independence differed from independence movements in other Latin American countries. Unlike other countries in Latin America, Brazil gained gained independence peacefully with no war. When Portugal was invaded by Napoleon, the Portuguese royal family fled to Brazil. While there, the Portuguese king declared himself ruler, and left his son Dom Pedro to rule. Brazil remained a monarchy until 1889 when they became a republic because of social turmoil. Using Austria and Germany as examples, explain how nationlism can be both a unifying and divisive force. In Germany nationalism helped to unify the nation so that it thrived. It first came about after Napoleon conquered the German states. After his conquest, people who fought against French rule, thought it would be in their best interest to unify the individualized city states in an attempt to take back their lands from the French. Not long after, Prussia destroyed the tariff barriers of the German states, creating a physically, yet still socially split Germany. Prussian ruler, Otto von Bismarck, eventually succeeded in unifying Germany by helping them in wars against France. In Austria nationalism ironically divided the nation. After a disastrous loss against Prussia in 1866, Austria became a dual monarchy known as Austria-Hungary. Francis Joseph ruled Austria-Hungary separately. Each had its own constitution and parliament. Explain how each of the following wars helped Prussia unite Germany: War of Schleswig and Holstein, Austro-Prussian War, and the Franco-Prussian War.

The War of Schleswig and Holstein was a important componant in the unification of Germany. Prussia seized Schleswig and Holstein from Denmark after a breif war. Prussia allowed Austria to rule over Holstein, while they ruled Schleswig. This was important because a large portion of these two provinces were inhabited by Germans. The Austro-Prussian War was fought between Prussia and Austria. Prussia defeated Austria and gained the province of Holstein, and many other German states. This defeat furthered the unification of Germany. The Franco-Prussian War was initiated by Prussia. Bismarck of Prussia, used propaganda as a type of bait to luer France into war. Once the war began, Prussia, as well as many German states smashed French forces. Delighted with the success of the war, German states insisted that Willian I of Prussia to take the title as kaiser, or otherwise known as the emperor of Germany. Identify and explain two ways in which reformers worked to make the U.S. more democratic in the 1800's. In the 1800's reformers were in favor of the abolishment of slavery. As the United States grew pro and antislavery groups developed. Some reformers went to the press, to express their concern on the issue. The publication of Uncle Tom's Cabin was one of the main books that convinced Northern Americans that slavery was an evil practice. Another reformer by the name of William Lloyd Garrison pressed the issue of slavery through his newspaper, the Liberator. During the 1800's there was also a women's rights movement that fought hard to gain social and political freedoms shared by their male counterparts. They fought for equality under the law, at work, in education, and most importantly, the right to vote. List and discuss 5 economic and social reforms passed by British Parliament in the 1800s and identify which groups they helped. In the 1800s there were many social/economic reforms passed by Parliament and they helped certain groups. The Reform Bill of 1832 was one of the first reforms passed. This bill gave representation to large cities, and also gave voting rights to men who owned a certain amount of land. This bill aided the middle class by giving them more of a political influence. Some people were not satisfied with the results of this bill because it did not grant suffrage to everyone. A group known as the Chartists brought petitions, which had over one million signatures, to Parliament. Although they didn't have an immediate impact, Parliament would later accept many of the suggested reforms, like women's suffrage. In 1867 an important bill the Reform Bill of 1867 doubled the size of the electorate by allowing all working class men the right to vote. This bill benefited the middle class.After this a bill was introduced that took away the power of the Lords to veto a bill. The bill was eventually accepted by the Lords after being threatened by the king to create new lords that would approve the law. This reform was hailed as a victory for democracy. In the 1800s there was a dispute over Corn Laws, which puth high tariffs on imported grains. Parliament eventually repealed their Corn Laws and it was hailed as a victory for free trade. This was seen as a tremendous triumph for the working class. Unfortuanatly, these laws would come back into place in later years due to economic hard times. An important social reform came about during this time as well. It put an end to slavery and slave trade in the British colonies. This was a huge win for the African American society. Other reforms were aimed at criminal punishment. These reforms reduced the number of capital offenses, and improved prison conditions altogether. Capital punishments were now only reserved for murder, piracy, treason, and arson.

Compare the way imperial Britain exercised control over India and China. Great Britain first got its hands on Indian control through the means of the British East India Company that controled trade in the empire. The British took advantage of India's fragmented cultures, and little by little began to take control. They introduced many unpopular reforms, many of which went against Indian religion. These reforms eventually led to war, and then complete control over India. The British usually set up laws benifiting themselves, but were not completely cruel to the Indians. They introduced new medicine and promoted peace and justice.

British forces soon set their eyes on another land, China. China, which was very controlling when it came to trade, opposed all foreign commerce. Unfortuantly British troops came at the right time, for China was entering a decline. Unlike India, China did not go so easily. Even after Britain had seemingly taken control they still rebelled. Organizations like the Boxers and the Red Lanterns, attempted to destroy foreign settlers. They failed. Even then, China stayed at war with itself and foreign invaders for 37 years. Discuss and give examples of 3 motives of imperialists in the late 1800s. During the 1800's there were 3 main motives of the imperialists. Because of the Industrial Revolution, there was a great need for overseas expansion. They wanted direct access to natural resources such as petroleum, rubber, and steel. Another motive was known as "social Darwinism". This is the mind-set that Westerners were by nature, superior to other races. They expanded freely through conquest and destruction of other nations saying that it was nature's way of improving the human race. The final motive was that of political and military interests. When France conquered West Africa, it triggered a chain reaction by other nations such as Britain and Germany to seize lands nearby to halt French expansion. Sometimes foreign lands were conquered just for the prestige of owning a worldwide empire.