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INTRODUCTION

Stress is a measure of forces acting on a deformable body. Complex shape of a body has certain stress distribution and stress concentration. A stress concentration is a location in an object where stress is concentrated. Geometric irregularities on loaded members can dramatically change stresses in the structure. Geometric discontinuities cause an object to experience a local increase in the intensity of a stress field. The examples of shapes that cause these concentrations are cracks, sharp corners, holes and, changes in the cross-sectional area of the object. High local stresses can cause the object to fail more quickly than if it wasn't there. Engineers must design the geometry to minimize stress concentrations in some applications. One of the applications of stress concentration is used in orthopaedics which a focus point of stress on an implanted orthosis.A simple irregularity, a plate with a drilled hole, is studied within this experiment such that the effects of this feature can be analyzed and explored. For a hole, the maximum stress is always found at the closest position to the discontinuity as shown in the figure below. The nominal stress refers to the ideal stress based on the net area of the section.In this project, strain gauges are used to determine the strain and stress distribution across the plate with a hole. Then, the experiment values are compared with theoretical values.

LITERATURE REVIEW

THEORY

A stress concentration (often called stress raisers or stress risers) is a location in an object where stress is concentrated. An object is strongest when force is evenly distributed over its area, so a reduction in area, e.g. caused by a crack, results in a localized increase in stress. A material can fail, via a propagating, when a concentrated stress exceeds the material's theoretical cohesive strength. The real fracture strength of a material is always lower than the theoretical value because most materials contain small cracks or contaminants (especially foreign particles) that concentrate stress. Fatigue cracks always start at stress raisers, so removing such defects increases the fatigue strength.

Figure. Internal force lines are denser near the hole

Figure: stress distribution on flat plate with circular hole at the center under tensile.

Circular hole in an infinite plate under remote tensile

The stress distributions around a central hole can be estimated for the simple case ofan infinitely wide plate subjected to tensile loading. The overall stress distributionsin the plate are given by (Figure 1)

For

the hoop stress in eq. (3b) attains its maximum value of

This corresponds to the peak of the stress distribution circumferential stress distribution shown in Figure 2a. Hence we may say that the stress concentration factor (the ratio of the maximum local stress [component] to the far field stress [component] for this geometry is equal to 3. However, it is important to note that stress near the hole greatly exceeds the far field stress. Consequently, failure process may initiated locally at the edge of the hole under of far field stress which are themselves sufficiently small to preclude such failure from occurring remotely .

Figure 2b, which shows the radial variation of

along the ray

emphasizes that the

magnitude of the stress concentration associated with the hole decays rapidly with increasing distance from the notch. This is a clear example of St. Venants principle, which states that the perturbations in a linear elastic stress field due to the presence of an isolated geometrical discontinuity of size d are localized within a region of characteristic linear dimension 3d from the discontinuity. The stress levels outside this region are therefore close to the nominal applied stress levels (un- perturbed)

Figure 2: Distribution of hoop stress component

(a) around the circumference of circular

hole in a large body, and (b) radial distribution along the ligament where

APPARATUS Tensile test machine, data logger ,aluminium plate, cutting machine, drilling machine, sand paper,sellotape,super glue ,strain gage,wire,solder,solvent and screw driver.

Tensile test machine

data logger

aluminium plate

Sand paper

tape

super glue

Strain gage

wire

solder

Acetone

PROCEDURE Aluminium plate procedure: 1. Cut the aluminium plate dimension (70mm x150mm x 4mm) using cutter machine 2. Drill a circular hole at the center of the aluminium plate with diameter 10mm. 3. Remove the burr around the hole using file Strain gauge installation procedure: 1. Clean the aluminium plate surface from dirt, oil or grease using solvent acetone. 2. Use the sand paper 400 grit to polish the uneven surface and smooth the gaging area on the aluminium plate. 3. Use a clean rule and a fine pencil (2H or harder) or ball-point pen to draw the layout lines, usually a dash-cross, a cross skip the targeting strain gage area, for alignment. 4. Re-clean the gaging area using solvent acetone. 5. Carefully open the folder containing the gage. Use a tweezers, not bare hands, to grasp the gage. Avoid touching the grid. Place on the clean working area with the bonding side down. 6. Use sellotape to pick up the strain gage and transfer it to the gaging area of the specimen. Align the gage with the layout lines. Press one end of the tape to the specimen, and then smoothly and gently apply the whole tape and gage into position. 7. Lift one end of the tape such that the gage does not contact the gaging area and the bonding site is exposed. Apply super glue evenly and gently on the gage. 8. Apply enough adhesive to provide sufficient coverage under the gage for proper adhesion.Place the tape and the gage back to the specimen smoothly and gently. Immediately place thumb over the gage and apply firm and steady pressure on the gage for at least one minute 9. Repeat the step 6,7 and 8 for two another strain gage 10. Tape the aluminium plate under the strain gauge wire to avoid the strain gage wire contact with aluminium plate surface. 11. Cutsix lead wires to the desired lengthatleast 1 meter.Twist each bundle of conductors together. Do not damage the lead wires by over twisting or nicking them. 12. Connect all six strain gage wires with lead wire using solder. 13. Taped the wire solder area to fix the position.Make sure that no non-insulated conductors contact with the specimen. Secured the leadwires to the specimen (when possible) by a durable tape.

Figure: Specimen with strain gage Tensile machine test procedure: 1. Clamp the aluminium plate (specimen) on the tensile test machine at both sides. Make sure clamps the specimen tightly to avoid it slip during the process.

2. Taped all the leadwire on the machine body to avoid it moving during operation that will affect the operation result 3. Connect all the leadwire to strain gages data logger. Make sure all the connection is correct.

4. Set all the parameter required such as type of material, specimen dimension, force, speed and so on.

5. Start the operation 6. Stop the operation when forces reach 10 KN. 7. finish

RESULT &CALCULATION

Experimental

Strain gauges position

Points 1 2 3 Wherea = 5mm

Radius, r (mm) 5 10 15

Result tensile test using strain gauges:


TENSILE STRESS TIME 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 STRAIN (m) 1 10 13 15 22 24 33 39 50 57 73 81 96 104 117 127 133 143 149 161 167 178 186 195 199 210 217 222 230 239 245 2 9 11 12 17 21 26 31 39 46 57 65 76 83 93 99 103 110 117 123 128 136 140 146 151 158 162 169 174 181 184 3 7 8 10 15 18 23 28 35 40 52 57 68 74 83 87 92 97 102 108 112 119 123 128 132 139 142 148 154 159 163 TIME 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 TENSILE STRESS STRAIN (m) 1 250 254 263 266 271 273 277 282 286 286 297 297 299 303 307 308 313 316 320 320 325 328 332 337 341 341 347 357 350 361 2 189 193 198 202 205 207 209 212 214 217 220 222 226 228 231 232 235 235 239 242 234 245 249 252 254 257 261 262 264 266 3 168 172 175 178 182 183 186 188 191 192 196 198 201 203 207 207 210 210 214 216 219 219 223 225 226 229 230 233 234 237 TIME 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 TENSILE STRESS STRAIN (m) 1 362 366 368 372 374 382 386 389 395 399 399 412 415 422 422 427 431 435 442 446 449 463 465 472 476 484 489 493 500 508 2 268 271 272 276 279 282 285 286 290 293 295 297 301 305 308 312 316 317 322 325 328 336 339 343 347 352 354 359 364 367 3 238 240 241 246 249 251 253 254 258 261 262 265 268 271 274 278 283 284 288 292 294 302 305 309 314 319 321 326 330 333 TIME 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 TENSILE STRESS STRAIN (m) 1 512 524 524 530 536 544 546 554 559 564 576 580 584 591 594 599 606 613 617 628 636 640 643 651 654 663 668 677 683 694 2 371 377 382 386 391 395 398 403 406 411 416 422 424 431 435 437 441 445 450 456 461 465 471 474 478 484 487 492 497 506 3 337 343 346 352 356 361 362 367 370 375 380 384 388 394 397 401 404 409 413 419 423 428 432 436 439 445 448 453 460 467 TIME 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 TENSILE STRESS STRAIN (m) 1 700 707 716 734 733 742 747 759 764 769 783 792 798 807 812 819 813 805 802 802 2 510 519 524 531 535 542 546 553 558 567 572 579 584 591 596 596 591 586 584 582 3 471 479 484 491 495 501 507 512 517 526 530 538 543 549 554 553 549 546 543 540

(Mpa)
0.215712 0.2561574 0.2954959 0.346366 0.3695315 0.3929126 0.4111652 0.4291487 0.4530886 0.478077 0.5263396 0.6236681 0.7615084 0.9486645 1.166882 1.403025 1.67194 1.926713 2.181179 2.451603 2.78487 3.151077 3.520988 3.906265 4.281545 4.646209 5.014659 5.356027 5.715757 6.041447

(Mpa)
6.362906 6.66566 6.934075 7.222808 7.468294 7.710573 7.991981 8.235724 8.503033 8.737648 8.951037 9.155992 9.328287 9.534362 9.70513 9.889058 10.0579 10.22203 10.40351 10.5536 10.72563 10.89232 11.04514 11.22976 11.38712 11.57061 11.73821 11.92511 12.16191 12.38317

(Mpa)
12.64388 12.88477 13.14935 13.43529 13.68871 13.97849 14.24545 14.51517 14.81359 15.06249 15.35348 15.62105 15.8885 16.18704 16.45054 16.73683 17.01876 17.30543 17.60441 17.87638 18.17005 18.46784 18.77509 19.12022 19.40931 19.76138 20.08263 20.38947 20.73077 21.01798

(Mpa)
21.35253 21.65844 21.95861 22.28726 22.55598 22.88976 23.1631 23.45994 23.75997 24.02986 24.34661 24.61602 24.90301 25.18001 25.445 25.76175 26.02177 26.31002 26.59593 26.85886 27.16847 27.43136 27.72333 27.99432 28.27424 28.57889 28.84151 29.14074 29.41277 29.68536

(Mpa)
29.99858 30.26378 30.5631 30.86351 31.17073 31.49663 31.79917 32.11996 32.4326 32.75153 33.07105 33.3668 33.6974 34.00188 34.29832 34.62344 34.90001 35.22314 35.52276 35.8151

Stress of interest: TIME (s) 33 53 93 130 TENSILE STRESS (MPa) 5.014659 10.0579 20.08263 30.86351 At position 1 222 313 489 734 STRAIN () At position 2 169 235 354 531 At position 3 148 210 321 491

Sample of Calculation:

Stress-strain relationship

Where =Strain =Stress E= Modulus of Elasticity Aluminum Infinite Plate with Modulus of Elasticity, E= 70GPa

At = 5.015659 MPa When strain, = 222 x 10-6 =( )( )

Result of stress at points : Tensile Stress, = 5.014659(Mpa) Strain Gauge Position 1 2 3 Stress (Mpa) 15.54 11.83 10.36

Tensile Stress, = 10.0579(Mpa) Strain Gauge Position 1 2 3 Stress (Mpa) 21.91 16.45 14.7

Tensile Stress,

= 20.08263(Mpa) Stress (Mpa) 34.23 24.78 22.47

Strain Gauge Position 1 2 3

Tensile Stress, = 30.86351(Mpa) Strain Gauge Position 1 2 3 Stress (Mpa) 51.38 37.17 34.37

Stress versus Strain Gauge Position


60 51.38 50 37.17 34.23 24.78 21.91 20 15.54 tensile stress = 10.0579MPa tensile stress = 5.014659MPa

40 Stress, MPa

34.37

30

22.47
14.7 10.36

tensile stress = 20.08263MPa

16.45
11.83

10

tensile stress = 30.86351MPa

0 5 10 15 Strain Gauge Position from center of hole (mm)

Theoretical

By formula,

Sample calculation:

At

and radius

At

and radius

At

and radius

Result value of

: 5 10 30.00 10.74 10.22 20 60.00 21.48 20.45 30 90.00 32.22 30.67

points 1 ( 2 ( 3 (

) ) )

15.00 5.37 5.11

Comparison between experimental and theoretical (MPa) 1 theoretical experimental 15 15.54 30 21.91 60 34.23 90 51.38 Point 1: (MPa) 2 theoretical experimental 5.37 11.83 10.74 16.45 21.48 24.78 32.22 37.17 3 theoretical experimental 5.11 10.36 10.22 14.7 20.45 22.47 30.67 34.37

5 10 20 30

Point 2:

Point 3:

DISCUSSION

From the comparison table between theoretical and experimental result, both are showing different value of stress at point 1 ( r = a), where . According to the theory, the maximum stress will occur

= 3 . However the stresses value for experimental does not with = 5MPa having the same value of tangential

follow the theory. At point 1, only

stress while the other give lower value than the theoretical. This shows that, at point 1 with = 5MPa, the induced tangential stress, 2 and 3, the experimental values of may occur due to several causes. is three times the applied tensile stress, . For point show a higher value than theoretical. This phenomenon

One of the causes that may affect the result is clamping condition of aluminium plate. In this experiment, the clamp used was for the fabric material. Therefore, is not suitable to use for clamping aluminium because it can cause sliding between the plate and clamp due to insufficient grip force.

Besides that, the sensitivity of strain gauges are also can affect the result of experimental value for tangential stress, . The wires used for wiring the strain gauges are

not soft enough and may give influence to the value of strain gauges.

The size of strain gauges used in not suitable for the aluminium plate. It is suppose to use 2mm strain gauges to get an accurate value of strain at the points of interest. In this experiment, 5mm strain gauge was too large for the half width of plate and give result of same value of strain at point 2 and 3.

CONCLUSION

For this mini project student have gain more understanding on stress concentration on infinite plate with hole. The application of strain gauge alsowere done and the stress correspondence with this strain were calculated using stress strain relationship to find the stress concentration on infinite plate for experimental value and were compare with theoretical value. From the experimental result the highest stress were at the radius near to the hole and the stress decreases when the radius point farthest from the hole and this trend also occur for theoretical value. Although the value for theoretical and experimental were differ this are because due to the error but the characteristic or trend of stress concentration still follow the theoretical were the higher stress at the point near to the hole and we can conclude that this experiment are successful.

RECOMMENDATION 1. To minimize errors; a) Sensitive machine The machine is very sensitive, the strain gauge value are very sensitive and when we run the strain gauge and tensile machine it need to start at the same time so that the value for each device will not effect the result value such as when the tensile machine were run at curtain point but the strain gauge value not count because the opperator not start the strain device setup.This maen the result for strain gauge and tensile test were not parallel with each other. b) The position of strain gauge position on the speciment shoud be alligment properly with the hole axis. c) The operator need to carefully operated the machine to avoid error.

2. The lab apparatus for strain gauge experiment in strength lab should be improved such as the tensile machine clamp should have larger clamp area on the specimen so that student can investigate the stress concentration at specimen with large surface area.

3. Other approach on determine the stress concentration on infinite plate can also be done by simulation using FEA software such as ANSYS software or other finite element software and compare with experimental result.

REFERENCES