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Constraining photometric redshift errors

with galaxy two-point correlations

Michael Schneider
UC Davis

Collaborators: Andy Connolly, Lloyd Knox, Hu Zhan
Outline

The basic idea
Cross-correlating the photometric
sample with itself
Cross-correlating with an overlapping
spectroscopic sample (J. Newman)
Challenges and future directions
Motivation

Future dark energy surveys (DES, Pan-STARRS, LSST, EUCLID, JDEM)
plan to use photometric redshifts to measure cosmic shear and
galaxy correlations
Hard to get fair spectroscopic training samples to the depth of the
photometric sample
Conventional photo-z estimation methods may leave intolerably
large errors

Can other calibration methods reduce the size of the fair
spectroscopic training sample needed for a given photo-z
error target?
Cross correlating galaxies binned
by photometric redshift

astro-ph/0606098
Photo-z errors induce cross-correlations
n(z) A. Schulz

Scatter Catastrophic
bin

Z

overlap causes
correlation
n(z)

z
Sensitivity of galaxy power spectrum

10-1
bins (1,1)
bins (1,3), var. a13 Auto and cross angular
bins (1,3), var. a31
10-2 galaxy power spectra
10-3
for: 0 < zp < 0.5
and 1 < zp < 1.5
l2 P(l) / (2π)

10-4

-5
Points with errors:
10
fiducial values (with
10-6 photo-z errors)

10-7
50 100 200 400 800 Lines:1- σ variation
l
Model for photo-z errors
Bin galaxy number density in z and mix values between bins:
! " #
dNia 1 dN a
(z, θ) = a
N̄iα a
(z, θ)ψα (z)
dzdΩ α
N̄α dzdΩ
a
N̄iα ≡ mean number of galaxies of spectral-type a in photo-z bin
i that come from true-z bin
3

Fiducial model: 2.5 10

- Estimate photo-z of 105 simulated galaxy

spectroscopic z
2 1

colors in ugrizy filters (limited in i-band at i<25, S/ 1.5 0.1

N of 10-15) 1
0.01

- modelled after LSST 0.5
- simulation by A. Connolly 0
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
photometric z
Model for galaxy correlations

Use Limber approximation to compute linear
angular galaxy power spectrum:
Cαβ (!) = !δNα δNβ " = N̄α N̄β bα bβ Pαβ
DM
(!)

constrain linear galaxy bias jointly with photo-z error
parameters
truncate ! range to justify Gaussian and Limber
approximations
With photo-z errors:
! Cαβ (!)
Cij (!) = N̄iα N̄jβ + Cij (!)
shot

αβ
N̄α N̄β
Parameter constraint forecasts
photo-z bin 1 photo-z bin 2 photo-z bin 3
100 10-1 10-1

! / dN/dz
10-1
10-2 10-2
Filled: 10-2

full sample 10-3 10-3 10-3
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
z z z
photo-z bin 4 photo-z bin 5 photo-z bin 6
Open: 10-1 100 100
red/blue split
! / dN/dz

10-1 10-1
10-2
sample 10
-2
10
-2

-3 -3 -3
10 10 10
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
z z z

- Fractional constraints on N̄iα ≡ 1
N̄iα + 2
N̄iα
- 10% prior on the galaxy bias
Bias and “red” and “blue” population
constraints

Galaxy bias constraints Red & Blue sub-populations

photo-z bin 1 photo-z bin 2 photo-z bin 3
1.2
red 10-1 10-1 10-1
blue

! / dN/dz
1
10-2 10-2 10-2
!((bgal(z)) / bgal(z)

0.8 -3 -3 -3
10 10 10
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
0.6 z z z
photo-z bin 4 photo-z bin 5 photo-z bin 6

0.4 10-1 10-1 100
! / dN/dz
10-1
-2 -2
0.2 10 10
10-2

0 10-3 10-3 10-3
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
z z z
z
Cross correlating with an
overlapping spectroscopic sample

See J. Newman paper:
http://astron.berkeley.edu/~jnewman/xcorr/xcorr.pdf
Model for galaxy correlations
From A. Schulz Moriond talk t i o n c t i o n c t i o n
l a f un n fu n
s s - c o r re l a ti on l e ct io
r cr o r e s e
n g u la o ss- cor m e t r ic
2DA 3D c r Ph o to

At large (linear) scales assume:

In previous notation: Now observable
! bphot spec
Ciβ (!) = N̄iα spec Cαβ (!)
α

α
b α
Monte Carlo tests (J. Newman)
Assumptions:
Gaussian photo-z errors (fit for 2 parameters)
No bias evolution (so no degeneracy)
25k spec. galaxies per unit z
10 phot. galaxies per arcmin^2
clustering of photometric sample independent of z
How many spectra do we need?
J. Newman
Near-term spec. samples
J. Newman
Blue: SDSS +
AGES + VVDS +
DEEP2+1700
galaxies/unit z at
high z

Red: add
zCOSMOS +
PRIMUS + WiggleZ
+ 5000 galaxies/unit
z at high z
Test with N-body simulations (A. Schulz)

Populate 1 (Gpc/h)^3 box with galaxies using HOD
No z evolution of correlations or bias

Boxside (Gpc/h) Boxside (Gpc/h)
Complications
Galaxy bias:
redshift evolution
nonlinear bias
Magnification bias
Intrinsic l.o.s. correlations between narrow z-bins
Sample variance
Cosmology dependence
Practical method for reconstruction
Restricting the number of parameters

photo-z bin 1 photo-z bin 2 photo-z bin 3
10-1 10-1 10-1
! / dN/dz

10-2 10-2 10-2

10-3 10-3 10-3
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
z z z
photo-z bin 4 photo-z bin 5 photo-z bin 6
10-1 100 100
! / dN/dz

10-1 10-1
10-2
10-2 10-2

10-3 10-3 10-3
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
z z z
PC decomposition of error distributions
http://zuserver2.star.ucl.ac.uk/~mbanerji/DESdata/

1.0
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!!!!!!
!!
!

of variance
!
!

0.9
!

!

Sims. from M. Banerji website

Cum. prop. of variance

0.8
!

(Collister & Lahav 2004, Banerji et al. 2007)

Cum. proportion
0.7
grizY, i < 24.3 !

0.6
2.0

0.5
!

0 10 20 30 40
1.5

Mode number

Effect on DE

0.4
phot. z

1.0

constraints?
Eigenfunctions
0.2
eigenfunctions

0.0
0.5

!0.2
!0.4
0.0

0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0

spec. z 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0

z
Constraints on bias?

Add weak lensing measurements
Fit with HOD model (Blake, Collister, & Lahav)
Add 3-point correlations (McBride &
Connolly, Ashley & Brunner)
Conclusions
Amount of “leakage” of galaxies between photo-z bins due to catastrophic
errors can be constrained to ~10% of the number of galaxies in each bin if
galaxy bias is known.
Priors on the galaxy bias are necessary to constrain the photo-z error
parameters.
Separation of the galaxy sample according to spectral type may significantly
improve the photo-z error parameter constraints.
Cross-correlating with a spatially overlapping spectroscopic sample may
provide even tighter constraints on the photo-z errors.
The sizes of the required spectroscopic training samples are not yet
determined.
Might be able to jointly constrain galaxy bias.
Need to test with realistic mocks or data!
Multipole ranges in galaxy power spectra

photo-z range !min (z) !max (z)
0.0 - 0.5 7 114
0.5 - 1.0 23 458
1.0 - 1.5 45 1018
1.5 - 2.0 71 1875
2.0 - 2.5 103 3195
2.5 - 3.0 140 5186
Fiducial model for “red” and “blue”
galaxy spectral types

Total dN/dz normalized to 30
total
65 galaxies per sq. red
blue
25
arcmin.
20

dN/dzd!
Red and blue dN/dz’s are 15

ad-hoc 10

5
Use Cooray 2006 CLF
0
models for red and blue 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
z
biases