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United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UN-DESA)

in collaboration with the


Ministry of Water and Energy (MoWE), Ethiopia


Strengthening Water Sector Monitoring and Information System
in Ethiopia with GIRWI Project: Second Phase

































Consolidated report on:
Component I: Methodological Analysis of Indicators
Component III: Elaboration of a general system of water sector monitoring and Information
February 2011
Addis Ababa
Ethiopia
Prepared by:

Getachew Alem &Associates
Stiengthening Watei Sectoi Nonitoiing anu Infoimation System in Ethiopia: uIRWI Pioject Phase II

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Acknowledgment

This research report (GIRWI Phase II) is financed by UN - DESA in collaboration with the
Ministry of Water and Energy. Getachew Alem and Associates took over component I and III
of the GIRWI Second Phase Project, and it has produced and presented this consolidated
Report.

Mr. Andrew Yager, and Mr. Genene Zewge from UN-DESA Water and Energy Division were
responsible for this project, and we would like to take this opportunity to thank and
appreciate for their unreserved support and encouragement throughout the study period.
The insight, advice and technical support received from Mr. Jean M. Chn, and Dr.
Giovanni Canitano, is gratefully acknowledged. We are grateful especially to Mr. Chene for
initiating the GIRWI Second Phase Project with a lot of Administrative hurdles. We also
would like to acknowledge Dr. Aslam Chaudry from UN-DESA who developed the GIRWI
Project idea and vision in Ethiopia, and he was also a leader of the first phase GIRWI
project.

The firm would also like to extend its appreciation to the Ministry of Water and Energy, the
staffs and experts of the Ministry for sharing data and information that is used as input for
this study. We are also grateful to the National Meteorological Services Agency for providing
meteorological data for the study. We also appreciate the support received from Ato Getu
Zegeye, Senior Economist who worked as coordinator of the UN-DESA Project throughout
the study period.

This study has been conducted with assistance from other partner institutions such as the
Environmental Protection Authority (EPA), Ministry of Mines (MoM), Ministry of Agriculture
(MoA), and the Ministry of Health (MoH) and we extend our thanks and appreciation to
these institutions for their willingness for consultation, access to data and information. We
would also like to thank many other individuals and organizations that are not mentioned
here but have also provided useful information, insights and comments on the report.


Getachew Alem

Principal Consultant and Team Leader

Getachew Alem & Associates
Stiengthening Watei Sectoi Nonitoiing anu Infoimation System in Ethiopia: uIRWI Pioject Phase II

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Acronyms

AAWSSA Addis Ababa Water Supply and Sewerage Authority
AfDB African Development Bank
AWC Available Water Accounting
BCM Billion Cubic Meters
BOD Biological Oxygen Demand
BPR Business Processing Reengineering
COD Chemical Oxygen Demand
CSA Central Statistics Agency
CSD Commission for Sustainable Development
EEPCO Ethiopian Electric Power Corporation
EMA Ethiopian Mapping Agency
ENGEDA Ethiopian National Groundwater and Environmental Database
ENRAMED Ethiopian Natural Resources and Agriculture Metadata
EPA Environmental Protection Authority
ET Evapotranspiration
EU European Union
EUWI European Union Water Initiative
FAO Food and Agriculture Organization
FDRE Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia
GDP Gross Domestic Product
GIRWI Global Imitative for the Rationalization of Water Information
GIS Geographic Information System
GSE Geological Survey of Ethiopia
GW Ground Water
IT Information technology
IWRM Integrated Water Resources Management
M
3
, m
3
meter cube
MDG Millennium Development Goals
MEA Multilateral International Environmental Agreement
mg/l Mille gram per liter
MIS Management Information System
MoARD Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development
MoE Ministry of Education
MoFED Ministry of Finance and Economic Development
MoH Ministry of Health
MoM Ministry of Mines
MoWE Ministry of Water Energy
MW Mega Watt
NMSA National Meteorological Services Agency
NUWI Netherlands UNICEF Water Initiative
NWCO National WASH Coordination Office
NWRMIS National Water Resources Management Information System
O
C Degrees Centigrade
PASDEP Plan for Accelerated and Sustainable Development to End Poverty
PDI Palmer Drought Index
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PoN Percent of Normal
RB Regional Bureau
RBA River Basin Administration
RDI Reclamation Drought Index
SEEAW System of Environmental and Economic Accounting for Water
SNNPR Southern Nations Nationalities Region
SPI Standard Precipitation Index
SWSI Surface Water Supply Index
TN Total Nitrogen
TP Total Phosphorous
TSS Total suspended solids
UN United Nations
UNCED United Nations Conference on Environment
UN-DESA United Nation Department of Economic and Social Affairs
UNDP United Nations Development program
UNICEF United Nations Children Fund
USA United States of America
USD United State Dollar
WASH Water, Sanitation and Hygiene
WB World Bank
WSP Water and Sanitation Program





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Table of Contents
ACKNOWLEDGMENT ............................................................................................................................... I
ACRONYMS .................................................................................................................................................. II
LIST OF TABLES ........................................................................................................................................... VI
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ......................................................................................................................... VII
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................... 1
1.1 PREAMBLE ........................................................................................................................................... 1
1.1.1 Overview of the Water sector in Ethiopia ................................................................................ 1
1.1.2 The National Water Policy ......................................................................................................... 3
1.2 THE PROBLEM OF COORDINATION ...................................................................................................... 4
1.3 MONITORING AND INFORMATION SYSTEM INITIATIVES ....................................................................... 5
1.3.1 Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) System for Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene
(WASH) Program Initiative ....................................................................................................................... 6
1.3.2 Scoping Study for the Development of Ethiopian Water Resources Information System
(EWRIS) AfDB/ Africa Water Facility Project ..................................................................................... 7
1.3.3 Global Initiative for Rationalizing Water Information (GIRWI) System ................................ 7
1.4 WHAT DOES GOOD MONITORING AND INFORMATION SYSTEM HAVE TO OFFER TO WATER SECTOR? 9
1.5 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY ............................................................................................................... 10
1.6 METHODOLOGY FOR DEVELOPING MONITORING AND INFORMATION SYSTEM FOR WATER SECTOR 10
1.7 STRUCTURE OF THE REPORT ........................................................................................................... 12
CHAPTER TWO: WATER SECTOR DATA, INFORMATION, KNOWLEDGE AND GOVERNANCE 14
2.1 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................. 14
2.2 Water Sector Data, Information and Knowledge .................................................................. 14
2.3 WATER SECTOR GOVERNANCE ....................................................................................................... 16
2.3.1 Water Institutions and organizations ...................................................................................... 16
2.3.1.1 Ministry of Water and Energy (MoWE) ......................................................................... 17
2.3.1.2 Environmental Protection Authority (EPA) ................................................................... 17
2.3.1.3 National Meteorological Services Agency (NMSA) .................................................... 18
2.3.1.4 Ministry of Mines - Geological Survey of Ethiopia (GSE) .......................................... 18
2.3.1.5 Ethiopian Mapping Authority (EMA) .............................................................................. 18
2.3.1.6 Central Statistical Agency (CSA)................................................................................... 19
2.3.1.7 Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MoARD) ......................................... 19
2.3.1.8 Ministry of Health (MoH) ................................................................................................. 20
2.3.2 Existing data and Information Flow among Institutions and organizations ...................... 20
CHAPTER THREE: ARCHITECTURE FOR WATER SECTOR MONITORING AND INFORMATION
SYSTEM ................................................................................................................................................... 22
3.1 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................. 22
3.2 DESIGN CRITERIA ............................................................................................................................. 22
3.3 FRAMEWORK FOR MONITORING AND INFORMATION SYSTEM FOR THE WATER SECTOR ............... 22
3.3.1 Governance Framework for Monitoring Water Sector ......................................................... 23
3.3.1.1 A Centralized Institutional structure for Water Resources Information Management
23
3.3.1.2 Decentralized water resource management institutions ........................................... 24
3.3.2 The Building Blocks for Monitoring and Information System .............................................. 26
3.3.2.1 The Generic Project Planning and Management Cycle ............................................. 26
3.3.2.2 The Monitoring Cycle ...................................................................................................... 26
3.3.2.3 Monitoring as a Chain of activities in an information system .................................... 28
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3.3.2.4 The Water sector monitoring process ........................................................................... 30
3.4 WATER SECTOR INFORMATION FLOW .............................................................................................. 33
3.4.1 Hydrological data flow .............................................................................................................. 34
3.4.2 Water Supply and Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH Program) Data flow .......................... 35
3.4.3 Irrigation and Drainage ............................................................................................................. 37
3.4.4 Hydraulic Structures and Hydropower Data Flow ................................................................ 38
3.4.5 Environmental Data and Information Flow ............................................................................ 39
3.4.6 Inter-institutional Data and information Flows ....................................................................... 39
3.3.2.1 Indicator Based Monitoring ............................................................................................ 42
CHAPTER FOUR: PROPOSED WATER SECTOR MONITORING AND INFORMATION SYSTEM . 45
4.1 FIRST PHASE: CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK ..................................................................................... 45
4.1.1 Conceptual Framework for the Inter-linkages among institution ........................................ 45
4.1.2 Water Sector Knowledge Management ................................................................................. 46
4.2 SECOND PHASE: IT INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT FOR THE INFORMATION SYSTEM ............. 47
4.2.1 IT Infrastructure Development ................................................................................................. 47
4.2.2 Description of the proposed architecture ............................................................................... 47
CHAPTER FIVE: MONITORING WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT AT RIVER BASIN LEVEL
.................................................................................................................................................................. 49
5.1 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................. 49
5.2 MONITORING CLIMATE AND WATER RESOURCE FRESHWATER RESOURCE BASE ..................... 49
5.2.1 Monitoring Climate .................................................................................................................... 49
5.2.2 Monitoring Water Resources ................................................................................................... 50
5.2.2.1 Monitoring Surface Water Resources ........................................................................... 51
5.2.2.2 Monitoring Trans-boundary Rivers Monitoring Shared - Water Resources ......... 54
5.2.2.3 Monitoring Ground Water ................................................................................................... 54
5.3 MONITORING AGRICULTURAL WATER USE IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE AND LIVESTOCK
WATERING ...................................................................................................................................................... 55
5.4 MONITORING DAMS SAFETY AND HYDROPOWER ............................................................................ 56
5.5 MONITORING WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION ............................................................................... 56
5.6 MONITORING WATER QUALITY ........................................................................................................ 57
5.6.1 The Framework ......................................................................................................................... 57
5.6.1.1 Monitoring Environmental (Ambient) Water Quality ................................................... 57
5.6.1.2 Monitoring Drinking Water Quality ................................................................................ 57
5.7 ESSENTIAL WATER SECTOR DATA IN A RIVER BASIN ..................................................................... 58
CHAPTER SIX: INDICATOR BASED MONITORING AND ANALYSIS .............................................. 61
6.1 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................. 61
6.2 ANALYSIS OF SELECTED INDICATORS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN WATER SECTOR ......... 61
CHAPTER SEVEN: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS ...................................................... 80
7.1 CONCLUSION .................................................................................................................................... 80
7.2 RECOMMENDATIONS ........................................................................................................................ 82
References .................................................................................................................................................. 84
ANNEX ...................................................................................................................................................... 86
Annex A: knowledge Mapping for Water Sector
Annex B: Adaptive management framework for envirobnmental assessment
Annex C: Methodological Analysis for 26 indicators for water sector in Ethiopia
Annex D: A review of monitoring rainfall variability
Annex E: SPIfor monitoring drough in Ethiopia: A Case Study
Annex F: A simplified model for a River Basin
Annex G: Water Quality Monitoring
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List of Tables

Page
Table 1 Governance of key institutions in water sector.......24
Table 2 Irrigation monitoring framework and key monitoring indicators36
Table 3 List of indicators and institutions responsible for monitoring.....43
Table 4 Existing densities of hydrological gauge stations in River Basins ......51
Table 5 Important data sets in a River Basin....59
Table 6 Source of data for Physical Water Accounting....70
Table 7 Design specifications for hydrological networking......74


List of Figures

Figure 1 Data and information flow among various water sector institutions in Ethiopia. 20
Figure 2 The project planning and management life cycles.. 26
Figure 3 Chain of activities in an information system.. 28
Figure 4 Stakeholder mapping.. 29
Figure 5 A schematic representation of the process of indicator development for the water sector. 30
Figure 6 Data collection and information flow for hydrological data ... 34
Figure 7 Data and information flow for WASH Program in Ethiopia.... 35
Figure 8 Suggested data collection and reporting system... 37
Figure 9 Inter-institutional data and information flow for water sector in Ethiopia...40
Figure 10 Schematic presentation of the process of indicator development for water sector .. .41
Figure 11 Conceptual frameworks (model) for inter- institutions data sharing................................. .44
Figure 12 Proposed web based water sector information portal system. 47
Figure 13 Staff gauge a typical gauge station for monitoring lake level ..52
Figure 14 BOD levels in Little and Great Akaki Streams in Addis Ababa as observed in 2007/0865
Figure 15Time series data for SPI in Kombolcha ...67
Figure 16 Time series data on the contribution of hydropower in electricity generation in Ethiopia..71
Figure 17 Data and information flow.......................................................72
Figure 18 Time Series data on access to safe drinking water in Ethiopia........................73
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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Introduction

Effective sector wide monitoring and the development and use of an information system to
support the effective management and use of the water resource is a critical area of interest to
the government and development partners in Ethiopia. The government wants to make a
difference in the effective development and utilization and management of the countys water
resources. This is in full in recognition of its critical role in the countrys economic growth and
prosperity. Recently the government also understands the significance of the sensitivity of the
countrys hydrological variability to the countrys economy (GDP). Equally it is in recognition of
the resources abuse or poor water management and potential pollution threats of this precious
resource as the economy continues to grow and competition for freshwater increases by the
different users.

Therefore, our failure to monitor this crucial and important resource, water, could result in serious
consequences that cannot be measured in terms of monitory value. It is a life support resources
and when not available in the quantity and quality required, it may costs dearly many valuable
lives. The impacts of drought on the socio economy of the country are well established.
However, there are limitations in terms of having early warning system to support their
predications. Available data and information are limited. This demanded the development of an
elaborated information system. This study report presents the development of a system of water
sector monitoring and information through which data are collected, processed, report prepared
for decision making.

Water Sector Data and Information Management Framework

The framework developed for monitoring and information system for water sector started with a
simple approache and then move gradually to a full-fledged support for using modern
technologies such as computerized and web based portal system. The following are key
benchmarks for progresses towards achieving the system.

(i) Two levels of governance arrangements are proposed for water sector data and
information system:
A Centralized institutional structure for water resources information
management system
A Decentralized water resources management institutions

(ii) This study recognizes the presence of very many institutions and organizations
engaged in water sector data management as an opportunity rather than a threat.
Their independence is also equally recognized as essential, less bureaucratic and
enhances wider participation and coverage and improves sector performance.
However, this could as well be a cause for duplication of efforts and waste of money
and investment unless carefully managed. Therefore, there is a strong need for a
platform of networking of water sector institutions and organizations for data
management, standardization of procedures, quality control, etc. This will allow a well
planned quantification, analysis and reporting of the resource base on a regular basis
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by the mandated institutions and organizations. The establishment of a networking of
decentralized institutions will allow and facilitate inter-linkages for information access
and sharing. A protocol is to be prepared, agreed and signed and work towards the
implementation of the protocol,
(iii) Regular assessment of the functions of networking on data collection and exchange:
Based on the feedback from the assessment, adjustment required for the healthy
functioning of the networking will be made to improve data collection, analysis,
reporting and data and information sharing among the networking institutions through
a centralized organ, expected to be the Ministry of Water Energy. The Ministry of
Water Resource mandated by the national policy to work as a responsible ministry not
only for the development of the sector but also for the management of sector
information,
(iv) Integrated information management is a well established tool to move towards
sustainable development. Therefore, the established system underscores the
essential features of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) and
embraces fully the integrated information management system in a centralized
arrangement,
(v) Indicator based monitoring and data collection for the twenty six indicators is the initial
phase in the development of the data and information database in the proposed
information system.
(vi) The effective management of the flow of information and management information by
the networks require the equipping of network member institutions and organizations
by the state of the art Information Technology (IT) infrastructure. This entails
designing the architecture for the information system, producing design requirements
for the system. The management of water sector information by a centralized organ
with strong linkages with the network institutions and organizations is at the center of
this initiative.
Details may have to be worked out in a consultative meeting among concerned institutions as a
follow up of this study in order (i) to get more feedback on the initiative and consolidate the
model presented in this study report, (ii) it is essential to oversee the data and information
sharing among the network members and discuss and consolidate the lessons learned and more
vigorously implement and reinforce mechanism to move forward towards realizing a centralized
and effective water sector information system.

The development of sector wide monitoring and information system at the end enhances the
efficacy, efficiency, and equitable and balanced allocation and use of the water resources and
improved sector investment in cost effective budgeting and decision making by the different
users.




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Recommendations

(i) Enhanced participation among the stakeholders to establish the networking: In order to
realize the functional networking of institutions and organizations for information sharing, several
events and platforms have to be organized to discuss on existing data gaps, mandates, and
sensitization on data types, collection and construction and development of the indicators, trend
analysis as part of a capacity plan and provision and on improving coordination.

(ii) Knowledge and information management for integrated water resources management.
This is only possible through proper information and knowledge sharing among water sector
actors/players, and this process needs to be formal and practiced. It requires legislative support.
At the conclusion of this study, institutions will sign a protocol on water sector data collection and
information sharing among all stakeholder in the sector; government ministries, government
intuitions and organizations, non government organizations (NGOs), privates, etc. The MoWE
will play a leading role in facilitating and supporting this recommendation,

(iii) The Ministry of Water Energy should take the responsibility in taking appropriate steps in
(i) organizing consultative meetings to discuss on the implementation of the proposed approach,
(ii) over see the progress and make the necessary adjustments and support towards the
realization of a National Water Sector information System based on a well established
monitoring guidelines (GIRWI Phase III),

(iv) Validation of the developed 26 indicators: There is a data limitation in testing the validity
of some of the indicators. However, certain indicators such as SPI have been tested and
valuable results are obtained in the present study (see Annex D, Draught monitoring with SPI).
More validation of the developed 26 indicators needs to be conducted in the third phase.

(v) The Ministry of Water Energy needs to strengthen the capacity of Water Resources
Information Directorate to manage the massive inflow of data and information when the
networking of water sector information sharing starts and progresses. It should also be able to
analyze, produce reports and disseminate information and knowledge to the member network
institutions and organizations,
(vi) The monitoring and information system should be upgraded to a web portal system
(beyond GIRWI phase III). Establishment of a web portal system requires the development of
hardware and software, need also further capacity building project, assessment of existing
capacity of the telecommunication to run the web portal, and solicit assistance from the
Information Communication Technology Agency (ICTA) for its operability.
(vii) A sample water accounting framework at River Basin level is developed and presented
with a simplified model that indicates the different physical elements of the inland fresh water
resources system and the user system or economy (annex F, figure 1 and table 1). This study
recommends a test of the physical water accounting at river basin level and at the same time
based on this experience to develop a technical manual for future use by technicians.


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CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1 Preamble

Water is a basic element of life, key to the wellbeing of mankind, a vital input to all aspects of
production and economic activities, natures most precious resource and an essential
requirement for the functioning of our ecosystems and central to Ethiopias development
challenges.

Water has been an important factor in the development of human civilization. The earlier known
human civilizations in the world; Greece, Egypt, Babylon (the present Iraq) and China has their
establishments and settlement near big rivers where there is abundant freshwater resources.
The importance of water on agricultural production and industrial development and other life
support activities or livelihoods is quite crucial. It is an important ingredient in the food production
system, industrial products, in generating energy (hydropower), and supporting and sustaining
the ecosystem and the environment on which all life depend on. Hence it lies at the nexus of the
food security, poverty reduction, economic growth, energy production and human health. So
much so is its significance and importance in the soico-economic development.

Equally it is also a force of destruction. About two third of the disasters in the world are registered
as water and climate related; and its socio economic impact is sever. A recent flood that
devastated Pakistan and displaces over 20 million people in one season alone is a case in point
how huge the devastative force and power water has. Its long-term impacts affect the social and
economic fabrics of many communities in the world. Ethiopia is no exception. The freshwater
resource and its environment is characterized by highly varying hydrological cycle with extreme
events such as rainfall variability and drought with their consequences of water shortage, crop
failure and food shortage. Since antiquity drought has its history in the country. Recently floods
have also become a common phenomenon.

Water is needed in all aspects of life and the government and people wants to assure adequate
water availability in quantity and quality to all people. A comprehensive water resources
monitoring and information system is crucially needed to follow-up and ensure that (i) the water
resources in the country is sustainably managed and utilized, (ii) every citizen get access to safe
and adequate water to meet basic needs, (iii) monitor the hydrological variability and other critical
hydrological events in the country, (iv) monitor progress towards meeting the planned water
resources management; development, protection, maintenance and use.

The Government of Ethiopia has recognized the significance and importance of the countrys
water resources potential, and it is now in the process of developing information system for
monitoring its water resources for sustainable development, management and utilization. The
Global Initiative for Rationalizing Water Information (GIRWI) System (PROJECT: INT/05/X70) is
part of these projects undertaken by the government in collaboration with the United Nations,
Water, Natural Resources and SID Branch of the United Nations Department of Economic and
Social Affairs (UN-DESA).

1.1.1 Overview of the Water sector in Ethiopia

Ethiopia has abundant water resources estimated at about 122 BMC (World Bank, 2006), and a
groundwater potential of about 2.69 BMC. Four major river basins (i) Abay River Bains, (ii) Baro
Akobo River Basin, (iii) Omo-Gibe River Basin, and (iv) Genale Dawa River Basin contribute over
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80-90% of the total water resources potential from 40% of the country. This huge water resource
provides the country the potential to develop between 3.5 and 4 million hectares of land under
irrigated agriculture and it can support energy production of about 30,000 megawatts (MW) from
hydropower development. The per capita water resource potential for 2010 is estimated at about
1500 m
3
, and the trend of this indicator is on sharp decline due to population growth which
continually shrinks this potential. This estimate is nearly close to the threshold level for water
scarcity, 1400 m
3
per capita. However, because of the uneven distribution of the water resources
in the country and increasing seasonal variability, Ethiopia is predicted to fall into a water scarce
country in the 21
st
century. Many parts of the country still suffer the worst water shortage.

The existing freshwater abstraction level by the different sector is unknown since there is no any
attempt to conduct physical water accounting in the sector. However, data made available from a
web site on (http://earthtrends.wri.org/) showed 86% of the abstracted water in 1987 has been
used for agriculture, 3% by Industry and 11% for water supply. Following the 1999 national water
policy, this trend in the share of water use by different sectors is expected to change with
increased water supply for domestic and industry.

The eminent climate change and recurrent drought is likely to increase the problem of water
shortage in the country. Already the rainfall variability is quite high in many parts of the country,
and as a result the hydrology is also highly variable, both spatial and temporal variability. Over
60% of the geographic area is arid and semi arid. The seasonality of the hydrological variability
and the lack of adequate investment on hydraulic [structure] infrastructure; Dams, reservoirs,
ponds, diversion structures, etc., have limited the exploitation of the water resources potential in
the country in hydropower production and irrigation development to stabilize production and
reduce the impacts of drought. Only less than 10% of the hydropower potential is developed so
far. Irrigation development is equally low estimated at about 5% of the total potential in the
country. Hydropower production from the limited infrastructure; dams and reservoirs is fluctuating
with the seasonality of the hydrology of the rivers affecting the sustainable production of
electricity quite significantly forcing power companies in certain years to ration electricity.

In a recent collaborative study between the Ethiopian Government and World Bank on
hydrological variability (WB, 2006), it is found that a strong relationship exists between the
seasonal hydrological variability and the National GDP (the National Economy). The report
indicates grossly the strong correlation between the National GDP and the hydrologic [rainfall]
variability. This relationship is natural and obvious in a rain-dependent agriculture based
economy. This information was presented to policy makers who make important decision on the
sector by a most trusted and reliable partner institution, the World Bank. And now it is very well
understood that the existing Ethiopian economy is highly dependent on the seasonality and
hydrological variability of the rainfall. Several recommendation were made and important to this
study are the need for an effective monitoring of the hydrological variability and an increase in
investment on hydraulic infrastructures such as dams, reservoirs, ponds and other in-situ water
harvesting schemes to smoothen the highly significant hydrological variability. These are
important for hydropower generation, stable crop production and for the control of flood and
drought in the country.

Because water is critical and intimately related to the day to day socio economic activities, there
is increasing consensus in giving the sector the highest priority in the development agenda and
national plan to move from individual sectoral development and water resources management
approach to an integrated and holistic approach of water resources management (IWRM) at river
basin level. The IWRM concept is based on the idea that water is an integral part of the
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ecosystem, a natural resource and a social and economic good whose availability in sufficient
quantity and quality determines the nature of its utilization (UN Statistical Division,?).

Recognizing the need for international support, the UN led International Conventions (Rio World
Summit in 1992, Agenda 21 of the UN convention in 2000 and Johannesburg Summit in 2002)
stressed the need, role and significance of water resources management and suggest indicator
based monitoring of the resource and made recommendations that each country develop core
indicators of sustainable development that can be used to monitor the management of water
resources and its environment and provide a solid basis for decision making on the sector at all
levels. Indicators can help countries understand the state of condition of the environment
including water resources. The UN Commission for Sustainable Development (CSD) has been
supporting the development of indicators of sustainable development at national level by
standardizing their definition, elucidating their methodologies and providing training, and other
capacity building support for governments in many parts of the world. In response to this UN
convention, Ethiopia has now developed and endorsed 76 indicators on the whole water sector
and 26 indicators are prioritized and promoted for methodological analysis and development
(FDRE, 2008).

1.1.2 The National Water Policy

Water Sector Information management is one the key functions identified in the National Water
Resources Management Policy in Ethiopia. Since the implementation of the National Water
Resource Management Policy, water resources Management have shown significant changes.
The National Water Policy, adopted in 1999, provided overall policy framework for the water
sector management in the country including the water sector information system development. It
is the basis for the development, conservation, protection and management of water resources in
the country. The National Water Policy promotes and advances the principle of integrated water
resources management (IWRM) as a basis and means to ensure the efficient utilization of water
resources and its sustainable management.

The Water Resources Management Policy (FDRE, 1999) in section 2, Article 2.1 of the National
Water Sector Policy (pp 3), outlines the following general policies relevant to this study.

(i) Drinking water is a priority
(ii) Enhance the integrated and comprehensive management of water resources that avoids
fragmented approach,
(iii) Recognize that water resources development, utilization, protection and conservation go
hand in hand and ensure water supply and sanitation, irrigation and drainage, as well as
hydraulic structures, watershed management and related activities are integrated and
addressed in unison,
(iv) Recognize fresh water resources as finite, scarce and vital socio economic resources, it
should be managed based on strategic planning with properly set long term visions and
sustainable objectives,
(v) Ensure the integration of water resources development and utilization with the overall
countys socio economic development at all levels,
(vi) Ensure water resources management is integrated with other natural resources
management efforts in a river basin development plan,
(vii) The policy recognizes and adopts River Basin as a fundamental planning unit for water
resources management.

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The above policy statements are consistent with UN program areas (UNCED, Agenda 21, and
Chapter 18), Box 1 below.

BOX 1: UN Guiding Principles on Water Resources Management
3 Water Resources Assessment
3 Freshwater is a finite and vulnerable resource
3 Integrated water resources development and management
9 Protection of water resources, water quality and aquatic ecosystems,
9 Drinking water supply and sanitation as a priority,
9 Water for sustainable food production and rural development,
9 Impacts of climate change on water resources
Source: UNCED, 1992. Earths Summit in Rio on Freshwater Resources Management

In the National Water Policy (1999), two policy statements are clearly stipulated on water
resources information as cross cutting policy issues (section 2, article 2.2.4):

(i) Management of Water Resources information: The policy states manage and
administer water resources information on the basis of project and sector information,
management information systems, technical information and public information systems,
(ii) Development of Information System: The policy states (a) develop a coherent,
efficient and streamlined process of information management in the water sector
consisting of defining and incorporating data collection, processing, analysis and
dissemination and sources of information; (b) Recognize the essential links required and
the establishment of a smoothly functioning Ethiopian Water Resources Information
System (EWRIS).

1.2 The problem of coordination

Coordination and information sharing has remained a serious challenge in the water sector, and
it has become an expensive venture to the sector. Networking for information sharing has been
tried but it has not been successful as expected. The case in point in the water sector is the
agreement signed by several partner institutions to use ENRAMED, a metadata information
database. The member institutions of the network have agreed to contribute to the data base and
also share information. However the network failed to participate in the network and sharing
information and members were unable to run the web based database system.

Different activities are run parallel by different partner institutions outside of the Ministry. There
are also cases of duplication of efforts observed and reported with in the Ministry (FDRE, 2008).

With the quarterly sector progress review meetings being conducted on a regular basis by the
Ministry of Water and Energy and Regional Water Bureaus attending these meetings, there
should have been very little problem of coordination and duplication of efforts. However, there
existed problems of coordination and duplication of effort among the different
departments/directorates. Please refer the GIRWI Phase I: Diagnostic Study Report. This
problem is expected to be among other partner institutions outside of the Ministry. One important
reason is there are limited platforms to review projects and programs annually by all partners for
the whole sector and share data and information, and discuss standardized practices, etc. MSF
for WASH is an example for a suitable forum to improve coordination and alignment of sector
programs. WASH Program recently started annual sometimes once in two years [MSF]
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conference to discuss issues on WASH program country wide. NGOs within CRDA haves also
established a WSF (water and sanitation form) to do the same. However, with such a forum there
is still a gap but through time and continued prevalence of such forums, it is expected that
coordination of programs and resources will be improved and duplication of efforts for instance
who is doing what and where, etc. can be sorted out.

There is a large pool of data and information on water among many of the partner institutions in
the sector. This data and information is not being shared as partners and users would like it and
among many of the institutions and organizations working in the sector. Most data and
information is housed by individual institutions and organizations. There is no central organ
responsible for data management for the whole sector so that users can resort to for access to
specific data and related data and information in the sector.

One of the key challenges to improve this situation is the creation of a strong networking / inter-
linkages among institutions and organizations working in the water sector in the country a
strategic approach for establishing the essential networking (as a first step) to create the
connectivity and necessary capacity development among these institutions.

1.3 Monitoring and information system Initiatives

There has been a long time interest among many organizations and institutions including the
Government, World Bank and Multilateral and Bilateral Organizations. More than ever, to date,
there is increasing pressure to monitor the implementation of Government and Non government
projects, in one side the need to monitor progresses towards sustainable development, MDG
targets, etc and on the other side to establish a real time and user friendly information system for
decision makers to determine the status of a sector, program and projects. These tensions have
been expressed by the significant number of initiatives for monitoring water sector programs
such as water supply and sanitation, irrigation, water resources (surface and ground water
assessment).

Records show that there were initiatives on monitoring and information system development for
water sector in Ethiopia. Among these include the following:

(i) Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) Program monitoring and evaluation
Initiative This is a Government initiative supported by World Bank (WS ), Multilateral
and Bilateral Organizations, which targets specifically water supply and sanitation
(WASH) subsector,
(ii) African Development Bank (AfDB) Project supported through African Water facility Fund,
which targets specific gaps in the water sector such as Hydrology, water supply, etc., and
(iii) The Global Initiative for Rationalizing Water Information (GIRWI) for monitoring the whole
water sector, an initiative supported by United Nations Department for Economic and
Social Affairs (UN-DESA),
(iv) Agricultural Water Monitoring Project technically and financially supported by FAO. This
project joined the UN-DESA initiative after UN-DESA started GIRWI project which
included Agricultural water monitoring. Through negotiations, UNDESA relinquish its
interest to study agricultural water monitoring to FAO supported initiative.

All these initiatives focused on developing monitoring and information system for the respective
sub sectoral interests, except UN-DESA which was initiated with the aim and objective of
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developing a monitoring and information systems for the whole sector. These initiatives have all
been part of the effort to develop a system for monitoring water sector in Ethiopia.

1.3.1 Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) System for Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene
(WASH) Program Initiative

Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) Program monitoring Initiative has been an
initiative by the Ethiopian Government with the support of World Bank (WSP), multilateral and
bilateral organizations to develop an effective monitoring and evaluation system for the WASH
program. It is financed by World Bank and other multilateral and Bilateral Organizations such as
UNICEF, UNDP, EU, Italy, Finland and Netherlands government. The initiative started with
consultative process first among donors to mobilize resources and engage the government and
non government organizations engaged in the WASH program. The initiative through rigorous
consultation identified priority agendas and monitoring and evaluation was the top priority as
expressed in the second Multi Stakeholder Forum Conference held in Adama, in December
2007. Since then monitoring and evaluation received significant attention, M&E manuals and
guidelines were produced and efforts have been made to harmonize and integrate resources,
capacities and implementation of the program through bringing the three Ministries; Ministry of
Water Energy, Ministry of Health and Ministry of Education to work together for a common
objective.

The conceptual framework for the WASH monitoring is founded in four important pillars.

(i) Financial reporting
(ii) Household survey on sanitation and hygiene
(iii) School census for WASH
(iv) Management information for Water Supply Schemes

Presently a national inventory of protected public and private water supply schemes is underway
to establish baseline information of WASH facilities throughout the country. A national
Management Information System (MIS) for the WASH program is under development. The
monitoring and information system is based on 15 key WASH performance indicators and the
reporting is a community based with a summarized data made by kebele administration and
supported by technical staff at woreda level. For rural towns a utility report will be compiled by
utility staff using a basic set of indicators. These data and information for both rural areas and
rural towns are prepared and compiled as WASH assessment at woreda and regional level with
data from education and health management information systems incorporated.

The first pilot inventory of WASH facilities at wereda level was implemented in eight selected
weredas under the Netherland and UNICEF Wereda Initiative (NUWI) Projects to gain
experience and knowledge on data collection, analysis and reporting. From this project useful
experiences are gained and a woreda based MIS with GIS Platform is also developed to support
the Monitoring and Evaluation of WASH program in the country. Based on this experience, a
national roll out of the inventory is now under preparation and work has already started in
selected regions; Afar, Harari, Somalia regions and Dire Dawa Administrative council.



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1.3.2 Scoping Study for the Development of Ethiopian Water Resources Information
System (EWRIS) AfDB/ Africa Water Facility Project

There are two objectives for this initiative; (i) to develop the basic architecture and generic
structure of the information system for water sector in Ethiopia, and (ii) to develop an action plan
with clear recommendations, implementation arrangements and schedules. The study was
conducted in 2008/2009.

According to the report, the study review existing situation in the water sector information
management and initiatives, identify gaps, undertake need assessment, and identify water
resources institutions with their existing roles and responsibilities, information on stakeholders,
define institutional arrangements, ICT requirements for operating the information system, and
finally develop action plans.

The study presented a system architecture largely based on IT platform for the proposed
information system. The limitation with the initiative is that the system development and the
action plan to implement the proposed monitoring and information system is planned in one go.
This situation does not offer time for testing, and based on the feedbacks improve the proposed
framework for the information system. It recommends a state of the art IT infrastructure. The
report does not allow time to see how the proposed system of information works - to understand
more on how efficient, effective and user friendly the system is.

Therefore the initiative does not have time to report on (i) how the institutions are integrated and
work in unison in the system, and how the inter linkages for information exchange is operating,
(ii) the study focused and give more importance to specific sub sectors such as such as water
supply and sanitation and hydrological data management, (iii) the study did not give time for
assessment of the inter-institutional data and information flow (source, type of data, access,
etc.); and exchange experiences before the inter-linkages are supported with IT platform or
infrastructure.

1.3.3 Global Initiative for Rationalizing Water Information (GIRWI) System

This project is initiated by United Nations and executed by the Water, Natural Resources and
SIDS Branch of the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UN-DESA). The
initiative has been financed by the Italian Government and it has been implemented in
collaboration with the Ethiopian Government through the Ministry of Water Energy. This report is
an one of the several output of this initiative.

The initiative has two major objectives.

(i) To develop a robust water information methodology that will assist Ethiopia in preparing, at
regular interval, accurate reporting of the whole water sector for informed decision making,
(ii) To carry out a survey with regard to the implementation of policy decisions.

The initiative is intended to develop and adopt improved methodological framework for
measuring/monitoring the progress of the countrys water sector towards a sustainable
development and management. In so doing enrich the countrys baseline information against
which future progress water sector needs to be monitored.

The components, activities and outputs of this initiative include the following:
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Component I: Methodological Framework development for whole water sector monitoring

Activities to be implemented under this component are grouped under three phase namely:
(i) Diagnostic phase,
(ii) Development phase of which this report is part of, and
(iii) Capacity building, preparation of guideline manuals, validation of indicators,etc. phase.
Output 1.1: A report on the diagnostic analysis of existing water sector information systems in
selected countries including Ethiopia, including assessment of their strengths and weaknesses,

Output 1.2: A methodological Framework for collection, monitoring and management of water
related information for improved decision making,

Output 1.3: An operational Manual indicating institutional, technical, financial and other and other
relevant capacity building changes required to upgrade the existing water information system,

Component II: Scaling up the adaptation of framework for water Sector Monitoring
Component III Reviewing Progress on implementation CSD-13 Decisions

The diagnostic phase has been conducted and the report covered (i) assessing all initiatives in
water sector monitoring and information, (ii) assess existing water sector information systems,
(iii) identify weaknesses and gaps of the existing water sector information systems, and (iv)
developed seventy six and of this promoted twenty six suitable monitoring indicators for the
whole water sector.

At the end of the project, the GIRWI Project on monitoring water sector at country level will
provide a conceptual framework for organizing the hydrological and socio economic information
in an organized manner and system so that the required information on the water sector is made
readily available in a coherent and consistent fashion for policy makers, planners and decision
makers.

A clear consensus reached during a workshop organized for presenting the diagnostic study in
2008 to give more emphasis on developing a comprehensive methodology to provide relevant,
effective and consolidated information system for monitoring the different water sector
components that include (i) monitoring water resources and its environment, which contains
climate, hydrology (surface and ground water, drought and flood), and wetlands, (ii) monitoring
irrigation and drainage, (iii) Monitoring water supply and sanitation, (iv) monitoring hydropower
system, and (v) monitoring socio economic impacts of water resources management decisions.
The development of such system needs to lay down a platform that can provide a coordinated
effort by all stakeholders.

The information system under development for monitoring the whole water sector in Ethiopia is a
collaborative effort of all institutions and organizations engaged in the sector development and
management to acquire and use the information needed to understand and follow up and to
determine how development efforts influence the state of the water resources system and its
environment in Ethiopia. The Methodological framework developed in this study sets out how
prioritized indicators (twenty six core and priority indictors) could be used as a tool to monitor the
state of the water sector and its environment in the country. Details on developing the indicators
are given in the first and diagnostic report of this project.

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Limitations to the initiative are long delays in the implementation of the project and the
subsequent changes in the modality under which it is implemented that may have a bearing on
the quality of the output of the study. As time pass by, institutional structures change, continuity
is lost, and the implementation of the remaining phases could be at stake

1.4 What does good monitoring and information system have to offer to water sector?

Water as resource plays a pivotal role in sustaining economic growth and development including
poverty reduction through food security and energy supply from hydropower. Over the last ten
years, Ethiopia has reported a sustained economic growth, and recently reported a double digit
economic growth. Undoubtedly such changes have been achieved, among other factors, from
increased use of the countrys water resources for the production of energy (hydropower), food
and industrial crops, and increased access to safe drinking water supply. Water resources
management has been the corner stone and at the center of the economic growths observed.
One of the indicators for this economic growth is the increased investments and power
production, irrigation expansion particularly small - holders and small - scale irrigated agriculture.
For instance the energy growth in Ethiopia shows an increase from 420 MW of energy in 2000 to
over 2000 MW of hydropower energy as the Hydropower projects in Gilgel Gibe II and Tana
Beles Projects are completed and become fully operational in 2010. The increased energy is the
power that propels the economic growth in the country. This growth in hydropower energy
production is a good indicator for industrial and agricultural growth in the country. The growth in
energy and the production of food, industrial and commercial crops using irrigation implies that
the overall economic growth strongly depends on the countrys water resources and the ecology
that supports it.

Aggressive economic growth and development activities contribute to increased pressure on
water ecosystems and other natural resources that support the freshwater resources base.
Population growth and the corresponding growth in the demand for freshwater resources
increase among the competing sectoral uses. As a result land and water resources degradation
in Ethiopia is sever. With the continuing growth in the economy, the country is expected to
experience water shortages, degradation of water quality and aquatic ecosystems such as
wetlands.

Therefore it is imperative to recognize and work diligently on protecting, developing, managing
and sustaining the countrys water resources and its environment for the sustained production
and use of hydropower energy and on the continued economic growth and balancing the use of
water among the different water uses. This can be done if the water resource and its
environments are well accounted, developed, protected and conserved. The life and
sustainability of the energy source entirely depends on the sustainable management of water
resources and its environment. Hence there is a priority need for such vital resource to the
economy of the country which requires a structured approach to the monitoring, protection and
development of the water resources and its environment.

Effective and efficient monitoring and assessment information is needed to answer the
fundamental questions raised and discussed above which include (i) accounting water resources
of the river basin and the country at large, (ii) the level of utilization, (iii) monitoring quality and
condition of the water resources, and (iv) develop strategies needed to deal with both existing
and emerging development and management problems. Contribution of the monitoring and
information system to water sector management and its sustainable use is enormous.

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The value of Monitoring and information does not come from conducting monitoring and
collecting enormous data or from having such information available per se; rather, the value
comes from using information to help improve government policies and subsequently the
performance of each programs in the sector. As explained above monitoring the water sector
provides unique information on the performance of policies of the government, programs and
projects. Monitoring and information is a useful tool and instrument to the government and all
development partners in terms of understanding the decisions they are making. The important
uses of monitoring are the following:

(i) To understand the environmental trends and the sustainability of the water resources,
(ii) To help government ministry in the policy development and manage development activities,
(iii) Support policy making specially budget decision making,
(iv) To enhance transparency and support accountability relationships,
(v) Monitoring water sector is an important aspect of climate change adaptation because the
results of this monitoring, the data and information generated can be an input to inform
climate forecasting models and climate adaptation activities. This is essential for developing
future climate projections that inform decision making related to water resource
management, water supply management, and infrastructure investments, etc.

1.5 Objective of the study

The objective of this study is to design a general methodological framework for monitoring and
information system for the whole water sector. It is to define a comprehensive water monitoring
approach by detailing its building blocks, ongoing efforts (other projects and their expected
results: IKMS/AfDB and National WASH projects) and corresponding gaps in order to improve
coordination before institutionalizing and mainstreaming the overall concept with an overall goal
of developing a system that delivers water related information which can be used effectively in
decision making by water management institutions in the country.

1.6 Methodology for developing monitoring and information system for water sector

Developing a complex water sector monitoring and information systems is a difficult task and this
is because of the severe limitation to grasp and fully understand complex water sector
management systems at such a scale as a country level. An easy approach followed in this
assignment is to engage in the process of subdividing the complex system into smaller and
individual subsystems or elements whose nature and behavior can readily be understood with
less difficulty. Once each of the elements are closely studied and their process well defined,
understood and modeled, then rebuilding the original complex system by pulling the blocks
together into one system is a natural and realistic approach to develop a complex system. This
approach is well known in engineering as Finite Elements.

What we will be following in developing the monitoring and information system of the whole water
sector in Ethiopia is to look into the different sub-sectoral elements; for instance (i) climate, (ii)
water resources (surface and ground water), hydrology program, (iii) domestic and industrial
water supply and sanitation services, WASH program, (iii) agricultural water which include
irrigation and livestock water, Irrigation and drainage program, (iv) water resources infrastructure
such as dams, and hydropower, and (v) Governance (institutions, policy, legislation/laws, rules
and regulations).

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After examining and understanding the existing monitoring system of each sub sector (sub
systems) and the institutions engaged in generating data, information and knowledge, the tools
and instruments, the institutions and legal frameworks that supports the information sharing are
studied.

In the diagnostic report (first phase study of GIRWI project), seventy six indicators were
developed and documented. Twenty six of the indicators were prioritized and promoted for use in
the (i) development of the methodological analysis work, and (ii) Elaboration of a general
framework for the water sector Monitoring.

There are several sub sectoral program and partner institution that have already developed
information systems (database and MIS). The network of information system will be developed
using these as building blocks within the Ministry and outside by partner institutions and
organizations in water sector, and pulling these institutions together into one whole monitoring
and information system through first in a network of information sharing, and (ii) expanding the
network with institutions working in the sector and share information and knowledge over a broad
area of interest by ensuring the continuity of the independence and functions of individual
institutions and organizations. Through a workable network of information sharing among water
sector institutions will be established.

Developing a system of information exchange among partner institutions and organizations
require a procedure with details on the format of the report, the type of data to collect and report,
the time of reporting, etc. The information manager (the Ministry of Water and Energy) will
receive data and information and it will have the responsibility of managing the data and
information and dissemination. These responsibilities will be clearly defined and understood
among network member institutions. This needs a signing of a protocol or memorandum of
understanding or other binding agreement among the information network member institutions.

Therefore, the approach followed in the development of the information system for water sector
is first to use the self contained independent monitoring and information system at institutional
and organizational levels and use the networking and inter linkages established to share data,
information and knowledge. The ministries, institutions and organizations, agencies will be
formally connected with a functioning networking system of information exchange to a
responsible central organ possibly the Ministry of Water Energy to gather/collect all water related
data and information and publish and disseminate to the network members and decision makers.
The capacity building work on monitoring and information system development will support the
institution through training, equipping and improving the existing system to suit to the networking
functions for data collection and reporting.

A two stage/phase approach for the development of the monitoring and information system are
planned under this study:

(i) Phase One: The establishment of a National Water Resources Monitoring Network for
information flow. This network of water sector intuitions and organizations exchanges data
and information on selected monitoring indicator (26) on a regular basis. A standard
methodology for data collection, processing and reporting and flow of information are
developed for each indicator (see Annex C). During this phase, the networking of data
collection, exchange, analysis and reporting among water sector institutions and
organizations will be evaluated closely to get enough feedback that would allow improve the
information networking system. This phase, through this process, will ensure the exchange
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of data and information is effective and efficient among the network member institutions and
organizations.

(ii) Phase Two: Once the first phase is satisfactorily established and become operational, the
information networking and flow system will be upgraded to a full Information Technology
(IT) supported System. This is largely computerizing the water resources monitoring and
information system through the use of the state of art technology in IT infrastructure. First
and foremost will require a design for the use of IT that will meet the needs and
requirements of the required information flow and the institutions special need for monitoring
the water sector and management of the sector information. A resource requirements
assessment for IT platform will be prepared, and these will include (i) financial resources, (ii)
human resources, (iii) IT hardware and software, and networking, (iv) data resource
development, which would allow the collection and use of more data types other than the 26
indicators suggested in phase I, and (v) Capacity Development for the use of more technical
information on the system.

1.7 Structure of the report

The study report is divided into seven Chapters, and this introduction is the first one. Chapter
one has several sections and sub sections. It includes and presents (i) over view of the water
sector in Ethiopia and the role of the national water policy, (ii) the problem of coordination in the
sector, (iii) monitoring and information system initiatives in Ethiopia, (iv) the importance of water
sector monitoring and information system, (v) the objective of the study, and (vi) methodology for
the development of the monitoring and information system.

Chapter 2: This Chapter presents the different institutions and organizations that collects,
analyzes and reports on water sector and related data. The chapter covers a wide range of
issues on water sector data; information, knowledge and governance that are required for the
development and use of water sector monitoring and information systems in Ethiopia. The
chapter also presented existing information sharing and flow of data at each directorate and
department at the Ministry level. The information flow among the different institutions and
organizations in the country is a crucial input to the development of the information system.

Chapter 3: This Chapter discusses the architecture for water sector monitoring and information
system, which discusses: (i) design criteria, and (ii) framework for monitoring and information
system for the whole water sector. In the first section of the chapter, the needs and user
requirements are presented that needs to be satisfied to realize the system. In the framework,
the required governance and institutional arrangements are envisaged for the monitoring and
information system proposed, and it is briefly discussed. A centralized and decentralized option
for water sector institutions and organizations are presented and discussed. In this chapter,
generic project planning and management cycles and a chain of activities in monitoring and
information systems are presented to provide a link to new monitoring and information system.
The chapter also discussed existing building blocks for monitoring water sector, data
management, analysis, reporting and exchange or share of information among sector
directorates in the Ministries including other institutions and organizations outside the Ministry.

Chapter 4: In this chapter, the proposed water sector monitoring and information system and
knowledge management is presented. The study discusses two of the components for the
proposed system of monitoring and information; (i) the conceptual framework and the blue print
of the established inter linkages among water sector institutions for data and information sharing
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and the signing of the MoU or protocol for the implementation of the conceptual framework, and
(ii) IT infrastructure development for the system are discussed. It also presented a proposed
idea of a web based water sector information portal system.

Chapter 5: It discusses monitoring water resources at a river basin level the fundamental
planning and management units for all water sector activities (FDRE/MoWE, 1999). It discusses
existing knowledge on monitoring the different aspects of water and water quality at river basin
level.

Chapter 6: This chapter presents brief methodological analysis (2 pages) of each selected
indicator for use in monitoring the sustainable management of the whole water sector in Ethiopia.
A more detailed methodological analysis for each indicator is presented in Annex C.

Chapter 7: Chapter seven presents discussion and overall recommendations of the study.

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CHAPTER TWO: WATER SECTOR DATA, INFORMATION, KNOWLEDGE AND
GOVERNANCE
2.1 Introduction
This section of the study reviews the basic elements in monitoring and information system
development; data mining, information and knowledge development. These are the key elements
treated in the monitoring and information system development in water sector.

2.2 Water Sector Data, Information and Knowledge

Water sector data, information, knowledge, decision making and governance are key elements in
the development of a sound monitoring and information system for the sector. Data, information
and knowledge are seen as connected but they are distinct aspects. The data, information and
knowledge become more effective and useful resource when it is shared with others and used to
formulate actions.

2.2.1 Data

Data are all observable phenomenon, and hence data in water resources are observations, for
instance data of hydrological events, in both qualitative and quantitative terms. Data are
documented and archived for use when needed by different users. We convert data into
information by structuring and analyzing the data using our mental framework or using computer
(which has long memory span).

Presently there are enormous data in many of the institutions and organizations in Ethiopia.
Available and accessed data are collected and archived within centralized national institutions
such as Ministry of Water and Energy. Certain specialized data in the sector are also collected
by institutions such as National Meteorological Services Agency (NMSA), Ground Water
Assessment by the Ministry of Mines (MoM), the production of cartography maps: climatic,
topographical and geo-morphological maps by the National Mapping Agency (NMA), and data on
wetlands ecology, pollution and ambient water quality of surafe water by Environmental
Protection Agency (EPA). Hydrological Data in all River Basins are collected, analyzed and
managed by a specialized unit, Hydrology Sub Directorate, in the Ministry of Water Energy.

Water Sector data are more useful and effective when they are analyzed, reported and
disseminated and used for preparing action plans or used in time. An efficient system is needed
to support these services to engineers, planners and decision makers. The system will support
the proper collection of data, checking and cleaning of data, store and access data and
information, and the information should also be disseminated to users and policy makers for their
informed decision.

2.2.2 Information

Observed data after explained become information. Information helps as understand the process
of the observed phenomenon. Understanding phenomena and processes using the available
information and practicing allows us to gain and develop knowledge. More importantly well
developed information is an effective tool and means for persuading policy and decision makers
to act on important issues such as water apportioning for different uses, pollution control as it is a
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threat to fresh water resources, pricing of water, etc., thereby reduced the potential for abuse
and damage to the valuable resources water.

With the full understanding and knowledge of water resources and its environment, various
development efforts are made to use water in a sustainable manner.

In addition it is important to note that data and information have spatial and temporal variability,
and the role of centralized and decentralized institutions working together harmoniously is
important for the effective and efficient management of water resources data in the country. A
user-friendly system to access to these data and information by all institutions is a critical need
for three important monitoring needs; (i) provide easy access for data and information, (ii) use,
and (iii) for continuous follow up of the sector for its sustainable development and management.

2.2.3 Knowledge

It is now a days a word de jour, and well asserted fact that the most valuable resource for any
organizations/institutions is the knowledge of its people. Therefore, the extent to which any
institution or organization is to perform well, among other things, will depend on how effectively
its people can create knowledge, share its knowledge around the organization and beyond, use
that knowledge to the best effect; effectively able to use to implement its development plans, to
enhance performance and ensure a sustainable development.

Then what is knowledge? There are several definitions and some are presented in box below.

















One other important understanding of Knowledge management is the recognition of the three
pillars on which knowledge management is founded, and without one of which, it is difficult to
perceive effective knowledge management. These are:

People: Establishing the right kind of organizational culture for knowledge management, and this
is the most important but very challenging part. Fundamental question asked in organizational
knowledge management is, does the organizational/institutional culture support on going learning
and sharing knowledge? Are people motivated and rewarded for creating, and using knowledge?
Is there a culture of openness, mutual respect and support?

Box 1.

According to the definition given in Oxford Dictionary, knowledge is (i) expertise and
skills acquired by a person through experience or education; (ii) it is a knowhow in a
particular field or total facts and information, and (iii) awareness gained by
experience of a fact or situation.

Plato in his philosophical debate formulated knowledge as justified truth or true
belief. Others (Davenport and Prusak,1998) defined knowledge as a fluid mix of
framed expertise, values, contextual information and expert insight that provides a
framework for evaluating and incorporating new experiences and information. It
originates from and is applied in the minds of knower. In organizations it often
becomes embedded not only in documents or repositories but also in organizational
routines, process, practices and norms.
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Process: This refers to how knowledge is created, managed and disseminated at organizational
or institutional level. In order to improve knowledge sharing, ministries, organizations and
institutions often need changes to the way their internal processes are structured and some
times their organizations structure itself (http://www.library.nhs.uk/knowledge management).

Technology: many of the organizations and institutions and even ministries consider
computerizing their different departments and directorates is understood as developing the
information and knowledge, and this is a common misconception. Technology is often a crucial
enabler of knowledge management it can help connect people with information and people with
each other, but this is not the solution. The substance is creating the organizational learning
environment together with technology. It is vital that the technology used fits the organizations
people and process, and this is very important otherwise it will simply not be used.

The establishment of a structure (mapping) for data, information and knowledge resources in
water sector is essential and a simple knowledge mapping is presented in fig 1 Annex A. It
provides structural information about the knowledge in water sector as a whole and provides
guidance that relates directly to the way the knowledge can be developed, organized and
managed.

A good level of planning and management in water resources is possible with proper
quantification of the water resources both in time and space. Well framed and structured and
stable institutions and governance are needed in a country, where there is an abundant water
resource potential and in a complex environment.

2.3 Water Sector Governance

According to EUWI report (2006) on governance, Governance is defined as the exercise of
economic, political and administrative authority to manage a countrys affairs at all levels. It
comprises the mechanisms, processes and institutions, through which citizens and groups
articulate their interests, exercise their legal rights, meet their obligations and mediate their
differences. Water governance in this context refers to the range of political, social, economic
and administrative systems that are in place to develop and manage water resources, and the
delivery of water services at different levels of the society.

Presently there are several institutions, organizations and agencies or authorities in Ethiopia that
have the mandate and responsibilities for water resource management. This is an opportunity for
the sector. However, sometimes this situation creates conflict of jurisdiction and inter-institutional
rivalries which often hinder and slow down the rational use, development and management of
the countrys water resources. It becomes, therefore, indispensable that modern legislative
processes are put in place, a precise definition of the relationship between the different Federal
Ministries, Authorities, Agencies, institutions and organizations and Regional Bureaus. A
framework of cooperation and information collection, storage and sharing either horizontally or
vertically according to the function they perform, needs to be developed. This study report also
partially tries to address this important issue of the monitoring and information system
development in the water sector in Ethiopia.

2.3.1 Water Institutions and organizations

Like in many countries in the world, the responsibility for collecting water sector data and
information in Ethiopia is divided among several institutions. These approach often risks
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duplication of efforts and a lack of harmonization. Refer details on this problem on diagnostic
study report, GIRWI Phase I (FDRE, 2008). It prevents integration. Responsibilities for water
resources management and water pollution control, for instance, rest with different Ministry and
with different governmental levels (federal, regional and woreda or local level). The
establishment of collaborative partnerships and the coordination of monitoring efforts between
competing ministries or institutions can greatly enhance the quality of the information obtained
and make better use of available resources.

There are several institutions and organizations that are engaged in water sector data
management; data collection, cleaning, storage, processing and sharing or dissemination. The
Ministry of Water Energy has been a great source of water sector data and information. Other
institutions such as EPA, MoM (GSE), MoH, CSA, EMA, NMSA and MoARD are also sources of
data and information. The following sections briefly discuss the data sets and information system
that exists under each of the above institutions (GIRWI Project, 2008).

2.3.1.1 Ministry of Water and Energy (MoWE)

The Ministry of Water Energy has the largest and well organized Water Resource Information
Directorate. There are two sub directorates; (i) the Resource information and Meta Database
Centre, which includes GIS and remote sensing, Information technology and computer system,
and Meta database unites, and (ii) Hydrology Sub directorate. The Resource and information sub
directorate has also a library and documentation unit. The hydrology sub directorate collects and
store massive hydrological data in much of the nine river basins that have substantial water
resources.

The GIS and remote sensing unit is organized into three sub units; the GIS, Remote Sensing and
Cartographic sub units. The main function and service of the team is to maintain, and process
and disseminate spatial data and information, and give analytical tool for the different Master
plan studies of the Ministry. The unit does not collect primary data from the field; rather it uses
secondary data for data processing and analysis for master plan studies and also for decision
makers. It also produces maps to different organizations, researchers and individuals. Each sub
team has its own specific tasks and purposes. All data and information collected by different
departments are delivered to the Resource and Meta Data centre and they are organized and
archived in an organized database.

The Water Resources Information Directorate so far has been supporting the water sector
development and management by providing data and information to other directorates and
development partners. It does not have any data delivery policy; rather it provides service based
on formal request made through the MoWE explaining the data type, information required and
purpose for the data requested. Data are made available literally free.

2.3.1.2 Environmental Protection Authority (EPA)

Environmental Protection Authority (EPA) is responsible for monitoring environmental condition
in Ethiopia. Ecosystem Department, Environmental Pollution Control Department and
Environment Information Centre are mainly responsible for coordinating, collection, analyzing,
and dissemination of environmental data.

The authority is presently collecting data and information on few projects on wetlands, and on
pollution monitoring and control in Awash River basin. Already it has developed a two year data
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on ambient water quality at selected sample sites along the Awash River, particularly at the
upper Awash River Basin.

The Authority regularly collects analysis and generates environmental information and
disseminates the information to interested individuals and organizations at national and
international level. Although limited it produces different information such as environmental
outlook report, fact sheets, and vital graphics on the condition of the environmental assets. It also
produces a report on the state of the environment every two years that will be presented to the
Board and the parliament. There are no established indicators that it is using to support the state
of the environment report.

2.3.1.3 National Meteorological Services Agency (NMSA)

NMA is one of the earliest offices (1951) in collecting and analysing meteorological data in
different parts of the country. The major responsibilities of the agency are the following.

Establish and operate a network of meteorological stations in the country
Collect all meteorological data
Share meteorological data when necessary with international partners in accordance with
the agreements signed
Analyze, publish and disseminate meteorological data and forecasts
Establish and operate communications system for meteorological information in
accordance with the law
Provide early warning for adverse climatic situation
Issue permit for individuals or organization to collect meteorological data and information
Undertake meteorological research and studies

There are many other private and government organizations that collect meteorological data.
The Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research (EIAR) is among the leading government
organizations that owns meteorological stations and observes data and share with the NMSA.

2.3.1.4 Ministry of Mines - Geological Survey of Ethiopia (GSE)

The Geological Survey of Ethiopia (GSE) has a national mandate to undertake a ground water
surveys, assessment and exploration, and preparation of hydro geological maps on varying
scales and it has been doing this for about four decades. In the assessment of major aquifers for
ground water, data on existing well, springs, ponds, lakes, etc. were collected. Water quality data
are also collected covering all freshwater sources available in the study areas. It also prepares
technical reports to accompany the produced hydro geological maps.

2.3.1.5 Ethiopian Mapping Authority (EMA)

Ethiopian Mapping Authority (EMA) has produced enormous data and information on the
geomorphology of the country. EMA has six departments: (i) Surveying, (ii) Photogrammetry, (iii)
Cartography, (iv) Reproduction and photo laboratory, (v) Remote sensing, and (vi) Computers
and GIS.

EMA has the following responsibility in data and information collection.

Conduct aerial photographing, surveying, mapping and remote sensing activities
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Prepare and print general purpose maps at different scales for users, particularly
topographic maps at wereda level
Prepare, produce and print special purpose maps upon request or on its own initiatives
Take aerial photographs upon request or on its own initiatives, prepare data from remote
sensing
Prepare regional and national atlases

So far EMA has produced and distributed standard maps and related Geo-information
(topographical information) as well as products customized to the public and private sectors. It is
expected that in the near future EMA will start producing and distributing of digital Geo-
information.

2.3.1.6 Central Statistical Agency (CSA)

Central Statistics Authority (CSA) is the agency responsible for all the water sector data collected
at national level, and it is also responsible for the analysis, interpretation and reporting of these
data.

CSA is responsible to:

Collect, organize, analyze, publish and disseminate statistical data;
Provide statistical services;
Determines the methodology/procedure for the collection and analysis for statistical data;
Assist regions;
Review and approve forms and questionnaires for statistical data collection.

Socio economic data are produced and sample surveys covering the different sectors are also
collected, and again large part of the study is on agriculture sector. However under the natural
resources, there are data sets on lakes, rivers, and recently population with access to drinking
water at household level. Water sector data sets that CSA use from other institutions include the
following.

Climatic data from meteorology;
Natural resources such as rivers, lakes, wetlands, etc.

2.3.1.7 Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MoARD)

The Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources Development collects data on agricultural
water, and this is done through the regional Agricultural Bureaus and CSA. The regional
Agricultural and Rural development Bureaus have the responsibilities of regional data collection,
processing and archiving, and they collect it using wereda agricultural offices and development
agents that are assigned at each kebele. The data collection is based on development centers,
which constitutes 500 to 1000 households, and data collected at this level is aggregated to
constitute the agricultural information at national level.

Through its development agents at wereda and kebele level, knowledge on harnessing,
managing and use of water for agricultural production is disseminated/ shared, and this include:
Rural water supply
Small scale irrigation,
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Direct and coordinate the implementation of the food security program in which water
sector development in at the centre of the development program;
Support and encourage the expansion of water harvesting and small-scale irrigation.

2.3.1.8 Ministry of Health (MoH)

There is an information management unit under planning and programming department of the
Ministry of health that keeps data and information for monitoring the sector, and there is also a
database of health information and knowledge known as Health Management Information
System (HMIS).

2.3.2 Existing data and Information Flow among Institutions and organizations

Figure 1 presents the schematic representation of the existing flow of data and information by the
different Directorate and institutions that are working in water sector in Ethiopia. In figure 1, the
arrows shows data exchange between Directorates and the Information Center at the Ministry of
Water Energy, and between the MoWE with other major stakeholders or development partners
identified and discussed in the earlier section of this report. The present information flow and
exchange between and among institutions is patchy, often parallel and at times disconnected.

The stakeholders shown in figure 1 below are one way or another involved in data collection,
processing, archiving and sharing information in the water sector. The different colors used and
solid and broken lines in fig 1 represent direction of flow of row and processed data and
information, and the data and information by different institutions are shared free or with charge,
and some are inaccessible. The Water Resources Information Directorate at the MoWE is the
major storehouse for water sector data and information in the country. The centre collects both
raw data and processed data from River Basin studies in the Ministry (the major source of raw
and processed data), and the centre organizes it and achieve it for users primarily for services by
departments in the Ministry of Water Energy. Other institutions working in the sector also have
free access to data and information sharing through formal request. Raw data, processed data
such as analogue and digitized maps are major resources made available for users by the
centre. Sharing of raw data or processed data among the different stakeholders is a common
practice, and the different arrows with different colours and broken lines in fig1 indicate these
relationships.

Most institutions including research and private individuals and organizations use raw and
processed data from the centre. Even the CSA, the national data source, use processed
analogue or digitized maps from the centre. Other institutions do the same. As it can be seen in
fig 1, most institutions outside of the MoWE take data from the centre for their use, while very
few contribute data and information to the centre, and therefore the flow of information is to a
large extent one direction from the centre to the users. Even some departments in the Ministry
are largely users of the data and not data provider.

Three directorates in the Ministry of Water Energy, the Hydrology Sub Directorate (within the
Water Resources Information Directorate), the Water Supply and Sanitation Directorate under its
recently established water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) program, and the River Basin
Studies Directorate, are primary data supplier. After the BPR, the Meta Data, GIS and Remote
Sensing is up graded to a Sub Directorate level with in the Water Resources Information
Directorate as an organized data bank for all information on Water Resources and its
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Environment. However, there is no clear roles and responsibilities yet officially assigned for
managing data and information on all aspects of the water sector.

Source: FDRE/UN-DESA. 2008. GIRWI Project Phase I. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. June 2008
Figure 1 Data and information flow among various water sector institutions in Ethiopia

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CHAPTER THREE: ARCHITECTURE FOR WATER SECTOR MONITORING AND
INFORMATION SYSTEM

3.1 Introduction

The present chapter is aimed at developing the design for monitoring and information system for
water sector. The chapter is organized as follows: Section 3.2 presents criteria for the design of
the system. Section 3.2 elaborates the framework for monitoring and information distinctive of
the Ethiopian Situation. Section 3.3 includes the water sector monitoring and information
framework which discusses governance: institutions, the existing laws, regulations, policy
environments, etc., and the proposed framework, building blocks, etc., and 3.4 water sector
information flow.

3.2 Design Criteria

The following design criteria are used for the proposed water sector monitoring and information
system.

Phase I:

(i) Performance requirements (BPR): (i) Efficient and fast services, (ii) as much as possible
one window service, and (iii) get regular updating of data and information in time,
(ii) The full participation of each institutions (upper level) on data and information collection,
access to information, sharing, etc.,
(iii) The system establishes direct links (networking) at institutional level (upper level),
(iv) The data and information requirement at this time is limited to only 26 water sector
monitoring indicators,
(v) The use of internet as one means of communication/access, exchange of data and also
reporting. However other options can also be used such as the use of hard copy and soft
copy.
(vi) Data and information collection and reporting is done on agreed upon format,
(vii) Technology choice: Computers with spreadsheet capability for data storage, reporting.
(viii) A centralized Institutional structure for water resources information management,
(ix) A decentralized water resource management institutions.

A Framework for Monitoring Water Resources is based on the above design criteria for the first
phase.

Phase II:

(i) The use of the state of art Information Technology (IT) platform and infrastructure,
(ii) Access, exchange and reporting of data and information using web based services
(iii) The use of the system will reach lower level - woreda level

3.3 Framework for Monitoring and Information System for the Water sector

Framework development for monitoring and information for management of water resources and
its environment is a complex task. Monitoring is a continuous process of managing all water use
and its inputs in order to achieve a harmonious economic, social and environment goals for a
sustainable development. It should be clear from the outset that monitoring in this study is not
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project/program monitoring - input, output, and results, instead it is monitoring progress towards
the sustainable development, utilization and management of water resource and its environment
that would enable to have information on the long term trend.

According to Andeh (1996), the aims of the monitoring and information system development
include:

(i) The identification and quantification (assessment) of existing water resources and
their level of development for all purposes,
(ii) Evaluation of the quality of available and potential surface and ground water
resources through identification of potential pollution problems,
(iii) Assessment and estimate of future demands for the different uses,
(iv) Help formulate alternative plans to develop the resources at the national and regional
level, and
(v) Understanding the on-going trends and be able to forecast future trends

The challenge here is designing a system that all stakeholders can agree to use at a cost that is
reasonable for all.

The first step would be establishing the inter-linkages among institutions and organizations
working in the water sector in Ethiopia.

3.3.1 Governance Framework for Monitoring Water Sector

Water governance is a complex process, influenced by several factors such as institutions,
policies, laws and regulations, standards, customs, politics and conditions both local and
international events such as knowledge on the water sector, Ttrans boundary nature of the water
resources system, etc. Many observers and even policy makers and implementers in developing
countries increasingly see knowledge as one of the crucial bottlenecks to the improvement in
Governance and service provision. The World Bank in its 1999 report indentified knowledge as
one of the major factors for development in water sector. Data and information are the foundation
blocks for building the knowledge and it is key to good governance. Monitoring and information
system furnish the desired data and information for knowledge development and supports
effective governance and a well informed decision making.

Good governance requires stable institutions and a strong institutional memory. All these have to
be linked together to provide appropriate, effective and efficient system of monitoring and
information system for water sector in Ethiopia.

Effective water monitoring and information system require the support of appropriate legislation,
regulations, standards, codes of practice and guidelines.

3.3.1.1 A Centralized Institutional structure for Water Resources Information Management

The complex and multi-discipline nature of water resources management and planning coupled
with the present problems of pollution and environmental degradation seems to indicate a
centralized institutional structure for dealing effectively on the management of water and its
environment as an integrated whole (Andah, 1996). This aspect of the institutional framework
should therefore aim to reconcile different interests of water users and organizations and
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institutions working on the sector and facilitate the correct implementation of water resources
policy principles and programs. The framework should include:

(i) Legal aspects of water management: specific rules and laws governing the assessment,
development and use of the water resources,
(ii) The decision making bodies on programs for tapping and utilization of water resources,
(iii) Various levels of communication and information links between decision making bodies,
organizations and groups directly affected by water management programs and the general
public.

The centralized institutional structures for water resources management are generally found with
the degree of importance attached to water problems, the presence of separate and specialized
competencies and expertise that are normally found in Federal Ministries such as the Ministry of
Water Energy. The National Water Resources Policy of 1999 also indicates this aspect of the
policy principles.

Institutional Arrangement of the Water Sector: The Federal Government through the Ministry
of Water Energy is responsible for water sector policy, regulation and development of water
supply and sanitation including sewerage treatment and management in towns and cities,
management of water resources of the country, and irrigation and drainage development.
Regional State councils through their respective Bureaus and local authorities are responsible for
ensuring equitable resources allocation and management, and quality and standard services
under the constitutional right and under national water policy. Power is devolved to lower level,
and the woreda is empowered and responsible for planning, designing, constructing, and
managing the implementation of all water projects (under its capacity) including regular reporting
of the progresses. So data and information for all water sector activities are prepared at woreda
level.

Water Resource Information Directorate: Business Processing Reengineering (BPR) in the
Ministry of Water Energy has finalized its study recently. The study identified the work process of
the Directorate for Water Resources Information to include data and information collection,
analysis, storage, compilation and dissemination. It has also identified stakeholders, customer
needs, type of data and information required.

According to the BPR study report, the Directorate of Water Resources Information will be the
responsible body for all data and information generated in the water sector within the Ministry of
Water Energy. This arrangement will allow all data and information from the different Directorates
to flow into a centralized organ, the Directorate for Water Resources, and there are no details
available how these data and information under the directorate is to be managed.

3.3.1.2 Decentralized water resource management institutions

The constitution of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia gives regional governments to
exercise their full right and independence on the management of the regional resources such as
water. Several independent institutions such as MoARD, MoM, EPA, MoFED, CSA, MoH,
Universities and Research Institutions, etc. are also engaged in water sector development and
they all have decentralized responsibilities and functions with independent mandate and role.
River Basin Administrations are also other legal institutions with highly decentralized function
with more autonomy to administer and manage all water resources at river basin level. Although
data and information are collected, analyzed and managed by independent and decentralized
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bodies/organs and institutions within the river basin, the respective River Basin Administrations
are responsible for collecting key indicators for sustainable development and other data as
required. Coordinating the monitoring and managing the information at river basin level will be an
important function of the River Basin Administration. It has also strong working relations with the
Ministry of Water Energy, and these information will also be shared with the Ministry.

The Regional Bureaus with the support they get from zonal and woreda water offices have
shown better planning, and administered and managed programs under the decentralized
arrangement. The autonomy provided the opportunity top exercise independent planning,
execution, monitoring and evaluation, and even mobilizing resources including deciding how to
spend funds for water programs in their respective regions.

The development and optimization of a sound and appropriate institutional framework for water
sector monitoring in Ethiopia is essential for effective and output driven monitoring. Unless the
roles and responsibilities of each key player are established and recognized, then the generation
of monitoring data and the flow of information may not lead to the desired improvement in the
management of the water resources. Table 1 presents centralized and decentralized institutions
available for water sector in Ethiopia.

Table 1 Governance of key Institutions in water sector



Centralized Institutions Decentralized Institutions
Advantages Disadvantages Advantages Disadvantages
Technical
interdependence
Better management
Rational use of
manpower
Uniform Standards

Bureaucratic
Loose contacts


Simpler in decision
making
Closer links
Smaller functional
boundaries
Manpower spread
out
Sectoral interest
Duplication of efforts

Ministry of Water Energy
Ministry of Mines (GSE)
Ministry of Agriculture & Rural
Development
Ministry of Health
Environmental Protection Authority (EPA)
Ethiopian Meteorological Services Agency
(EMSA)
Central Statistics Agency (CSA)
Ethiopian Mapping Agency (EMA)
Regional Water Bureaus
Regional Health Bureaus
Regional Agriculture & Rural Development
Offices
River Basin Administrations,
Municipalities and Water Boards,
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3.3.2 The Building Blocks for Monitoring and Information System

3.3.2.1 The Generic Project Planning and Management Cycle

Projects follow a sequence that is very well recognized as project cycle; and these includes (i)
the planning, (ii) identification of projects, (iii) design, (iv) implementation, (v) monitoring, and (vi)
evaluation. See figure 2 below. In the planning phase, problems and constrains and opportunities
are identified which the project could address. This involves a review of the indicators. The
identification phase identifies and screen for further study which involves the
consultation/participation of stakeholders and analysis of the problem and the identification of the
options. The design phase formulates relevant project ideas, and stakeholders participate in the
detailed specifications of the project idea for its feasibility. Implementation is where the project is
mobilized and executed.

The cycle defines the key decision, information requirements and responsibilities at each phase
of the project cycle. The phases in the cycle are progressive each phase needs to be
completed for the next to be completed with success. The cycle draws on evaluation to build
experiences and knowledge from existing projects into the design of the future programs and
projects. These are key project/program principles for the design and implementation, monitoring
and evaluation of development projects.

3.3.2.2 The Monitoring Cycle

Monitoring is one of the six phases in the generic project planning and management cycle
discussed above. Monitoring objectives are set according to the focus of the water management
activities. Monitoring objectives may be one of many kinds as presented in figure 2 Monitoring
Cycle, and these include the following:

(i) Needs assessment
(ii) Institutional collaboration,
(iii) Data collection and management,
(iv) Information system development,
(v) Knowledge management
(vi) Reporting

A monitoring objective once defined need assessment to define requirements of data and
information for the various functions and uses of water body concerned and sets standards. It
identifies target audience and collaborative partners and stakeholders/institutions, and it makes
clear who will be the users of the information and why the information is needed. It will also
identifies the field of management and the nature of the decision making for which the
information will be needed.

Once objectives have been set, it is important to identify the information that is needed to support
the specified objective. It should be recognized that the detection of trends in itself is not a
monitoring objective but a type of monitoring. When the intended use of the trend information is
specified, it can then be considered to be an objective. The content and level of details of the
information required depends upon the objectives set.


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Fig 2 The Project Planning and Management Life Cycle
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In the first phase research and survey may identify priorities. Policies will be implemented for
these. In the second and third phases, feedback (evaluation) on the effectiveness of the
measures taken is obtained by assessing spatial distribution and temporal trends.

Decision makers are the users of the information for management and control actions and
they have to decide upon the contents and performance of their desired information
products. They have to account for their activities to the public.

The method of reporting, visualized or aggregated information (such as index), and
presenting the information product must be considered and reporting is an important aspect
of the monitoring objective.

Appropriate monitoring data and variables have to be selected and agreed upon. Selected
variables should be indicators that characterize, adequately, the environment, water
management practices, socio economic and governance of water sector, and testing the
effectiveness of the management practices and control measures. To assess the
effectiveness of the information product, the information needs have to be quantified; for
example what level of detail is relevant for decision making? Such margins have to be
specified for each monitoring variable indicator. A relevant margin can be defined as the
information margin that the information user considers important.

Information needs must be specified such that they enable design criteria for the various
elements of the information system to be derived. Specified, relevant margins are a strong
tool for network design. With these, sampling frequencies, the density of the instrumentation
network can be optimized, especially if reliable time series of measurements are available.

In general, a monitoring and information system can be considered as a chain of activities
(figure 3 below).

3.3.2.3 Monitoring as a Chain of activities in an information system

Monitoring can be considered as a chain of activities in an information system and with the
chain closed with the management and control action of the decision maker (Adriaanse etal,
1997). Building an accountable information system requires the activities in the chain (figure
2) and they are designed sequentially starting from the specified information needs. The
chain is a closed loop and the production of data sets may start either from information need
analysis or with a baseline or inventory or laboratory data or a sample network chosen. The
data needs are identified and data are collected, then data is properly handled and
analyzed, and reported is prepared to users. Users and decision makers have to prepare
action plan, managers and decision makers manage and control the plan and
implementation with data and information. These chains of activities have to be in a
continuous process. To continue the monitoring, the need for additional data sets may arise.
This is illustrated in the chain of activities in figure 3. Since monitoring is a continuous
process, data and information needs are also evolving. Over the time, there will be
development in management and control, targets may be reached or policies may change
implying that the monitoring strategy may need to be adapted (figure 3).

Dynamic information needs require a regular reappraisal of the data and information
collected and the system in use needs to suit to the prevailing conditions. Most institution
and departments recognize that spread sheet databases are no more adequate for the
management of large data and information handling and hence a high level of system is
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increasingly being desired, initiated and some have developed. These days the
development of a Management Information System (MIS) is under consideration by many
departments in the MoWE, other ministries, institutions and organizations.





Figure 3 Chain of activities in an information system (Adriaanse etal, 1997)

Data needs for monitoring water sector for this study are primarily focused on the three core
elements in (i) water resources management, (ii) socio economy and water Governance and
(iii) Environment and water pollution control. Many of the river basins are networked with
gauge stations that are nearly commensurate with the WMO standard networking designs.

Lake level monitoring, sedimentation and water quality observations are also in progress.
The data and information need for a more detailed study of freshwater resources could
demand the design of a much lower scale than the WMO.

The Ethiopian Geological Survey in the Ministry of Mines has been conducting ground water
assessment in selected area of the country with known and major aquifers. The study has
produced sufficient ground water data.

Water supply and sanitation (WASH) has also started conducting national inventory of water
supply and sanitation facilities using GIS platforms, and this will produce when completed a
massive data sets for the sub sector, enabling to estimate the water withdrawal or
abstraction levels at river basin level.
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environment, whenever possible a long term monitoring strategy should be developed, and
this is held with a long term trend analysis and capacity planning. This strategy has the
following advantages (a) increase the ability to predict the future situations, (b) held detect
changes in the water and environmental system, and (c) assist in adapting the existing
strategy or indentifying strategies for balancing. In doing the later, the monitoring process
through iterative mechanism as shown in figure 5, ensures the strategy is adapted and
become flexible.

(iii) Monitoring Methodology

Data and information are inputs and outputs to monitoring activities. The data required for
monitoring of water sector could be many, however due to resources limitation priority
indicators are considered. For this study only twenty six indicators are used.

The selected indicators are the tool and instrument for monitoring the water sector progress
in Ethiopia towards a sustainable development. Refining the selection of these
parameters/indicators and including additional indicators into the batch is possible in the
future based on need assessments made on a regular basis.

Regularly conducted tasks include identifying needs, data collection, storage and analysis,
and preparing regular reports and dissemination of the information to users on a pre defined
time intervals.

Guidelines and manuals will be prepared to support the monitoring data collection, data
quality control, analysis, report preparation and dissemination of the report to users. This will
be accomplished in the GIRWI Third Phase Project. Monitoring protocols for all water sector
or even specific monitoring programs such as water quality and pollution will be produced.
These manuals will cover study designs, field data quality assurance, safety procedures,
field operations, laboratory sample processing, data analysis and over all data management.
On the basis of these protocol manuals, agreements with relevant stakeholders (institutions
and organizations) will be signed to undertake specific monitoring tasks such as water
quality, rainfall, etc. data collection and reporting. Protocol for data exchange agreements
with other institutions outside of the Ministry could be signed for water sector monitoring
activities.

(iv) Data Management

The Ministry of Water Resource through the different directorates collects water sector data
from primary and secondary sources. The primary data are collected (i) through the
Regional Water Bureaus and (ii) directly by field offices of the directorates such as hydrology
sub directorate. Secondary data are obtained through exchanges of data and information
with other network institutions and organizations. Recently private firms such as water well
drillers and contractors are required to provide data and information to the ministry.

The data collection process and management of the data are discussed and presented in
section 3.4. Water sector data management system enhances the effectiveness and
efficiency of the monitoring of the sector.
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Figure 5 A schematic presentation of the monitoring process of the water sector at the
Ministry of Water and Energy (Developed with Giovanni 2010)

Computer systems and software have become inseparable tools and equipments in data
and information management in water sector. Many organizations and institution including
the Ministry of Water Energy use computer and software systems that are used for data and
information storage and retrieval services. With the enormous amount of data stored in files,
databases, and other repositories within and outside of the ministry, it is increasingly
becoming important that a powerful means for data storage, analysis, and perhaps for the
extraction of interesting knowledge for decision making is made available for the sector.
For this purpose a few Directorate such as WASH, Ground Water and Irrigation and
Drainage have developed MIS for the internal use, however these MIS could as well be a
source of information exchange directly from the web or through formal request made to the
respective directorate.

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(v) Data Processing and reporting:

In the data processing, a certain amount of data checking is done at all levels from the low
level to the higher level where it is storage. Monitoring such data for its quality must be
performed with the purpose of ascertaining the state of completeness and quality of primary
data. Such control functions involve the following:

Monitoring: quick indications of the availability of samples,
Data range checking,
Sample verification

A computer based data processing is done on predefined variables and parameters. On the
basis of the processed data, reports are prepared and disseminated to users by each
institution.

3.4 Water Sector Information flow

The objective of an information system for water sector is to collect and analyze and
disseminate data and information. Information systems can be based either on regularly
produced paper reports circulated or delivered using internets (a purely computerized form)
in a defined pathways. In a computerized form, all information and data are stored and
retrieved electronically.

The collected data must be drawn from networks of national, regional and local data
centers; Management Information System (MIS) and databases hosted in the different
institutions.

The flow of data in the information system must be well defined in order to fulfill the
requirement of users and the overall demand for reliability. In water sector there are far more
data and information than we can handle.

Data and information flow is in three directions; (i) upwards, (ii) downwards, and (iii)
horizontally. Upwards flow of information from lower to higher organizational structures
reduces the amount of detail but enhances the information value through the interpretation
of the data. Dawn ward flow is important for the purpose of communicating decisions in
relation to national standards and polices, and also to make a feedback to those involved in
data acquisition and data handling within the information system. Horizontal flow of data and
information, through data sharing between ministries, institutions, and organizations, is
essential for developing an integrated approach to water sector monitoring and information
management and also to make efficient use of data that are often collected and stored in a
large number of institution for certain data sets, while for certain specialized data sets limited
institutions often collect and store the data.

The vertical flow of information can often be described as a three tiered system with respect
to the organizational levels and the activities performed at each level. A large number of
data exists at lower level and as it get to the top level, the data and information gets to the
apex giving it a pyramid shape. The lower level is responsible for primary data acquisition
through monitoring, data validation and storage of data. Data handling is the middle level
and it is carried out at computational centers requiring skilled and professional support, and
this could be at zonal and regional level or at ministry or institutional or organizational level.
The third or top level or information user is made up of the decision making authorities
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who are the end users of the information produced. At this level, data and information is
used for checking and correcting the policies and management procedures applied. It is also
the level where the information is disseminated to the public, to other interested parties
including the central data center for the network of institutions now under establishment.

3.4.1 Hydrological data flow

In 2008, there were a total of 524 stream flow gage stations spread out over nine large river
basins in Ethiopia. Of which 487 are operational and 46 requiring rehabilitation. The
hydrological data collected are largely stream flows at gauge station level using manual and
automated devices. These gauge stations are primarily collecting stream flows. Recently the
Directorate has also started collecting other hydrological data such lake and reservoir levels,
stream sediment load, monitor groundwater fluctuations and water quality.
The raw data from all the 524 gauging stations is taken on hourly and daily basis and it is
recorded properly in a data book (as shown in figure 6 below). On a regular basis, the book
is sent to the zonal offices for data checking, cleaning and maintenance. The recorded
hydrological data is transferred from gauge stations to zonal offices through the record book
[now a day possible to use mobile and regular telephone and there is also a plan to install
telemetry].

The record books are sent to their respective nine zonal offices (many of them located at
their respective river basins). At these offices data are checked for preliminary data quality
a sort of quality inspection and preliminary data processing. The data types include:

(i) Stream flow primary data collection
(ii) Water level of lakes and large reservoirs Primary data collection
(iii) Water quality Primary data collection
(iv) Sediment load of streams Primary data collection
(v) Ground water levels Pizometric observations of wells Secondary data.

After the data book and the data it contains are checked at the zonal office level, the data is
then sent to the hydrology sub-directorate at the Ministry of Water Energy in Addis Ababa.
At this stage the field data are closely scrutinized for further data checking, analysis and
storage. After it is checked and corrected, the data is sent to the Hydrology Sub Directorate
office in the MoWE in Addis Ababa, where the data is processed; raw data is converted to
stream flows using rating curves prepared for each gauge stations [have ID numbers] and
computes daily low, mean and high flows. Hydata software is used for analysis and
producing a report on annual basis [lagging by one year of the observation period].
Summary reports are produced and available for users, and also there is a plan to produce
a year book.

Copies of reports are sent to the Planning and Policy Directorate on quarterly basis, to the
Metadata, GIS and Remote Sensing Sub Directorate in the Water Resources Information
Directorate and to River Basin Administration offices. Other users of the hydrological data
include:

Regional Water Bureaus,
Consultants (local and international),
Universities and Research Institutions (local and international),
Non Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and other development partners,
Investors
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A great deal of hydrological data and information is presently available in the hydrology Sub-
Directorate. Some of the data are not transferred into useable information and knowledge
that can impact on policy and decision making actions. Raw and processed data are
available on official requests made directly to the Hydrology Sub Directorate.

A schematic representation of the information flow from the network of hydrological
observations sites is shown in figure 6.



Figure 6 Data collection and information flow for hydrological data

3.4.2 Water Supply and Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH Program) Data flow

Data is collected through a formal baseline survey, WASH Facilities Inventory and regular
updates, expert visit and regular monitoring at village and kebele level (figure 7). WASH
inventory is collected at site level by the WASHCO and HEWs and sent to the Kebele Office,
and the data is checked by the Kebele Manager and transferred to the Woreda WASH
Coordination office, and the data on water, sanitation and hygiene are copied to the
respective WASH offices (water and health and education). This is where noise and
irrelevant data sets are checked for quality control.

Preliminary report is prepared at woreda sector offices and sent to the respective woreda
councils and the Regional Bureaus with copies sent to Zonal Offices. The zonal offices
compile reports from the woredas and they send to the respective regional bureaus where
the report is fully analyzed and stored in Regional Water Sector MIS with copies sent to the
Water Supply and Sanitation Directorate and NWCO at the Ministry of Water Energy.
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Figure 7 Data and Information flow for WASH Program in Ethiopia

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3.4.3 Irrigation and Drainage

International experiences on monitoring irrigation suggest that the following framework for
data and information is used to monitor progresses towards sustainable irrigation
development. The three major aspects of irrigation (i) agriculture, (ii) Hydraulics, and (iii)
Economics are covered in the framework and the required indicators are presented in table
3 below.

Table 2 Irrigation Monitoring framework and the major indicators

Aspects to Monitor Data and variables (indicators/norms)
Agriculture
Yield Yield per hectare
Areal Coverage Hectare of land under irrigated agriculture
GIRWI Indicator # 5
Cropping intensity Annual total cropped area compared with
design command area
Hydraulics
System efficiency Overall water use efficiency
Application efficiency Farmers water use Efficiency
System level releases Area irrigated per unit water, or discharge per
unit area
System Level seasonal
release
Average depth of water supplied at the head
works per unit of land
Canal seepage Volume lost in seepage per specified wetted
surface area
Tube well coverage Area served per tube well
Economics

Development cost

Cost per hectare


Little information is available on irrigation data and information flow developed locally by the
MoWE. However, based on a recently study report by FAO in collaboration with the MoWE,
the following information are recorded. Most data on irrigation (both small scale and
commercial) is collected at woreda level, and both the water resources and agriculture
offices are responsible.

In Ethiopia, the data collected for monitoring are largely project based and they are
categorized into three (FAO/MoWE, 2010):

1. Data on Irrigation schemes of all types
2. Improved agricultural water management - woreda aggregate for areas up to 2.5 ha
3. Soil and water conservation (woreda aggregate)


Water Bureau Development Agents/BoARD
Location of irrigation scheme Cropping pattern
Area related information Soil and water conservation
Socioeconomics
Water harvesting


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Figure 8: Suggested Data Collection and Reporting System (FAO, 2010)


3.4.4 Hydraulic Structures and Hydropower Data Flow

There is very little information the data collection, inventory and flow on hydraulic structures
(both for irrigation and energy production) in Ethiopia. However data are available in the
respective offices:

(i) MoWE and EEPCO for Hydraulic structures for energy production,
(ii) MoWE and MoA for hydraulic structures for irrigation

Public and
commercial farms
Woreda Agriculture and
Rural Development
Office

Woreda
Irrigation Desk
Zone Agriculture and
Rural Development
Office
Regional Agriculture
and Rural
Development Bureau

Zone Irrigation
Desk
Regional Water Bureau

Development Agents
Key for information flow

Data to be handled by MoARD
Cropping pattern
Soil and water conservation
Data to be collected by Water Bureaus
Irrigation and water harvesting
Closing working together
Review/consultations by both bureaus
Future reporting to basin authorities
Collection and calculations
Data checking, calculations and entry
Basin
Authority
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3.4.5 Environmental Data and Information Flow

The Environmental Protection Authority has not yet engaged in field data collection, and
when needed experts from the authority directly observe and use questionnaires to collect
data (EPA, 2004). Instead the different functional units retrieve environmental data and
information from other local institutions such as offices of the MoWE, MoA, Biodiversity
Institute, Universities and Research institutions. There is no a centralized environmental
data warehouse and institutionally defined data management procedures such as data
collection, management and dissemination analysis, and reporting. Every two years, the
authority produced a state of the environment report to the Parliament.

3.4.6 Inter-institutional Data and information Flows

Strengthening water institutions that provide water for people, industries, energy, agriculture
and ecosystems, etc. with critical information for making appropriate and crucial
management decisions, rational apportioning of water for different economic and
environmental uses, and build climate resilience is a crucial capacity building program in the
sector. Therefore there is a strong need and desire now than ever to build a strong
partnership among water sector institutions and stakeholders to share water sector
information and knowledge. Knowledge and information management for integrated water
resources management (IWRM) is only possible through proper and reliable information and
knowledge sharing mechanism among water sector institutions and actors/players, and this
process needs to be formal and require legislative support.

The core governmental actors engaged in the water sector; the MoWE, Regional Water,
Agriculture and Health Bureaus have a strong presence on nearly all hierarchical levels;
regional, zonal and woreda level. There are no protocols and agreements signed to support
information sharing among the water sector institutions and organizations except for WASH
program. Such monitoring processes has to be formalized to make data, information and
knowledge sharing a duty bound function and allow a proper inter-institutional networking of
data and information sharing in the country. Presently there is no formal data and
information flows and knowledge sharing in water sector. Fig 1 and 9 presents the informal
water sector data and information flow and exchange in the country.

For instance in many countries the signing of the MoU or protocols among institutions and
organizations for data and information sharing is a common experience. Kenya has a data
sharing protocol signed among stakeholders; institutions and organizations in water and
agriculture. At the conclusion of this study, and on the basis of the amendments made to
this study report, it is expected that protocols on water sector data and information sharing
will be signed by all stakeholder in the sector; government ministries, government intuitions
and organizations, non government organizations (NGOs), privates, etc.

As shown in figure 9 below, there are data collectors and information reporters at various
hierarchical levels.

(i) Community level: the primary data are collected at community level and the path of
hierarchical information flows to and from the community, local water users and
kebele level actors such as water users association, Development Agents (DA),
WASHCO and HEWs are between the kebele level and woreda level. However, the
irrigation water user associations (WUA) are expected to report or provide informally
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data on water use to a River Basin Administration (RBA) or the RBA visits the WUA
and take data and also provide top down information in the form of laws, regulations,
and water management trainings to WUA and the community.

Data are collected in a baseline survey or field reconnaissance study visits or tours
at community level by regional or federal office experts, and reports are submitted to
their respective offices without a copy to the community and woreda offices.

(ii) Woreda Level: regular reports with data and information in water sector are received
from lower level (community, water users, DA, WASHCO and HEWs). Each woreda
office (water, health and Agriculture and Rural Development) compiles the data and
produce a woreda report. The report is then sent to Regional Bureaus (water, health
and Agriculture and Rural Development) by the respective woreda office with copy to
woreda administration council. The woreda offices also sent top down information to
kebele Administration, WUA, WASHCO, HEWs, DAs in the form of administrative
guidelines, trainings, and new government development strategies. Woreda Offices
do not share a copy of their reports to RBA, however, there is a need to for data and
information flow from woreda to RBA. The GIS based woreda information on WASH
facilities inventory provides essential information on water abstraction by use in a
river basin. Reports on water supply services for woreda towns provides information
on water abstraction and distribution for the towns and the report is submitted to
water boards and woreda administration council with copies to the regional water
Bureau.

(iii) Regional Bureaus: They receive data and information from bottom up, and also
collects directly by sending its own experts. Regional Bureaus do not provide regular
reports to the Federal Ministries and the flow of information is not regular/consistent
and formally well established. However, informally data and reports needed reach
the ministries. The MoWE gathers a three month report through its regularly held
quartely review sessions which primarily include the Regional Water Bureuas.

Regional Water Bureaus are also members of RBA board, however, formal
information sharing does not exist with RBA. Instead RBA gets data and infromation
through the Directorates at the MoWE.

(iv) River Basin Administrations: This is in between the federal and regional and often
also represents two or more regions. All water, health and agriculture data and
information from all levels are to be reported to RBA, and ARB should also provide
IWRM information, knowledge and decisions to the respective regional bureaus.

(v) Federal Ministries Level: Federal Ministries develop policies and strategies and
enforce the implementation of the policies and strategies through monitoring and
assessment of national policy implementation at all levels. However, the minitries are
also collecting data directly at community level by sending its experts. Although it is
not formal, copies of reports are also reaching for some sectors. However, the flow of
data from regional bureaus should formally reach the federal ministries as is
proposed in figure 8 shown above.


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Figure 9 Inter - Institutional data and information flows for water sector in Ethiopia

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3.3.2.1 Indicator Based Monitoring

Indicator Based Monitoring and Analysis is one aspect of the design for monitoring Water
Resources and its Environment in Ethiopia. GIRWI project (FDRE, 2008), in its first phase
study, has identified approximately 76 indicators, and they are expected to be used in the
future to monitor the whole water sector in Ethiopia. The process followed in developing the
seventy six indicators is schematically presented in figure 10.

The 76 indicators (though not limited to) are formulated to guide the development and
management of water resources for sustainable development. These indicators are intended
to gauge conditions and provide spatial and temporal information on the state of the water
sector resources and its environment in the country. Through a regular follow-up of these
indicators and analysis of their long term trends, it is believed that these indicators would
provide correct information for policy and decision makers and help prevent improper
orientation, development, use of the water resource and its environment. When long term
data are made available, indicators provide useful information about the trend and emerging
situation of the countrys water resources.


Figure 10 Schematic presentation of the process of indicator development for water sector
in Ethiopia

The indicators provide the basis for making timely decisions, policy formulation and other
actions as needed, and thereby doing the desired development work; protect and restore
the countries precious and vital water resource and its environment by all stakeholders. All
the indictors developed reflect the essential drivers in all aspects of the water sector
including socio economic and governance within the context of Integrated Water Resources
management (IWRM) in the country.

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During the diagnostic study, it has been recognized that the collection of a single national
indicator is an expensive task with an estimated cost reaching as high as Birr 7 million or
more (USD 500,000). Therefore, limiting the number of indicators to 26 selected indicators
based on priorities was agreed and consensus was reached at a national workshop in 2008.

The methodological sheet for each indicator is developed to establish a standard practice of
collecting data for each indicator (component I of this assignment), with the identification of
current and future information flow. Annex C presents the methodological sheet developed
for each of the 16 indicators in this part of the study.

The list of institutions that are closely working and also have mandates in collecting data
and information for the proposed indicators are presented in table 2 below.

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Table 3 List of indicators and the institutions responsible for monitoring


List of core Indicators for monitoring and reporting Institutions responsible for data collection and reporting
1. Proportion of annual freshwater consumption to renewable
freshwater resources
MoWE, Hydrology Sub directorate
2. Concentration of human induced and natural pollutants in hot
spots
MoWE, MoH, EPA, Regional Water Bureaus,
Industries, Academia and Research Institutions
Area of the watershed developed under soil and water
conservation practices / measures (%)
MoA (Regional Ag. & Rural Dev. Offices, Woreda
Offices)
Index characterizing the impact of seasonal rainfall variability on
agriculture production (to be studied)
NMSA, MoA, Universities and Research Institutions,
Ha of land under irrigated agriculture or under improved rainwater
agriculture (per capita)
MoA (Regional and Wereda offices)
6. % of electricity requirements met by hydropower production MoM, EPPCO, CSA, MoFED
7. No. (or %) of people having access to improved WSS
schemes
MoWE (WASH program), Region and Woreda Water
and Health offices, CSA
8. Pupil to latrine/toilet stance ratio in schools
MoH, MoWE (WASH Program), Region and Woreda
water and health Offices
9. Unaccounted-for water Municipalities
10. Functionality:
MoWE (WASH program), Region and Woreda Water
and Health offices, CSA
11. Volume of waste waters treated before discharge (as % of
total discharges)
Municipalities
% of GDP which can be attributed to economic productions with
water and to various services and benefits
MoFED, MoWE, Regional Bureaus (RBs)
Income differential between farmers having access to irrigation
and farmers not having access (per Ha)
MoFED, MoWE, Regional Bureaus (RBs)
14. % of population affected by water-born diseases MoH, Regional and woreda Health Offices
15. Ratio of actual to desired level of public investment in the
water sector
MoFED, MoWE, Regional Bureaus (RBs)
16. Rate of cost recovery for WSS MoFED, MoWE, Regional Bureaus (RBs)
17. Water and sanitation charges as percentage of various
household income groups
MoFED, MoWE, Regional Bureaus (RBs)
18. % of RBA budget which is directly collected from basin fees MoFED, MoWE, River Basin Administration
19. Ratio of measurement stations fully operational over WMO
standard requirement
MoWE (Hydrology Sub directorate)
20. Impact of floods damage
MoWE, MoH, and MoA in collaboration with Regional
offices
21. % of stakeholders represented in the planning process
MoWE, MoH, and MoA in collaboration with Regional
offices
Value of sub-contracts assigned to private operators (design,
construction, management) as % of total project costs
MoWE, Regional Bureaus (RBs)
23. No. of people trained in water-related disciplines (per 1,000
inchs)
MoWE, MoH, and MoA in collaboration with Regional
offices
24. Irrigated area using advanced practices (% of total irrigated
area)
MoA in collaboration with Regional offices
25. Hand-washing prevalence MoH in collaboration with Regional offices
No. of articles on Ethiopian water sector published in reputable
specialized journals
MoWE, Universities and Research institutions
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CHAPTER FOUR: Proposed Water Sector Monitoring and Information System

4.1 First Phase: Conceptual Framework

4.1.1 Conceptual Framework for the Inter-linkages among institution

The first phase is the development of a National Water Monitoring and Information
Network (NWMIN). The proposed National Water Monitoring and information Network
is an umbrella set up and a network of institutions (in knowledge term described as
communities of practice a network of institutions and organizations which share a
common interest in a specific area of knowledge or competence and are willing to work and
learn together) which are committed to participate fully to monitor water sector, collect and
store, share data and information and knowledge and willing to develop and use information
system within their independent area of mandate and role.



Figure 11 Framework (model) for Inter-Institutional data sharing and storage

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In order to kickoff the networking of institutions and organizations for monitoring and
information in water sector, there is a need to establish a steering committee composed of
inter-institutional body with senior representatives from key ministries and institutions and
organizations in the sector such as (i) Ministry of Water Energy, (ii) Ministry of Agriculture
and Rural Development (MoARD), (iii) Ministry of Mines (MoM), (iv) Ministry of Health
(MoH), (v) Environmental Protection Authority (EPA), (vi) Central Statistics Agency (CSA)
and also representing the Ministry of Finance and Economic Development (MoFED), and
(vii) representatives of the academia and research institutions, (i) to initiate, support,
facilitate and organize the network, and (ii) to overlook the smooth functioning of the network
and provide technical, administrative and capacity support.

The National Water Resources Monitoring Network ensure the right of individual Institution
and organizations to collect data and do quality assurance work, store data and information
in their respective databases or management information system (MIS) developed for
individual use. However, each partner institutions and member of the network in water
sector need to establish the networking for data and information exchange with the central
organ, the Ministry of Water Energy and should sent a copy of water sector data directly to
the Network Data Manager, who is mandated to receive and manage the data and
information warehouse for the network institutions and organizations. The Network Data
Manager is expected to be housed in the Ministry of Water Energy. The duties and
responsibilities of the data manager at the Ministry of Water Energy are to be defined later
by the steering committee of the network. The data and information exchange is two ways
(bidirectional) and a format for data exchange need to be developed. Directives for data and
information exchange and format for data transfer and exchange from each institution and
organization to the data warehouse and vise versa need to be developed by a technical
committee and protocol has to be signed among the institution.

The data warehouse is a repository of data collected from multiple data sources; institutions
and organizations, research and academia. The network members are also able to retrieve
data and information from the data warehouse through the data manager. The Ministry of
Water Energy through the data manager is also responsible in the analysis and
dissemination of Integrated Water Sector Data Reporting to be made available at least
once in a year to the policy and decision makers, the public and member of the National
Water Monitoring Network. Institutions and organizations have to be duty bound in terms of
supporting this important national effort.

4.1.2 Water Sector Knowledge Management

Knowledge management is about the processes by which knowledge is created, shared and
used in an organization or institution. It is not about setting up a computerized system in a
department. Generally, it is about making changes to the way everyone in the organization
works, creating a knowledge environment usually require changing organizational values
and culture, changing peoples behaviors and work patterns, and providing people with
access to each other and to relevant information resources
1
.

There are many ways of looking at knowledge management and different institutions and
organizations with different knowledge areas will take different approaches and it is beyond
this assignment. Water sector knowledge areas are broad and complex and a simplified
water sector knowledge mapping is presented in Annex 1 figure 1. The proposed framework

1
Caroline De Brn (2005) in (http:/www.library.nhs.uk/knowledge management/)
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of water sector data sharing and knowledge management is to help all stakeholders;
institution and organizations, and development partners in the sector to have access to data
information on who is doing what in water sector, and be able not only access also
exchange and share data and information, thereby provide a rational management of the
data and information in the water sector.

4.2 Second Phase: IT Infrastructure Development for the Information System

4.2.1 IT Infrastructure Development

Once the first phase is found effective and efficient and properly operable, and with the
enormous amount of data stored in files, databases, and other depositories among the
institutions, it is increasingly important to develop powerful means of organizing data and
analysis for extraction of useful knowledge that could help in decision making in the
respective institutions. Additional efforts have to be made in order to develop a
computerized system of managing the network of databases and MIS of partner institutions
and organizations in the sector.

Soft ware and hard ware design requirement will be studied, and the National Water
Resources Management Information System (NWRMIS) will be realized. It will have a web
based links and networks with databases and Management Information Systems (MIS) of
the network institutions such as EPA, CSA, MoH, MoARD, MoM, etc. Data bases and MIS
for the different Directorates in the Ministry of Water Energy such as WASH, Ground Water,
Hydrology, Irrigation, etc., will be connected to the system. A network of computer
worksheets and fileservers standardized with specifications to suit to the needs of the
individual network members and the whole system will be developed. The effort that is
needed to establish a comprehensive water sector monitoring and information systems in
the country is to link these MIS or Database developed in the different institutions to a
centralized Water Resources Management Information Center. This center is preferred to be
in the Ministry of Water Energy, the most responsible institution for the water sector. Each
partner institutions in the sector will feed data directly to the National Water Resources
Management Information system (NWRMIS) through established National Water Resources
Monitoring Network which constitutes the framework.

A sample of web based portal system for the proposed monitoring and information system is
presented in figure 12 below (GIRWI Phase I Study).

4.2.2 Description of the proposed architecture

The proposed architecture of water sector information system is a web portal which is a
centralized system that has access to different water sector information which is found on
a number of water sector organizations. Different water sector users that access different
information will have a single access point to all of the information. The portal helps to
present information from diverse sources in a unified way. The system gives consistent look
and serves for multiple applications. The proposed system will use distributed applications,
different types of middleware and hardware to provide services from a number of different
sources. Figure of the proposed web portal architecture shows that it is it is based on web
server technology with import and export interfaces and other corporate and external
systems. A search engine accesses data from database systems of various water sector
organizations.

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Figure 12 Proposed Web based Water Sector Information Portal System
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CHAPTER FIVE: MONITORING WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT AT
RIVER BASIN LEVEL

5.1 Introduction

River basin is increasingly acknowledged as appropriate unit for planning, measurement,
analysis and management of water resources as it is the natural and hydrological boundary
for water resource. It is also important as water availability at the basin level becomes the
primary constraint for different uses; water supply, irrigation, support for environmental uses.
The growing scarcity of freshwater resources in Awash River Basin results in intense inter-
sectoral competition for water, and these need good monitoring of the freshwater resources
base, abstraction or withdrawal, performance efficiency, return flows and reuse, etc.

In a river basin, there can be a number of issues and problems whose solution can bring
common benefit through good governance, integrated water resources planning and
management (IWRM), efficient and sustainable use and environmental protection and
security, and hence organizing the monitoring and information systems of the water sector
particularly the water resources management at a river basin framework is much more
feasible and realistic. The international research centers (IWMI) and many other countries
experiences (USA, China, etc.) suggest clearly the significance of the river basin option as
sound approach to monitoring, organizing and managing water resources information.

5.2 Monitoring Climate and Water Resource Freshwater Resource Base

The knowledge base mapping discussed earlier in section three is the basis for
understanding the different elements and aspects of the water sector. In this knowledge
base, it is recognized that climate is one of the critical factors influencing water availability.
Climate has also a pervasive influence that affects many management issues. As a result it
is important to have a strategy for studying and responding to climate variability and change
where these changes can be predicted with some confidence. Research on climate will be
one of the areas where this can be realized.

5.2.1 Monitoring Climate

Ethiopia has highly variable rainfall both in time and space (World Bank, 2006). There are
major variations in rainfall/precipitation, both temporal and spatial variability. Variability in
rainfall causes a devastating drought and flood in many parts of the country, and this
affected food production, economic growth and social development in the country. A review
of the study on the rainfall variability is presented in Annex D. Rainfall in much of the country
(over 80%) is highly seasonal and exceptionally variable and unpredictable both in time and
space. Because the country is heavy dependent on rain-fed agriculture, it often plunges into
recurrent and severe food shortages. According to the recent World Bank study (2006), this
unmitigated and wild hydrological variability costs the government over one third of its
growth potential. If this assessment is real, Ethiopia losses quite a huge portion of its annual
budget for not able to harness its most important resource, Fresh Water Resources.
Monitoring the rainfall variability and the huge impacts on the socio - economy of the country
is a priority.

Rainfall/precipitation is the one of the several climatic variables and it is an integral part and
product of climate. It is a primary source of all water bodies for all purposes and it is an
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essential element in the hydrologic/water cycle. It is a major input in water resources and it
is the most importance data in the planning of many of the sectors development program in
the country; water supply for domestic and industrial, agricultural, transport/road, airlines
services, and other economic sectors and development programs. It is also an important
input in flood monitoring and management. Real time rainfall information is now a day used
as an early warning mechanism for flood control.

Another essential climatic information critical for accounting and management and planning
of water resources in the country is evaporation, which is another parameter used in the
assessment of water supply potential. Like rainfall, evaporation has both spatial and
temporal variation.

Overall information on water cycle/hydrologic system for Ethiopia is inadequately
understood and least predicted. Most climatic variables such as precipitation, evaporation,
etc. that affect the countrys water resources on a daily basis are insufficiently known.
Therefore little is known yet on the distribution, seasonal variability and the anomalies of the
rainfall/drought and overall climate change. As a result of these huge knowledge gap, very
little can be done to manage the variability of the rainfall and its impact. Recently the World
Bank Report (World Bank, 2006) outlined its assessment on how GDP growth of Ethiopia is
strongly influenced by the seasonal variation of the rainfall/hydrology in the country. This
information from most trusted source has helped the policy makers to seriously look at the
climatic and hydrological variability as a serious challenge to deal with priority.

The monitoring climate and associated water resources in the country produces data and
information for making informed decision by policy makers and other decision makers timely.
Copy the diagnostic report on surface water resources monitoring here.

Present and explain the data and reporting of hydrological data in the country. Refer
National Data base papers. Include also natural climate variability diagram (ref hydrological
drought of water year 2006)

5.2.2 Monitoring Water Resources

Ethiopia has abundant surface water resources potential estimated at about 122 BM3
(World Bank, 2006). The per capita renewable freshwater resource is estimated at about
1,500 m
3
per year. These resources are unevenly distributed. They have also high seasonal
variation. About 80 to 90% of the surface water resource potential is located in 4 major river
basins; Abaye (Blue Nile), Tekeze, Baro Akobo and Omo Gibe (AfDB, 2005).

Water resources at a River Basin scale has been universally promoted and adopted as the
optimal planning and management unit that allows for the internalization of all external
effects caused by multiple water use (Newton 1992; Tecklaff 1967; UN 1958)
2
. Since the
1992 Dublin International conference on water and the environment, and Agenda 21
(UNCED, 1992), river basin management has been endorsed by a wide variety of influential
organizations. These include the world Bank, International Water Management Institute
(IWMI), Global Water Partnership (GWP, 2000) and the US Environmental Protection

2
/ Newton M, 1992. Land, water and development: River basin systems and their sustainable management.
Ed. in How widely Applicable is River Basin Management by Ines Dombrowsky, Ram Almog, Nir Becker, Eran
Feitelson, Simone Kalwitter, Stefan Lindemann and Natalie Mutlak. Environmental Management 2010
45:11121126.
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Agency (EPA 1996) and the European Union (EU 2000). There is no comprehensive
assessment made on ground water resources potential and hence very little is known on the
except an estimate of 2.69 BMC reported in the 1980s..

It is for this reason that the Ethiopian Water Resources Policy gave at most attention and
importance for water resources management at a River Basin level. The national water
policy fully recognizes and adopts the hydrological boundary or basin as the fundamental
planning unit and water resources management domain ((FDRE, 1999, Article 2: 2.1.1:No.
6). This has useful linkages with the development, protection and conservation of water
resources under a defined hydrological boundary, the basin, for major water uses such as
irrigation, domestic and industrial water use, and water use for ecological and environmental
purposes. Subsequently Ethiopia has implemented its own water policy by establishing so
far two river basin organizations (the Awash and Blue Nile River Basin Organizations by
proclamation endorsed by the parliament and state council with the necessary institutions
required to administer it.

A basin scale is the area which contributes hydrologically to a first order stream, which intern
is defined by its outlet to a terminal (closed) inland water body or to the ocean (wolf and
others 1999). River basin management, therefore, refers to the management of a basins
water resources at the basin scale.

5.2.2.1 Monitoring Surface Water Resources

The Hydrology Department of the MWR has established hydrological network and it has
been gauging the flow of major rivers (including Trans boundary Rivers) and streams in the
country for over half a century. Presently there are a total of 560 gauge stations (465
gauges are operational) and they are distributed by River Basins. Recently, sediment load
and ambient water quality are also included along with the stream flow data collection and
the sites already started are in about 90 to 100 stations.

(i) Stream flow monitoring

Surface water resources potential or specifically stream flow (table 4) is probably the most
monitored and well documented data and information in the sector in Ethiopia. There is fairly
adequate hydrological data in 9 River Basins. However, it is difficult to say there is adequate
knowledge base developed and disseminated (shared) for users. The data is collected, and
often used for engineering work as needed, but the full understanding of the phenomenon
and the existing hydrological system in the river basin are yet not fully realized. Effort has
not been made to utilize these huge and important water resources data. Hydrological data
have to be analyzed into information and should lead to action, and this require the
strengthening of the information base - a priority.

Actually in each and every stream/river flow and sediment flow data observed in each gauge
station every hour, day, month, year and over several years, there are unread information
on precipitation, land management and vegetation cover and socio economic data and
information in the respective catchments and or river basins. These information and
knowledge can have significant importance for water resources management and policy-
making decisions. Without a research attached to these hydrological data collection work, it
is always difficult to optimize the benefit of this important and expensive data collection
activity. Each stream flow data contain information and knowledge crucially important for the
efficient and effective management of the water resource management that the sector
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desire to achieve, but this can only be possible if a research program is developed and
attached to such an expensive hydrological undertaking.

With a research program attached, well-developed trends could be established, i.e
structured information and knowledge on the long-term low flows, medium flows, and high
flows, and the timing of these two extreme events and frequency could establish. Such
information and knowledge base are used for system operating purposes, forecasting flood
discharges or stages, yearly discharges for operation of reservoirs and hydroelectric plants,
etc.

Table 4 Existing densities of stream gauge stations in each River Basin

River Basin
Area
(000 m
2
)
Runoff
(BMC/yr)
Existing Hydrological network (stream gauges)
(Number of gauge stations in each basin)
Presently
available
To be
Rehabilita
ted
WMO
Recommen
ded
network
density
Gap
Abaye 199,810 51.00 160 11 130 None
Tekeze 90,001 7.63 39 3 47 8
Baro Akobo 74,102 11.89 31 2 39 8
Genale 171,042 5.88 34 3 68 34
Wabi Shebele 202,697 3.16 30 9 61 31
Mereb 7,180 0.26 3 1 4 1
Omo Gibe 78,213 17.96 46 6 54 8
Afar Denakil 2,223 - 10 8 18 8
Awash 112,697 4.60 71 1 58 None
Rift Valley 52,739 5.64 54 2 43 None
Ogaden 77,121 - None None None None
Aysha 2,223 0 None None None None
Source: MoWE (2007)


(ii) Lake level monitoring

One of the problem with lakes and large reservoirs is it is often difficult to notice slight
changes which over long period could become a serious environmental disaster. Have you
ever been concerned when a lake or a big reservoir around you is higher or lower than it
has ever been, and even when totally disappeared for good as it has happened to Lake
Alemaya in Eastern Hararghe, or a major reduction in the depth or volume of the largest
man made reservoir, Lake Koka? Everybody is shocked and frustrated by the
disappearance of Lake Alemaya a process that is very unnoticeable until it is at its last
stage.

However it may be difficult and expensive, through long term lake level recording (data
collection) and analysis, it is possible to detect changes in the lake levels and other
environmental conditions. Lake level monitoring provide a useful data base on the state of
conditions of lakes in the country, and the data base that is developed from these data will
support the development of a sensitive, cost effective, monitoring set up and system to
detect small changes in the volume (quantity) and quality of water resources. Most of the
Ethiopian lakes do not have sufficient and long time data.
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Figure 13 Staff Gauge a typical gauge station for monitoring lake level

A staff gauge as shown in figure 12 above may be used and manual observation and
recording (at pre set intervals) could be done. This is the easiest and cheapest method,
however, under certain conditions it is not reliable and it is less effective, for instance at low
lake levels or extreme high levels when flow exceeds the height of the gage or upper
reading.

The major threat to lakes and reservoirs in Ethiopia is uncontrolled land use. Agricultural
practices are major concern for lake water pollution (non point source pollution). Nitrogen
and phosphorus from fertilizers used in agricultural fields are transported by runoff water
and head towards lakes, and eventually becomes a concern for the existence of lakes.

There is also an important aspect of lake monitoring, the trophic state of lakes, which means
the life supporting capacity per unit volume of water of the lake, and this very much
unknown in Ethiopia. There are six commonly measured variables that are widely accepted
as useful and important indicators for monitoring the trophic level of lakes: Chlorophyll a,
Secchi depth (SD), total phosphorous (TP), total nitrogen (TN), Hypolimnetic volumetric
oxygen depletion rate and phytoplankton species and biomass. These variables yield
considerable relevant information on trophic levels relative to the efforts required for their
measurement.

(iii) Evaporation recording system

One of the data observed and monitored in water bodies; river basins, lakes and reservoirs
is evaporation. It is observed by monitoring the water levels in small scale using equipment
such as Evaporation Pan. There are different standard types of devices that are used today
from manual reading to automatic censor and recording. More information is available from
NMSA.
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Monitoring of the amount of evaporation or water consumption from ground surfaces is now
a day possible from space using land sat data which is available worldwide for the past
twenty five years.

5.2.2.2 Monitoring Trans-boundary Rivers Monitoring Shared - Water Resources

Monitoring and Information on trans-boundary rivers is receiving more attention globally as
the world in experiences worsening water insecurity among countries sharing Trans-
boundary Rivers particularly in the arid areas of the tropics. Nowhere is more important than
Ethiopia, where many of the countrys major rivers are trans-boundary. The country has five
major rivers that cross the political boundaries of two or more countries. For instance
Ethiopia contributes approximately 85% of the Nile River Water through its three major
Trans-boundary Rivers; Baro Akobo, Blue Nile and Tekeze Rivers. Recently Ethiopia is
having new geographic boundary with Eretria, which means new challenges for Trans-
boundary water management.

Most of the rivers are instrumented and hydrological data are collected for monitoring the
seasonal variability; changes in the amount and distribution of flows over the different
seasons.

5.2.2.3 Monitoring Ground Water

Groundwater plays an important role in the provision of drinking water supply, and it is
estimated to cover about 70% of the total drinking water supply in the country. Recently
shallow water is being exploited for irrigation as well though very small and limited compared
to the potential.

Over the last four decades, the Ministry of Mines (MoM) conducted groundwater
assessment and inventory of ground water sites; inventory information about sites at stream
reaches, drilled wells, test holes, springs, drains, lakes, reservoirs and ponds including water
quality assessments, etc. in limited areas in the country. Water samples data are analyzed
at laboratories well equipped to perform chemical analysis for the country wide assessment
and inventory. ENGEDA data base was developed with the support of USGS and the
Ethiopian Government to document the data and inventory on ground water assessment by
the MoM. Recently a Management Information System (MIS) for groundwater has been
developed and released in the Ministrys web site with data on boreholes and major aquifers
and related surface water resources and information on water quality.

However, except the limited ground water assessment in selected regions and the recently
released information system, there is very little research work done to establish a network of
observation wells for monitoring the fluctuations of groundwater in major aquifers of the
country and the quantification of the resources potential of ground water and the support for
development and management needs. Recently there is an on-going effort to install the first
observation wells for monitoring ground water sources for specific sites, Dire Dawa and
Mekele
3
water supply well fields. This is at the request of the respective municipalities
following major hydrological and quality problems observed. So far there is very little
experience in monitoring groundwater using observation wells in Ethiopia.


3
Two large cities with declining groundwater yield and threat of pollution in their respective well field
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After the national groundwater MIS is established, it is hoped that a distributed ground water
information system (GWIS) with a distributed water database in which data can be
processed over a network of computer worksheet file servers in the different ministries and
regional water bureaus will provide a reliable source of data and information.

5.3 Monitoring Agricultural Water Use Irrigation and Drainage and Livestock
Watering

The country has an estimated 3.5 to 4 million ha of irrigation potential with abundant land
and water resource. The countrys potential for rain-fed agriculture is also an enormous
resource that can support the food production drive, although it has not been fully exploited
for several reasons
4
. However rain - fed agriculture constitutes over 90% of the food
production for the nation.

On the other hand irrigation sub sector has very low level of development in Ethiopia.
Presently, only less than 5% of the countys irrigation potential is developed, and of this,
small - scale and small-holder irrigation schemes constitute over 50%. Over the years, the
limitation for irrigation development was the lack adequate investment fund and favorable
policy environment that have undermined the countrys effort to develop its irrigation
potential.

With increasing population growth and growing food shortages in the country, there is
increasing political support to irrigation development in the country. With a special support to
small - scale and small-holder irrigation (a major food security strategy in the country), the
irrigation sector is expected to play an important role in future in supporting food production
and the production of row materials for local industries. Ethiopia has set a strategy to
develop its irrigation potential to meet its growing food need and increasing growing food
insecurity challenge facing the nation. There are very good signs that irrigation is playing
key role in the national economy, the large scale sugar estates, the flower farms, cotton
production for local industrial consumption and export.

Today there are challenges in achieving well performing irrigation scheme largely due to the
shortage of data, information and the basic knowledge to support the development effort.
The Ethiopian Agricultural Research Institute and Universities are struggling to undertake
small research activities largely limited to only irrigation agronomy. There is no information
on type of irrigation systems, crop-water and irrigation system performance efficiency, etc.
Highly varying environmental and ecological characteristic on much of the country where
irrigation development is implemented and feasible, these information are crucial needed.
Monitoring and applied researches are required with information covering wide areas and
accommodating the hydrological variability to support the irrigation development programs in
the country.

The challenge of monitoring irrigation is both social and technical thereby heightening the
need to identify solutions through integrated research activities. Existing knowledge in the
country on technology choice, water management practices, etc. are limited, and this makes
the need for research and monitoring irrigation crucial. The increasing importance for
monitoring irrigation for sustainable development and management is high as demand for

4
The countrys food production strategy to feed the increasing population remains mainly on small scale and
small holders irrigation development, Inputs for production are expensive, increasing rainfall variability, weed
problems, proper land management, etc.
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freshwater resources get intense among inter sectoral uses. In many of the river basins
(though less in most basins) it is in inevitable that the irrigated agriculture sector, the largest
water user will be called upon to reassess its water requirements, water use efficiency, etc.
in view of the competition for water from other users.
As discussed above under evaporation, water consumption for irrigation can be monitored
using land sat data
5
. Mapping water use through estimating water that evaporate or
transpires from irrigation fields are monitored using land sat information to monitor water use
from space, and this seems very effective and less trouble some realizing the scale factor
involved in trying to monitor on ground using the classic method.

Combining the different techniques at river basin level, monitoring water abstraction or
withdrawal for irrigation and the efficiency of irrigation water use can be a priority area of
assessment in water sector monitoring.

5.4 Monitoring Dams Safety and Hydropower

Ethiopias infrastructure development effort and capacity to control and harness its water
resources and reduce the seasonal variability of the rivers and streams need to increase
given the sensitivity of the Ethiopian Economy (GDP) to hydrological variability. Ethiopia has
now given more emphasis to the development of its hydropower potential through damming
its rivers, diverting water for irrigation costing Ethiopia huge costs. These infrastructure need
to be monitored for its safe use and healthy functioning. The effort to develop the
information on progresses to hydropower development, and the safe functioning of
infrastructure and use for controlling water resources is at its early stage.

5.5 Monitoring Water supply and sanitation

Water supply and sanitation is one that has the largest information in the water sector. The
elements that require more attention on the information and Knowledge Management on the
sub sector is on the availability, adequacy and sustainability of the service levels. With
regard to sanitation, the focus on the knowledge Management is on available technology
options, coverage and sustainability.

In the case of Urban Water supply and sanitation, there are data and information on utilitys
performance (for a case in Addis Ababa City). In services that have connections with
reading meters, almost all data on supply and consumption are known including tariffs, and
these data are stored in a data bank. This database can be a prototype for future database
to be replicated in other urban water supply, in other urban centers in the country. However,
there remains enormous challenge in the sub sector as the demand is growing with growing
population pressure and urbanization, Knowledge Management will play key role in
improving the situation.

In rural water supply and sanitation sub sector, the NWCO, under the Water Supply and
Sanitation Directorate, has established a WASH data Management Information System
(MIS). A monitoring manual and data collection guideline is developed on the subsector that
describes how monitoring is done and how to collect data and report. A format for data
collection and reporting WASH facilities at community level and school and health
institutions at wereda level is prepared and it is now ready for national role out. Household
data on hygiene and safe water management is also part of the inventory. These data at

5
Details are presented in geology.com
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collected on a regular basis and are entered into MIS data base located at the Federal
Level. The data collected has GIS information which will allow computing the water
abstraction and consumption for domestic and industrial uses at river basin level.

5.6 Monitoring Water Quality

5.6.1 The Framework

5.6.1.1 Monitoring Environmental (Ambient) Water Quality

Ethiopia uses ambient water quality standards used worldwide to protect its fresh water
resources. The monitoring of water quality at a certain level of frequency helps to determine
risks and establish the presence of any long-term anthrpogenically-induced trend in the
concentration of any pollutant. Some of the most frequent indicators for water quality
element include biological, hydro-morphological, and physico-chemical elements, pollutants
from industries, etc. For details on the type of water quality elements in the water quality
framework developed for this study, please refer annex E - Water Quality Monitoring.

Ambient water quality is for monitoring freshwater sources and it is conducted by different
independent agencies and offices outside the MoWE such as EPA, Research Institutions,
Universities and River Basins Administrations. However the coverage is very limited.
Ambient water quality monitoring by most institutions concentrate largely in Awash River
Basin since it is associated with a known source of pollution, largely in areas where there is
a fear and potential prevalence of industrial pollution. The Awash River Bain Administration
is also monitoring similar situations since it has a mandate to ensure the health functioning
of the environment and sustain the functioning of the infrastructure and provide good quality
water for users. The hydrology department of the MWR is also monitoring water quality with
a plan to cover all river basins including Awash River Basin, undertaking stream flow,
sediment and water quality concurrently. Most of these data provide information on the
quality of the freshwater sources.

Data are systematically collected. Ambient water quality is collected at river basin level, and
includes different pollutants (Un-DESA, diagnostic report); point source and non-point
source [defuse] pollutants. These are pH, TDS, EC, turbidity, NH
3
,PO
4
, SO
4
, Cl
-
, F
-
, NO
2
,
NO
3
, Fe, MN, AL,Pb, Cr, BOD
5
, Ca
2+
, K
+1
, Mg
2+
, Na
+1
, etc. (UN-DESA/FDRE, 2008). The
aggregate value of these pollutants is measured in kilograms or tons per m
3
of water per
year. Monitoring of the water quality is done in time and space. GIS is used for mapping the
distribution of the water pollution over the river basin indicating the geographic distribution of
the source of pollutants.

5.6.1.2 Monitoring Drinking Water Quality

World Health Organization (WHO)
6
and the Ministry of Water Energy developed guidelines
for safe drinking water quality standards in 1984 and 2002, respectively. The purpose of
water quality monitoring and standardization is to protect public health and welfare and
enhance improve and maintain water quality as provided by the guidelines and standards.

Drinking water qualities are tested and analyzed on a regular basis for those areas that have
access to laboratory services. There is a main laboratory and a mobile laboratory at regional

6
WHO, 1984. Guidelines for drinking water quality. Volume I. Recommendations. Geneva, 1984.
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level and other supportive laboratories at every zonal level. The problem with the drinking
water quality at regional level is the lack of capacity to undertake water quality monitoring for
operational schemes on a regular basis to safe guard the health of the people. The recently
conducted pilot WASH facilities inventory in two sample woredas in each of the four major
regions, Oromia, Amhara, SNNP and Tigari, have demonstrated the capacity limitation in
undertaking water quality monitoring as part of the inventory. The water quality data
observed in all the eight woreda has the lowest data quality.

The complexity of water quality monitoring is increasing as the present drinking water quality
monitoring is widened and upgraded to a new focus directed towards a balanced and
integrated strategy for national and regional assessment of the surface and ground water
quality.

Data on drinking water quality is not systematically collected, analyzed and reported often
with less information generated. Because of the large amount of data being gathered and
stored in the data bases of different organization and institutions, particularly in the regions,
it is often described as data reach but information poor. Drinking water quality is rigorously
collected for big cities like Addis, however, rural water supply sources are less regularly and
consistently sampled and tested. On the basis of the data and information gathered from
Addis Ababa Water Supply and Sewerage Authority, the water quality variables regularly
collected for cities and towns include Bacteriological such as coli form count, physical
analysis such as turbidity, color, temperature and pH, and chemical analysis include total
dissolved solids, conductivity, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) residual chlorine, dissolved oxygen,
total alkalinity as CaCO
3
, total hardness, Ammonia as N, Nitrate as N, Nitrite as N,
Phosphorous as PO4, Sulphate as SO4, Fluoride (F), iron, Manganese (Mn), Silica as Si
O2, Carbon Dioxide (CO2), Aluminum (Al), Copper (Cu), Chromium (Cr), Chloride (Cl),
Bicarbonate Alkalinity and Hydroxide Alkalinity

The water quality data and information are important monitoring information in the water
sector in the country.

5.7 Essential Water Sector Data in a River Basin

Human activities change the river basin characteristics and so do the water resources in the
basin. Data are, therefore, needed to determine and estimate these changes or even predict
the future water resources situation in the basin. A simplified model (see Annex E) for a river
basin is prepared to see the interrelationship of the processes and different observable data
sets at a river basin level. The following are relevant and broader data sets in a river basin
for water sector monitoring and information system development.

(i) Geography and Population

(ii) Climate, Water Resources and Water Use

Climate
Climate zones/agro-ecology zones
Climatic data: Rainfall, evapotranspiration, temperature, relative humidity, sunshine
hours


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Water Resources
Major sub-watersheds and their boundaries, tributaries and aquifers
Lake and wetlands
Renewable water resources: surface water, groundwater
Water use
Main water use sectors (agricultural - irrigation and livestock- , domestic, industry,
other), level of pressure on water resources
Competition between economic sectors and with the environment
Water demand projections for agriculture
Groundwater extraction, wastewater and drainage water: reuse in agriculture

(iii) Agriculture and Food Security
Irrigation potential
Irrigated areas by type of water control systems
Irrigation schemes by source of water (surface water, groundwater, mixed sources,
desalinated water, wastewater, drainage water)
Irrigated areas by irrigation typologies and management types used in the river
basin: traditional/modern irrigation; public/private irrigation; urban/peri-urban/rural
Irrigated areas by method of water abstraction: diversion/gravity systems, pumped
systems
Main irrigated crops: area, yield and production, comparison of rain-fed and irrigated
yields
Cost of investments (irrigation development), recurrent costs (costs of operation and
maintenance), costs of rehabilitation by type of water control system
Agricultural water use: design values of irrigation water requirement per ha (ranges)
by type of crop and crop growth stages; estimations of water use efficiency at
conveyance and field level
Types of drainages systems and distribution by type of drainage systems and
linkages with irrigation management: only flood control main drainage systems
On farm-drainage in rain-fed lands: role, importance, extent, state of maintenance
and key issues
On farm-drainage in irrigated land: role, importance, extent, state of maintenance,
key issues

(iv) Water Management Institutions
Main institutions in water management,
Key players (stakeholders) in the irrigation and drainage development,
water use, pollution, and drainage water disposal control systems,
Water user associations and other local management bodies/mechanisms: status
and role, relations with government institutions,
Organization of management of water in agriculture and territorial level of
competencies: local, regional and national,
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Training, extension, capacity building, information management.

(vi) Finances
Available financing outlets
Modalities for funding, cost recovery of irrigation and maintenance/rehabilitation
System of financial incentives, subsidies in agriculture and irrigation,
Fees for irrigation water.

(viii) Environment and health

Irrigation water quality,
Irrigation induced water logging and salinization,
Point and non point source pollution
Change in water regime due to agriculture,
Siltation/Sedimentation potential on hydraulic infrastructures,
Malaria, bilharzias, and other water-related diseases


Table 5 Important data sets in a River Basin
















Climatic Data
Rainfall
Evaporation
Water Resources/hydrology Data
Lake and reservoir levels,
Runoff and Stream flow
Ground water potential & abstraction
Water abstraction by use
Ground water recharge
Drainage water
Seepage and other losses
Domestic and Industrial Water Supply
Data on Urban and Rural Water Supply
Water for Industrial use
Wastewater
Agricultural Water Data
Soil moisture (saturated and
unsaturated)
Evapo-transpiration (ET)
Irrigation water (from surface
and ground water sources)

Hydraulic Infrastructures Data
Dams and diversion weirs
Irrigation canals
Hydropower
Tube-well for irrigation

Water Quality:
Drinking water Quality
Ambient water quality
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CHAPTER SIX: INDICATOR BASED MONITORING AND ANALYSIS

6.1 Introduction

This chapter presents a brief definition and analysis of each selected indicator proposed for
monitoring progress towards the sustainability of water resources management under
GIRWI project. A detailed methodological sheet prepared for each indicator is attached in
Annex C.

6.2 Analysis of Selected Indicators of Sustainable Development in water sector


Indicator # 1: Proportion of Annual Freshwater consumption to renewable freshwater
resources

Definition of Terms:

This indicator includes two variables (i) the total volume of renewable freshwater resources
and (ii) the water consumption at river basin level.

Renewable Freshwater resources of a given river basin is the sum of surface water runoff
(stream flow) volumes generated plus the ground water recharge taking place less base
flows into surface water: rivers, lakes and wetlands (to avoid double counting) in the river
basin under consideration. It is with low concentration of salt.

Water consumption: The concept of water consumption gives an indication of the amount
of water that is lost by the economy during use in the sense that it has entered the economy
but has not returned either to water resources or to the lakes or reservoirs or ground water.
This happens because during use, water is incorporated into products, evaporated,
transpired by plants or simply consumed by households or livestock. The difference
between the water use by the economy and the freshwater supply is referred to as water
consumption. It can be computed for each economic unit and for the whole economy. Water
consumption does not include total returns to the freshwater system, and hence total
consumption equals total abstraction less total returns. A physical Water Accounting table
given in Annex F table 1 presents the details on how to compute water consumption at River
Basin Level.

Calculation
7


Water consumption calculated using the Physical Water Accounting Technique (Water Use
and Water Supply table) presented in Annex F section 2, which include the use of water by
the different economic units; Agriculture (rain-fed), Industries such irrigation, manufacturing,
municipal and households water supply, etc. divided by the total volume of freshwater
resources available at a river basin level. The indicator is expressed in percentage and it is
dimensionless.


7
Note: This calculation is more relevant when done at river basin; but however, the values for all river basins in
the country can be aggregated to compute the national (country) average.

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Type of data:

The type of data needed for physical water accounting to compute water consumption at
river basin level is based on an assessment of existing situation and users need in the
country. The most recommended data items are as follows.

(i) Stocks of Water in the River Basin: This include (a) Surface Water (water in
lakes, reservoirs, rivers/streams and wetlands), (b) Ground Water and (c) Soil
water (this is the volume of water suspended in the upper most belt of the soil
(unsaturated soil). Refer fig 1 in Annex F.
(ii) Flows of water within the River Basin: These are the volume of water that flows
into and out of the inland water resources of the River Basin. These include (a)
Inflows such as precipitation and water from other river basins; (b) outflows of
water from the river basin include Evapotranspiration (evaporation and
transpiration from plants) and outflow from the river basin (volume of water
leaving the outlet of the River Basin at down stream point; (c) Natural transfers of
water between inland water resources need to be included here and these are
surface water infiltrate to ground water and ground water emerges from aquifers
and springs to form surface water (base flow) - rivers/streams. This is essential to
avoid double counting of the stock. The different components are shown fig 1 in
Annex F.
(iii) Flows of water from the environment to the economy: These include the volume
of water abstracted by the different economic units such as irrigation,
manufacturing industry, energy, water supplies (household and municipal) and it
is measured in meter cube. Refer Table 1 in Annex F.
(iv) Flows of water from the economy to the environment: These data include flows of
water (including polluted water) from the economy to the environment, and they
are known as return flows or discharges to the environment (UNSD, 2006).
Returns should be disaggregated to industries and households. The sewerage
industry is particularly important since it discharges much of the water abstracted
and used by the economy back to the environment.
(v) Losses of water from distribution network and sewerage system,
(vi) Waterborne Emissions: These are pollutants and depletes (reduces) the volume
of freshwater system in a river basin, and hence they should be excluded. As a
result the sewerage industries or self contained treatment activities by industries
have to treat the emissions and release to the ambient water. Waterborne
emissions are measured in units of mass (kg, tones, etc.). The five major data
types needed for monitoring waterborne emissions include BOD, COD, Nutrients
(N and P) and suspended solids. Types of hazardous substances from industrial
establishments depend on the type of industry and they have to be investigated
to identify specific emission types of concern.

Data on the total volume of Freshwater Resource in a river basin is available at the
Hydrology Sub Directorate in the Ministry of Water Energy for many of the river basins in
Ethiopia.






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Source of data

Table 6. Source of data in the use of physical water accounting for estimating Water
Consumption at River Basin Level

Types of data items for use for the
estimation of water consumption at River
Basin level
Data sources
Survey
data
Administrative
data
Hydrological/
Meteorological
data
Research
Data
Inland Water Stocks 3 3 3 3
Surface water
3 3 3 3
Ground Water
3 3 3 3
Soil Water
3 3 3 3
Environmental flows in and out of the river
basin

3 3
Natural transfer of water between inland
water resources

3 3
Flows from the environment to the economy 3 3 3 3
Flows within the economy 3 3

3
Flows from the economy to the environment 3 3

3
Losses from the distribution networks and
waste water collection systems
3 3

3
Flows of waterborne emissions within the
economy
3 3

3
Flows of waterborne emissions from the
economy to the environment
3 3 3 3
Source: UNSD. 2010.

Issues:

Some economy may be abusing/ wasting or polluti9ng water, while other economies may be
water stressed in a river basin since we do not have information on their water use.
Therefore different uses of water such as domestic and industrial water supply, irrigation,
water environmental support, etc. need to be determined if possible every year.

If the Ministry of Water and Energy needs to reinforce its Water Resources Management at
river basin level, which means implementing the National Water Policy effectively, the
Physical Water Accounting has to be conducted at a river basin level. A brief description
on the physical water accounting is given in Annex F. However, a more detailed work has to
be done presumably in the GIRWI III (as per the initial project details. Data collection
procedure for the different economies has to be developed. With investment on such
project, the water sector information at river basin level becomes explicit and it will enable
planners, managers and policy makers make appropriate decisions for instance in planning
new investment, securing enough water for the different economy (irrigation, manufacturing,
municipal use, etc.) at a river basin level. We should always remember a saying if you do
not measure it, you do not manage it. Another terminology often used is Water Audit
when the water accounting is done at a annual basis.

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The quality of the data is difficult to evaluate without access to good descriptions of the
methods used for each investigation in the various river basins. The reliability and
comparability of the data for each water use depends on the concepts and definitions
agreed upon in a well established technical review forum since this indicator has to be
developed annually. This technical forum, however, does not exist in the country at the
MoWE.

Indicator # 2: Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) in Freshwater Systems

Definition:

The Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) is an empirical test, in which standardized
laboratory procedures are used to estimate the relative oxygen requirements of
wastewaters, effluents and polluted waters. Micro- organisms use the atmospheric oxygen
dissolved in the water for biochemical oxidation of organic matter, which is their source of
carbon. It refers to the content of biodegradable organic matter in water. Therefore the BOD
is used as an approximate measure of the amount of biochemically degradable organic
matter that is present in a sample.

Calculation:

Standard ambient water quality measurement methods are available in several reference;
APHA (1999) and ISO (1990). The method used consists of filling to overflowing an airtight
bottle of specific size with the water sample to be tested. It is then incubated at a constant
temperature for five days. Dissolved oxygen is measured initially and after incubation. The
BOD5 is then computed from the difference between the initial and final readings of
dissolved oxygen.

Data sources and availability:

Data are collected regularly from rivers, lakes, reservoirs, sewage treatment plants, effluents
from industries, service providing institutions, agro-industrial establishments. Data is
available in research and academic institutions and government organizations responsible
for freshwater quality and industrial wastewater monitoring services.


Issues

Awash River basin is the most developed river basin and over 60% of the irrigated
agriculture exists in this river basin. Most of the industries in the country are concentrating
around and in the vicinity of Addis Ababa, which is in the upper most part of the river basin.
We have very little information as to how much of the freshwater resource of Awash River
Basin is polluted, on the water use by the different economy in the basin. The emission or
pollution depletes/reduces the available freshwater in the basin. The emission level changes
as polluted water travels in the river course.

Time series data on BOD

Ambient water quality secondary data was gathered from Addis Ababa Environmental
Protection Bureau to examine the seasonal variability on BOD - the indicator. The graph
Stiengt

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shown in
Ababa. B
Akaki an



Fig

8
/ Source:
thening Watei
ions Bevelopme
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BOD and oth
d nine samp
14 BOD leve

Addis Ababa E
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
M
g
/
l
i
t
t
e
r
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
m
g
/
l
i
t
e
r

i Sectoi Nonit
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sents the BO
her water qu
pling sites in
els in Little a

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S
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OD load leve
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and Great Ak
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8
/
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n sites in Great
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8 9 10 11 1
e sites in Little
i Stream in Add
tem in Ethiopi
A)
e and great
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s in Addis A
7 8 9
t Akake
m in Addis Abab
12 13 14 15
Akai
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ams in Add
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The result of the study shows that the BOD load varies significantly between the different
sampling sites. The source of the organic matter seems to be domestic. The available data
shown above shows in three sites (6,7 and 8) in Great Akaki Stream have exceeded the
allowable BOD level for both November and January (2008) samples. While in Little Akaki
stream, nearly all (15) sample sites have exceeded the threshold level for BOD in Nov 2008
observation, and only 20% of the sites show below threshold level in Jan 2008. The BOD
level has ten times exceeded the threshold level. Therefore, the data in little Akaki is
showing a high level of organic pollution of the freshwater in the stream. When BOD levels
exceed the threshold level, dissolved oxygen level decreases because the oxygen that is
available in the water is being consumed by the bacteria. Since there is dissolved oxygen is
available in the water, fish and other aquatic organisms may not survive.

The data shown in fig 14 above does not sufficiently and convincingly demonstrate the
seasonal variability and between years. A long term observed data on monthly basin need
to be obtained to closely examine the seasonal variability of BOD in ambient water.

Indicator # 3: Area of Watershed developed under soil and water conservation
practices/measures (%).

Definition:

This indicator estimates the total area in a river basin that is put under improved soil and
water conservation practices. The watershed is the smallest element (unit) of a River Basin
which has its own defined hydrological boundary. The time frame most commonly used is
annual and the geographic scale of the measurement is River Basin.

Calculation

The total area in the different watersheds covered with improved soil and water conservation
practices are aggregated to give the sum areas of all watersheds (
i
N
) in the river basin.
The different types of improved soil conservation include (i) physical measures such as
contour soil bunds in cultivated land, fana yuju in both cultivated and non cultivated lands,
(ii) biological measure such as treating the land with trees, shrubs, etc. in non cultivated and
trip cropping, grass bunds, etc., and (iii) closed areas for natural regeneration.

The total area of a river basin covered with improved soil and water conservation practices
are estimated and it is expressed in hectare or km
2
unit. Another expression of the indicator
is a proportion of the river basin put under soil conservation practices, and it is expressed as
the total area under soil conservation practices divided by the total area of the River Basin
and the result is expressed in percentage.

Source of Data:

The data can be available from Woreda Agriculture Offices. However, the viable data is not
GIS based, and it is difficult to transfer the information into river basins.



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Indicator # 4: Standard Precipitation index (SPI) to monitor hydrological variability
and its impacts

Definition:

The SPI is an index developed from precipitation/rainfall record for a location and chosen
period (months or years). The rainfall record is fitted to a probability distribution which is then
transformed into a normal distribution so that the mean SPI for the location and period is
zero.

Calculation

The full description on the calculation of SPI is presented in Annex E. The results obtained
to test SPI as indicator of drought based on historical rainfall data obtained on several sites
are encouraging. Work is also on progress to use the same for stream flow data.

SPI = |(Xi -Xmcon)
N
=1
/]
Where
X is monthly rainfall data
is standard deviation of the data,
n= number of data sets observed,

Time series data on SPI:

Figure 15 Time Series data for SPI in Kombolch a drought prone site in Northern
Ethiopia

-4
-3
-2
-1
0
1
2
3
4
5
19
50
19
51
19
52
19
53
19
54
19
55
19
56
19
57
19
58
19
59
19
60
19
61
19
62
19
63
19
64
19
65
19
66
19
67
19
68
19
69
19
70
19
71
19
72
19
73
19
74
19
75
19
76
19
77
19
78
19
79
19
80
19
81
19
82
19
83
19
84
19
85
19
86
19
87
19
88
19
89
19
90
19
91
19
92
19
93
19
94
19
95
19
96
19
97
19
98
19
99
20
00
20
01
20
02
20
03
20
04
20
05
20
06
20
07
20
08
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The SPI showed that the rainfall in 1984 was a [server] drought period with a -3 index, and
this is consistent with the situation on the drought during this period. It was a sever drought
period with its impact on food shortages at a national level. For more details and observed
time series data on SPI, refer Annex E.

Indicator # 5: Area (Hectare) of land under irrigated or under improved rainwater
agriculture per capita by type of system

Definition:

It is the total irrigated area (ha) developed under irrigated agriculture or under improved
rainwater agriculture expressed in per capita. Irrigation agriculture is the artificial application
of water to the soil for the growing of plants and production of food crops through the use of
abstracted water either from surface or ground water sources or both. The term improved
rainwater indicates the abstraction method for accessing to water resource which is either
the water harvested from ground or roof or other surfaces for irrigation.

This indicator estimates the total area developed in a river basin under irrigation or under
improved rainwater agriculture (per capita). The indicator presents the level of irrigated
agriculture development within a river basin. The total irrigated area will indicate the status
of irrigated agriculture development as compared with the total cropped area first at the
River Basin level and then the aggregated value of all River Basins that will give the status
of irrigated agriculture at national level. The time frame most commonly used is annual and
the geographic scale of the measurement is River Basin.

The total irrigated area (AT) comprises different irrigation systems such as surface irrigation
which includes furrow (FIRR), basin (BIRR) and flooding (FLIRR), Drip irrigation system
(DRIP), sprinkler irrigation system (SP
IRRL
), and non conventional systems such as
traditional and improved rainwater agriculture using manual systems; Manual Irrigation using
buckets, or watering cans (MANIRR). Manual irrigation is increasingly becoming important
among small holder irrigation farms. The surface irrigation system includes furrow, basin,
and traditional flooding in pastoralist areas for pasture development.

Calculation

The computation of this indicator comprises the following data variables:-

Total Area under irrigation (ATOT) = S
TOT
+ SP
TOT
+ DRIP
TOT
+ MAN
IRR

Area under Irrigation per capita = ATOT /POP

Whereas:
S
TOT
= total area under surface irrigation,
SP
TOT
= total area under sprinkler irrigation,
DRIP
TOT
= total area under drip irrigation,
MAN
TOT
= total area under manual irrigation,

Geographic scale of the Indicator:

The data variables for the indicator are estimated or computed at a river basin scale.
National estimates are made summing the data obtained in all river basins in the country.

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Source of Data:

The data is available from Woreda Agriculture Office (WAO) and River Basin Administration
(RBA).

Indicator # 6: Percentage of electricity requirement met by Hydropower production

Definition:

The different sources of electricity in Ethiopia include Diesel Generator, hydropower (the
largest source), geothermal (presently one under trial in the rift valley), solar and Bio fuels
(limited to HH level). The most widely used sources of electricity in Ethiopia are generated
from hydropower and fossil oil and gas. Recently the country is starting to use coal as a
source of energy.

The total electricity presently in use in the country is unknown. However this data can be
developed from assessment of the electricity produced from different sources such as
diesel, hydropower, geothermal and even solar and bio fuel sources in order to have
knowledgeable policy decision making on future energy development. With the increasing
concern with climate change, the use of fossil oil and gas (the second largest electric energy
source in the country) is likely to decline for its import value and it negative impact on
climate. Alternative energy sources such as hydropower, geothermal, solar, bio fuel are the
future option of development. Ethiopia has a future plan to export electricity to its neighbors.
The data on each electric energy source may have to be disaggregated by type and
information and its long term trend is analyzed.

This indicator is based on the following definitions:

Total electricity consumed in the country: This is the total electrical energy or power
generated by different sources and consumed in the country.

Total Electricity produced by Hydropower: This is the total electrical energy produced from
hydropower only. Total amount of electricity produced from different sources; hydropower
(E
HY
), geothermal (E
GEO
), and the fossil sources such as Diesel (E
FOS
). Solar and bio fuels
are less used for electricity generation.

Calculation:

The indicator can be computed as:

100*[(E
H
) /(E
T
)]

Whereas:

E
H
= Total Electricity produced by Hydropower only
E
T
= Total electricity produced in the country from different sources
(hydropower, Diesel and Geothermal, etc.). The amounts of the
electricity production from the different sources have to be added up
to compute E
T
.


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Data Sources:

The data on electricity use can be obtained from baseline survey conducted at HH, and
industrial, municipal and other users by CSA, EEPCO, MoFED, MoM. Electricity is
expressed in GWH per year.

Time series Analysis

A time series data on the indicator for monitoring energy production by hydropower has
been reviewed over the last ten years by type of electric energy source. The result shows
that because the growth of electricity production by the diesel and geothermal is constant,
the overall contribution of the hydropower top the electricity production in the country is quite
slow despite the significantly high proportion of hydropower energy production over the last
eleven years (fig 14). This is because the contribution of the electric energy produced by
other sources (thermal and diesel) is very low compared to energy produced from
hydropower. The amount of Geothermal and diesel energy remained constant throughout
the study period (2000 to 2010) indicating some difficulties in investing in the other source of
energy particularly Geothermal. Over the last eleven year period, the indicator value
increased overall from 84% to 98%, which indicates that it is the dominant energy source in
the country.



Fig 16 Time series data on the contribution of hydropower in electricity generation in
the country

Indicator # 7: Percentage of people having access to safe drinking water supply

Definition:

The number of households that have access to safe drinking water sources within 1.5 km
distance. It is not only the physical access to improved water supply system, access implies
the use of safe drinking water, and it has built in a certain level of water quality (meeting the
WHO and MoWE quality standard) and quantity (of about 15 and 20 liters per capita for rural
and urban,
83.52
87.17
91.94
92.38
95.10
96.11 96.32
97.32 97.32 97.32
98.26
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
%

o
f

e
l
e
c
t
r
i
c
i
t
y

b
y

h
d
r
o
p
o
w
e
r
Year (20002010)
% Contribution of the Hydropower Energy

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respectively). The physical presence of an improved water supply facility within the given
standard distance targets the economic significance of the time required for travel and
workload on women and children engaged in the fetching of domestic water supply. The
defined time for access is expected for all year round. There are three indicators which
stand out as being of prime importance in the full service of water supply. These are water
quality, the reliability of the service in providing adequate water, and the sustainability of the
source. If a scheme is failing on any of these three indicators, then urgent action is required.
It is therefore worth discussing how these indicators can and should be monitored in the
field.

But access must be targeting water needed for drinking, cooking, and for bathing and
cleaning. The indicator excludes water used from unimproved water sources such as rivers,
lakes, stream and unprotected dug-well and springs, and it should not be counted.

Calculation

The number of people with access to safe drinking water aggregated from an improved
water sources reported by WASHCO divided by the total number of people in a defined
geographic, political and administrative boundary such as kebele, woreda, region and at
country level.

Source of Data:

Data sources for improved water supply facility could be (i) baselines conducted on
randomly designed sample households, or (ii) inventory of WASH facilities and updating the
data and information on a regular basis, and (iii) progress reports of completed and on-going
projects. The primary source of data is at lower level and a regular report from WASHCO
(see figure 16). The reports are obtained and compiled through kebele administrations using
number of households using the improved water supply source by WASHCO, and
household size to estimate user population from HEW at water supply facility level. The
kebele Manager deliver the report regularly to the woreda. Every month is a preferred time
period. The woreda Water Resources and the Health offices check and clean the data and
the report will be sent to the Zone and regional offices. Databases at woreda and regional
level are main sources of data for the development of the indicator.


Issues:

Surveys should be carried out at the driest period of the year when the quantity of water
available is lowest or most sources have run dry. The baseline surveyor should visit each
household and verify access to safe drinking water supply as defined above and for the safe
water management practices at household level. In addition, the distance to the water
supply may have to be measured in order to confirm that it is consistent with the policy;
within 1.5 km for rural and 0.5 km for rural. The policy is to guide the development plan and
allow a family or household to have access to improved water within and does not need to
spend a disproportionate part of the productive time in a day collecting water.

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Figure 17 Data and information flow to develop indicator # 7

Time Series Data on the Indicator

Recent report from the MoWE indicates that access to safe drinking water tripled to that of
ten years ago. The figure shows over 90% of the people in urban areas now live within 0.5
km of a safe water supply facility, and another 68% of the rural population is also within 1.5
km distance from the safe drinking water supply facility. The indicator developed over the
last ten years shows a steady growth as shown in Figure 17 below.



Figure 18. Time series data on the percentage of people with access to safe drinking water

0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
%

o
f

p
o
p

w
i
t
h

A
c
c
e
s
s

t
o

s
a
f
e

w
a
t
e
r
Year (19832001)
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Indicator # 8: Percentage of schools using standard and hygienic sanitation facilities

Definition:

The ratio between the number of schools using standard and hygienic toilet or latrine
(sanitation facility) to the total number of schools expressed in percentage. A sanitation
facility is defined as a facility used to block the human excreta from contact with the human
environment, and this can be achieved through controlling and safe disposal mechanism of
the human excreta. The most common type of facility is a toilet or latrine. Hygienic means
that there are no feces on the floor, seat or wall of the toilet or latrine.

Calculation:

The number of schools with or using standard and hygienic toilet or latrine (sanitation
facility) divided by the total number of schools expressed in percentage. A geographic
boundary such as woreda, region or country should be defined to calculate the indicator.

Source of Data:

Randomly sampled schools, inventory and regular updating through reports could be a basis
for data and information collection on the indicator. The primary source of data is the
schools themselves and reports could be made through the cluster supervisor. Annual
reporting is a preferred time period for the indicator. Data are collected from each school
directly and from regularly produced reports of woreda education office. Databases at
woreda and regional level are main sources of data for the development of the indicator.

Indicator # 8: Pupil to latrine/toilet stance ratio in schools expressed in percentage(%)

Definition:

It is the ratio of the total number of toilets made available in a school to the total number of
pupils or students which gives a ratio having met the standard services; given a standard
ratio of one toilet for 100 boys and one toilet for 50 girls as a basis of comparison

Calculation:

The indicator can be computed as:

100*[
i
N
School) / TSC],

Whereas:

(
i
N
SC) = Schools that meets the toilet/student ratio of 1 counted and summed
into whole number integer,
TSC = Total number of schools
N = Number of schools in the area considered; woreda, region or national


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Indicator # 9: Unaccounted water

Definition of the Indicator:

Unaccounted water is the percentage of the water abstracted from different sources and not
used by the public services (wasted water at the different points which include production,
storage and distribution system). It also includes water inaccurately metered and illegally
used water in the system. Presently the unaccounted water for Addis Ababa Water Supply is
estimated at 35% to 40%, quite a substantial amount of significant concern to the AWSSA.
In our water plan, we target to reduce unaccounted-for water to 10% any time in the future.
While there is still and always be some water that is unaccounted-for, we are constantly
investigating new ways to reduce the water lost through leaks and bursts, unmetered water,
etc. Unaccounted-for water includes water that is lost through bursts and leaks, taken
through illegal connections or used through inaccurate meters. In 2008, unaccounted-for
water made up approximately 37% of the water abstracted from the different sources.

Calculations:

The indicator can be computed as:

100*((V
T
V
b
)/ V
T
)

Where:
V
T
= Total volume of water abstracted (VT). It include water from ground water or
Boreholes (Vg), surface water treatment plant (Vsw), spring sources (Vsp) and
others
V
b
= Total water consumed estimated from the billed water from public spending in the
water for use.

Data and Data Sources:

Data on water abstracted or withdrawal based on meter readings and or discharge rate and
pumping time, bills collected from clients by economic sectors estimated in m
3
is usually
available from Municipalities or woreda water boards.

Indicator # 10a: Functionality

Functionality: Percentage (%) of functioning water supply systems (rural areas)

Definition:

It is the percentage of schemes that are reported as functioning i.e. provide water supply
services at a quantity and quality without interruption in a given period of time, mostly in a
year period.

Calculation:

Functionality (%) = 100*(N
F
/TN
WSS
)

Whereas:
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NF = number of functioning water supply schemes
TN
WSS
= Total number of water supply scheme in the area

Data Source and availability:

Data could be collected from each community with a constructed water supply schemes.
Regular report from WASHCO and Kebele manager is the main source of data for the
indicator. However, the data is not available as articulated here.

Functionality: Number of hours of service interruptions per day for connected households
(urban)
Definition:

It is the number of hours of service interruption per day for connected households (urban
water supply schemes) i.e. it provide water supply services without interruption in a given
period of time, mostly in a year time.

Calculation:

The number of hours of interruption is computed based on defined time periods such as;
one, two, three, four, five and six hours (most commonly used periods). Functionality is
expressed in hours of service interruptions per day for connected households (urban).

One hour period service interruptions:

= ( NHH
NF
/ TOT
HHs
)

Two hours period service interruptions:

= ( NHH
NF
/ TOT
HHs
) So on..

Where as:

NHH
NF
= Number of households with service interruption during the period,
TOT
HHs
= Total number of households with connected water supply.

Data source and availability:

Data could be collected from each municipality or town and city water board.

Indicator # 11: Volume of wastewater treated before discharge (as % of total
discharges)

Definition:

The total volume of wastewater treated in a treatment plan annually as percent of discharge
and the total volume of water discharged is estimated based on 80% of the total volume of
water supplied.

Calculation:
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The indicator - proportion of wastewater treated (WWT) before discharge in percentage, can
be computed as follows:

Percentage of WWT = 100* [WW
T
/TV
WW
]

Where
WW
T
= Wastewater treated in volume of fluid (m3) prior to discharge
TV
WW
= Total volume of wastewater estimated at 80% of the total water supply (m
3
)

Data source and availability:

The data required include records of urban water board or water supply authorities' meter
readings; and performance of waste treatment facilities; information on industrial waste
treatment plants; information from wastewater laboratories; and number of house
connections to the sewerage system.

The data sources are water supply and sanitation authorities, town water boards. Data is
often not available, or is incomplete. Without surveys of individual industrial establishments
or environmental impact assessments associated with new industrial developments, data
will remain partial or, at best not of professional estimates. Presently for Addis Ababa, data
are less available in the desired quantity and quality.

Indicator # 19: Ratio of hydrological measurement stations [network] fully operational
over WMO standard Requirements
Definition:

It is defined as the ratio of the average area served by hydrological station that meet the
WMO standard over the area of the existing hydrological networks density in a any given
River Basin. The calculation is made by dividing the area of the territory by the total number
of hydrological stations operated within the River Basin.

Information or assessment on the existing network should be compiled and interpreted to
determine if the current networks fulfill the objectives. This may include comparisons with
other basins and/or networks.

Calculations:

Standards WMO design specifications are presented in table 6 and the existing level of
networking the stream flow gauge stations in the nine river basins in Ethiopia is given in
table 4 above in Chapter 5 sub section 5.2.2.1.

Review and redesign of an existing hydrological network is essential as changes in the
objective of the data use changes and also to take advantage of the reduction in
hydrological uncertainty brought about by the added data since the last network analysis
and to tune the network to any changes in the socio-economic environment that may have
transpired. Based on the purpose of the network, an objective or set of objectives can be
established in terms of the information required. An indication of the consequences of not
being able to provide this information may prove useful later.


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Table 7 Design specification for Hydrological networking

Physical
condition of
the area
Minimum densities per station Unit
(area in km
2
per station)
Hydrological Meteorological
Stream
Gauges
Non-
recording
Recording
Mountainous 1000 250 2500
Hilly/undulating 1875 575 5750
Interior plains 1875 575 5750
Source: WMO. 1994. A guide to Hydrological Practices, Chapter 20.

Purposes of the network

The purposes of the network in terms of the users and uses of the data should be identified.
Data users and uses can vary temporally and spatially. There is also a need to identify
potential future needs and incorporate these into the design as well.

Data and Data Sources:

The principle source for hydrological and meteorological data in Ethiopia is the Water
Resources Information Directorate under the Hydrology Sub Directorate and the National
Meteorological Services Agency in the Ministry of Water Energy.

Institutional set-up

The roles and aims of all of the organizations involved in various aspects of water resources
management should be defined and identified (particularly legislative responsibilities).
Communication links between these organizations should be improved to ensure
coordination/integration of data-collection networks.


Indicator # 21: Percentage (%) of stakeholders represented in the planning process

Definition:

It is the percentage of the stakeholders in water sector represented in the planning process

Calculations:

The indicator can be computed as:

100*(n/N)

Where:
n = Number of stakeholders represented in a planning process in water sector
N = Total number of stakeholders in water sector.


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Data sources and availability:

Kebele Manager and WASHCO and woreda water offices are the source of data for the
indicator

Indicator # 23: Number of people trained in water related discipline (per 1000)

Definition:

Number of people trained in water related discipline (per 1000) of the target population in
the water related disciplines.

Calculation:

Data on number of people trained in water related discipline annually or on any agreed upon
time period estimated in 1000 population.

= (N/POP
TOT
) * (1/1000)

Data Source and Availability:

The data is collected at kebele level, Woreda and regional and federal level. These data is
aggregated at woreda, regional and national level. However, records are not always kept
properly and hence data is less available in the quality and quantity required.

Indicator # 24: Irrigated area using advanced practices (% of total irrigated area)

Definition:

It is the total irrigated area (ha) developed under different advanced irrigation practices
expressed as a ratio of the total irrigated area/land in the country expressed in percentage.
The different advanced practices include:

(i) Total Area under high efficiency Furrow Irrigation System (TA
FURO
)
(ii) Total Area under high efficiency Basin Irrigation System (TA
BAIRR
)
(iii) Area under Drip System (TA
DRIP
)
(iv) Area under Sprinkler System (TA
SPRI
)
Calculation:

The indicator can be computed as irrigated area by type of technology each expressed as
percentage of total irrigated area:

(i) Total Area under high efficiency Furrow Irrigation System (TA
FURO
) expressed as
percentage of the total irrigated area

=100*[ TA
FURO
/TOT
IRRA
]

(ii) Total Area under high efficiency Basin Irrigation System (TABAIRR) expressed as
percentage of the total irrigated area

=100*[ TA
BAIRR
/TOT
IRRA
]
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(iii) Total Area under Drip System (TA
DRIP
) expressed as percentage of the total irrigated area
= 100*[ TA
DRIP
/TOT
IRRA
]

(iii) Total Area under Sprinkler System (TA
SPRI
) expressed as percentage of the total irrigated area
= 100*[ TA
SPRI
/TOT
IRRA
]

Indicator # 25: Hand washing prevalence

Definition:

The number of people hand washing at critical times

Calculation:

In a baseline survey and through questionnaires, the number of people practicing hand
washing with soap or ash at critical time is estimated. This could be done on a defined
community or group or people in an institution.

The computed value from the survey or questionnaire is number of people with proper hand
washing ((N
HW
) per target population, POP (community, students, etc.). The number
constitutes those who report and demonstrate appropriate hand washing practice and the
total number of people interviewed in the sample).

The indicator is expressed in percentage = 100*[NP
HW
/POP]

Data source and availability:

Hand washing can be measured by self reporting of its practice at critical time and
demonstration of the technique in a household survey. The data is unavailable, and there is
less experience in data collection in hand washing to develop this indicator. If there is data,
the data quality is less reliable to reflect the actual condition.

Indicator # 26: No of research articles on water sector in a reputable journal

Definition:

This indictor presents the total number of research articles published on water sector in a
reputable journal from research activities conducted in Ethiopia.

Calculation:

The indicator can be computed as number of research publications in a reputable journal.
It can be expressed in percentage as:

100*(n/T)

Where as:

n = Total number of research articles published in a reputable journal annually.
T = Total number of research activities conducted in water sector annually.
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CHAPTER SEVEN: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

7.1 Conclusion

Water is needed in all aspects of life: it is essential for basic human needs, for socio-
economic development and for the integrity and survival of ecosystems. Water resources
provide several services to the economy, as well as to mankind outside the economy and to
other living beings, namely they provide (a) material input into production and consumption
activities; (b) sink functions for waste material (such as wastewater discharged into water
resources); and (c) habitat for all living beings including mankind. This study report
discusses and focuses on water as material input into production and consumption activities
and as a sink for waste.

Because water sector has such economic and livelihood significance and importance, the
sector is one of the sectors with the highest budget utilization, mobilization of resources from
the government, development partners, nongovernmental organizations and private
organizations in the country. As a result substantial investments have been made
particularly the last one decade and progresses have been made in developing the different
sub sectors for socio-economic growth in the country.

However, there have not been adequate efforts made on monitoring the progress towards
ensuring the sustainable management of the countrys freshwater resource base. The many
efforts made recently by many institutions, organizations and even programs and
departments to establish management information system (MIS) for water related data and
information are the expression of this situation and also the significance and importance of
the need for an information system for planning and decision making. As part of this drive,
huge data is increasingly being collected, and made available. Recently the Government of
Ethiopia is about to roll out a national inventory of water supply and sanitation facilities in the
whole country. The inventory is having a geographic information system (GIS) which
provides flexible information on water resources that can be used based on
political/administrative and on the hydrological boundaries (river basins level). The
management of these data and information require technological support. Each inventorized
water supply facility in each woreda has GIS information and this will allow in the near future
to estimate the annual water consumption/abstraction or withdrawal for for different
economic units - domestic and industrial water use at a river basin level, a data that remains
for a long time as a gap in the estimation of freshwater allocation/apportioning for different
economic uses and determining the water balance at river basin level. That is why data for
monitoring are important as discussed broadly in this study report.

Effective sector wide monitoring and the development and use of an information system to
support the effective management and use of the countrys freshwater resource is a critical
area of interest to the government and development partners. The government wants to
make a difference in the effective development and utilization and management of the
countys water resources at large. This is in full recognition of the critical role it plays in the
countrys economic growth. Recently the World Bank (2006) gave recommendations on how
to improve the management of the countrys hydrological variability to smoothen the
variability of the economy (GDP). The Government recently has also acknowledged the role
of its effective use of the countrys water resources of the country (for energy and crop
production) for its attribute to higher economic growth registered over the last few years.
This lesson has left a reminder that the countrys failure to monitor this crucial and important
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resource, water, could result in serious consequences that cannot be measured in terms of
monetary value. It is a life support resources and when not available in the quantity and
quality (drought) required, it may cost dearly many valuable lives. It is now widely
recognized that Ethiopia economy is very sensitive to hydrological variability (World Bank,
2006). With the eminent climate change, drought and flooding are some of the impacts
anticipated. Hence Ethiopia needs real - time monitoring of the hydrological variability and
its impacts. This required the development of an elaborated information system. This study
report attempts to present a system of water sector monitoring and information system
for the whole country the first of its type.

The framework developed for monitoring and information system for water sector started
with simple approaches and then move gradually to a full-fledged development of the
system using the state of the art [modern] Information technologies (IT).

(vii) The establishment of a networking of institutions, inter-linkages for information
access and sharing with a central data manager located in the Ministry of Water
and Energy. Networking institutions will sign protocol to respect the process
agreed upon,
(viii) The quantification, analysis and reporting of the resource base (for the MoMnt
using the indicators developed in this study report) on a regular basis by the
mandated institutions with full independence,
(ix) Regular assessment of the functions of networking on data collection, and
exchange. Based on the feedback from the assessment, the necessary
adjustment will be made to improve data collection, analysis, reporting and data
and information sharing among the networking institutions through a centralized
organ. The ministry of water resource is proposed and also mandated by the
national policy to work as a responsible ministry in conducting the assessment
and regularly holding a meeting to discuss the progress made,
(x) Integrated information management is a well established tool to move towards
sustainable development. Therefore, the established system underscores the
essential features of integrated water resources management and embraces fully
the integrated information management system in a centralized arrangement,
(xi) The effective management of the flow of information and management
information by the network requires the equipping of network member intuitions
and organizations by the state of the art Information Technology (IT)
infrastructure. This entails designing the architecture for the information system,
producing design requirements for the system. The management of water sector
information by a centralized organ with strong linkages with the network
institutions and organizations is at the center of this initiative.
Details may have to be worked out in a consultative meeting among concerned institutions
as a follow up of this study in order (i) to get more feedback on the initiative and consolidate
the model presented in this study report, (ii) it is essential to oversee the data and
information sharing among the network members and discuss and consolidate the lessons
learned and more vigorously implement and reinforce mechanism to move forward towards
realizing a centralized and effective water sector information system.
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The development of sector wide monitoring and information system at the end enhances the
efficacy, efficiency, and equitable and balanced allocation and use of the water resources to
the different economic units and improve sector investment in a cost effective budgeting and
decision making by the different users.

7.2 Recommendations

7.2.1 Enhanced participation among the stakeholders to establish the networking:

In order to realize the functional networking of institutions and organizations for information
sharing, several events and platforms have to be organized to discuss on existing data
gaps, mandates, and sensitization on data types, collection and construction and
development of the indicators, trend analysis as part of a capacity plan and provision and on
improving coordination.

7.2.2 Knowledge and information management for integrated water resources
management. This is only possible through proper information and knowledge sharing
among water sector actors/players, and this process needs to be formal and practiced. It
requires legislative support. At the conclusion of this study, institutions will sign a protocol on
water sector data collection and information sharing among all stakeholder in the sector;
government ministries, government intuitions and organizations, non government
organizations (NGOs), privates, etc. The MoWE will play a leading role in facilitating and
supporting this recommendation,

7.2.4 The Ministry of Water Energy should take the responsibility in taking appropriate
steps in (i) organizing consultative meetings to discuss on the implementation of the
proposed approach, (ii) capacity development among network members, (iii) soliciting
substantial funding, and (iv) over see the progress and make the necessary adjustments
and support towards the realization of a National Water Sector information System based
on a well established monitoring guidelines (GIRWI Phase III),

7.2.3 Validation of the indicators:

There is a data limitation in testing the validity of some of the indicators. However, certain
indicators such as SPI have been tested and valuable results are obtained in the present
study (see Annex D, Draught monitoring with SPI). More validation of the developed 26
indicators needs to be conducted in the third phase.

7.2.4 The Ministry of Water Energy needs to strengthen the capacity of Water Resources
Information Directorate to manage the massive inflow of data and information when the
networking of water sector information sharing starts and progresses. It should also be able
to analyze, produce reports and disseminate information and knowledge to the member
network institutions and organizations,

7.2.6 The monitoring and information system should be upgraded to a web portal system
(beyond GIRWI phase III). Establishment of a web portal system requires the development
of hardware and software, need also further capacity building project, assessment of
existing capacity of the telecommunication to run the web portal, and solicit assistance from
the Information Communication Technology Agency (ICTA) for its operability.
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7.2.7 A sample water accounting framework at River Basin level is developed and
presented with a simplified model that indicates the different physical elements of the inland
fresh water resources system and the user system or economy (annex F, figure 1 and table
1). This study, therefore, recommends a test of the physical water accounting procedure
with real data at river basin level and based on this experience to develop a technical
manual for future use by technicians in the water sector an important water resources
management tool. As the saying goes on If we do not measure it, we do not manage it
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References

Adriaanse, M and O.Lindegaard Jorgensen. 1997. Information Systems. In Water Pollution
Control A guide to the use of water quality Management principles. Edited by Richard
Helmer and Ivanildo Hespanhol. Chapter 9. WHO/UNEP. 1997.

Andah, Kodwo, 1996. Basel Institutionalization of water resources management in
developing countries. Ed. in Water Resources Management in Drought Prone Areas in
Ethiopia. Proceedings of an international workshop held in Addis Ababa, 18-22 March
1996.

Davenport, T.H and Prusak, 1998. Working Knowledge. Boston, MA, USA, Harvard
Business School Press. Ed. by Jan Teun et al. IRC Publication. 2006.

EPA, 2003. Assessment Report for the reparation of Ambient Environmental Standard for
Ethiopia, in Collaboration with the United Nations Industrial Development Organization,
Addis Ababa, July 2003, http://www.epa.gov.et/

EUWI, 2006. Designing and implementing a monitoring system for EU Water Initiative.
Handbook. Prepared by IPALMO, Rome.

FAO/MoWE. 2010. Strengthening national water monitoring capacities, with emphasis on
agricultural water management (GCP/GLO/207/ITA). FAO Project. Addis Ababa, 2010

FDRE, 1999. National Water Resources Policy. MoWE, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 1999.
Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, Ministry of Water Energy, 2002. Drinking Water
Guidelines for Ethiopia: Specification for Drinking Water, 2002.

Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, Ministry of Water Energy in collaboration with the
United National Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UN-DESA), 2008.
Strengthening Water Sector Monitoring and Information System in Ethiopia with GIRWI
Project. Final Report of the Diagnostic Phase. June 2008, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Kassam, A.H. and Andrews, 2078. Agro climatic suitability assessment of rain-fed crops in
Africa by growing cereal crops. London.

United Nations Commission on sustainable development. 1995. Indicators of sustainable
development: Guidelines and Methodologies. This publication is an outcome of a work
program one indictors for sustainable development approved by the commission on
sustainable development at its third session in 1995.
(http://unstats.un.org/unsd/envAccounting/seeaf.htm)
http://www.un.org/esa/sustdev/documents/agenda 21

United Nations Statistical Division. 2006. Integrated Environmental and Economic
Accounting for Water Resources. Final Draft, May 2006.
(http://unstats.un.org/unsd/envAccounting/seeaf.htm)
United Nations Statistical Division. 2010. International Recommendations for Water
Statistics. 23-26 February 2010
Stiengthening Watei Sectoi Nonitoiing anu Infoimation System in Ethiopia: uIRWI Pioject Phase II

0niteu Nations Bevelopment foi Economic anu Social Affaiis (0NBESA) Annex Page 8S

World Bank, 2006. Ethiopia: Managing Water Resources to Maximize Sustainable Growth. A
World bank Water Resources Assistance Strategy for Ethiopia. The World Bank Agriculture
and Rural development Department. Washington DC.






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ANNEX

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Annex A

Knowledge Mapping for Water Sector
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Annex A figure 1 Mapping the knowledge base of water sector in Ethiopia


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Annex B:

Adaptive Management Framework for Environmental Assessment of Water
Resources





















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Annex B1. Adaptive Management Framework for Environmental Assessment of Water
Resources

The general planning and management cycle requires long process of information collection,
planning, monitoring and evaluation. Under this process, obtaining information for decision making
takes long time, a lot of money, etc. For most water resources management and environmental
projects and programs, adaptive management cycle can be an optional framework which supports
decision making in shortest time possible by decision makers; policy makers and experts to protect
and manage the fragile water resources and its environment.

Adaptive management is a cyclic, learning oriented approach (as shown in figure 4) to the
management of complex environmental system that are characterized by high levels of uncertainty
about system processes and the potential ecological, social and economic impacts of different
management options (Jacobson, 2003). He further elaborates the monitoring approach as a
generic approach, characterized by management that monitors the results of policies and / or
management actions, and integrates this new learning, adapting policy and management actions
as necessary. It involves integration of multiple knowledge (scientific local/ indigenous) in the
exploration of management problems, in management goal setting and in management planning.
Quantitative models of the ecological system that houses all the water resources are then used to
explore management options. Policy and management is then integrated to modify policies and
management actions, to reassess assumptions in models and to reassess goals. Figure 4 above
summarizes the iterative process for establishing a sound and realistic management options.


























Annex B figure 2 Process models for adaptive management (Jacobson and Allen, 2002)

Although initially this approach has been used for forest, land and water environments, recently
this approach has been used in social and institutional perspectives and this resulted in the
inclusion of concepts and tools from the fields of system theory, organizational learning,
participatory development and action learning (McLain and Lee, 1996)
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When information in water sector is required for decision making in a very short period, the
Adaptive management approach is suggested for the following reasons. (i) The planning and
management cycles demands more time to go through the whole cycle and process, (ii) the
Adaptive Management can provide the information without compromising the information need in a
very short time, and (iii) the Adaptive Management gives an iterative process to help improve the
model that can provide a high quality and desired result. The author of this report suggests the
following steps.

(i) Monitoring indicators are collected and data are analyzed and reported regularly, and the
information can be used when needed for adaptive management,
(ii) Evaluation is done to understand the results and environmental impacts,
(iii) Based on the impacts, identify management problem that still exists,
(iv) Improve goal setting and adapt the model based on the feed back,
(v) A set of actions are developed on participatory planning in order to achieve the goals and
objectives, and the cycle continues.

This approach cut short the long planning and management cycles or process indicated in figure 3
above, when the situation demands that the environmental assessment is urgently needed, and
this can be an option for specific circumstances and not intended to replace the process described
in figure 3 above.

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Annex C:

METHODOLOGICAL ANALYSIS FOR 26 SELECTED INDICATORS
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Annex c Table 1. Prioritized 26 indicators with their serial numbers as used in this document
List of the 26 core Indicators Desegregation by Scale
1. Proportion of annual freshwater consumption to renewable freshwater resources - Basin
2. Concentration of human induced and natural pollutants in hot spots - Basin
3. Area of the watershed developed under soil and water conservation practices /
measures (%)
Type of measure Basin
4. Index characterizing the impact of seasonal rainfall variability on agriculture
production (to be studied)
Type of produce Basin
5. Ha of land under irrigated agriculture or under improved rainwater agriculture (per
capita)
Type of system Basin
6. % of electricity requirements met by hydropower production - National
7. No. (or %) of people having access to improved WSS schemes
Rural/urban
Water supply/sanitation
Kebele
8. Pupil to latrine/toilet stance ratio in schools Gender Kebele
9. Unaccounted-for water - Town
Functionality:
- % of functioning water supply systems (rural areas)
- No. of hours of service interruptions per day for connected households (urban areas)

Type of system

-

Kebele

Town
12. Volume of waste waters treated before discharge (as % of total discharges) Type of emission
Kebele,
town
13. % of GDP which can be attributed to economic productions with water and to various
services and benefits
Sector National
14. Income differential between farmers having access to irrigation and farmers not
having access (per Ha)
Produce Kebele
15. Percent (%) of population affected by water-born diseases Gender Kebele
16. Ratio of actual to desired level of public investment in the water sector Water sub-sector
All admin.
levels
17. Rate of cost recovery for WSS
O&M in rural; full in
urban
Kebele,
Town
18. Water and sanitation charges as percentage of various household income groups - Kebele
19. % of RBA budget which is directly collected from basin fees - Basin
20. Ratio of measurement stations fully operational over WMO standard requirement Type of station Basin
21. Impact of floods damage
Human and economic
losses
Kebele
22. % of stakeholders represented in the planning process
Type of stakeholder,
gender
Kebele
23. Value of sub-contracts assigned to private operators (design, construction,
management) as % of total project costs
Sub-sector, type of
operator, type of phase
Kebele
24. No. of people trained in water-related disciplines (per 1,000 inchs) Gender, qualification Kebele
25. Irrigated area using advanced practices (% of total irrigated area) Type of technology Basin
26. Hand-washing prevalence Gender Kebele
27. No. Of articles on Ethiopian water sector published in reputable specialized journals Gender, water sub-sector National

Source: FDRE/MoWE. 2008 - Final Diagnostic Report. GIRWI-ETH Project. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
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Methodological sheet proposed for Core indicator: Indicator # 1.

Indicator name Indicator No.1: Proportion of annual Freshwater Consumptions to Renewable Freshwater
Resources
Details Description
Prepared by Ethiopian Government and UN-DESA
Example Indicator under development
Challenge area Water Resources
Rationale / aspect
of the challenge
area
Ethiopia has huge surface water resources potential estimated at about 122 BCM (WB, 2006).
However its temporal and special distribution is highly variable. Approximately 80 to 90% of the
water resources exist in only four river basins (out of 12 river basins in the country) distributed
mainly in the south western and central parts of the country. Ground water resource potential is
estimated at about 2.69BMC.

The surface and ground water resources are the main source of water supply for the different
economic sectors; drinking water, irrigation, environmental support and hydropower. With the aid
of benchmarking and the use of indicators, the consumption of freshwater consumption by the
economy can be monitored at river basin level a fundamental planning unit (according to the
national water policy). The indicator will assist in:

(i) Monitoring the use and management of renewable freshwater resources at river basin level,
(ii) Improves water allocation decision for different water uses in each river basin,
(iii) Government to monitor and plan water resources management programs and adjust sector
polices and programs to keep pace with the growing demand for water use by stakeholders
and increasing shortages of water as a result of climate change,
(iv) Regulators (River Basin Administrations) to ensure equitable share and reliable water
resources availability for the different water users in the basin,
(v) Providing information on the environment through decision to control pollution and to make
management decisions

However, data on the level of water consumption at the different economic units is not available.
Position in DPSIR chain Pressure
Concept and Definition
of the Indicator



















The concept of Renewable Freshwater resources is based on the idea that water resources are
capable of being replenished within a short time through ecological rehabilitation and
management cycles (as opposed to resources such as minerals, metals, oil, gas, coal that do not
renew in short time periods). Freshwater resources are replenished by precipitation (less evapo-
transpiration) falling over the river basin and ends up as runoff to rivers, lakes, wetlands,
reservoirs and ponds, and a portion of these surface water recharges the ground water aquifer.

Renewable Freshwater resources of a given river basin is the sum of surface water runoff (stream
flow) volumes generated plus the ground water recharge taking place less base flows into surface
water: rivers, lakes and wetlands (to avoid double counting) in the river basin under consideration.
It is with low concentration of salt.

Water consumption: The concept of water consumption gives an indication of the amount of
water that is lost by the economy during use in the sense that it has entered the economy but has
not returned either to water resources or to the lakes or reservoirs. This happens because during
use, water is incorporated into products, evaporated, transpired by plants or simply consumed by
households or livestock. The difference between the water use by the economy and the freshwater
supply is referred to as water consumption. It can be computed for each economic unit and for the
whole economy. Water consumption does not include total returns to the freshwater system, and
hence total consumption equals total abstraction less total returns.

Please refer UN Handbook on (physical) water accounting (draft final 2003)

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Methodological sheet proposed for Core indicator: Indicator # 1 (continue...)

Details Description
Specification of
determinants needed
(i) Annual Freshwater Consumption (AFWC)
(ii) Renewable Fresh Water Resources (RFWR)

Method of Computation Proportion of Annual Freshwater Consumptions (AFWC) to Renewable Freshwater Resources
(AFWR) =

100*(AFWCRFWR)

Whereas:

AFWC = Annual Freshwater Consumption
RFWR = Renewable Fresh Water Resources
Indicator Relevance This indicator yields information about the average annual long-term availability of freshwater for
use in human activities, such as water supply for domestic and industrial, water for productive
purposes (agriculture water irrigation), etc. which are important information for future planning
and early warning for any potential scarcity of water for development projects within the river
basin and this is useful for projects in downstream areas of the basin.
Units of measurements It is expressed more preferably in percentage (%). It can also be given as ratio.

Data sources,
availability and quality
Hydrological data for all river basins in the country is available at the Ministry of Water Energy.
Data on freshwater consumption by the different economic unit are not available even for the
most developed and instrumented river basin in the country, and hence data on consumption is a
serious constraint for the development of this indicator. The recently introduced Nation wide
WASH inventory with GIS information will provide the basis for estimating the volume of water
abstracted for drinking water at a river basin level.

Complete data on precipitation for river basins is not available because rain gauges are not
properly and systematically distributed and instrumented to estimate the on site water use for crop
production under rain fed and also to reflect the stream flow, and it is a short coming as well in
the computation of the indicator. This indicator has several important limitations, most of them
related to the computation of total renewable water resources:
Accurate and complete data are scarce,
There is no consideration of the seasonal and spatial variation and distribution of the rainfall,
evapotranspiration, etc
There is no consideration of distribution among different uses and policy options for mitigating
scarcity, for example, re-allocation from agricultural to other uses, and so on,
Total renewable water resources (hydrological data observed) do not consider water quality and
its suitability for use.
Scale of application River Basin
Geographical coverage River Basin and Country level
Interpretation The indicator provides water use in a river basin
Linkage with other
indicators
It is linked with many indicator in water supply, irrigation, hydropower, and many socio
economic indicators.
Alternative methods
and definitions

Related indicator sets UNDESA
The CARICOM Environment in Figures 2004
Sources of further
information

Other institutions
involved


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Methodological sheet proposed for Core indicator: Indicator # 2

Indicator name Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) in Freshwater Systems
Details Description
Challenge aiea Enviionmental
Rationaleaspects of
the challenge aiea
Water pollution from domestic, agricultural and industrial wastes has become a serious concern in Ethiopia
recently. The growing population and urbanization have led to environmental concern. Runoff with
chemicals (herbicides and pesticides), fertilizers, etc. from agricultural areas (non point) and wastewater
from industries (point sources) have increased the level of water resources pollution in the country. This is
more serious in certain hot spots areas in the country for instance Awash River Basin. Some of the
wastewaters from industries such as leather, sugar factories, textiles, etc. enters into water resources as a
sink without any treatment. As a result, the level of dissolved oxygen in fresh water systems gets lower to
sustain aquatic life as well as other economic activities such as crop production, domestic water supply,
etc.

Sustainable development is heavily dependent on suitable freshwater availability for a variety of uses such
as irrigation, domestic municipal water supplies. As a result, strict water quality standards have to be
established to protect users from health and other adverse determinants. The presence of high BOD
indicates the presence of higher level dissolved and suspended organic carbon from natural and animal
sources that restrict the use of the water resource for different uses.

This indicator is useful to measure the vitality of the water resources in inland freshwater systems such as
lakes, reservoirs, rivers and streams and strongly linked to water availability for a variety of uses.
Position in BPSIR
chain
State
Befinition of
inuicatoi
Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) is the amount of dissolved oxygen required by organisms for the
aerobic decomposition of organic matter present in water. This is measured at 20 degrees Celsius for a
period of five days.
0nueilying
uefinitions anu
concepts
Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) is an empirical test to provide a measure of the level of degradable
organic material in a body of water. The test involves the incubation of a diluted sample for a period of five
days accepted as the standard for this test at a constant temperature of 20oC. The sample is diluted to bring
it within the operational parameters of the test procedure. The test represents a standard laboratory
procedure usually referred to as the BOD5 test.

Standardized laboratory procedures are used to determine BOD by measuring the amount of oxygen
consumed after incubating the sample in the dark at a specified temperature, which is usually 20 C, for a
specific period of time, usually five days. This gives rise to the commonly used term BOD5. The oxygen
consumption is determined from the difference between the dissolved oxygen concentrations in the sample
before and after the incubation period. If the concentration of organic material in the samples is very high,
samples may require dilution with distilled water prior to incubation so that the oxygen is not totally
depleted. The procedure is used to estimate the relative oxygen requirements of wastewaters, effluents, and
other polluted waters. Microorganisms (mainly bacteria although other microorganisms, algae, plants and
animals can also make significant contributions in some aquatic systems) use the oxygen in the water for
oxidation of polluting organic matter and organic carbon produced by algae, plants and animals.

Specification of
ueteiminants
Level of Oxygen Demanding Pollutants
Computation Standard ambient water quality measurement methods are available in several reference; APHA (1999) and
ISO (1990). The method used consists of filling to overflowing an airtight bottle of specific size with the
water sample to be tested. It is then incubated at a constant temperature for five days. Dissolved oxygen is
measured initially and after incubation. The BOD5 is then computed from the difference between the
initial and final readings of dissolved oxygen.
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Methodological sheet proposed for Core indicator: Indicator # 2 (continue)
Details Description
0nits of
Neasuiements
BOD
t
in mg/liter, where t indicates the number of days in incubation. In this particular case, it is mg/l of
oxygen consumed in 5 days at a constant temperature of 20oC.
Bata souice
availability anu
quality
Data are available from laboratories of organization, municipalities and manufacturing industries collecting
water quality data of freshwater systems.
Scale of
application
Rivei basin
ueogiaphical
coveiage
Rivei Basin. If the iivei is Tian bounuaiy as in the case of Blue Nile, the coveiage becomes Regional.
Inteipietation The iesults of Suay B0B test will be given infoimation about total loau of oiganic mattei into
ieceiving fieshwatei bouies if the watei flow oi volume is measuieu simultaneously,

Rivers: tempoial vaiiation of B0B at each sampling station, B0B level vs watei uischaige
ielationships anu special tienus in B0B

Lakes and reservoirs: veitical anu hoiizontal B0B piofiles, Seasonal vaiiations of B0B in space anu
time

Effluents: tempoial vaiiation of B0B at uischaige point anu along to a ieceiving watei bouy, B0B
level vs effluent uischaige ielationships anu special tienus in B0B uue to uomestic wastes ieleaseu
into stieams oi othei activities that ieleases oiganic mattei.
Linkage with
othei
inuicatois
Seveial inuicatois aie uiiectly linkeu to the concentiation of oiganic mateiial in fieshwatei. These
measuies Bissolveu 0xygen, Chemical 0xygen Bemanu, Total Nitiogen, concentiation of faecal coli
foims in fieshwatei, nutiient levels in fiesh watei, peicent of population with auequate excieta
uisposal facilities, access to safe watei, enviionmental piotection expenuituies as a peicent of uioss
Bomestic Piouuct, anu expenuituie on waste collection anu tieatment, anu ecosystem health.
Alteinative
Nethous anu
uefinitions
Chemical 0xygen Bemanu (C0B) is an alteinative measuie of the oxygen equivalent of the oiganic
mattei content of a sample that is susceptible to oxiuation by a stiong chemical exigent. The chemical
oxygen uemanu (C0B) is the amount of oxygen consumeu by oiganic mattei fiom boiling aciu
potassium uichiomate solution. It pioviues a measuie of the oxygen equivalent of that poition of the
oiganic mattei in a watei sample that is susceptible to oxiuation unuei the conuitions of the test.

Relateu
inuicatoi set
Chemical oxygen uemanu, uissolveu oxygen
Souices of
fuithei
infoimation
1) APBA (1999) Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 2u
th
euition.
Ameiican Public Bealth Association (APBA), Ameiican Watei Woiks Association (AWWA), Watei
Pollution Contiol Feueiation (WPCF), Washington, BC.
2) IS0 (199u) Water Quality - Determination of Biochemical Oxygen Demand after 5 Days (BOD5),
Dilution and Seeding Method Inteinational Stanuaiu IS0 S81S, Inteinational 0iganization foi
Stanuaiuization, ueneva.
S) 0N Commission on sustainable uevelopment. Inuicatois of sustainable uevelopment: uuiuelines
anu Nethouologies. This publication is an outcome of a woik piogiam one inuictois foi
sustainable uevelopment appioveu by the commission on sustainable uevelopment at its thiiu
session in 199S.
0thei
institutions
involveu
Enviionmental Piotection Authoiity, Auuis Ababa Watei Supply anu Seweiage Authoiity municipal
wastewatei tieatment anu uischaige facilities anu 0niveisities.
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Methodological sheet proposed for core indicator: Indicator # 3

Indicator name Area of watershed developed under improved soil and water
conservation practices / measures expressed as percentage (%)
Details Description
Prepared by Ministry of Water Energy and UN-DESA
Example Under development
Challenge area Water Conservation and Management
Rationale / aspect of the
challenge area
Soil erosion has been a serious environmental and agricultural threat in
Ethiopia. Presently the country is losing an average of about 130 ton per ha per
year to climate change with most of the soil productive. As a result landscape
and environmental degradation has increased significantly, resulting in a loss of
fertile farmland soil and decline in productivity threatening most rural people
who depend largely on their land for their livelihood.

Watershed development under improved soil and water conservation practices
reduced the threat to land and livelihood of the people. Monitoring the area of
watershed put under improved soil and water conservation practices provide
information on the progress towards achieving this target.
Position in DPSIR chain State
Definition of indicator The total area treated with different types of soil and water conservation (SWC)
measures which include both physical and biological measures (to be specified
later) that can support the restoration and rehabilitation of the land and the
environment in a river basin so that water is conserved in situ. The in-situ soil
moisture conserved in cultivated lands support crop production and contribute
to the macro economy
Underlying definitions and
concepts
Catchment areas and land use types can be treated with different SWC measures
which include:

Physical Measures (PM) and these are :

(i) Soil and stone bunds (SSB),
(ii) Fanya Ju, (FJ),
(iii) Gully control measures, (GCM),
(iv) Bench terrace, (BTRR),
(v) Cutoff drains (DRAIN),

Biological Measures (BM) and these are :

(i) Grass strips, (GRST),
(ii) Agro Forestry, (AGF),
(iii) Area Closure (CLOS)
Specification of
determinants needed
(i) Total area (ha or km2) of cultivated or non cultivated lands treated with
Physical Measures (TA
PHM
), i.e. the of areas of the individual
catchments with physical measures,
(ii) Total area (ha or km2) of cultivated or non cultivated lands treated with
Biological measures (TA
BM
), i.e. the of areas of the individual
catchments with Biological measures including closure
(iii) Total area of the River Basin or sub basin or catchment/watershed (TA
RB
)
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Annex Page 99

Methodological sheet for indicator # 3




Details Description
Computation
The computation of this indicator comprises the following data variables.

Total area of the catchment by type of Physical Measures (PM):

TA
SSB
= i
n
SSB TA
FJ
= FJ ADRAIN = DRAIN

TA
GCM
= i
n
GCM TA
BTRR
= BTR

Area of the catchment by type Biological Measures (BM):

TA
STGR
= i
n
STGR TA
AGF
= AGF

A
CLOS
= i
n
CLOS

Total area of the River Basin ( TA
RB
)

Proportion of area of the River Basin developed under the different conservation measures:

TA
SSB
= 100*[ i
n
SSB/ TA
RB
)]

TA
FJ
= 100*[ FJ / TA
RB
)]

TA
GCM
= 100*[i
n
GCM / TA
RB
)]

TA
BTRR
= 100*[BTR/ TA
RB
]

TADRAIN = 100*[ADRAIN / TA
RB
]

TA
STGR
= 100*[i
n
STGR/TA
RB
]

TA
AGF
= 100*[AGF/ TA
RB
]

A
CLOS
= 100*[i
n
CLOS/ TA
RB
]

Total land under soil conservation (TOT
SC
)=
( TA
SSB
+ TA
FJ
+ TA
GCM
+ TA
BTRR
+ TA
DRAIN
+ TA
STGR
+ TA
AGF
+ A
CLOS
)

Proportion of the river basin developed by conservation measures expressed
in percentage (%):

= 100*[Total land Area under soil conservation/ TA
RB
)]
= 100*[TOTSC/ TA
RB
]
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Annex Page 1uu

Methodological sheet for indicator # 3


Details Description
Units of measurements The unit of measurement is in Hectares or Square Kilometers. This unit could also be
expressed in percentage; the ratio the total area developed under the different conservation
measures in the river basin to the total area of the river basin expressed in percentage,
which is a dimensionless quantity (%).
Data sources,
availability and quality
Data on protected watershed could be obtained from Woreda and Regional Agriculture and
Rural Development Offices. It can be made available but difficult to get a good quality data
since the existing data are not organized to such analysis.
Scale of application Catchment and River Basin level. An aggregated value for all river basins will give the
national estimate.
Geographical Scale Catchment and River Basin

Interpretation An increasing trend in the area or percentage of the watershed protected under improved
soil and water conservation practices and measures indicates the countrys investments on
its land and water conservation and management effort and also shows the priority being
assigned at various levels in the land and water management.
Linkage with other
indicators
This indicator is linked to the chain of indicators, which capture the impact of watershed
and river basin development on increased water management, growth in agriculture and
industry sectors and the resulting growth in the macro economy. It also indicated the
increased level of awareness in natural resources degradation and the need for
rehabilitation and restoration of their land and its environment. It also indicates the level of
community participation in the natural resources conservation and protection.
Alternative methods
and definitions

Related indicator sets This indicator has in direct links with the socio economic and micro economic indicators
through its direct link with the renewable freshwater resources
Sources of further
information

Other institutions
involved

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Methodological sheet for indicator # 4

Indicator
Name
Standardized precipitation Index (SPI)
Detail Description
Prepared by Ministry of Water Energy and UN-DESA
Example Under development
Challenge area State
Rationale/aspects
of the challenge
area

Agricultural drought is one of the impacts of rainfall variability, demonizing rain-water productivity, as well as
stream flow, reservoir and lake levels over temporal scales. SPI is an objective/standard/generic monitoring
tool/indicator for agricultural production (widely used in America and recently in China). SPI is used as a
monitoring tool for rainfall variability in a given geographic area and time, drought and its impacts, and its
significance is very high in the face of the changing climate; i.e. increase in temperatures, heat waves, evapo-
transpiration and associated water deficit..
Position in
DPSIR chain
State

Definition of the
indicator
and indices
The SPI is an index developed from precipitation/rainfall record for a location and chosen period (months or
years). Only one observable data set (rainfall) is needed to construct the indicator, other data developed based
on existing ecological condition of the site under consideration.

The rainfall record is fitted to a probability distribution which is then transformed into a normal distribution so
that the mean SPI for the location and period is zero. The SPI value or the index is negative for drought and
positive for non-drought conditions.
Underlying
definition
and concept

Taking account of the dynamics (seasonal march) and space characteristics of water supply and demand, SPI
provides a single quantitative drought index, which is a reflection of the cumulative effects of a prolonged and
abnormal moisture deficiency, irrespective of any development unit (basin, land or river). SPI has the
following drought indexing features.
1) Captures water variability (from rainwater and surface / river) over a given time domain daily, dekadal,
monthly, three month and seasonal, like dry, short or long rains and annual) for a plot or basin.
2) Values are directly computed and not a derivative.
3) The resulting index measures a deviation of water from the normal which also speaks to crops productivity
indirectly.
4) In SPI computation, rainfall is the measured/observed data, which has three basic characteristics; first
rainfall is a variable for which measuring instruments have been cheapest (these days the cheapest plastic
rain-gauges are taking common place); second, there exist rich data quality control techniques for rainfall,
and thirdly, rainfall is the longest recorded data since observational era of climate worldwide.
5) SPI is amenable to any time resolution for computation (including dekadal) and therefore very useful for
operational decisions, like monitoring drought for possible corrective measures in water supply and demand
balance.
6) SPI is a measure of drought intensity, magnitude and duration or historical data based probability emerging
from a specific drought (e.g. if computed over short time, the index serves for agricultural and meteorological
drought monitoring or the longer time for the hydrological drought monitoring. The longer the rainfall series,
the more likely one gets better results.
7) SPI is least data intensive and cost-effective tool.
Computation


SPI = |(Xi -Xmcon)
N
=1
/]

Where
X is monthly rainfall data
is standard deviation of the data,
n= number of data sets observed,
Units of
measurements
The indicator is dimensionless
Determinant variables: Rainfall (millimeter); Time (dynamicity/not part of the determinant variable): daily,
dekadal, monthly, season: dry, short/long rains
Data sources,
availability and
quality
NMA, MoWE, CSA, MoARD, EIAR and Regional Bureaus of Agriculture and Rural Development, Nile
Basin Initiative (NBI) are source of data for SPI computation.
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Methodological sheet for indicator # 4

Detail Description
Scales of
application
Site level, and on the basis of the individual sites, a digitized map that can show drought affected areas can
be produced at region, river basin and country level.
Geographical
coverage
Site, region and country level
Interpretation By way of tracking rainfall/stream flow, SPI points to and describes water status at sites of interest and
time resolution-information that can be used at various levels and by various societal categories. Tracking
starts with data collection for computing SPI at the station that effectively represented by a mathematical
cumulative probability function. Computation of SPI involves fitting a gamma probability density function
to a given frequency distribution of precipitation totals for a station. The and parameters of the gamma
probability density function are estimated for each station, for each time scale of interest (daily, a month, 3
months, 12 months, 48 months, etc.) of each year. Then the probabilities are normalized using the inverse
normal (Gaussian) function. Guttman (1999) determined that the Pearson Type III distribution is the best
universal model for computing the probability distribution. The SPI methodology allows expression of
droughts (and wet spells) in terms of precipitation deficit, percent of normal, and probability of non
exceedance. Based on the past and present rainfall data, an analyst can then find out whether the
probability is less or equal to a threshold amount. Therefore, if a particular rainfall event gives a low
probability of the cumulative probability function, then this indicates a drought event. In contrast, a rainfall
event, which gives a high probability on the cumulative probability function, is a wet event. Thus, medium
SPI value is approximately zero (0) termed expected case scenario, high SPI value closer to three (+3) is a
heavy precipitation event (best case scenario), with low SPI value closer to minus three (-3) representing a
drought event over a specified time period (worst case scenario).

From the farmers perspective (both risk taker and risk averse groups), negative index during onset and end
of season implies shortened length of growing period. Coupled with the continued negative index
(extended dry spells) during the growing season also means failure of rain water (amount) to comfortably
sustain successful crop growth and development; indeed reduced yield, unless alternate water sources like
water harvesting from on-farm ponds (blue water) or in-situ water conservation (green water) for life
saving irrigation is employed. No alternate measure on the other hand points to reduced crops yield or
total crop failure, as crop water requirement has not been met. Positive index on the other hand shows
water sufficiency or water excess, causing water logging and therefore technologies for safe disposal is
essential. For the government, negative index means water scarcity and therefore adjusting the water
appropriation among key economic sectors based on comparative advantage or relative system efficiency
or even for decisions related to budget appropriation. For an industrialist, negative index translates to
lowered efficiency of the system and below full capacity in performance. For policy makers negative index
shows whether the government has to declare tax holidays or subsidy could be availed for the smallholder
farmers and whether down payments for borrowed agricultural inputs could be staggered until the drought
relief or should farmers have to settle the account by selling other assets during the contemporary drought
period itself. If SPI persistently shows negative values, policy makers may launch the formulation of
National Drought Policy (NDP) document. For the land manager, consistently negative index shows the
reduced productivity of the land, suggesting the possible change for alternative land use such as the use of
crops with low consumptive use, or area closer or use for tourism. For humanitarians, the index is used in
triggering contingency financing for life or livelihood saving
Linkage with
other
indicators
It is related top several socio economic indicators. In-depth knowledge on seasonal rainfall or drought is
equally important for both rain-fed and irrigated farming (indicators No. 5 and 24), as well as for a
watershed management (indicator No. 3). In both cases, the concept of effective rainfall and water
requirements, which defines the extent of rainwater availability, deficiency or excess, is important for
designing best bet management strategies and practices. SPI is also related to the degree of measured or
remote sensed greenness of the vegetation or rangeland; implying how water and forage availability for
animals and human beings is critical. Thus, SPI is strongly linked with the other performance indicators of
the water sector.
Alternative
methods and
definitions
Palmer has developed the Palmer Drought Index (PDI) in 1965. PDI is calculated based on precipitation
and temperature data, as well as the local Available Water Content (AWC) of the soil. From the inputs, all
the basic terms of the water balance equation can be determined, including evapotranspiration, soil
recharge, runoff, and moisture loss from the surface layer. Human impacts on the water balance, such as
irrigation, are not considered. The Palmer is a soil moisture algorithm calibrated for relatively
homogeneous regions. McKee et al. (1995) and suggested that the PDSI is designed for agriculture but
does not accurately represent the hydrological impacts resulting from longer droughts.
.
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Methodological sheet for Indicator # 5


Indicator name
Land Area under irrigated agriculture or under improved rainwater agriculture (per capita)
Details Description
Prepared by Ministry of Water Energy and UN-DESA
Challenge area Productive Agriculture / Irrigation
Rationale/aspects
of the challenge
area

Irrigation development is one of the key strategies identified for meeting the food needs of the country. The
National Development Plan Plan for Accelerated and Sustainable Development to End Poverty (PASDEP)
has targeted about 430,000 ha of land over the completed second five year period (2005-2010).

The development of this indicator and collecting data will provide information on the level of irrigated
agriculture development vis vis the PASDEP (Government) plan, and the long-term data will provide
concrete and reliable information on the trend towards achieving food security and reducing poverty in the
country. Such information has the ability and value to communicate policy objectives.
Position in DPSIR
chain
Response
Definition of the
indicator
and indices
It is the total irrigated area (ha) developed under irrigated agriculture or under improved rainwater
agriculture expressed in per capita. Irrigation agriculture is the artificial application of water to the soil for
the growing of plants and production of food crops through the use of abstracted water either from surface or
ground water sources or both. The term improved rainwater indicates the water source which is the water
harvested from ground or roof surfaces and used for irrigation.
Underlying
definition
and concept

Irrigation is usually used in dry areas where rainfall is erratic and variable and inadequate to support the
production of plants and crops. Irrigation is used either for the full production or used supplemental to the
rainfall to produce crops.

There are several types of irrigation based on the type of technology and design used in the application of
water to the soil. The following are most common in Ethiopia:
(i) Surface Irrigation: This includes furrow (F
IRR
), basin (B
IRR
) and flooding (FL
IRR
).
(ii) Sprinkler Irrigation: This irrigation uses sprinkler with different types of sprinklers, (i) Lateral Move
(SP
IRRL
) most common type in Ethiopia, (ii) Center Pivot Irrigation (does not exist)
(iii) Manual Irrigation using buckets, or watering cans (MAN
IRR
)
(iv) Drip irrigation system (DRIP)
Computation

The sum of all the irrigated areas under the different types of irrigation divided by the population gives the
land area developed under irrigation per capita

(i) Total Area under surface irrigation system (S
TOT
) =of areas under F
IRR
+ B
IRR
+ FL
IRR

(ii) Total Area under sprinkler irrigation system (SP
TOT
) = of areas under SP
IRRL

(iii) Total Area under Drip irrigation system (DRIP
TOT
) = of areas under DRIP
(iv) Total Area under Manual irrigation system (MAN
TOT
) =of areas under MAN
IRR


Total Area under irrigation (A
TOT
) = S
TOT
) + SP
TOT
+ DRIP
TOT
+ MAN
IRR

Area under Irrigation area per capita = A
TOT
/POP

Whereas:
S
TOT


= total area under surface irrigation,
SP
TOT
= total area under sprinkler irrigation
DRIP
TOT
= total area under drip irrigation
MAN
TOT
= total area under manual irrigation
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Methodological sheet for Indicator # 5


Details
Description
Units of measurements Indicator measured in hectare or km
2
area
Data sources,
availability and quality
At administrative institutions level, data source is the wereda agriculture and rural
Development office. Data and information on irrigation is also available within a river basin at
the River Basin administration office if it is established.
Scales of application At woreda and River Basin level
Geographical coverage River Basin, national, regional and Global
Interpretation
Linkage with other
indicators

Alternative methods
and definitions

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Methodological sheet for indicator # 6

Indicator name Percentage (%) of Electricity requirement met by hydropower
Production
Details Description
Prepared by Ethiopian Government - UNDESA
Example Under development
Challenge area Energy
Rationale / aspect of the
challenge area
The use of bio fuels for household uses covers about 90% of the urban fuel
energy requirements. The source of these bio fuels is the rural hinterlands and
this has aggravated the deforestation and the land and the environment
degradation. One response to reducing this pressure of the urban centers for
high energy demand on their rural hinterlands could be switching to electricity
as cooking fuel. It is cleaner and do not cause deforestation.

The existing trend in the overall energy use by different energy sources in the
country is dominated by one energy source, electricity from hydropower source.
However, there is no information on electricity use at household level where
energy demand is very high. Determining what proportion of the electrical
energy demand is met by hydropower indicates the significance of the different
source types, show gap in the development of alternative energy sources and it
helps develop programs that can contribute towards the effort to meet the full
energy requirement.

The indicator calls for policies and actions by the government that can increase
efficiency in the use of hydropower energy source. The indicator is restricted to
electricity production and use from hydropower, although all other electricity
energy sources (diesel and geothermal) are very low.

Position in DPSIR chain State
Definition of indicator Percentage of the electricity requirement in the country that is met by
hydropower production.
Underlying definitions and
concepts
The total electricity produced in the country has to be disaggregated into
components by type of energy sources such as diesel, hydropower, geothermal
and solar. From available data, the total energy by type of source has to be
computed.

This indicator is based on the following definitions:

Total Electricity produced in the country by different sources: These include
electricity produced from hydropower, diesel (fossil fuel), Geothermal, that are
identified as sources of electricity.
Total electricity consumed from the different source in the country: This is the
total electrical power generated by different sources and consumed in the
country. This data can be obtained from CSA, MoFED, and EEPCO.
Total Electricity produced by Hydropower only: This is the total electrical
energy produced from hydropower only. This data can be obtained from
EEPCO, CSA, MoFED.

Total amount of electricity produced from different sources; hydropower,
geothermal, the fossil resources oil and gas and other sources is expressed in
Gwh per year.
Specification of
determinants needed
(i) Total Electricity produced by Hydropower only (E
H
)
(ii) Total electricity produced by different sources and consumed in the
country (E
T
)
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Methodological sheet for indicator # 6


Details Description
Computation The indicator can be computed as:
100*[(E
H
) /(E
T
)]

Where:
E
H
=

Total Electricity produced by Hydropower only
E
T
=

Total electricity produced in the country from different sources
(hydropower, Diesel and Geothermal). The amounts of the
electricity production from the different sources have to be added
up to compute E
T
.
Units of measurements Percentage (%)
E
H
and E
T
are measured in GWH per year.
Data sources, availability and
quality
Data on electrical energy from different sources can be obtained from CSA
and MoM, MoFED. Data on electrical energy produced by hydropower and
consumed can be obtained from EEPCO, MoM, CSA, MOFED
Scale of application Mainly national. However, data availability at lower administrative levels
would allow comparisons on the use of electrical energy produced by
hydropower between regional states within the country.
Geographical coverage Country wide

terpretation Energy is a vital resource that has a key and pivotal role in the growth and
transformation of a countrys micro economy. An increasing trend in the
percentage of the electricity produced by hydropower indicates the countrys
dependence on its water resources for its energy requirement. Moreover, the
increasing trend shows the government priority and investments to the
hydropower production in the energy sector. Energy is essential for the
development of other sectors and hence it can also show government
commitment to reducing poverty through improving productivity in all other
various economic sectors.
Linkage with other indicators This indicator is linked to the chain of indicators, which capture the impact of
macroeconomic policies, agriculture, and industry and water sector and
including communication and transport services.
Alternative methods and
definitions

Related indicator sets
Sources of further information
Other institutions involved
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Methodological sheet for indicator # 7

Indicator name Population with access to safe drinking water expressed in percentage (%)
Details Description
Prepared by Ethiopian Government UNDESA
Example Under development
Challenge area Water Supply
Rationale / aspect of
the challenge area
From the public health point of view, it is estimated that 70 to 80% of the outbreaks of disease are
related to contaminated drinking-water in Ethiopia. These water related diseases are wide spread
and continue to occur in the country. The proportion of the population with access to safe
drinking-water is an indicator that measures the extent of health related problems in the country,
meeting basic needs; metabolic and hygienic are met, etc. This indicator determines accurately
what proportion of the population has access to safe drinking water. Although sample water
quality test are required on a regular basis, these improved water supply technologies are accepted
to provide safe drinking water.
The indicator can take different geographic or administrative boundary such as village, kebele or
urban area, wereda, region and at national level. The information is an important policy and health
information in a country. Access to safe drinking-water is strongly connected to basic health
benefits and other socio economic impacts. It is a priority indicator that clearly provides
information on the governments political commitment towards making progress to one of the
priority sector with development challenges. It is also an indicator that monitors progress towards
the achievement of the attainment of internationally agreed MDG targets. The indicator estimates
the achievement of the minimum requirements for access to an adequate supply of piped and safe
water. It is a core indicator for risks related to water and hygiene.
Position in DPSIR
chain
State
Definition of indicator Water supply coverage is the proportion of the population having access to an improved and safe
drinking water supply at wereda, regional and at national level. The percentage of the population
in an area who use any of the following types of water supply facilities for drinking; piped water
into dwelling, plot or yard; public tap/standpipe; borehole/tube well (shallow and deep); protected
dug well; protected spring; and rainwater collection with proper sanitary standards. It does not
include unprotected well, unprotected spring, water provided by carts with small tanks/drums,
tanker truck-provided water or surface water taken directly from rivers, ponds, streams, lakes,
dams, or irrigation channels. The indicator does not take into account the time spent on getting
water from improved sources and also the actual drinking water quality of the sources. Both these
determinants though are important parameters of access.

Underlying definitions
and concepts
The indicator requires definition for several data elements that constitute the indicator.
Reasonable access to water: In urban areas, a distance of not more than 200 meters, to about 0.5
km distance from a public stand post or any other adequate point source of reasonable distance is
considered as access. In rural areas where geography, geomorphology, hydrogeology and other
factors dictate availability of water, reasonable access implies that people do not have to spend
disproportionate part of the day fetching water to meet the household water needs. The
recommended distance for access to an improved water supply facility in rural areas is within 1.5
km radius. However, the indicated distance in rural areas alone does not necessarily mean people
are using safe drinking water. People within the specified distance could use unsafe water, and
hence data has to be collected from properly kept records of use of the facility or source.
Minimum amount of water: The amount of water needed to satisfy metabolic, hygienic and
domestic requirements is defined as 15 liters per capita per day and 20 liters per capita per day for
rural and urban communities in Ethiopia, respectively.
Safe Water: It means the water does not contain biological or chemical agents at concentration
levels higher than the safe drinking water quality standards set by World Health Organization
(WHO) and Water quality guidelines set by the MoWE (1999).
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Methodological sheet for indicator # 7
Details Description
Served population: It is estimated by the number of users of each functioning water supply
facility and with adequate water quality (safe water). At site level the WASHCO will have
this record and expects to reports on this indicator data on monthly basis as per the WASH
guideline. The data will be aggregated at kebele and woreda level and eventually lead its
way to regional Water Bureaus.
Each water facility has ID number to identify the water facility.
Specification of
determinants needed
Population size served by the safe drinking water supply facility (P
S
) is a whole number
Total population (P
T
) in the considered geographic area and it in whole integer number
Computation The indicator can be computed as follows:

100 * [(P
S
)/(P
T
)]

Where:
P
S
=

Population size served by the safe drinking water
P
T
=

Total population.
Units of measurements Indicator measured as a percentage.
Determinants measured in numerical quantity (whole number).
Data sources,
availability and quality
Data on population is usually available from Kebele office for rural, and Water Board and
wereda water offices for urban water supply. National statistical Abstract/yearbooks and
reports provide data for woredas and regional and national level.
Scale of application Local (village or kebele level), wereda level and regional level. Data availability at lower
administrative levels would allow the production of aggregated regional and national
information on indicators
Geographical coverage National
Interpretation An increasing trend in access to safe drinking water supply indicates the effective
investment by the government to protect public safety and improve the health and hygiene of
the people. It is also one of the indicators for policy implementation by the government,
showing a priority being assigned to the water sector.
The origins of the most common discrepancies between internationally reported and
nationally reported figures are:
Use of different definitions of what constitutes access to safe drinking water.
Use of different total population estimates and different estimates for the distribution of
the population among urban and rural areas.
Use of population as the denominator for access as per the MDG indicator vs. the use of
households as the denominator as was routinely done by DHS.
Use of an estimate for acess is done internationally vs. the reporting of the latest survey
or census findings, which is often done nationally.
Often discrepancies are found between inventory, survey and census findings and routinely
reported data. Surveys and censuses provide a net estimate of facilities that are in use,
including those constructed by different actors/stakeholders and excluding those facilities
that have fallen in disrepair and which are no longer in use.
Linkage with other
indicators
This indicator is linked to the chain of indicators, which capture the impact of the health and
hence the production capacity of the community, and its consequence is related to
macroeconomic impacts and policies.
Alternative methods
and definitions

Related indicator sets Millennium Indicators Database
World Bank Group - World Development Indicators
Sources of further
information

Other institutions
involved
Ministry of Finance and Economic Development (MoFED)
Central Statistics Authority, Public and Private Water Utilities
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Methodological sheet for Indicator # 8a:

Indicator name: School Sanitation Coverage/Schools with adequate sanitation
Details Description
Prepared by Ethiopian Government, Ministry of Water Energy and UN-DESA
Example Under development
Challenge area Sanitation
Rationale / aspect of the
challenge area
Ethiopias school system has inadequate and the lowest school sanitation coverage by Sub Saharan Standard.
The prevalence of diseases related to sanitation problems such as helminthes infections (which affect
hundredth and thousands of school children) and diarrheal diseases are high in schools and it is a huge
burden to the children, communities and the country at large. Schools particularly those in rural areas which
constitute the largest number in the country often completely lack sanitary facilities of some kind. As a result
of this situation in schools, children ability to learn particularly girls is affected by the lack of proper place
and facility for sanitation and hygiene practices.

This indicator intends to determine what proportion of the schools in Ethiopia has sanitation facilities of
acceptable quality and standards. The data on this indicator assess the level of school sanitation at any time
and provides information on progress towards set targets such as MDG, UAP, etc.
Position in DPSIR chain Pressure
Definition of indicator This indicator provides information on the number and proportion of schools with adequate sanitation
facilities. In this indicator, the type of toilet is used as proxy for adequate sanitation. This indicator is
conceptualized and established on certain definitions and understanding of the basic sanitation facilities for
schools which include simple pit latrine with slab, VIP latrine and flush toilet, all equipped with hand
washing facilities. All basic sanitation facilities can have urinals, they should be safe and secure for all aged
school children, and it is also adequate in terms of maintaining toilet/student ratio as proclaimed in the
sanitation and hygiene protocol. The basic school sanitation facilities offer the privacy for both sexes; boys
and girls. Inadequate sanitation facilities include ordinary pit latrines, bucket, or no toilets. In the Ethiopian
context, it is made clear in the national sanitation protocol that an adequate sanitation service in school is
when one standard toilet is made available for service for 100 school children in a separate set up for boys
and girls, although this is seen not adequate in providing hygienic sanitation in schools. A standard toilet
with the service means, the toilet is clean, smell and fly free. This standard toilet should be equipped with a
urinal and a hand washing facility.

Therefore, the definition for the indicator is the Percentage of the schools with adequate access to a
standard sanitation facility. Access can be further defined according to the sanitation protocol in Ethiopia
as the ability to provide one toilet for 100 school children. The total number of toilets for boys and girls in a
school depends on the school population, and services are separately given for both the boys and girls in a
separate facility.
Underlying definitions and
concepts
The indicator is based on the following guidelines. According to the Sanitation Protocol in Ethiopia (FDRE,
2005), sanitation facilities for institutions for instance school, adequate sanitation service can be obtained
when one toilet stand is used by 100 or less girls and 150 boys or less, giving a ratio of toilet/girl students
and toilet stance/boys ratio of 1:150. This is given the resource limitations in most school. If urinal are used
this ration should be reduced to 1:50 for girls and 1:100 for boys that are recently introduced
recommendations by the school sanitation manual (FDRE/UNICEF, 2010). The toilet type in schools are
either (i) Basic pit latrine which has a slab and a superstructure, or and (ii) Improved pit latrine which
include San Plat, VIP and even flush toilets (WASH guideline, 2009). The toilets are easily accessible to all
school children including children with disabilities. They are expected to be located within 30-50 meters
from all users. Toilets in schools need to be standardized and provide privacy and security. A design and
construction manual is prepared, and soon the use of this manual is about to be enforced by the government.
The toilets should be appropriate to local cultural and social conditions. They are age and gender appropriate.
There has to be sufficient water for hygienic sanitation in schools and hence toilets are hygienic to use and
easy to clean, and they are provided with hand washing facility within three to five meters of the toilet.

Specification of
determinants needed
Number of school children having access to school toilets and its accessories (
i
N
Schools), where n = total
number of school (SC) in the wereda, region or country level, and i = each individual school with sanitation
facilities that meet the specified standards and sanitation protocol of the country.
Total number of school in the wereda, region and national level, and it is determined based on the following
mathematical relationship - (
i
N
School),

where i is each individual school and N is the total number of
schools (TSC) in the wereda, region or country level.

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Methodological sheet for Indicator # 8a:


















9
A standard toilet is clean, smell and flies free, and it is equipped with a urinal and a hand washing facility.
10
/ Physically separate means the toilet blocks for boys and girls are located in separate sites approximately by 30 to 50 meters
distance (refer Design and construction manual for school sanitation in Ethiopia, 2010 Addis Ababa, Ethiopia)
Details Description
Computation The indicator can be computed as:

100*[(
i
N
SC) / TSC],

Whereas:

(
i
N
SC) =

Total number of school with adequate access to standard toilet
9
(counted from i=1 to N
(total number of schools). The sanitation facilities are disaggregated by gender physically
10

separate toilets for boys and girls),
TSC

=

Total number of schools
N = Number of schools in the area considered; woreda, region or national
Units of measurements Indicator measured as a percentage.
Determinants measured in whole numbers integers.
Data sources,
availability and quality
Data on number of schools with sanitation facilities and student populations is available from the Woreda and
Regional Education Bureau and Ministry of Education. The figures are aggregated to produced regional and
national statistics.
Scale of application Mainly national. However, data availability at lower administrative levels such as regional and wereda levels
would allow comparisons among woredas and regions and enable to determine gaps.
Geographical coverage National
Interpretation An increasing trend in sanitation coverage in schools in Ethiopia in general will show high priority being
assigned to improving the education environment and therefore increasing the enrollment of young children
and particularly girls.
Linkage with other
indicators
This indicator is linked to the chain of indicators, which capture the impact of improved environment for
school children,
Alternative methods and
definitions

Related indicator sets
Sources of further
information

Other institutions
involved

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Methodological sheet for Indicator # 8b:

Indicator name: Pupil to latrine/toilet stance ratio in schools expressed in percentage (%)
Details Description
Prepared by Ethiopian Government, Ministry of Water Energy and UN-DESA
Example Under development
Challenge area Sanitation
Rationale / aspect of the
challenge area
Ethiopias school system has inadequate and the lowest school sanitation coverage by Sub Saharan
Standard. The prevalence of diseases related to sanitation problems such as helminthes infections
(which affect hundredth and thousands of school children) and diarrheal diseases are high in schools
and it is a huge burden to the children, communities and the country at large. Schools particularly
those in rural areas which constitute the largest number in the country often completely lack sanitary
facilities of some kind. As a result of this situation in schools, children ability to learn particularly girls
is affected by the lack of proper place and facility for sanitation and hygiene practices.

This indicator intends to determine the ratio of the total number of toilets made available in a school
to the total number of pupils or students which gives a ratio having met the standard services given a
standard ratio of one toilet with Urinals for 100 boy and one toilet with Urinals for 50 girls as a basis
of comparison. Ideally this ratio has to be established for each school. Those schools that did not meet
this standard are tallied to establish the number of school that did not meet the desired targets in school
sanitation service, and this will be an input for indicator #8a.
Position in DPSIR chain Pressure
Definition of indicator It is the ratio of the total number of toilets made available in a school to the total number of pupils or
students which gives a ratio having met the standard services; given a standard ratio of one toilet for
100 boys and one toilet for 50 girls as a basis of comparison.

This indicator provides information on the number of schools that do not meet the standard sanitation
services. The basic school sanitation facilities offer the privacy for both sexes; boys and girls. Refer
design and construction manual for school sanitation manual in Ethiopia.

Underlying definitions and
concepts
The indicator is based on the following guidelines:

According to the Sanitation Protocol in Ethiopia (FDRE, 2005), it is required that sanitation facilities
for institutions such as schools are required to have physically separate toilet blocks for boys and girls.
when one toilet stand without urinal is used by 100 or less girls and 150 boys or less, giving a ratio of
toilet stance /girls ratio of 1:100, and toilet stance/boys ratio of 1:150. It is established that adequate
sanitation service can be obtained when (i) one toilet with urinal is designed and constructed for 100
boys or less, giving a toilet/boys ratio of 1:100 and (ii) one toilet with urinal is designed and
constructed for 50 girls or less, giving toilet/girls ratio of 1:50.

The toilet type in schools are either (i) Basic pit latrine which has a slab and a superstructure, or and
(ii) Improved pit latrine which include San Plat, VIP and even flush toilets (WASH guideline, 2009,
FDRE with UNICEF, Design and Construction Manual for school sanitation in Ethiopia, 2010). Under
these standard settings, the toilets are easily accessible to all school children including children with
disabilities. The latrine blocks for boys and girls are physically separated and expected to be located at
30-50 meters distance from each other (if there is enough space).
Specification of determinants
needed
Number of school which meets the toilet/students (disaggregated by gender) is counted (or tallied) and it
is a whole number integer,

i
N
School) = Schools that meets the toilet/student ration are counted and summed into whole
number integer

Total number of school (TSC) in the wereda, region and national level is determined based on the
following mathematical relationship

TSC =
i
N
School)

Where i indicate each individual school and N is the total number of schools in the wereda,
region or country level.

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Methodological sheet for Indicator # 8b:



Details Description
Computation The indicator can be computed as:

100*[(
i
N
School) / TSC],

Whereas:

(
i
N
SC) =

Schools that meets the toilet/student ratio of 1 counted and summed into whole
number integer,
TSC

=

Total number of schools
N = Number of schools in the area considered; woreda, region or national
Units of measurements Indicator measured as a percentage, and it is dimensionless.
Determinants measured in whole numbers integers.
Data sources,
availability and quality
Data on number of schools with sanitation facilities and student populations is available from the
Woreda and Regional Education Bureau and Ministry of Education. The figures are aggregated to
produced regional and national statistics.
Scale of application Mainly national. However, data availability at lower administrative levels such as regional and wereda
levels would allow comparisons among woredas and regions and enable to determine gaps.
Geographical coverage National
Interpretation An increasing trend in sanitation coverage in schools in Ethiopia in general will show high priority
being assigned to improving the education environment and therefore increasing the enrollment of
young children and particularly girls.
Linkage with other
indicators
This indicator is linked to the chain of indicators, which capture the impact of improved environment
for school children,
Alternative methods and
definitions

Related indicator sets
Sources of further
information

Other institutions
involved

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Methodological sheet developed for indicator # 9
Indicator name Unaccounted for water
Details Description
Prepared by Ethiopian Government and UNDESA
Example Under development
Challenge area Water Supply
Rationale / aspect of the
challenge area
The proportion of unaccounted for water in many of the towns and cities in Ethiopia is
very much unknown, and it is expected to be very high. There will always be some
water that is unaccounted-for, because water is physically lost through cracks and leaks
in the system; storage facilities, distribution lines, etc., and water is also illegally used
from the distribution lines and water use is not properly metered. Therefore, water
managers are constantly investigating new ways to reduce the water loss through leaks
and bursts. Unaccounted for water, therefore, includes water that is lost through bursts
and leaks, taken through illegal connections or used through unread and or inaccurate /
non functioning meters.

Recent reports showed that the unaccounted for water in Addis Ababa is increasingly
growing estimated to reach between 35 and 40% of the total water abstracted or
withdrawal. In 2008 alone, unaccounted-for water made up approximately 37% of the
water abstracted from the different sources, springs, ground water and water from
treatment plants. Reduction of unaccounted for water requires enhanced capacity in
terms of monitoring the water supply system. In many developed countries, the plan
target is to reduce unaccounted-for water to 10% only at any time.
Position in DPSIR chain Pressure
Definition of indicator It is the percentage of the water abstracted and not used by the public services, and it is
expected as wastage in the storage and distribution systems. It is the volume of water
which cannot be accounted for in a system and it is a measurement that can vary
significantly with time, depending on the frequency and the seriousness of leaks, and
the length of time it takes to deal with those leaks. It also includes illegally used water.
Underlying definitions
and concepts
The indicator is based on the following definitions of variables for water use:

Water Abstraction: The total volume of water abstracted or withdrawal at source/s in
Mm3 ( or MMC)
Total Billing of water: It is the total bill collected for water use for the specified period
and converted to m
3
of water.
Physical loss of water: Water loss (m
3
) due to breakage, leakage through cracks, etc.
Commercial loss or administrative loss: Loss of water due to illegal users, meter not
reading, or meter reader did not read the meter.

Specification of
determinants needed
Total volume of freshwater withdrawal or abstracted (WW
TOTAL
) in m
3

Total billed water (V
BILL
) estimated in m
3
for the specified period. The data is
established from the bills collected from clients or users of the municipal water
services,
Total volume of water lost in the system, m3 - unaccounted water ,
(WW
TOTAL
V
BILL
)
Computation The indicator can be computed as expressed in percentage :

WW
UNACOUNTED
= 100*[(WW
TOTAL
V
BILL
)/ WW
TOTAL
]

Whereas:
WW
TOTAL
=

Total volume of water abstracted or withdrawal in MC
V
BILL
=

Total volume of billed water (MC) estimated from public spending.
WW
UNACOUNTED
= Water abstracted or withdrawal unaccounted in percentage

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Methodological sheet developed for indicator # 9











Details Description
Units of measurements Indicator measured as a percentage and it is dimensionless.
Determinants measured in volume of water (m
3
).
Data sources, availability
and quality
Data on water abstracted or withdrawal, bills collected public spending by economic
sectors is usually available from Municipalities or woreda water boards.
Scale of application Municipality, woreda, regional and country or national level
Geographical coverage Town and cities
Interpretation An increasing trend in the unaccounted for water indicates the need for
improvements in the design and construction and management of the water supply
systems, and the need for increased maintenance cost. The indicator will show the
need for increased monitoring to improve the physical losses and improve the
techniques on water bill reading, collection process and control, etc.
Linkage with other
indicators
This indicator is linked to the chain of indicators, such as access, investment on the
water supply, and macroeconomic policies in improving the water sector efficiency.
It is also related to increased revenue which in principle allows increased
investments in the water supply to the town and cities.
Alternative methods and
definitions
Increased monitoring, operation and maintenance, etc.
Related indicator sets
Sources of further
information


Other institutions
involved



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Methodological sheet developed for indicator # 10-a

Indicator name Functionality: Percentage (%) of functioning water supply systems (rural
areas)
Details Description
Prepared by Ethiopian Government, Ministry of Water Energy and UNDESA
Example Under development
Challenge area Operation and Maintenance of Water Supply Facilities
Rationale / aspect of the
challenge area
In sub Saharan Africa, it is estimated that 35% of improved rural water supplies are not
operational. Although there is no accurate data on functionality of water supply schemes for
Ethiopia, its situation may not be different. Such level of non-functionality of schemes means more
money and resource are diverted to secure water and manage the health related problems.

In order to support water supply schemes for better performance and sustainable services,
communities are participating in the planning, operation and maintenance services. The indicator
is, therefore, addresses the structural causes behind the poor conditions and repeated water supply
schemes failure. It provides data and information on the cause of failure, and supports decisions
that lead to repair, rehabilitation or reconstruction of existing systems and lays the foundation for
sustained service delivery at a scale with better functionality of schemes in the future.
Position in DPSIR
chain
Pressure
Definition of indicator It is the percentage of schemes that are reported as functioning i.e. provide water supply services at
a quantity and quality without interruption in a given period of time, mostly in a year period.
Underlying definitions
and concepts
It is the number of constructed water supply systems that are properly functioning or adequately
operating as expressed in percentage (%). Properly functioning water supply systems indicate
adequately maintained system usually by community in the rural areas of Ethiopia. The criteria for
a properly functioning water supply system in the rural areas may include:
Existence of a WASHCO
Presence of designated people trained on operation and maintenance and responsible, appropriate
tools in good working order
Up to data records account,

Then the water supply systems ensure the standard amount and quality of water for the users, i.e.
15 liters per capita per day for rural. The quality of water is on the basis of WHO or Ministry of
Water Resource quality standards.

The indicator presents a statistics of functioning water supply schemes (without interruptions) over
a given period of time.
Specification of
determinants needed
The number of functioning water supply schemes (N
F
)
Total number of water supply scheme in the area (TN
WSS
)
Computation Functionality (%) = 100*(N
F
/TN
WSS
)
Whereas:
NF = number of functioning water supply schemes
TN
WSS
= Total number of water supply scheme in the area
Units of measurements Percentage (%) and dimensionless
Data sources,
availability and quality
Data could be collected from each community with a constructed water supply schemes. Regular
report from WASHCO and Kebele manager is the main source of data for the indicator. However,
the data is not available as articulated here.
Scale of application Woreda, Region and country wide
Geographical coverage Selected administrative and political boundary
Interpretation An increasing trend in the percentage of functioning water supply facilities indicate the good
maintenance and operation services provided by the community and also improved health to the
people.
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Methodological sheet developed for indicator # 10-a





Details Description
Linkage with other indicators This indicator is linked to the chain of indicators, which capture the impact of
macroeconomic policies in improving the water sector efficiency. One variable of this
indicator is actual expenditure on operation and maintenance (O&M). It is also closely
related to the rate of O&M cost recovery indicator.
Alternative methods and
definitions

Related indicator sets
Sources of further information
Other institutions involved
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Methodological sheet developed for indicator # 10-b

Indicator name Functionality: Number of hours of service interruptions per day for connected
households (urban)
Details Description
Prepared by Ethiopian Government, Ministry of Water Energy and UNDESA
Example Under development
Challenge area Operation and Maintenance of Water Supply Facilities
Rationale / aspect of the
challenge area
In sub Saharan Africa, it is estimated that 35% of improved rural water supplies are not
operational. Although accurate data on functionality of water supply schemes in Ethiopia is less
known, its situation may not be different. Such level of non-functionality of schemes means
more money and resource to access safe water and manage the health related problems.

In order to support water supply schemes for better performance and sustainable services, water
boards in towns are planning operation and maintenance (O&M) services. The indicator is,
therefore, addresses the structural causes behind the poor conditions and repeated schemes
failure. It provides data and information on the cause of failure, and supports decisions that lead
to repair, rehabilitation or reconstruction of existing systems in time and lays the foundation for
sustained service delivery at a scale with better functionality of schemes in the future.
Position in DPSIR chain Pressure
Definition of indicator It is the number of hours of service interruption per day for connected households (urban water
supply schemes) i.e. it provide water supply services without interruption in a given period of
time, mostly in a year time.
Underlying definitions and
concepts
It is the percentage of constructed water supply systems that are properly functioning or
adequately operating. Properly functioning water supply systems indicate adequately
maintained system usually by community in the rural areas of Ethiopia. The criteria for a
properly functioning water supply system in the rural areas may include:
Existence of a Water Board
Presence of designated people trained on operation and maintenance and responsible,
appropriate tools in good working order in all Municipalities
Up to data records account,

Then the water supply systems should ensure the standard amount and quality of water for the
users, i.e. 20 liters per capita per day and an acceptable water quality standard (WHO and
MoWE).
The indicator presents a statistics of functioning water supply schemes (without interruptions)
over a given period of time.
Specification of
determinants needed
The number of hours water supply services is interrupted per day (HOUR
NF
)
Total number of hours the water supply scheme is operating (TOT
HOURS
)
Computation The number of hours of interruption is computed based on defined time periods such as; one,
two, three, four, five and six hours (most commonly used periods).
Functionality expressed in hours of service interruptions per day for connected households
(urban)

One hour period service interruptions:
= ( NHH
NF
/ TOT
HHs
)

Two hours period service interruptions:
= ( NHH
NF
/ TOT
HHs
) So on..

Where as

NHH
NF
= Number of households with service interruption during the period,
TOT
HHs
= Total number of households with connected water supply.
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Methodological sheet developed for indicator # 10-b

Details Description
Units of measurements dimensionless ratio
Data sources, availability
and quality
Data could be collected from each municipality or town and city water board.
Scale of application Municipalities and woredas
Geographical coverage Selected administrative and political boundary
Interpretation
Linkage with other
indicators
This indicator is linked to the chain of indicators, which capture the impact of
macroeconomic policies in improving the water sector efficiency. One variable of this
indicator is actual expenditure on operation and maintenance (O&M). It is also closely
related to the rate of O&M cost recovery indicator.
Alternative methods and
definitions

Related indicator sets
Sources of further
information

Other institutions
involved












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Methodological sheet developed for indicator # 11

Indicator name Volume of wastewater treated before discharge (as % of total discharges)
Details Description
Prepared by Ethiopian Government - UNDESA
Example Under development
Challenge area Sanitation
Rationale / aspect of
the challenge area
The wastewater generated from domestic and industrial sources are hazardous to public
health and the environment through exposing the people to diseases and long term sickness
and even mortality. It is important to contain the direct contact of these wastes with humans,
and one way is to collect and treat the wastewater before release to streams/rivers or to the
ecosystem or reuse for irrigation. Monitoring the volume of wastewater treated indicate the
level of intervention in the wastewater treatment effort.

In many developing countries a large proportion of wastewater is discharged to the
environment with little or no treatment. In the metropolitan Addis, the volume of wastewater
treated is not more than 4% of the potential wastewater released from resident population and
industrial areas. This indicates that about 96% of the wastewater generated is either contained
in individual septic tanks or released to streams and rivers. This is economically, socially,
and environmentally unsustainable given especially in light of the fast growing population,
urbanization and industrialization of cities. Pollution of freshwater systems is growing and
this depletes freshwater resources and reduces the availability. Climate change and associated
water scarcity, and the need for more water to expand irrigated agriculture to meet the
countrys food security makes the situation of freshwater systems a big challenge for water
managers, agriculturalists, environmentalists and policy makers. Wastewater treatment is,
therefore, central to the requirements for sustainable use and management of our freshwater
systems. It is also important for public heath and safety.

Presently there is no standard wastewater treatment plant for Addis Ababa. The situation is
worse for other growing cities such as Awassa, Mekele, Nazareth, Bahar Dar, and Dire
Dawa. The challenge today is the heavy investment required in wastewater treatment in these
cities and the scarce financial resources available for pollution control.
Position in DPSIR
chain
Pressure
Definition of
indicator
The volume of wastewater treated per year based on the total potential volume of wastewater
actually generated
Underlying
definitions and
concepts
The generation of liquid waste from households and industries are collected and treated in a
treatment plant. However, not all liquid wastes are collected and treated in Ethiopia. In
Ethiopia, sewerage designs are made on the basis of an estimate on total wastewater from
each household, about 80% of the water supplied to each household is expected to leave each
household as wastewater.

The proportion of wastewater treated is the percentage of water consumed and returned to the
environment. The volume of wastewater produced is then measured by simple measurement
made available (estimating the volume passing through a measuring device) and or the
volume that enter to the treatment plant at the municipal level. Industries can have their own
independent measuring device put in place.

This indicator assesses the potential level of pollution from domestic and
industrial/commercial point sources entering the aquatic environment, and monitors progress
towards reducing this potential within a framework of integrated water resources
management. It helps to identify communities where wastewater treatment action is required
to protect health of the public and the ecosystem.

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Methodological sheet developed for indicator # 11




Details Description
Specification of
determinants needed
Wastewater treated (WW
T
)in volume of fluid (m3) prior to discharge
Total volume of wastewater (TV
WW
) estimated at 80% of the total water supply estimated in
volume of fluid (m3)
Computation The proportion of domestic waste (sewage) treated in urban areas can be determined on the
basis of the quantity of water consumed by households as compared to the capacity of
wastewater treatment facilities. It can also be estimated on the basis of areas of a community
connected to the sewerage system and the population inhabiting these localities.

In the case of industrial waste a similar approach can be taken for those installations which
are connected to a central sewerage system, using water consumption and allowing for the
differentiation between process and cooling waters used by the industries. In many cases, the
most preferred is that industrial establishments, either discharging their effluents direct or
through the public sewerage system, need to have their own treatment facilities with specific
design and construction based on their own kind of pollutants generated.

As far as the efficacy of treatment is concerned, this can only be determined from the
performance information for each waste treatment plant judged against established discharge
criteria and standard.

Therefore the indicator - proportion of wastewater treated (WW
T
) before discharge in
percentage can be computed as follows:

Percentage of WW
T
= 100* [WW
T
/TV
WW
]
Where
WW
T
= Wastewater treated in volume of fluid (m3) prior to discharge
TV
WW
= Total volume of wastewater estimated at 80% of the total water supply
(m
3
)
Units of
measurements
MCM or Mm
3
of wastewater treated or Percentage (%) of volume of wastewater treated
Data sources,
availability and
quality
The data required include records of urban water board or water supply authorities' meter
readings; and performance of waste treatment facilities; information on industrial waste
treatment plants; information from wastewater laboratories; and number of house connections
to the sewerage system.

The data sources are water supply and sanitation authorities, town water boards. Data is often
not available, or is incomplete. Without surveys of individual industrial establishments or
environmental impact assessments associated with new industrial developments, data will
remain partial or, at best not of professional estimates. Presently for Addis Ababa, data are
less available in the desired quantity and quality.
Scale of application
Geographical
coverage

Interpretation
Linkage with other
indicators
This indicator has important linkages to other socioeconomic and environmental indicators,
such as annual withdrawals of ground and surface water, the levels of biochemical oxygen
demand (BOD) in water resources, concentration of faecal coli forms, population growth,
informal settlements, infrastructure expenditure, and generation of waste.

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Methodological sheet developed for indicator # 11



Details Description
Alternative methods and
definitions
The proportion of wastewater treated can be converted into a quantity of wastewater.
It may be practical and useful to keep household, and commercial and industrial
wastes separate if it is possible.
Related indicator sets
Sources of further
information


Other institutions involved Public and Private Water Utilities


0niteu Nations Bevelopment foi Economic anu Social Affaiis (0NBESA) Annex Page 122

Methodological sheet for Indicator # 15




Indicator name Percent of population affected by waterborne diseases
Details Description
Prepared by Ethiopian Government in collaboration with UN-DESA
Example Indicator under development
Challenge area Health
Rationale /aspect of
the challenge area
There are four broad categories of water-related diseases (Peter H. Gleick, 2002), and these
include: (i) Waterborne Diseases: these diseases are caused by ingestion of contaminated
water, and these include cholera, typhoid, amoebic and bacillary dysentery and other
diarrheal diseases, (ii) Water-washed diseases: these diseases are caused by poor personal
hygiene and skin or eye contact with contaminated water, and these diseases include
scabies, trachoma, flea, lies and tick borne diseases, (iii) Water-based diseases: These
diseases are caused by parasites found in intermediate organisms living in contaminated
water, and these diseases include dracunculisasis, schistosomiasis, and other helminthes,
and (iv) Water related diseases: these diseases are caused by insect vectors, especially
mosquitoes, that breed in water; most common in Ethiopia is malaria.

The indicator is limited only to data and information on waterborne diseases. World Bank
(2004) reported that about 40% of childhood deaths and 88% of the diseases in Ethiopia are
attributed to the use of unsafe drinking water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) practices.
The report made an estimate that the average child under 5 years of age has 5 episodes of
diarrhea per year.

The waterborne diseases are preventable, however regularly monitored data and
information on water quality of water supply facilities is less available to take appropriate
policy decision.

Position in DPSIR chain Pressure
Concept and Definition
of the Indicator

The percentage of population affected by cholera, typhoid, amoebic and bacillary dysentery
and other diarrheal diseases in a given population catchment kebel, woreda, zone,
regional and national level.
Specification of
determinants needed
(i) Number of people affected by each type of waterborne diseases; cholera, typhoid,
amoebic and bacillary dysentery and other diarrheal diseases, x , where x is the total
number of people affected by each waterborne diseases type mentioned above,
(ii) Total number of people affected by all waterborne diseases,
P = x

1
, where r is the disease type 1 to r,
(iii) Total population in the catchment area, POP
Method of Computation The indicator is computed as follows:

100*(
P
POP
)
Where as:

P= Total number of people affected by all waterborne diseases in the population catchment
area,

POP = Total population in the catchment area (source: population census report)

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Methodological sheet for Indicator # 15






Details Description
Indicator Relevance For policy decisions and monitoring progress of actions
Units of measurements Percentage (%)
Data sources, availability
and quality
Kebele Health Posts, Woreda Health Center, hospitals, Baseline studies, etc.
Scale of application Kebele, woreda, zonal, region and national level
Geographical coverage Kebele level and woreda level (basic), regional and national

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Methodological Sheet for Indicator # 19

Indicator name Ratio of hydrological measurement stations fully operational over WMO
standard Requirements
Details Description
Prepared by Ethiopian Government, Ministry of Water Energy and UNDESA
Example Under development
Challenge area Water Resources/Hydrology
Rationale / aspect of
the challenge area
Hydrological stations are needed for such specific purposes as reservoir operation, irrigation, water quality
monitoring, flood forecasting, or research.
Position in DPSIR
chain
State
Definition of
indicator
It is defined as the ratio of the average area served by hydrological station that meet the WMO
standard over the area of the existing hydrological networks density in a any given river basin. The
calculation is made by dividing the area of the territory by the total number of hydrological stations
operated within the river basin.
Underlying
definitions and
concepts
The purpose of the indicator is to assess the adequacy of existing hydrological networks in providing
the necessary information on hydrology, stream flow, and freshwater resources in the context of
freshwater assessment. Data on freshwater are important to support sustainable development.
The density of hydrological stations should be sufficient to avoid deficiencies in assessing,
developing, and managing water resources. The density of hydrological networks is measured as the
average area for one hydrological station. The territory in question may be divided according to its
physiographic and/or climatic features. The density is understood as a set of values representing
densities of stations monitoring different hydrological variables; such as, precipitation, stream flow,
groundwater, sediment load, water quality (for surface water, groundwater and sediment), and
evaporation. the first step should be

Minimum network is the establishment of a minimum network the minimum number of stations, which the
collective experience of hydrological agencies of many countries has indicated to be necessary to initiate
planning for the economic development of the water resources (WMO, 1994. A guide to Hydrologic
Practices). The minimum network or WMO standard networking of Hydro- meteorological stations is one
that will avoid serious deficiencies in developing and managing water resources on a scale commensurate
with the overall level of economic development of the country. A minimum network will provide the basic
framework for network expansion to meet future needs for specific purposes. Once the minimum network is
operating, regionalized hydrological relationships, interpreted information, and models can be formulated
for estimating general hydrological characteristics, including rainfall and runoff at any location in the area.
The basic network of observing stations should be adjusted over time until regional hydrological
relationships can be developed for un-gauged areas that provide the appropriate level of information.

The network is understood here to comprise a series of sub-networks each composed of gauges and
stations within a physical entity, the river basin or sub basin or catchment, which are collecting data on
a different hydrological variable.
The indicator is based on the following definitions:

Hydrological measurement stations include stream/river gauge stations, and and some times include
meteorological stations where rainfall/precipitation, evaporation, evapo-transpiration, etc. are
measured. Hydrological Network: This is a network of several hydrological gauge stations and or
meteorological stations in a given are; catchment or river basin.

WMO (World Meteorological Organization) has established a standard network of hydrological
stations for a given geographic area in a river basin. We say a network of hydrological stations is
compliant to the WMO standards when such network size is attained.

The minimum network: The number of hydrological and meteorological network density recommended for a
given watershed

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Methodological Sheet for Indicator # 19
Details Description
Specification of
determinants needed
Number of hydrological measurement stations
Standard hydrological measurement stations per unit area in a river basin

Computation The WMO recommended the following network densities for hydrological and
meteorological stations.

Physical condition
of the area
Minimum densities per station Unit
(area in km2 per station)
Hydrological Meteorological
Stream Gauges Non-recording Recording
Mountainous 1000 250 2500
Hilly/undulating 1875 575 5750
Interior plains 1875 575 5750

Source: WMO, 1994. A guide to Hydrological Practice
Table 5 Existing densities of gauge stations in each River Basin in Ethiopia
River Basin
Area
(000
m
2
)
Runof
f
(BMC
/yr)
Existing Hydrological network (stream
gauges)
(Number of gauge stations in each basin)
Presentl
y
availabl
e
To be
Rehabi
litated
WMO
Recommende
d network
density
Gap
Abaye 199,810 51.00 160 11 130 None
Tekeze 90,001 7.63 39 3 47 8
Baro
Akobo
74,102 11.89 31 2 39 8
Genale 171,042 5.88 34 3 68 34
Wabi
Shebele
202,697 3.16 30 9 61 31
Mereb 7,180 0.26 3 1 4 1
Omo Gibe 78,213 17.96 46 6 54 8
Afar
Denakil
2,223 - 10 8 18 8
Awash 112,697 4.60 71 1 58 None
Rift Valley 52,739 5.64 54 2 43 None
Ogaden 77,121 - None None None None
Aysha 2,223 0 None None None None
Units of measurements Indicator measured as a percentage.
Data sources,
availability and quality
The principle source for hydrological and meteorological data in Ethiopia is the Water
Resources Information Directorate under the Hydrology Sub Directorate and the
National Meteorological Services Agency in the Ministry of Water Energy. With
regard to meteorological data, there are other data collecting organizations such as
Ethiopian Civil Aviation, Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research and
Universities. There are enough data on rainfall and limited hydrological data for the
rivers and stream in the river basin.
Scale of application River basin
Geographical coverage River Basin
Interpretation An increasing trend in improving the hydro-meteorological network in the country
improves the quality of hydrological and meteorological information generated.
Linkage with other
indicators
This indicator is linked to the chain of indicators on freshwater resource monitoring

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Methodological Sheet for Indicator # 19











Details Description
Alternative methods and
definitions
The indicator can be expressed in terms of a network of hydrological and meteorological
instruments as per the WMO standard network or less for more reliable information.
Related indicator sets
Sources of further
information
A guide to Hydrological Practices by WMO 1994. Chapter 20

Other institutions
involved

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Methodological sheet developed for indicator # 21

Indicator name Percentage (%) of stakeholders represented in the planning process
Details Description
Prepared by Ethiopia Government, Ministry of Water Energy in collaboration with UN-DESA
Example Under development
Challenge area Governance
Rationale / aspect of
the challenge area


Recently we have witnessed significant changes in the strategy of water sector implementation;
from project based to an integrated approach and to a serious engagement in advocacy of policy
issues, good practices and governance for sustainable development. Some of the key trends
causing this change are the increasing social, economic and environmental challenges. Over the
last one decade, there has been proactive engagement and growing influence of donors,
multilateral and bilateral organizations particularly in the water and sanitation (WaSH) sub sector
than any other sub sector. This engagement is also true at community and woreda level.

After the promulgation of the National Water Sector Policy, opportunities have been opened for
stakeholders in water sector for stronger and regular participation in planning, policy dialogue,
etc. with the government. As a result many are finding value in the process of stakeholders
engagement in the project development cycles particularly in planning, monitoring and
evaluation. Stakeholders participation particularly at community level in the planning process is
one aspect of the changes and progresses made in the water sector.

Getting the right stakeholders for the planning process in water sector can be challenging. Often
there are conflicting demands for water among the different stakeholders within a community and
development partners in the sector. It can be challenging to bring them on to the table first and for
most in identifying the appropriate stakeholders who are representative of common interests. It is
always important that we should take a more multilateral approach, being a party to the broader
debate in which the community itself reconciles its own differences on priorities. But for dialogue
and planning all stakeholders are important and participation by each is crucial.

The basic reason we do planning with stakeholders is because we need each other. Community,
public (Governments), non- governmental organizations, private and other partners NGOs are
necessary partners in moving towards a sustainable future. This is a very practical approach to
planning and dealing with complex issues.
Position in DPSIR
chain
Response
Definition of indicator Percentage of the stakeholders in water sector represented in the planning process
Underlying definitions
and concepts
The indicator is based on the following definitions:

Planning is a process of setting goals, developing strategies, and outlining tasks and schedules to
accomplish a set of goal/s.

Stakeholders: a person, group or organization with an interest in a water project. A proper
identification of stakeholders is essential for engagement.

Water Sector Planning Process:
Stakeholder roles: establishing a clear understanding of their roles and responsibilities is critical
for a stakeholder participation in a project planning:
Clarify overall project goals and objectives
Review the scoping-level analysis and
recommendations for future, general options to explore
Provide input on proposed water quality and quantity indicators and targets
Help develop evaluation criteria for analyzing management options
Help screen for promising management options to model

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Methodological sheet developed for indicator # 21

Details Description
Underlying definitions
and concepts (continue)
Review findings of the modeling analysis and provide input on the preferred
management strategies
Review and provide input on the proposed monitoring plan
Review and provide input on the draft management plan
Help conduct community education and outreach throughout the process
Specification of
determinants needed
Number of stakeholders represented in the planning process (n) of water projects
Total number of stakeholders in water sector
Computation The indicator can be computed as:

100*(n/N)

Where:
n =

Number of stakeholders represented in a planning process in water sector
N =

Total number of stakeholders in water sector.
Units of measurements Indicator measured as a percentage (%) and dimensionless.
Determinants measured in whole integer number
Data sources,
availability and quality
Kebele Manger and WASHCO and woreda water offices are the source of data for the
indicator

Scale of application Local and national.
Geographical coverage At catchment and River basin level
Interpretation An increasing trend in the participation of stakeholders in the planning process at local,
regional and national level will show high level of participation and the reliability and
quality of planning in the sector.
Linkage with other
indicators


Alternative methods
and definitions


Related indicator sets
Sources of further
information

Other institutions
involved

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Methodological sheet for Indicator # 21



Indicator name Number of people trained in water related discipline (per 1000)
Details Description
Prepared by Ethiopian Government - UNDESA
Example Under development
Challenge area Governance
Rationale / aspect of the
challenge area
The quality of the human resource in a country is often called its capacity. The staff
structure of the water sector offices at the different level of hierarchy, the balance
between capacity building and service delivery, and even emergency services, all have
implications for the deployment of the human resources in the sector. Most important
and may be a strategic approach to capacity building is the training of sector staff in their
respective field of interest and to meet strategic interest and objectives of the sector
management. Training is an input like financial, physical and human resources required
to meet sector goals.

This indicator will provide evidence to the growing demand for skilled personnel in the
sector.
Position in DPSIR chain Response
Definition of indicator Number of people trained in water related discipline (per 1000) of the target population
in the water related disciplines.
Underlying definitions and
concepts
Ethiopia does have a wide range of educational establishments catering for the water
sector, from vocational and technical institutes to post-graduate courses at university
level, including specialist organizations such as the JICA water well drilling training
center. There are also several secondary vocational schools that give training in water.
Beside the formal educational establishments, there are also in-house trainings by NGOs,
consultants and trainers available to run courses and workshops for community and their
own staffs. Such trainings have to be reported.

Trained persons: number of people who receive training in water related disciplines at
all levels (from community, intuitions and organizations including higher institutions)

Water Sector: The water sector generally comprises: (i) water resources, climate and its
environment, (ii) infrastructure management in various sub-sectors such as water supply
(for urban and rural domestic needs, livestock and industrial needs); sewer and
wastewater treatment; basic sanitation; rainwater harvesting, irrigation and drainage;
flood protection; and IWRM, (iii) water governance (policies, laws, legislation and
regulations and institutions).
Specification of
determinants needed
The number of people trained (N) in water related discipline over a period.
Total number of people under consideration (POP
TOT
)
Computation Data on number of people trained in water related discipline annually or on any agreed
upon time period estimated in 1000 population.

= (N/ POP
TOT
) * 1/1000
Units of measurements Number of people

Data sources, availability
and quality
Woreda, regional and national level
Scale of application Kebele, woreda, region and country level
Geographical coverage Woreda, regional and national level
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Methodological sheet for Indicator # 21



Details Description
Interpretation An increasing trend in number of people trained in water related disciplines in general will
show high performance in capacity building of the water sector development program.
When the training is disaggregated by water sub-sectors, this indicator can also show
priorities and commitment in the development of the capacity in the sector. Increased
number of trained persons and building the capacity in water sector has a positive bearing
on poverty reduction through (i) improving access to safe drinking water supply; (ii)
improving access to basic sanitation; (iii) improved water productivity in various economic
sectors; and IWRM practices which will impact the macro economy of the country.
Linkage with other indicators
Alternative methods and
definitions

Related indicator sets
Sources of further
information

Other institutions involved
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Methodological sheet for Indicator # 24

Indicator name Irrigated area using advanced practices (% of total irrigated area)
by type of technology
Details Description
Prepared by Ethiopian Government, Ministry of Water Energy, FAO and UNDESA
Example Under development
Challenge area Response
Rationale / aspect of the
challenge area
Improved and modern (advanced) practices or technologies in irrigation include high
efficiency furrow irrigation, sprinkler irrigation and drip irrigation. The total irrigated
areas developed under advanced irrigation practices are important to determine the
preferred choice of technology for investment, management needs, to identify suitable
technology in the country.
Position in DPSIR chain Response
Definition of indicator It is the total irrigated area (ha) developed under different advanced irrigation practices
expressed as a ratio of the total irrigated area/land in the country expressed in
percentage.
Underlying definitions and
concepts
The indicator is based on the following definitions:
Advanced Practices in Irrigation: These include high efficiency furrow irrigation,
sprinkler irrigation and drip irrigation.
Specification of determinants
needed
Total irrigated area under each type of advanced irrigation practices (or type of
technology) :

Total Area under high efficiency Furrow Irrigation System (TA
FURO
)
Area under Drip System (TA
DRIP
)
Area under Sprinkler System (TA
SPRI
)
Computation The indicator can be computed as irrigated area by type of technology:

Total Area under high efficiency Furrow Irrigation System (TA
FURO
)
Total Area under high efficiency Basin Irrigation System (TA
BAIRR
)
Area under Drip System (TA
DRIP
)
Area under Sprinkler System (TA
SPRI
)

Or expressed as percentage of total irrigated area:

(i) Total Area under high efficiency Furrow Irrigation System (TA
FURO
)
expressed as percentage of the total irrigated area
=100*[ TA
FURO
/TOT
IRRA
]

(ii) Total Area under high efficiency Basin Irrigation System (TA
BAIRR
)
expressed as percentage of the total irrigated area
=100*[ TA
BAIRR
/TOT
IRRA
]
(iii) Total Area under Drip System (TA
DRIP
) expressed as percentage of the
total irrigated area
= 100*[ TA
DRIP
/TOT
IRRA
]

(iv) Total Area under Sprinkler System (TA
SPRI
) expressed as percentage of
the total irrigated area
= 100*[ TA
SPRI
/TOT
IRRA
]
Units of measurements Whole number integer or percentage
Data sources, availability and
quality
Data on advanced technology use can be obtained from woreda Agriculture offices and
Regional Water Bureau.
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Methodological sheet for Indicator # 24




Details Description
Scale of application Mainly national. However, data availability at lower administrative levels
would allow comparisons between woredas and regions within a country.
Geographical coverage Woreda, regional and country level
Interpretation The increasing trend in the total irrigated area by a certain advanced irrigation
technology shows the preference and adaptability of the technology in large
parts of the country.
Linkage with other
indicators

Alternative methods and
definitions

Related indicator sets
Sources of further
information

Other institutions involved
Stiengthening Watei Sectoi Nonitoiing anu Infoimation System in Ethiopia: uIRWI Pioject Phase II

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Methodological sheet developed for indicator # 25

Indicator name Hand Washing Prevalence
Details Description
Prepared by Ethiopian Government, Ministry of Water Energy and UN-DESA
Example Indicator under development
Challenge area Health hygiene
Rationale / aspect of the
challenge area
Most pathogens that cause diseases find their way to human body through the hands
of human beings. Unhygienic hands contribute much of the human sickness and even
mortality. Children are direct and front line groups to such infections. Unclean hands
contaminate food and pollute household water. Good hygiene education and
improved environmental health conditions reduced the risk to exposure to pathogens.
Life skills start at early age. Most often important hygiene skill like hand washing
and other hygiene practices are learned at school level.

Two things are important for a sustainable prevalence of hand washing:

Hygiene should be promoted among the people
Water and soap or ash has to be made available
Position in DPSIR chain State
Definition of indicator The number of people hand washing at critical times
Underlying definitions and
concepts
Food preparers and child care givers prepare most of the food in the household and
provide most of the care for young children. People have to hand wash before and
after meal. Appropriate hand washing behavior demands its use at critical time and
technique:

Critical time for hand washing :

After defecation,
After exposed to possible exposure to contamination of hands,
Before food preparation,
Before eating,
Before feeding children and after cleaning their bottoms,

Hand Washing Techniques:

Use water
Use soap or ash
Wash Both hands
Rubs hands together at least three times,
Dries hands hygienically using clean close

Specification of
determinants needed
Number of people hand washing using soap or ash at critical times
Computation Number of people practicing hand washing with soap or ash at critical time.

It can also be computed based on a defined community or group or people in an
institution. The computation can be done:

Number of people/students/etc. who report and demonstrate appropriate hand
washing behavior
Divided by
Total number of people interviewed in the sample

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Methodological sheet developed for indicator # 25






Details Description
Specification of determinants
needed
Number of people hand washing using soap or ash at critical times
Units of measurements Ratio and a dimensionless unit
Data sources, availability and
quality
Hand washing can be measured by self reporting of its practice at critical time and
demonstration of the technique in a household survey. The data is unavailable, and if
there is its data quality is unreliable to reflect the actual condition. There is less
experience in data generation in hand washing.
Scale of application Household, Community, group with specialized functions such as food preparers,
institutions such as school children, training camps, household members, etc.
Geographical coverage Woreda, region and National
Interpretation The increasing trend in the hand washing practices shows improved hygiene as a
result of growing behavioral change among the target groups.
Linkage with other indicators Health, sanitation and environmental
Alternative methods and
definitions

Related indicator sets UNICEF WHO
USAID Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance
Sources of further
information

Other institutions involved
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Methodological Sheet for indicator # 26
Indicator name Number of research articles on water sector in a reputable journal
Details Description
Prepared by Ethiopian Government, Ministry of Water Energy and UN-DESA
Example Under development
Challenge area Research and Knowledge Management Systems
Rationale / aspect of the
challenge area
The growing interest and appetite for Knowledge to unlock most development problems
demanded increased investment in research. Academia and research institutes are center of
excellence in research work. Many researches in policy, natural sciences, economics,
technology, etc., are of importance to academia, researchers and policy makers. Some
researches in these areas may be conducted and some of these research outputs are never
reported and this information could be used as input for the countrys development effort. This
has demanded the need to organize and publish research outputs (knowledge) on a regular
basis.

Monitoring knowledge and its production and access to public is a crucial input for policy and
decision making. Report based on Thompson Reuters Database to track Scientific (research)
Publications globally indicated that China has more than doubled its scientific research
activities and outputs to run second only to the United States in terms of volume of research
publications. In Africa three nations dominate Africas Research output (knowledge
production) with South Africa leading by a long way ahead of Egypt followed by Nigeria. The
overall volume of research activity and outputs in Africa remains smaller than The
Netherlands alone. Therefore, the number of research articles in publications is an important
indicator of Knowledge Management (KM) which has bearing on the development
performance of a country.

In Ethiopia, there are inadequate research establishments to generate enough knowledge
annually to support the development effort of the country compared to South Africa, or Egypt
or Nigeria. Research activities and annual research articles published in a reputable journal are
very few to none.

In Ethiopia, in 2010 a small knowledge management center for water sector is established in
the Ministry of Water Energy, under the Water Resources Research and Development
Directorate. This office record research activities in the sector by different institutions such as
higher learning and research institutions in the country. The data on the number of research
articles annually published in progress report and on reputable journals will be collected in a
database.
Position in DPSIR chain Pressure
Definition of indicator No of research articles published on water sector in a reputable journal from activities
conducted in Ethiopia.
Underlying definitions
and concepts
The indicator is based on the following definitions:
Water Sector: The water sector generally comprises: (i) water resource and climate/hydrology,
(ii) infrastructure in various sub-sectors such as water supply for urban and rural, livestock and
industrial needs); sewer and waste-water treatment; basic sanitation; rainwater harvesting,
irrigation and drainage; navigation on rivers or lakes; flood protection; (iii) hydropower and
dams, (iv) IWRM, and (v) socio economics and water governance.
Research Publications: They are publication of research in water sector that provides open
access to information and knowledge.
Reputable Journal: It is a journal with a good reputation. Scientific journals are reliable and
hence reputable among the users.
Specification of
determinants needed
Number of research articles in water sector published annually in a reputable journal (n)
Total number of researches activities conducted in the water sector annually (T)
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Methodological Sheet for indicator # 26






Details Description
Computation The indicator can be computed as:

Number of research publications in a reputable journal

Or in percentage as:

100*(n/T)

Where:
n =

Total number of research articles published in a reputable journal annually.
T

=

Total number of research activities conducted in water sector annually.
Units of measurements Indicator measured as a percentage.
Determinants measured in whole integer number
Data sources, availability
and quality
Data on research publications are obtained from higher learning institutions or Universities
and National and International Research Institution in Ethiopia. Data are available at
institutional level, but need to be networked to make the knowledge accessible and useable.
There is very little work done so far to collect and compile water sector knowledge.
Scale of application Mainly national (country) level, but it can also be used at each higher learning and research
institution level.
Geographical coverage The research activities in water sector should be organized and managed at River Basin level.
The aggregated value may give a national picture.
Interpretation An increasing trend in water sector research activities and number of research activities
published in a reputable journal show the growing generation of knowledge in water sector
and also high priority that is being assigned to the water sector in terms of knowledge
production to support the water sector development in the country.
Linkage with other
indicators
This indicator is linked to the chain of indicators, which capture the impact of macroeconomic
policies in improving the water sector efficiency.
Alternative methods and
definitions

Related indicator sets
Sources of further
information

Other institutions
involved

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Annex D

A Review of Monitoring Rainfall Variability
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A Review of Rainfall Variability a Case in Ethiopia


1. Introduction

As a background information, available climatic data and works on climatic variability were reviewed
and presented here to reinforce the notion how significant it is to monitor climate variability in order to
cope with the impacts and adapt to the need for water, food and shelter. The available information
demonstrate how much sever is rainfall variability in different parts of the country. The impact of this
variability is often manifested in the form of drought, flood, food shortage, loss of animals, migration of
people, etc.

1.1 Rainfall is an important input and source of freshwater systems and influence the availability
and distribution of the freshwater resources in the country. Most rainfall occurs in the western and
central parts of the country (see fig 2 and 3) with low and erratic rainfall occurring in the rift valley,
eastern and southern lowland. Its variability and seasonality significantly affects the availability of
freshwater both in quantity and quality and hence affects the agricultural performance and national
economy in the country.



Fig 3 Mean annual number of days (1971-2005) Fig 4 Mean Annual Rainfall (1971-2005)

1.2 The rainfall variability in Ethiopia is manifested by several physical characteristics as describe
below (i) Rainfall variability within the season (starting and cessation periods is one important
characteristic that can affect the agricultural production. A late start usually means a short season and
vice versa (Sivakumar, 1988). A short season means a low production potential for the main cereal
crops in Ethiopia (Millet and Sorghum) (Kassam and Andrews). The production potential of long cycle
crops is largely the function of the length of the rainfall season which can be affected by the late start,
or else early cessation. Moreover, the impact of the success of the sowing activity is largely dependent
on the characteristics of the rainfall onset. Thus the lateness or the early start of the rainfall season
and or the time of the cessation of the rainfall season can affect either in affecting the success of the
sowing activity or else in the determination of the type of the crop to be cultivated. (ii) Dry spells in the
rainy season influences the availability of water/soil moisture for crop production. The high number of
dry spells and their duration matters in the rainfall variability analysis of a season. Dry spells in June
affects the planting of crops of most cereals and pulses, and the establishment of seedlings, and it is a
very critical, and it has agronomic significance.

Dark = more
Lighter=less
White = No rain
Dark = more
Lighter=less
White = No rain
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1.3 The figures below (5,6,7,8,9 and 10) show the rainfall probability of occurrences and the
magnitude of dry spell during the different rainfall seasons. On the maps, the red shows dry, yellow
mild and green wet conditions during the different seasons. Seasonal rainfall variability [the amount
and temporal and spatial distribution] is shown in the figures below. The first figure shows the
coefficient of variability of the seasonal rainfall for Belg (short rainy season of Mid Feb-Mid May) and
kiremt (the main rainy season which occur between June and September). The figures show that there
is high inter-annual variability of the seasonal rainfall especially in the short rainy season, where as
inter - seasonal rainfall variability is less during the Kiremt season in the central and western part of the
country.


Fig 5. CV of Belg (Feb-May) Season RF Fig 6. CV of Kiremt (June to Sept) Season RF


Fig 7. CV of annual Rainfall Fig 8. Dry spell for the month of June

Source: NMSA, 2005. Coefficient of Variability of seasonal rainfall in Ethiopia. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Red=>30%
Yellow=<30%
Red=>30%
Yellow=<30%
Green = >20%
Red=>30%
Yellow=20-30%
Green = <20%
Red=>80%
Yellow=20-80%
Green = <20%
34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48
4
6
8
10
12
14
41 43
51
43
65
50
54
48
41
31
33
21
60
28
87
49
51
26
66
47
38
88
53
26
49
30
53
49
57
48
64
48
66
60
49
28
26
41
68
75
31
89
83
54
48
39
29
33
46
61
39
72
71
46
30
48
31
51
28
58
37
56
35
63
171
35
66 43
57
23
29
32
29
85
41
39
44
34 35
52
79
41
59
72
43
49
55
40
88
54
68
38
40
53
32
54
36
39
51
39
42
33
28
56
48
59
57
39
49
45
99
39
28
63
34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48
4
6
8
10
12
14
18 16
29
24
46
35
27
45
29
18
14
31
67
23
74
31
30
20
17
38
18
73
27
21
32
25
54
35
26
31
92
33
35
21
31
36
26
13
146
59
26
59
25
39
38
51
38
25
19
63
23
44
231
24
35
31
22
43
54
33
32
38
21
46
53
33
62 47
46
17
46
23
43
67
23
63
36
27 26
36
44
26
35
24
26
27
26
31
37
27
103
55
20
31
30
38
20
31
26
28
31
32
20
44
45
52
38
65
30
29
48
36
38
20
34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48
4
6
8
10
12
14
16 14
34
19
45
31
25
41
24
13
14
21
49
19
54
35
24
18
16
34
17
68
25
17
27
27
49
27
27
32
49
37
37
21
22
26
25
12
69
54
24
48
34
30
36
39
37
23
31
50
21
50
73
23
32
33
25
40
30
33
17
37
18
44
28
25
51 33
43
15
23
27
22
62
16
32
29
24 29
36
39
23
38
20
22
19
24
29
52
22
57
34
20
31
29
32
20
30
27
24
27
28
24
40
32
44
28
39
29
30
55
31
24
23
34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
0.03 0.04
0.43
0.12
0.23
0.13
0.46
0.35
0.00
0.00
0.03
0.36
0.43
0.00
1.00
0.00
0.83
0.00
0.11
0.30
0.00
0.80
0.53
0.03
0.11
0.00
0.05
0.72
0.16
0.62
1.00
0.00
0.28
0.15
0.86
0.00
0.00
0.00
1.00
0.93
0.12
1.00
0.10
0.11
0.39
0.59
0.48
0.03
0.00
0.35
0.03
0.83
1.00
0.33
0.00
0.02
0.00
0.03
0.60
0.19
0.77
0.46
0.00
0.47
0.31
0.23
0.55 0.88
0.50
0.00
0.39
0.18
0.50
0.51
0.74
0.64
0.39
0.00 0.00
0.78
0.00
0.00
0.71
0.72
0.42
0.92
0.78
0.00
0.00
0.35
0.50
0.98
0.00
0.07
0.00
0.90
0.15
0.03
0.41
0.85
0.49
0.17
0.00
0.05
0.83
0.85
0.69
0.03
0.03
0.46
0.10
0.15
0.06
0.25
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Source: NMSA, 2005. Coefficient of Variability of seasonal rainfall in Ethiopia. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Fig 9. Dependable rainfall (RF) at 50% probability Fig 10. Dependable RF at 50% probability for
Belg for Kiremt

1.4 Dry spell probability analysis: The dry spell probability analysis of the seasonal rainfall also
shows the following major characteristics:(i) For agricultural analysis, we have considered the
probability of the occurrences of ten consecutive days (dekad), which can bring significant agronomic
impact such as changes in sowing date of major crops, problem of moisture stress on crops any time
in between the growing period, (ii) Dry spell occurrences of at least ten days have a probability of
greater than 80% during the month of February over most parts of the country except over most parts
of southwestern Oromia, parts of SNNPR and central Oromia, (iii) Probabilities of dry spell occurrences
of at least ten days progressively decreases in the month of March and April over most parts of the
country, where as in the month of May there is a shift towards the western half of the country. During
the Kiremt season, the months of July and August exhibit the smallest probability of dry spell
occurrences of ten consecutive days, (iv) There is a high risk of planting failure in the month of
February over most parts of the country, excepting parts of SNNPR, where as the risk of planting
decreases greatly in the month of April, over most parts of the country.

For the Kiremt season, there is moderate risk of planting over the northeastern, northern and eastern
parts of the Meher growing areas during the month of June, where as this risk reduces during the
month of July over the eastern and the northern parts of the country. Thus mean seasonal rainfall
cannot be a sole indicator of the agricultural potential of a given season. Thus it may also be very
important to investigate the probability of the occurrence of dependable rainfall at 80% probability level.
Fig 4 to 7 presents both the mean rainfall and the dependable rainfall at 80% probability level to get a
clearer comparison.

1.5 Mean number of rainy days: Mean annual number of rainy days over the country based on data
analysis of 1971-2000, indicates that more than 175 rainy days is found over the south-west, where
this value progressively decreases both to the north and the East, where this value becomes less than
50 over parts of Afar and the region of southern Somali. Mean annual number of rainy days (rainy days
with greater than 0.1 mm of rainfall) over the Awash catchment reaches greater than 100 over the
western periphery of the upper catchment and this value varies from 75 to 100 over the middle
catchment and progressively decreases reaching as low as 25 to 50 days over the lower stage of the
river.

1.6 Mean annual and seasonal rainfall: Mean annual rainfall over the country (fig 8 and 9)based on
data analysis of 1971-2000 indicates that close to about 2000 mm of rainfall is exhibited over a small
Red=<200 mm
Yellow=200-500mm
Green = >500 mm
Red=<200 mm
Yellow=200-500
Green = 500-1000
Blue= >1000 mm
34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
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area in the highland areas of the southwestern parts of the country and more than 1000 mm of rainfall
is exhibited over southwestern margin of Tigray, most parts of western, central and southern
Amhara, most parts of Beneshangul region, parts of Gambela, western, central and eastern highlands
of Oromia excluding much of the Rift valley, western, central and northern parts of SNNPR
excluding parts of the Rift Valley. Mean annual rainfall of the Awash Catchment varies from about 1500
mm of rainfall over the western periphery of the upper catchment to about 750mm-1000mm over much
of the Middle Awash and this value decreases progressively over the lower part of Awash River Basin
reaching as small as 250 mm and even zero annual rainfall. Most of the areas with less than 750 mm
of annual rainfall are considered as drought prone areas of the country.

1.7 Dependable rainfall at 80% probability level: Rainfall variability in terms of the probability of a
certain amount of rainfall is also studied. If we consider the 500 mm of annual rainfall iso-line, most of
the crop cultivation areas are found inside this zone, where as areas having between 500 and 750 mm
of rainfall are found mostly over the drought vulnerable areas (approximately corresponding with 50 to
75 mean rainy days), which may require various types of intervention measures. Dry spell analysis is
the other important analytical tool to assess the risk of agricultural undertaking. This includes the
assessment of planting risk, the assessment of crop moisture stress due to the occurrence of dry
spells. For this analysis, we have considered probabilities of dry spell occurrences of ten consecutive
days. If we consider the 80% probability level as the dependable rainfall, then the 200 mm isoline
during the belg season is confined over the southern half of the country, where as the Kiremt season,
most parts of the western half of the country gets at least 500 mm of rainfall at 80% probability level.
Probability analysis indicates that it is only once in five years during the belg season that we get larger
or greater than 500 mm of rainfall. Thus a farmer, who may need about 300 to 400 mm of rainfall on a
Belg growing area, may succeed only in 20 to 45% of the years, over most parts. Dry spell
occurrences of at least ten days have a probability of greater than 80% during the month of February
over most parts of the country except over most parts of southwestern Oromia, parts of SNNPR and
central Oromia. Probabilities of dry spell occurrences of at least ten days progressively decreases in
the month of March and April over most parts of the country, where as in the month of May there is a
shift towards the western half of the country. During the Kiremt season, the months of July and August
exhibit the smallest probability of dry spell occurrences of ten consecutive days.

1.8 Risk in crop failure

There is a high risk of planting failure in the month of February over most parts of the country,
excepting parts of SNNPR, where as the risk of planting decreases greatly in the month of April, over
most parts of the country. For the Kiremt season, there is moderate risk of planting over the
northeastern, northern and eastern parts of the Meher growing areas during the month of June, where
as this risk reduces during the month of July over the eastern and the northern parts of the country.
Belg season is highly variable as compared with that of the Kiremt season. The exceptions are the low
variability (relatively higher reliability) areas in some parts of SNNPR. Coping mechanisms for such
rainfall variability must then be a function of the local conditions. Low variability of the rainfall in the
Kiremt season is observed over the highlands of southern Tigray, southern portion of Amhara, western
Oromia, and southern parts of Beneshangul region and western margin of Gambella. Low variability of
the annual rainfall is observed over parts of Tigray, highlands of southern, southwestern and over the
escarpments of eastern Amhara, parts of Bene-Shangul region and Gambella, highlands of western
and central Oromia and over highlands of SNNPR, where as medium to high values of variability
over the rest of the country.

1.9 Monitoring hydrological variability

The global climate change is caused mainly by the increased green house emissions that cause
increased temperature. As a result, there exists increasing temperature globally, which increases or
declines rainfall. The increase in temperature increases the volume of water lost through evaporation
from surface water; rivers, lakes, reservoirs and soil surfaces, and ground water to meet the
atmospheric water demand reducing available water in freshwater sources to be basic water needs
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such as drinking water, irrigation and hydropower generation, and water for environmental support. As
a result hydrological variability in streams, lakes, reservoirs and other freshwater systems in the
country are increasing and it is becoming a concern, and this means millions of people will have less
water available each day.

Ethiopia being at the tropic and having a long history of drought and famine, the impact of climate
change is likely to significant. Population growth and associated economic activities such as
agricultural intensification, land cover reduction in watersheds/river basins, and land and environmental
degradation are additional burden to hydrological variability. In general Ethiopias hydrological
variability has well established and recognized impacts such as recurrent droughts, environmental
degradation, acute food shortage, flooding, and shortage of water supply for domestic, municipal and
agricultural uses.

2. Monitoring Rainfall Variability

There are several instruments and tools used worldwide to monitor rainfall variability. These include:
(i) Palmer drought Index (PDI)
(ii) Percent of Normal (PoN)
(iii) Reclamation Drought Index (RDI)
(iv) Surface Water Supply Index (SWSI)
(v) Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI)*

2.1 Standard Precipitation Index (SPI) to monitor Rainfall Variability

The first quantitative measures of rainfall variability or drought have been developed in the United
States. Firstly, the complex water balance model developed by Palmer in the mid-twentieth century
(1965) was a turning point in the evolution of drought indices. It is calculated based on precipitation
and temperature data, as well as the local Available Water Content (AWC) of the soil. From the inputs,
all the basic terms of the water balance equation can be determined, including evapotranspiration, soil
recharge, runoff, and moisture loss from the surface layer. Human impacts on the water balance, such
as irrigation, are not considered. The Palmer is a soil moisture algorithm calibrated for relatively
homogeneous regions

2.2 Percent of Normal (PoN)

Percent of normal is easily misunderstood and gives different indications of conditions depending on
the location and season. It is one of the simplest measurements of rainfall for a location. Analyses
using the percent of normal are very effective when used for a single region or a single season. It is
calculated by dividing actual precipitation by normal precipitation typically considered to be a 30-year
mean and multiplying by 100%. This can be calculated for a variety of time scales. Usually these time
scales range from a single month to a group of months representing a particular season, to an annual
or water year. Normal precipitation for a specific location is considered to be 100%. One of the
disadvantages of using the percent of normal precipitation is that the mean, or average, precipitation is
often not the same as the median precipitation, which is the value exceeded by 50% of the
precipitation occurrences in a long-term climate record. The reason for this is that precipitation on
monthly or seasonal scales does not have a normal distribution.

2.3 Palmer Drought Index (PDI)

The first quantitative measures of rainfall variability or drought have been developed in the United
States. Firstly, the complex water balance model developed by Palmer in the mid-twentieth century
(1965) was a turning point in the evolution of drought indices. It is calculated based on precipitation
and temperature data, as well as the local Available Water Content (AWC) of the soil. From the inputs,
all the basic terms of the water balance equation can be determined, including evapotranspiration, soil
recharge, runoff, and moisture loss from the surface layer. Human impacts on the water balance, such
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as irrigation, are not considered. The Palmer is a soil moisture algorithm calibrated for relatively
homogeneous regions.

2.4 Surface Water Supply Index (SWSI)
Developed by Shafer and Dezman (1982) to complement the Palmer Index for moisture conditions.
The procedure to determine the SWSI for a particular basin is as follows: monthly data are collected
and summed for all the precipitation stations, reservoirs, and stream flow measuring stations over the
basin. Each summed component is normalized using a frequency analysis gathered from a long-term
data set. The probability of non-exceedencethe probability that subsequent sums of that component
will not be greater than the current sumis determined for each component based on the frequency
analysis. This allows comparisons of the probabilities to be made between the components. Each
component has a weight assigned to it depending on its typical contribution to the surface water within
that basin, and these weighted components are summed to determine a SWSI value representing the
entire basin.

Additional changes in the water management within a basin, such as flow diversions or new reservoirs,
mean that the entire SWSI algorithm for that basin needs to be redeveloped to account for changes in
the weight of each component. Thus, it is difficult to maintain a homogeneous time series of the index.
Extreme events also cause a problem if the events are beyond the historical time series, and the
usefulness of the index will need to be reevaluated (validate model) to include these events within the
frequency distribution of a basin component.

Several characteristics of the SWSI limit its application. Because the SWSI calculation is unique to
each basin or region, it is difficult to compare SWSI values between basins or regions. Within a
particular basin or region, discontinuing any station means that new stations need to be added to the
system and new frequency distributions need to be determined for that component.

2.5 Reclamation Drought Index (RDI)

Recently developed as a tool for defining drought severity and duration, and for predicting the onset
and end of periods of drought. The RDI differs from the SWSI in that it builds a temperature-based
demand component and duration into the index. The RDI is adaptable to each particular region and its
main strength is its ability to account for both climate and water supply factors. Like the SWSI, the RDI
is calculated at a river basin level, and it incorporates the supply components of precipitation, snow
pack, stream flow, and reservoir levels. The RDI values and severity designations are similar to the
SPI, PDSI, and SWSI.

3. Monitoring Drought in Ethiopia

Drought is a household term and synonymous. It has remained as a major challenge to the countrys
development programs, and specifically to food security efforts at national level. In the second five year
National Development Plan known as Plan for Accelerated and Sustainable Development to End
Poverty (PASDEP), water sector development, monitoring and copping with drought using available
water resources has been a priority strategy in the successful implementation of the five year national
development program in Ethiopia.

The lack of appropriate drought monitoring instrument has always been an obstacle to any meaningful
strategy development to cope with the most prevailing droughts in Ethiopia. Drought Accounting in
most developed countries is a key means of optimizing water appropriation across economic sectors
based on their relative advantages in the national food security and sustainable development needs.
Many quantitative indicators of drought indices have been developed worldwide and have been in use
based on the sector and location affecting the particular application, and the degree of understanding
of the phenomena.

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All rainfall variability monitoring instruments defined and discussed earlier indicators listed above in
table 4 are developed to monitor drought, and they use a wide range of parameters. But SPI uses only
one data variable, or requiring only precipitation as determinant variable. This data variable is widely
available and accessible for the development of the indicator in many parts Ethiopia. This makes SPI is
a simple (less data intensive) tool for monitoring rainfall variability, drought and its impact on various
time scales across wide-ranging key economic sectors (agriculture, energy, environment, etc.).

In many developed countries such as USA, SPI is used as an objective/standard/generic monitoring
tool/indicator for agricultural production. It is widely used by Colorado Climate Center, the Western
Regional Climate Center, and the National Drought Mitigation Center. SPI monitor current states of
drought. SPI has also a promise to serve the same purpose in the face of the changing climate
following increasing temperatures, heat waves, evapo-transpiration and associated water deficit. A full
detail and standardized indicator definition is presented in table 5 below.

3.1 SPI and Drought monitoring capability

A drought event is defined as a period when the SPI is continuously negative and reaches an
intensity of 1.0 or less. On the other side of the scale, drought would end only when a positive value
occurs.

In computing SPI (dimensionless), past rainfall data are used to determine the probability distribution of
the monthly and seasonal (the past 2 months, 3 months, etc., up to 48 months) observed precipitation
totals, and then the probabilities are normalized using the inverse normal (Gaussian) function. The SPI
methodology allows expression of droughts (and wet spells) in terms of precipitation deficit, percent of
normal, and probability of non-exceedance.

Conceptually, the SPI represents a z-score, or the number of standard deviations by which an event is
far above or below the mean, where negative values indicate drought; positive values representing wet
conditions, while the standardized SPI will have a normal distribution with an expected mean value of
zero and a variance of one. Requiring an index to have a fixed/standard expected/mean value and
variance is desirable in order to make comparisons of index values among different stations and
regions meaningful. The spatial and temporal dimensions of drought create problems in generating a
drought index because, not only must an anomaly be normalized with respect to location, but the
anomaly must also be normalized in time if it is to produce a meaningful estimate of drought-the SPI
accomplishes both.

2.1.3 Merits of SPI

(i) It has Policy Relevance. For instance at time of drought, or flood, it provides information for policy
options.

Helpful in making decision as to whether subsidy or tax cut or holiday is desired
Whether farmers pay more taxes during good rain years in compensation for the tax
Holiday provision during drought years?
Should farmers borrow fertilizer during the drought years and settle the account the same
season, even if crop fails or could the payment stagger?
Which crop/s capture/s governments interest during drought years?
Which agricultural region should receive highest fund during drought period
Persistent negative values triggers a wakeup call to policy makers to launch craft National
Drought Policy (NDP) document

(ii) It has computational rigor/strength

The main advantage of the SPI is that it can be calculated at different time scales. This is very
important because the time scale over which precipitation deficits accumulate functionally
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separates different types of drought and, therefore, allows to quantify the natural lags between
precipitation and other water usable sources such as the river discharge and the reservoir
storages
SPI values are directly computed and not a derivative and the resulting index measures a
deviation of water level from the normal which also speaks to crops productivity indirectly.
SPI is least data intensive and cost-effective tool.
It is accepted that the different time scales of SPI are useful to monitor the different usable
water resources. For example robust relationships can be found analyzing the role of the time
scales of SPI on the river discharge, reservoir storage and ground water. In case of river
discharge higher correlations can be found with continuous series of SPI at shorter time scales
between 1 and 3 months though differs from place to place depending on different basin
characteristics like size, shape, slope, climate and land cover. The response of the river
discharges to longer time scales of SPI is very low. On the other hand, the time scales of SPI,
which are useful to analyze droughts in reservoir storages, are longer than for river discharge.
Higher correlations between standardized data of reservoir storage and SPI can be found at
longer time scales like 10 months.

(iii) Measurability

Rainfall is the only measured/observed data required for the development of the indicator, SPI.
Rainfall measuring instruments are cheapest (plastic rain-gauges are now a day being used). The
existing distribution of the rain gauges cover a large part of the country meets WMO standards in
many of the river basins.

(iv) Availability of long term data

There exists rich data in the country with reasonable quality for use in the development of SPI.

(v) Easiness for interpretation

SPI is a straight forward a measure of drought intensity, magnitude and duration or historical
data based probability emerging from a specific drought (eg; if computed over short time, the
index serves for agricultural and meteorological drought monitoring or the longer time for the
hydrological drought monitoring. The longer the rainfall series, the more likely one gets better
results.

SPI provides a single quantitative drought index, which is a reflection of the cumulative effects
of a prolonged and abnormal moisture deficiency, irrespective of any development planning
unit (basin, land or river).

SPI captures water variability (from rainwater and surface/river water) over any time resolution
for computation (including Daily and Dekadal) and therefore very useful for operational
decisions, like monitoring drought for possible corrective measures in water supply and demand
balance.


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Annex E



SPI for monitoring Drought in Ethiopia
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SPI for monitoring Drought in Ethiopia

1. Introduction
Drought is understood as a precipitation deficiency resulting from an abnormal or unusual weather
patterns. A deficit of precipitation impacts many aspects of the natural environments; soil moisture,
stream flow, reservoir storage, and ground water levels, etc. It results on different time scales.

Figure 1 below presents rainfall/climate variability and the sequential developments of drought
scenarios/situations; (i) deficit of the precipitation, (ii) reduced runoff, (iii) soil moisture deficiency and
plant water stress, and (iv) reduce stream flow. These situations could occur once or at different time
periods.



Figure 1 Climate variability and sequence of drought developments (Source: National Drought Mitigation Center,
USGS)

McKee et al. (1993) developed the SPI to quantify precipitation deficits on multiple time scales. The
prevalence of drought at different and multiple time scales, the level of impacts are also varying. For
instance if the precipitation deficit caused by the weather pattern lasts a short time say a couple of
weeks or one month, the drought is considered as short term drought. If the weather or atmospheric
circulation pattern that provides rainfall to the country become entrenched and the precipitation deficits
lasts longer say several months to several years, the drought is considered as long-term drought. Both
of these types of drought prevail in Ethiopia.

Standard Precipitation Index (SPI) is a way of measuring the severity of drought in an area in a given
time period. It is developed and used first in the mid-west of the United States where drought and crop
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failure prevails and its impacts have been considerable and significant. Other quantitative measures of
drought such as Palmer Drought Index (PDI) have been developed and used again in the United
States.

Through the relentless effort by many experts, SPI is now considered as one of the indices that are
found useful for describing the many scales of drought. The advantage considered as useful for its use
in Ethiopia is that SPI require only one type of data observation, the precipitation (rainfall), which is
available for many of the sites most affected by rainfall variability and drought.

Bussay et al. (1998), Szalai and Szinell (2000) assessed the utility of the SPI for describing drought in
Hungary. They concluded that the SPI was suitable for quantifying most types of drought event.
Stream flow was described best by SPIs with time scales of 26 months. Strong relationships to
ground water level were also found at time scales of 524 months. Agricultural drought (proxied by soil
moisture content) was replicated best by the SPI on a scale of 2 to 3 months. Lana et al. (2001)
recently used the SPI to investigate patterns of rainfall over Catalonia, Spain. Recently China has also
started to use SPI for monitoring drought (WMO, 2006). The authority that monitors the development of
drought in China is the Beijing Climate Center (BCC) of the China Meteorological Administration
(CMA). BCC used SPI to monitor drought since 1995 on a ten day basis, and the result provides
accurate and reliable information on drought.

As part of the GIRWI second phase study, SPI has been identified as a potential indicator for
monitoring drought in Ethiopia. The increasing emphasis on drought monitoring is largely as a result of
Ethiopias long history of drought and its associate socio economic impacts. Ethiopias economy is very
well found to be sensitive to its hydrological variability, i.e. rainfall variability. The correlation between
rainfall variability and the Ethiopian economy (GDP) is very strong and highly significant (WB, 2006).

A considerable progress has been made in testing SPI use in Ethiopia, and the results of the study are
presented in this section of the report.

2. Study Methodology

2.1 Study Areas

A long time series data of precipitation for well known drought areas and non drought areas in Ethiopia
are gathered. The sites put under SPI assessment include Addaa Woreda in Oromia Regional State
and Komblcha wereda in Amhara Regional State.

The SPI is simply the transformation of the precipitation time series into a standardized normal
distribution (z-distribution).Time series of SPI values were processed by using the SPI software for
three periods that is for a one month, three months and six months (the long-term conditions). The
importance of considering the three months period will allow us to fall on the main cropping season.
The six months will provide information on long term conditions.

Crop yield data collected from the different woredas will be assessed for its relation with different time
scales of SPI. Though SPI is directly related to availability of soil moisture, significant relation can be
obtained between SPI and yield as soil moisture is one of the most important limiting factors of plant
production.

The most important item of investigation regarding the use of SPI would clearly be which time scale to
use, for different areas, which can depend on the length of the crop growing period, if we are interested
in agricultural monitoring. In the case of hydrological monitoring larger time scale may be necessary to
capture the hydrological variability over a given area.



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2.2 Calculation of SPI:

The calculation of SPI follows the following procedures. The monthly precipitation time series
are modeled using gamma distribution, whose probability density function is defined as

----------- 1

Whereas:

> 0 is a shape parameter,
> 0 is a scale parameter, and x > 0 is the amount of precipitation.

is the gamma function, which is defined as:

------------------ 2


Fitting the distribution to the data requires and to be estimated. Edwards & McKee (1997) suggest
estimating these parameters using the approximation of Thom (1958) for maximum likelihood is as
follows:

Whereas:

For n observations

Integrating the probability density function with respect to x and inserting the estimates of and
yields an expression for the cumulative probability G(x) of an observed amount of precipitation
occurring for a given month and time scale:


Substituting t for x/ reduces Equation (11) to

which is the incomplete gamma function. Values of the incomplete gamma function are computed using
an algorithm taken from Press et al. (1986). Since the gamma distribution is undefined for x = 0, and q
= P(x = 0) > 0, where P(x = 0) is the probability of zero precipitation, the cumulative probability
becomes



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Whereas:



The cumulative probability distribution is then transformed into the standard normal distribution to
yield the SPI. This process is illustrated in Figure 1.


Figure 2: Equi-probability transformation from a fitted gamma distribution to the standard normal
distribution. Data are for the 3 month (DJF) average precipitation over the southeast of England. (After
Edwards and McKee (1997))

The first panel shows the empirical cumulative probability distribution for a 3 month average
DecemberJanuaryFebruary (DJF) of precipitation over the south east of England for the period
190199. As shown in figure 2, the over-plotted is the theoretical cumulative probability distribution of
the fitted gamma distribution.

The second panel displays a graph of standard normal cumulative probability. To convert a given
precipitation level, say 77 mm, to its corresponding SPI value, first locate 77 mm on the abscissa of the
left-hand panel, draw a perpendicular, and locate the point of intersection with the theoretical
distribution. Then project this point horizontally (maintaining equal cumulative probability) until it
intersects with the graph of standard normal cumulative probability. The intersection between a line
drawn vertically downward from this point and the abscissa determines the SPI value (1.1 in this
example).

Here we have presented the three month SPI of Feb-May for the Belg season, the two month SPI of
July to August and the five month SPI ending at September for the application of SPI for agricultural
monitoring after testing different time scales.

In the analysis of the results of this study in the next section, the study will explore possible methods of
maximizing the link between SPI and agricultural crop production by testing different time scales of
months of SPI for the area. The major conclusion here can be to figure out the start of the time scale
with the planting time and the end of the time scale to be either the flowering stage especially for short
cycle crops or the maturity stage for the case of long cycle crops.


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3. Results of the SPI test

7.3 SPI Time Series Data as observed in different sites and selected SPI periods
3.1.1 Adaa Woreda

SPI values for Adaa Woreda have been computed for 15 stations across the study area for different
time scales of 3, 6, 9, and 12-month scales, covering 1975-2006. Figure 1 to 12 present calculated
time series values of SPI at the different sites of interest SPI calculated at time scales of 1, 3, 6, 9 and
12-month, for Aleltu, Debreziet, Akaki, Mojo, Meki, Dirtu Liben, Adama, Zeway and Zequala stations in
Adda Woreda and two other woredas one in centeral and the other in northern Ethiopia, Fitch and
Kombolcha, respectively.

Debreziet

Fig 3 captures the extreme drought events on 3-month time scale for Debrezeit from 1956 with an
intensity of -2.36 in September which indicate poor performance of rainfall during July-August-
September, a season known to be the main rainy season( (kiremt) in most parts of Ethiopia. Another
two extreme drought episodes at the start of growing season during June 1962 (April-May-June) and
May1973 (March-April-May) were also captured concurring the observed reduced soil moisture of the
respective months the year. In addition to the above mentioned periods, April 1984 (February-March-
April) was also noted to be one of those periods of extreme drought



Fig 3: Three months SPI series for Debre Zeit weather station (database: 1956-2007)




Fig 4: Six months SPI series for Debre Zeit weather station (database: 1956-2007)

4
2
0
2
4
1951 1956 1961 1966 1971 1976 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001 2006
SPI3
4
2
0
2
4
1951 1956 1961 1966 1971 1976 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001 2006
SPI6
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3.1.2 Fitche Woreda

Fig 5 below shows the SPI3 based drought patterns at Fiche with extreme drought in April 1984 of
intensity -3.19, that was the worst ever recorded in the whole time series of the station. Total Kiremt
season rain (June-July-August-September) for 1984 was recorded to be 639mm while the long term
annual average was 824mm. Two important extreme drought events could also be noted in 1971 in the
months of August and September which is an indication of failure of Kiremt rains in that year. Drought
event in April and May 1999 was one of the most extreme ones that happened at the start of Kiremt
season. It is also important to compare the 3-month SPI of the same station with longer time scales. It
is worth noting that a relatively normal or below normal 3-month rain period could be experienced , but
not visible from a longer-term SPI, like SPI for the 12 months time scale.




Fig 5: Thee months SPI series for Fiche weather station (database: 1968-2008)








Fig 6: Six months SPI series for Fiche Station (database: 1968-2008).


4
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0
2
4
1968 1973 1978 1983 1988 1993 1998 2003 2008
SPI3
4
3
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1
0
1
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1968 1973 1978 1983 1988 1993 1998 2003 2008
SPI6
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Fig 7: Nine months SPI series for Debre Zeit weather station (database: 1956-2007)




Fig 6: Nine months SPI series for Fiche weather station (database: 1968-2008)




Fig 8 Twelve months SPI for Debre Zeit Weather station

Results below characterizes the 12 months SPI for the respective study areas (Debrezeit and Fiche).
For example at the time scale of 12 months, only seven important dry periods were captured where the
decade of 1950, 1970 and 1980 were the driest ones for Debrezeit. The SPI12 points out 4 extreme
drought and 3 extreme wet events from the whole time series. First, extreme drought started towards
the end of 1951, lasting almost over 4 years. Further, SPI12 turned positive in September, 1955
(0.07)). This event was followed by another dry period in 1956 which lasted for one year with SPI12
evaluated to be positive in August 1957. Another drought event occurred during 1973 that lasted for 12
months until May 1974, after which SPI turned positive in June. Annual precipitation in 1973 was
661mm with about 24% less than the long term annual average precipitation of 878.8mm. National
Meteorology Agency has also reported drought conditions for most parts of Ethiopia for the same year.
4
2
0
2
4
1951 1956 1961 1966 1971 1976 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001 2006
SPI9
4
2
0
2
4
1968 1973 1978 1983 1988 1993 1998 2003 2008
SPI9
4
3
2
1
0
1
2
3
1951 1956 1961 1966 1971 1976 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001 2006
SPI12
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Despite, it was not extremely severe, moderate drought was also set in during May 2002 that lasted for
14 months until June 2003.This period (2002/2003) was also reportedly a drought year (NMA, ??).

Fiche: Drought event pointed out by SPI12 in 1984 was the most extreme one with intensity of -
3.73.This drought event persisted for 43 months from August 1983 until February 1987, which was
longest period of precipitation deficit in last century. The impact of the drought in 1984 is still fresh in
the memories of many Ethiopians. The total annual precipitation during 1984 was only 749mm (35.8%
less than long year mean) while the long year average annual precipitation for Fiche calculated from
the 40 years of data is 1167mm. There were also droughts in years 1971, 1978, 1981 and 1988. At the
time scale of 12 months only four important dry periods of extreme intensity are recognized on the
decades of 1970s and 1980s while a single and extreme drought of the 1984 at the time scale of 24
months was captured. On the contrary, more than seven extreme drought events occurred on 3
months time scale with a maximum intensity of -3.19 in 1984. In the same way as Debreziet station,
average duration of the dry periods change noticeably as a function of the time scales. For example,
12 months time scale was found to have average duration of 12.6 months while time scale of 3 months
SPI showed a lower average duration of 3.9 months.



Fig 9: SPI 12 for Fiche

At the scale of 24 months, no dry event of extreme intensity noted after 1950s and there were about 4
significant dry events where 2 of them were with moderate and the other 2 with severe intensity. The
average duration of the dry periods (SPI<0) change noticeably as a function of the time scales. At the
time scale of 3 months the average duration is 4.3 months and at the time scale of 12 months the
mean duration increases and become 16.2 months. To identify the main dry periods it is necessary to
analyze the time scales larger than 6 months because the high frequency of SPI values at the shorter
time scales hide the most important dry periods.

Following these dry events significant wet events occurred in the years from 1964 to 1968. The
extremely wet event that had started during 1964 lasted for the subsequent 4 years until SPI value was
negative during the beginning of 1969. Yearly precipitation amounts in 1964 to 1968 were 1302.80mm,
1022.20mm, 1436.00mm, 1205.7mm and 1003.1mm respectively.


4
2
0
2
4
1968 1972 1976 1980 1984 1988 1992 1996 2000 2004 2008
SPI12
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Fig 10: SPI 24 for Debrezeit weather station


Fig 11: SPI 12 for Fiche weather station

The most striking characteristic of the drought is the change in drought frequency as the time scale
changes (shown in Figure xx). On longer time scales, drought becomes less frequent but lasts longer.
At the 3-month scale, drought frequency increases but its duration decreases. In other words, on
shorter time scales, drought becomes more frequent but lasts for shorter periods. Another interesting
point shown by 3-month SPI is that the SPI responds quickly to wet and dry periods, which means that
each new month has a large influence on the period sum of precipitation. This also means more
droughts of shorter duration.

3.1.3 Kombolcha Woreda
.
Kombolch is a city located approximately 375 km north of Addis Ababa and on the well known drought
areas in the country. A tong term data observed at the meteorological station in the town is used for
computing SPI.

The SPI values were processed at a one, three and six months scale and the values observed are
presented in graphs as shown below. Just to show how the time series of computed values of the SPI
behave, we can consider here the month of April and also SPI for Feb-April for the Belg season
assessment. It is important to note here that the month of April is an important agriculturally both for
Belg and Meher crops.




4
2
0
2
4
1951 1956 1961 1966 1971 1976 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001 2006
SPI24
4
2
0
2
4
1968 1972 1976 1980 1984 1988 1992 1996 2000 2004 2008
SPI24
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Figure 12 One month (April) time scale at Kombolcha

Figure 13 Three month (February-April) time scale at kombolcha


Figure 14 Three month (July - August) time scale at kombolcha

Both figures presented above identify the worst drought occurrences during the Belg season. These
include the years 1973 (called the Wello drought) and 1999 followed by 1971, 1984, 1954 and 1959.

Regarding the Kiremt season, we can consider the 2 month July-August SPI for the area.

Here the 1984 drought clearly stands out, with maximum severity, where the impact has been reported
to be of biblical proportions. Here it is important to note that the SPI for Feb-Apr 1984 was also
characterized with severe drought. The 1984 severe drought is followed by 1987, 1982, 1983, 1976,
1972, 1991 and 1992.

-4
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Fig 15 and 16 presents the drought severity index in 1984 for several sites in Ethiopia as SPI is
observed over 6 and 12 months period. In fig 15, the sites with green colors show extreme wet period,
while the bright red shows extreme drought. The blue shows mild drought and this is observed in
slightly over 50 % of the sites data is observed and tested. Most of these areas are the western side of
central and southern regions. North and south easterly sites, for instance Mekele, Kombolch and Gode
areas, the drought observed in 1984 was extreme. In Jijiga and Jinka drought in 1984 while in Gondar
and Zewai it was mild. The 1984 was the year well known for its the worst drought with sever socio
economic impact.

Figure 15 6-month SPI values over selected stations over Ethiopia during 1984 E.C.



A similar SPI study in 1984 on a 12 months period was studied for the same sites as in fig 15 and the
drought severity index is presented in fig 16. The number of sites with extreme drought has increased
from 3 to 9 sites. More sever drought areas were observed as the SPI is observed over a longer period
of observation in the year, in this case the whole 12 months period.






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Figure 16: 12-months SPI values over selected stations over Ethiopia during 1984 E.C.



3.2 SPI and Agricultural yield

The most important item of investigation regarding the use of SPI would clearly be which time scale to
use, for different areas, which can depend on the length of the crop growing period, if we are interested
in agricultural monitoring. In the case of hydrological monitoring larger time scale may be necessary to
capture the hydrological variability over a given area.

Here we have presented the three month SPI of Feb-May for the Belg season, the two month SPI of
July to August and the five month SPI ending at September for the application of SPI for agricultural
monitoring after testing different time scales.

In the next chapter we will explore possible methods of the maximization of the link between SPI and
agricultural crop production by testing different time scales of months of SPI for the area. The major
conclusion here can be to figure out the start of the time scale with the planting time and the end of the
time scale to be either the flowering stage especially for short cycle crops or the maturity stage for the
case of long cycle crops.

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Here we have used two crops Maize and Sorghum and a secondary data of WRSI both for the Belg
and Meher crops for the area.

The following table shows the two months SPI of July-Agust for kombolcha and the WRSI of Maize
Meher crop (divided by 100) for the Kalu area. The correlation coefficient is about 0.6. The 2002 crop
yield reduction has been captured to a certain extent.

This linkage between the SPI and the WRSI improves if we consider the 5 months SPI of May to
September in the following table, with an improved correlation value of 0.74.





Figure 16 Two month SPI (July August) and WRSI (divided by 100) for Meher Crop at kombolcha


Figure 17 Six month SPI (May to September) and WRSI (divided by 100) for Meher Crop at
kombolcha

This result is better understood using the linkage between the yield reduction and the 5 months SPI as
in the following graph.

Year SPI5 WRSIMeher
1995 -0.05 0.84
1996 -0.04 0.87
1997 -0.43 0.82
1998 0.67 1
1999 0.38 1
2000 0.77 0.91
2001 0.2 0.87
2002 -0.47 0.55
2003 -0.38 0.88
2004 -0.73 0.71
2005 0.39 0.89
Year SPI2
WRSI
Meher
1995 0.11 0.84
1996 -0.1 0.87
1997 -0.22 0.82
1998 1.1 1
1999 0.97 1
2000 0.89 0.91
2001 0.34 0.87
2002 0.04 0.55
2003 -0.31 0.88
2004 -0.3 0.71
2005 0 88 0 89

2 months spi of July-August and WRSI(divided by 100) o Meher crop at Kombolcha
-0.4
-0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006
SPI2
WRSIMeher
-1
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-0.6
-0.4
-0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006
SPI5
WRSIMeher
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Figure 18 Five month SPI at September) and WRSI (divided by 100) for Meher Crop at kombolcha


The investigation of using 5 months SPI, ending at September for using it as a forecast tool for the
estimation of yield reduction gives the following scattered diagram. Except for one outlier the rest can
be estimated using the 5 months SPI.



Figure 15 Yield reduction and five month SPI for Meher Maze Crop at September


The results of the study shows that the SPI clearly identified the major drought years of the area, and
can also be used to identify the severity of the droughts that occurred periodically over the area.

Yield reduction and 5 months SPI at September at Kombolcha
-1
-0.8
-0.6
-0.4
-0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006
SPI5
Yield red
y = 0.1905x - 0.1563
R
2
= 0.5486
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-0.4
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5 month SPI
Y
i
e
l
d

r
e
d
u
c
t
i
o
n
Yield red
Linear (Yield red)
Linear (Yield red)
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8 Conclusion and Recommendation
SPI with an adjustment of time scale, based on the crop calendar of a given area can be calibrated to
estimate agricultural production for a given area. Based on this limited study, SPI is found suitable for
quantifying most types of drought event in Ethiopia. More and specialized study is needed to
investigate the full range of opportunities available to use SPI for monitoring drought and its related
impact on crop production.


References

WMO. 2006. Drought monitoring activities: Case studies. Edited in Drought monitoring and early
warning: concepts, progress and future challenges.

WMO, Weather and climate information for sustainable agriculture development.
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Annex F

A simplified Model for a River Basin
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Annex F: PHYSICAL WATER RESOURCES ACCOUNTING

1. Introduction

The material presented here for physical water resources accounting is an adapted version of the
Integrated Environmental and Economic Accounting for Water Resources (SEEAW)
prepared by UN Statistics Division in close cooperation with the London Group on Environmental
Accounting. It provides a systematic framework for the organization of water resources information
in a River Basin as found appropriate to Ethiopian condition, and studies the interactions between
the economy and the environment. The monitoring system does the physical accounting by
separately identifying information related to water resources in the conventional accounts and
linking physical information on water with economic accounts. It is presented here to link the
economic information with hydrological information in order to provide the users with a tool for
integrated analysis of the available freshwater resources with the user system (economy).

The physical water accounting has two components (i) Inland water resources system, and (ii) the
Economy (UN, 2006). The inland water resources system includes the surface water
resources (rivers, lakes, artificial reservoirs and river reaches which include wetlands), ground
water resources and soil water resources. The economy consists of the user system, which
abstracts water for production and consumption purposes and put in place the infrastructures to
store, treat and distribute water. The River Basin model figure 1 above presents a simplified
diagram of all the essential elements of the water resources that can provide and portray clearly
the data on the two components for the physical water resources accounting in a river basin.

The purpose of this chapter is, therefore, to describe the accounting framework for water resource
in relation to the economy (user system) in a River Basin.

2. Inland Water Resource System and User System (the economy)

2.1 The inland water resource system

The inland water resource system in a River Basin is complex as shown in the model (figure 1).
The inland water resource system includes precipitation, soil moisture and runoff which produce
river and stream flows, lakes, reservoir, wetlands, and ground water resources. Water is in
continuous movement: because of solar radiation and gravity water keeps moving from lands and
oceans into the atmosphere in the form of vapor (evapotranspiration) falling back again on land
and oceans through precipitation. Therefore, the inland water resource system is composed of: (a)
all inland water resources from which water is or can be abstracted (i.e. rivers, lakes, artificial
reservoirs, snow, ice, glaciers, groundwater and soil water); (b) water exchanges between water
resources within the territory of reference (e.g. infiltration, runoff, percolation etc.); and (c) water
exchanges with water resources of other territories (i.e. inflows, outflows). Exchanges of water
between the water resources are referred to as natural transfers.

The water resources considered in the inland water resource system are rivers, lakes, artificial
reservoirs, snow, ice, glaciers, groundwater and soil-water within the area of reference. These
resources form the water asset classification. The main natural inputs of water for these resources
are precipitation and from other resources within the river basin. The main natural flows that
decrease the stocks of water are evapotranspiration, outflows to other river basin in the case of
Trans Boundary Rivers. Human activities decrease and increase the water stocks through
abstraction and returns.

The asset accounts module of the SEEAW describes the inland water resource system in terms of
stocks and flows: it provides information on the stocks of water resources at the beginning and end
of the accounting period and changes therein. These changes are described in terms of flows
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brought about by the economy and by natural processes. Asset accounts can be thought of as a
description in accounting terms of the hydrological water balance.

2.2 The users system the economy

The user system or the economy include agriculture (livestock water, fishing and forestry), energy
generation, industries (manufacturing, water treatment and distribution, waste water treatment,
etc.) domestic or municipal water supply. The economy uses water in different ways. It can
physically remove water from the environment for production and consumption activities or use
water without physically removing it from the environment. In the first case, the economy abstracts
water from the inland freshwater bodies surface water (rivers, lakes, reservoirs, wetland areas,
etc.) and ground water (soil water, ground water, etc.) system, uses the precipitation directly at site
(in-situ) through rain-fed agriculture or water harvesting, and uses water for hydroelectric power
generation. While in the second case the economy uses water for supporting the ecosystem,
recreational and navigational purposes, fishing and other uses, which rely on the physical
presence of water (in-situ uses) and, often, also on the quality of water. Even though these uses
may have a negative impact on the quality of the water bodies, they are not directly considered in
water resource accounting as they do not involve a displacement of water. However, in defining
the sustainable water use for a given river basin, considerations are made so as to guarantee the
availability of water for these and other uses.

In addition to abstracting water, the economy returns water into the environment. The model Figure
1 shows the different return flows to the inland water system and then to and as trans-boundary
water. return flows (see figure 1) are base flow, spillage, drainage and seepage and deep
percolation from the economy. Usually return flows have a negative impact on the environment in
terms of quality, as the quality of this water is often lower than that of abstracted water due to high
level of salinity, high level chemicals used for agricultural purposes. Although returns to the water
resource system alter the quality of the receiving body, they represent an input in the water system
as returned water becomes then available for other uses.

The focus of water accounting is on the interactions between water resources and the economy
where the economy is thought of as the system which abstracts water for consumption and
production activities, and puts in place the infrastructure to mobilize, store, treat, distribute and
return water into the environment.

The economy is expanded to show the main economic agents related to water. In particular, the
following are identified:

The industry primarily involved in the collection, treatment and supply of water to
households, industries, etc.
The industry primarily involved in the collection, treatment and discharge of sewage;
other industries which use water as an input in their production processes;
Households which use water to satisfy their needs or wants.

Sources of water for the whole economy include: inland water resources in the environment of a
given river basin, precipitation which is either collected or used directly (e.g. rain-fed agriculture).
Once water enters the economy, it is used, returned back to the environment (to inland water
resources) or supplied to other economies (shared or Trans Boundary Water). In addition, during
use or transportation water can be lost through leakages or processes of evaporation and evapo-
transpiration.

Moreover, the inland water resources system and the economy in a river basin can exchange
water with those of other river basins which makes the physical water resources accounting more
complex. This exercise assumes those two systems in a river basin are without water exports or
import into or out of the river basin.
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Each economic unit either abstracts water directly from the environment or receives it from other
industries within the river basin. Once water is used, it can either be discharged directly into the
environment, be supplied to other industries for further use (reused water), or be supplied to a
treatment facility Sewerage.

During water use in the economy, some water may be retained in the products produced by the
industry or evapo-transpired during use by the industrial activities say irrigation. In these cases,
water is considered consumed by the industry. The term consumption refers to the quantity of
water which after use is not returned back to the environment (inland water system).

3 Physical Water Resources Accounting in a River Basin

A sample physical accounting chart (table) indicating (i) the inland water resources system and (ii)
the users system (economy) is presented and discussed in the following section.

Standard terminology or definitions for use in physical supply and use tables (table 1 below) for
water accounting is adapted from UN Statistical Division publication (SEEAW, 2006)

Long-term annual average: Arithmetic average of over at least 20 consecutive years of
observation.

Precipitation: Total volume of atmospheric wet precipitation (rain, snow, hail, dew, etc.) falling on
the territory of the country over one year, in millions of cubic meters (millions m
3
).

Actual evapo-transpiration: Total actual volume of evaporation from the ground, wetlands and
natural water bodies and transpiration of plants. The 'actual evapo-transpiration' is calculated using
different types of mathematical models, ranging from very simple algorithms to schemes that
represent the hydrological cycle in detail.

Internal flow Total volume of river run-off and groundwater generated, in natural conditions,
exclusively by precipitation into a river basin. The internal flow is equal to precipitation less actual
evapotranspiration and can be calculated or measured. If the river run-off and groundwater
generation are measured separately, transfers between surface and groundwater should be netted
out to avoid double counting.

Actual external inflow of surface and ground waters: Total volume of actual flow of rivers and
groundwater, coming from neighboring countries. This is assumed negligible in Ethiopia.

Total renewable fresh water resources: = Internal flow + Actual external inflow of surface and
ground waters

Outflow of surface and ground waters from a river basin: These are actual amount of outflow
of rivers and groundwater into neighboring countries Trans-boundary waters.

Renewable groundwater available for annual abstraction: Recharge less the long term annual
average rate of flow required to achieve ecological quality objectives for associated surface water.
It takes account of the ecological restrictions imposed to groundwater exploitability; other
restrictions based on economic and technical criteria could also be taken into account in terms of
accessibility, productivity and maximum production cost deemed acceptable by developers. The
theoretical maximum of groundwater available is the recharge.

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Fresh surface water: Water which flows over, or rests on the surface of a land mass, natural
water courses such as rivers, streams, brooks, lakes, etc., as well as artificial watercourses such
as irrigation, industrial and navigation canals, drainage systems and artificial reservoirs. Water
abstracted through bank filtration is included under fresh surface water. Sea-water, and transitional
waters, such as brackish swamps, lagoons and estuarine areas are considered non-fresh water
and are not included here.

Fresh ground water Water which is being held in, and can usually be recovered from, or via, an
underground formation. All permanent and temporary deposits of water, both artificially charged
and naturally occurring in the subsoil, of sufficient quality for at least seasonal use are included.
This category includes phreatic water-bearing strata, as well as deep strata under pressure or not,
contained in porous or fractured soils. Ground water includes springs, both concentrated and
diffused, which may be subaqueous.

Total water abstraction Water removed from any source, either permanently or temporarily,
during a specified period of time. Mine water and drainage water are included. Water abstractions
from ground water resources in any given time period are defined as the difference between the
total amount of water withdrawn from aquifers and the total amount charged artificially or injected
into aquifers. The amounts of water artificially charged or injected are attributed to abstractions
from that water resource from which they were originally withdrawn. Water used for hydroelectricity
generation is an in-situ use and should be excluded.

Total gross fresh water abstraction: Total of fresh surface water and fresh groundwater
abstractions over one year within the river basin.

Water returned without use (return flows): Water abstracted from any fresh water source and
discharged into fresh waters without use, or before use.

Reused water is defined as wastewater supplied to a user system for further use with or without
prior treatment, excludes recycling within industrial sites. It is also commonly referred to as
reclaimed wastewater. It is important to record this flow as the reuse of water can alleviate the
pressure on water resources in a river basin by reducing direct abstraction of water: for example,
watering landscaping and environmental support, etc.

The total water supply of an industry is computed as the sum of the amount of water supplied to
other economic units (row S1 in Table 1) and the amount of water returned to the environment
(row S2 in Table 1 below).

Water consumption: The concept of water consumption is a bit complex. It is the amount of water
that is lost by the economy during use in the sense that it has entered the economy but it has not
returned to water resources in the river basin. This happens because during use part of the water
is incorporated into products, evaporated, transpired by plants or simply consumed by households
or livestock. The difference between the water use (row U in Table 1) and the water supply (row S
in Table 1) is referred to as water consumption. It can be computed for each economic unit and for
the whole economy.

For the whole economy, the balance between water flows can be written as shown in table below.



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Table 1 Standard physical supply and use table for Water Resources Accounting







Industries


Total
R
a
i
n

f
e
d

A
g
r
i
c
u
l
t
u
r
e

I
r
r
i
g
a
t
i
o
n

E
l
e
c
t
r
i
c


g
e
n
e

M
a
n
u
f
a
c
t
u
r
i
n
g

M
u
n
i
c
i
p
a
l


/
H
H

S
e
w
e
r
a
g
e

T
o
t
a
l



From the
Environment
1 Total abstraction
(=a.1+a.2=b.1+b.2)

a.1 Abstraction for own use
Irrigation
Electric power generation
Others (specify)
a.2 Abstraction for distribution
b.1 Abstraction From water resources
Surface Water
Ground water
Soil water
b.2 From other sources
Collection of precipitation
Within the
Economy
2 Use of water received from other
economic units

3. Total use of water = 1 + 2
Industries


R
a
i
n

f
e
d

A
g
r
i
c
u
l
t
u
r
e

I
r
r
i
g
a
t
i
o
n

E
l
e
c
t
r
i
c


g
e
n
e
r

M
a
n
u
f
a
c
t
u
r
i
n
g


M
u
n
i
c
i
p
a
l

/
H
H

w
a
t
e
r


S
e
w
e
r
a
g
e

T
o
t
a
l

Within the
Economy
4 Supply of Water to other economic units
of which: Reused water
Waste water to sewage

To the
Environment
5 Total returns (=d.1+d.2)
Electric power generation
Irrigation water
Losses in distribution due to leakage
Treated waste water
Others (specify0
d1 To water resources
Surface Water
Ground water
Soil water
d2 To other sources (e.g. sea water) NA
6. Total supply of water = 4 + 5
7. Consumption = 3 + 6
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Inventory of water asset accounts based on mapping of water demand sites in a River
Basin

The water asset accounts could be developed based on mapping and inventory of water demand sites by
different economies such as municipal water supply, manufacturing industry, irrigation sites based on data
from licenses for water rights. Figure 2 and table 2 presents a water balance sheet for a given river basin.


Fig 2 A hypothetical water demand sites by different economic units for the Awash River Basin
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Table 3 Sample Water use estimates at river basin












Demand Sites
Origins
Different Economic
Units
Water Consumption (Mm
3
) (3 + 6) from table 1 above Remark
2011 2012 2013
Demand Site X Agriculture (rainfed)
Irrigation
Electricity generation
manufacturing
Fishing
Municipal Water
Household water use
Total water (Mm
3
)
Demand Site y Agriculture
Irrigation
Electricity generation
manufacturing
Fishing
Municipal Water
Household water use
Total Water (m
3
)
.. ..
..
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Annex G


Water Quality Monitoring

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Water Quality Monitoring

1. Introduction

Natural water exhibits a wide variety of chemicals, physical and hydro-morphological, and
biological characteristics that results from natural process and anthropogenic activities (SEEAW,
2006). Water quality changes occur due to human induced changes and due to natural causes,
which produce emissions or discharges of pollutants to the freshwater system. There are also
other causes to water quality changes such as due to self purification process, increased
abstraction of water for consumption (a case for ground water), and increased runoff due to
uncontrolled events. Each one of these events contributes to water quality changes that have
either positive or negative effects on the state of the freshwater system.

Water quality monitoring is an integral function in the water resources management in Ethiopia.
However, most functions is limited to only drinking water quality monitoring. Ambient or
environmental water quality monitoring is very limited to few hot spot areas largely around Addis
Ababa. The level of intensity of the work is less in Ethiopia, and as a result the impacts are very
severe, for instance in the areas around Upper Awash River Basin.

Given the complexity of the water resources in Ethiopia, the data needs for effective monitoring of
water quality is enormous, and there is a need to engage the various entities and organizations
involved in the protection and management of the water resources in the country. The government
is the main actor and it has the responsibility to meet the data needs in a cost effective manner.
One approach to be cost effective is to select few indicators that require limited data and that have
broad interpretations and reach in information.

Generally water quality monitoring provides the essential feedback about the effectiveness of the
efforts to manage water quality and aquatic resources. Thus it is essential to establish an effective
water quality monitoring framework as part of the overall water sector monitoring in the country.

2. Legal and Institutional Framework of the protection of the water and its Environment

Without freshwater of adequate quantity and quality, it is difficult to ensure integrated water
resources management at river basin level, and sustainable development will not be possible. The
national water resources management policy (FDRE, 2000) in Ethiopia promotes the creation of
appropriate mechanisms to protect and maintain the water resources of the country from any sort
of pollution and subsequently depletion of the freshwater system.

The Environmental Pollution Control Proclamation (Proclamation 300/2002) which is prepared by
the Environment Protection Authority (EPA) prohibits the release of pollutants into freshwater and
its environment. Any entity that causes any pollution shall be required to clean up or pay the cost of
cleaning up. The policy encourages and supports the installation of a sound technology for
treatment of pollutant wastes, and when feasible, to recycle the waste before disposal. The EPA
has also prepared Provisional Standard for Industrial Pollution Control (EPA, 2003) and a
regulation for the enforcement of the standards. A Draft Proposal of Ambient Environmental
Standards is also prepared (EPA, 2004).

Ethiopia is also signatory to multilateral international environmental agreements (MEAs) related to
the use and disposal of hazardous chemical and wastes (The Stockholm Convention on Persistent
Organic Pollutants, Basel Convention, Bamako Convention, and Vienna Convention), which
require the country to facilitate the establishment and strengthening of the national programs for
monitoring of regulated substances.

The Ministry of Water and Energy issued a guideline for Drinking Water in 2002 (MoWE, 2002).
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Fig 1 General framework for water quality and related parameters













































Examples: Parasitic worms
Major Parameters Others ?? Major Parameters
Temperature Total Suspended Solids
(TSSs)
Flow
Changes of State
Mixing
Discharge-Recharge Infiltration
(Porous media)
Evaporation
Condensation
Solidification (Freezing)
Sublimation
CHEMICAL
Major Parameters
Others ?? Minor Inorganic Elements
pH
Total Dissolved Solids (TDS)
Hardness (Total Ca+Mg)
Alkalinity
Total Dissolved Oxygen
Major Cations:Ca,Mg,Na,K,NH
4
Major anions: CI,SO
4
,HCO
3
,PO
4
,H
2
S,NO
3
Total Organic Carbon (TOC)
Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD)
Major processes
Anions: Se,As,Cr(VI),V,Mc,B, F
Cations:
Fe,Al,Cu,Zm,Mn,Ba,Be,Co,Ni,Cd,Hg,Pb,
Cr(lll),Li, Sn, Th
Radio nuclides: U,Pa,Rn
Organic Carbon Fractions
Natural Substances
Lignins, Humic ackls
Chlorophyl, amino acids, fatty acids
Phenols, polyaromatic
and aliphatic
Chemical and biological
oxidation and reduction,
dissolution
Precipitation
Anthropogenic Substances
Chlorinated Hydrocarbons
Solvents, Pesticides
Volatile Organic Hydrocarbons
Solvents, light
Gasoline additives
Semi-volatile Hydrocarbons
Olis, fuels, pesticides
Phthalates, Surfactants
Medicines
Example: Antibiotics
BIOLOGICAL
Microorganis
Major Processes Viruses
Bacteria
Cultivable, Viable
Example: enteric: total
and fecal coliforms
Example:
Enteric
Protozoan
Example: Geardia, Entarnoeba
Helminthes
Biological activity
Algae
PHYSICAL
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3. Basic Conceptual Framework for Water Quality Assessment
A framework for effective water quality management system includes consideration of the various
water quality parameters (see Fig 1 above). Natural and human induced water quality parameters
(influenced by human activities) constitute the largest. The spatial and temporal design of the data
collection system, the development of the chemical, physical and biological indicators, and the
process used to assemble the data and information into meaningful assessments, and the
institutional framework within which it is accomplished constitutes the framework.

Water quality defines the suitability of freshwater bodies to sustain various uses or processes. Any
particular use will have certain requirements for the physical, chemical or biological characteristics
of the freshwater; for example water quality limits the use of water for drinking based on the level of
coli forms or concentrations of toxic substances, and similarly temperature and pH ranges are used
for invertebrate communities. There is increasing recognition on the need for water quality
management for natural ecosystems management as well. Certain monitoring parameters
(variables) are sensitive indicators to changes or deterioration in the ecosystem, providing a useful
addition to physical, chemical and other information. Therefore a range of variables, indicators,
which limit water use both for domestic water supply and environmental purposes, can define
water quality and its use for different purposes.

However, a wide range of natural conditions and human activities influence water quality. The most
important influences come from natural causes such as geological, hydrological and climatic
factors. Their influence is generally greatest when available water quantities are low. For instance,
salinity is a frequent problem in arid areas of Ethiopia where water availability is low. Urbanization
and urban sewage causes gross organic pollution that can cause disturbance on the level of
oxygen and it is often accompanied by severe pathogenic contamination. Accelerated
eutrophication results from enrichment with nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorous from
various origins, particularly domestic sewage from urban areas, and agricultural run-off and agro
industrial effluents in large scale commercial and state farms.

Without strict environmental safeguards the increasing use of agrochemicals in large commercial
farms is causing widespread concern. Their impacts, the deterioration of the soil/water ecosystem
as well as the groundwater sources are not assessed. The main water quality problems on record
that are associated with agriculture are high level of nitrate and pesticide contamination in
freshwater sources.

Intensive agriculture and associated soil erosion in the highlands are contributing high sediment
load to the streams/rivers, thereby reducing the quality of water and increased siltation problems
on hydraulic infrastructures.

Water pollution from industrial wastes (hot spots) has become a growing concern in industrial
areas. Direct contamination of surface waters with metals and toxic pollutants discharged from
industries such as tanneries, metal processing and industrial manufacturing is a growing concern
in rapidly industrial urban centers such as Addis Ababa and the vicinity. Contamination of water by
synthetic organic micro pollutants results either from direct discharge into surface waters or after
transport through the atmosphere. Today, there is a trace of contamination not only of surface
waters but also of groundwater bodies, which are susceptible to leaching from waste dumps,
industrial production sites and mine tailings. Any significant changes to water quality will usually be
disruptive to the ecosystem, and reversing the situation to a normal state of condition will require
enormous financial and technical support.

Contamination of drinking water by point and non point sources has long been a threat to human
health and a cause to several diseases. The magnitude of waterborne disease is significantly
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higher than what is routinely reported. This is due to underreporting. Attributing cases to specific
risk factors is often difficult due to the ubiquitous and multi-factorial nature of the hazards in the
population. Water treatment is therefore essential in order to produce safe drinking water. Aquatic
ecosystems can be threatened by a variety of pollutants as well as destructive land-use or water-
management practices. Discharge of toxic chemicals, over-pumping of aquifers, and contamination
of water bodies with substances that promote algal growth (possibly leading to eutrophication) are
some of todays major causes of water quality problems.

The quality of water may be described in terms of the concentration and state (dissolved or
particulate) of some or all of the organic and inorganic material present in the water, together with
certain physical characteristics of the water. It is determined by in situ measurements and by
examination of water samples on site or in a laboratory. The main elements of water quality
monitoring are, therefore, on-site measurements, the collection and analysis of water samples, the
study and evaluation of the analytical results, and the reporting of the findings. The results of
analyses performed on a single water sample are only valid for the particular location and time at
which that sample was taken. One purpose of a monitoring program is, therefore, to gather
sufficient data (by means of regular or intensive sampling and analysis) to assess spatial and/or
temporal variations in water quality.

Presently there is no systematic water quality management framework in Ethiopia. Assessments
are done on ad hoc basis, and there are no clear responsibilities outlined for the institutions and
organizations engaged in this function. The development of water quality indicators is a significant
step, but still a long way to make the tools useable and effective. The lagal and institutional
framework is another hurdle.

The proposed water quality indicator in the core indicators lump together several of the water
quality parameters. This makes the indicator difficult in data collection, analysis (establishing
mathematical relationship and indices) and interpretation for trend analysis.

3.2 Indicator for monitoring Water Quality

Concentration of human induced and natural pollutants in hot spots has been the initial indicator
developed in the diagnostic study report. It is a holistic indicator containing several parameters.
The indicators most commonly used for monitoring human induced pollutants in freshwater
systems are developed in this document. The proposed indicator represents several of the most
important parameters as shown in fig 1 below (Annex E) in aggregated form. It is not an easy task
to use this indicator to provide the desired information on pollutants unless it is further
disaggregated by the major pollutants type and by type of hotspots. For instance, in areas where
agriculture intensification exists, there is a hotspot, and hence it will require the monitoring of those
major pollutants. In areas where industries such tannery, textiles, etc. exists, it is also a hot spot
since they use dangerous chemicals. These industries waste management need monitoring on
how safely the major pollutants are discharged, and so on. Therefore indicators have to be
developed based on the type of hotspots well recognized and prioritized by the public and the
community. On the basis of such threats and local experiences, the following are the major
hotspots suggested for the development of the indicator in question for monitoring freshwater
quality and the functioning of the ecosystem in Ethiopia.

Industries such as tanneries, textiles, etc. (point source pollutants)
Large scale commercial agricultural areas (non-point source pollutants) since herbicide,
pesticide, fertilizers, etc. used pollute the freshwater systems through runoff of unspecified
origin,
Mining such as gold, soda ash, etc. (point source pollutants)

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Within the above mentioned water quality-monitoring framework, indicators are proposed to
monitor water quality of freshwater systems. Of the long list of indicators available internationally,
six water quality indicators are selected and proposed for further study in Ethiopia.

Sub-Indicator # 1: Level of Biochemical Oxygen demand (BOD) in surface water
Sub-Indicator# 2: Level of nutrients (Total Nitrogen (TN) and Phosphorous (TP) in
freshwater systems
Sub-Indicator # 3: Concentration of heavy metals in freshwater
Sub-Indicator # 4: Level of agricultural pesticides in freshwater systems
Sub-indicator # 5: Total Suspended Solids (TSS)

The first water quality indicator is discussed and methodological sheet is developed for use in
Ethiopia (refer chapter 6). The other four will be considered in the future as need for their use
increases.

3.3 Features of the indicators

The indicators selected are representative of health, aesthetic and amenity values which are
prevalent and measured. The proposed indicators are related to common water quality problems,
and they are able to cover prioritized natural and human induced pollutants in any hotspot areas in
the country. The set of indicators proposed are small and yet reveals sufficient information about
the state of quality of freshwater systems. Data collections for most of the indicators are not too
complicated or expensive.

The national water policy (FDRE, 2000) gives priority to the provision of access to clean and safe
[high quality] drinking water to the people and protection of the environment. This is the basis for
considering sub-indicator 1 and the other four indicators. It is an important indicator with the
objective to protect human health and its environment. BOD level in freshwater indicates the
available oxygen in the freshwater system which shows either the presence or absence of
hazardous wastes that could be a threat to both the humans, animals, plants and aquatic
resources. It also provides a cursor to further study on the nature of the pollutants, and this
indicator is a lead and easy to do type. The indicator is collected to measure the vitality of the
water resources in lakes, reservoirs, rivers and streams. On the basis of this argument, the other
three indicators could be considered on the basis of their importance, though still considered as
important in this study

The information obtained through these indicators would be used to establish water quality
standards and define requirements for various uses and set permit system to abstract water and
discharge effluent on to freshwater systems to reflect the needs of the river basin. In this way
investments can be evaluated and the monitoring can be focused on known environmental
outcomes.

3.4 Data Availability for Indicators

Indicators need to have data possibly long period data of twenty and thirty years. In this study
preliminary assessment on data availability for BOD is made, and a large part of the data collected
is in Addis Ababa and in the Upper Awash River Sub Basin. There are enough data for domestic
water supply, and data is collected by the Urban Water Supply Authorities in the respective urban
centers, and the regional water bureaus for rural water supply services in the respective regions.
While the ambient water quality is limited to only few River Basins, Awash and Blue Nile Basins,
and may be only also for a short period. It is collected at a river basin level by different
organizations and institutions; the respective River Basin Administrations under MoWE,
Environmental Protection Authority (EPA), Universities and Research Institutions.

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For the domestic water supply, there is already enough data for the development of indicators.
There is also a format well developed in the recently developed and ratified Monitoring and
Evaluation Manual and guideline for rolling out the first national data collection for WaSH sector.


3.5 Water Quality Accounts

3.5.1 Introduction

Water quality is an important characteristic of freshwater water resources. It limits the freshwater
status and its use, and hence that portion of freshwater with a water quality problem is
unaccounted. Water quality account is, therefore, an important input into the physical water
accounting of freshwater systems in River Basins. It presents the freshwater stocks in
rivers/streams, groundwater, lakes, reservoirs, etc. based on the status of the quality with values
assigned based on class of water quality developed and accepted the water quality framework
directives developed in a country.

Water quality accounts are useful tools for the assessment/evaluation of water resources suitability
for different uses. It provides comparison of the stocks of fresh water available and the prevailed
changes in the quality over time and space. It could be used to measure the efficiency of water
management programs. For instance the cost effectiveness of the investments made by private or
public actors working in waste water treatment and distribution, or polluted fresh water systems
management in a river basin could be assessed using these water quality accounts. It is therefore
important to aggregate water quality over river basins.

3.5.2 Water quality assessment

Ethiopia does not have a comprehensive water quality management framework directive which
outlines the different uses of fresh water (water for industry, irrigation, drinking, and for
environmental support) and quality requirements, and monitoring requirements. There are no
definitions and measurements set for different class of water quality for different uses in the
country. However Ethiopia has already a guideline for ambient water quality with threshold levels
indicated for each of the identified parameters. A guideline for standard drinking water quality is
separately prepared and it is now fully in use where drinking water quality monitoring exists. The
parameters and their values are consistent with WHO water quality standard. However in few
parameters, for instance for fluoride, the level is adapted to local conditions in the country and it is
allowed to use 3 mg/liter rather than the standard 1.5 mg/liter.

In order to evaluate water uses based on water quality, water use suitability indicators for different
uses of freshwater need to be established. For instance for Irrigation, the French uses four
indicators (SEEAW, 2006), and these are Salinity, micro-organisms, micro pollutants and
pesticides. For instance the establishment of threshold levels for the different well recognized
parameters (such as BOD as identified for this study), definition and measurement of water quality
classes, etc. are needed so that water quality accounts can be prepared. In Ethiopia some work
has already been done in terms of preparing guidelines for water quality assessment/audit which
identified essential water quality parameters with threshold levels for different uses. It provides an
indication of the measure taken to protect or improve the state of water bodies in the rivers basin
and it can be seen as a first step towards ecosystem accounting and its variants.

3.5.3 The structure of the accounts

The general structure of the quality accounts is the same as that of the water asset accounts in the
annex F table 1. The only difference is the addition of the water quality dimension, which describes
the volume of water polluted which is unaccounted for in the freshwater stock. In the Water Quality
framework that need to be developed in a country, guidelines should give different classes of water
Stiengthening Watei Sectoi Nonitoiing in Ethiopia: uIRWI Pioject Phase II

0niteu Nations Bevelopment foi Economic anu Social Affaiis (0NBESA) Page 179

quality and their use, and the water quality accounts use such classes as a basis for its
assessment.

Table 1 General Structure of Water Quality Accounts








Source: SEEA, 2003
Quality Classes
Quality 1 Quality 2 Quality 3 . .n1 Quality n Total
Opening stocks
Changes in stocks
Closing stocks