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Keynote talk

Phylogeographic studies in spiders a review


C. Muster Phylogeography considers geographic distributions of genealogical lineages within and among closely related species. The number of phylogeographic studies dealing with spiders is still limited. By 31 May 2008, a total of 41 studies have been published that include sequence data (genealogical information) from at least five localities within a species (geographic variation). Since publication of the studies on Appalachian Nesticus in 1997, the annual number of papers fulfilling these criteria has steadily increased. There is a strong geographic and taxonomic bias of the available data. Most studies consider North America (18), followed by Australia/Oceania (10), Europe (8) and Asia (7), while Africa (1) and South America (1) remain neglected. Phylogeographic structures have been investigated in representatives from 22 spider families, with a clear focus on low-vagile habitat specialists, especially Mygalomorphae. The bulk of studies concentrates on molecular taxonomy (species delineation, status of cryptic taxa, verification of morphological species concepts) rather than biogeographic questions (area genesis, colonization routes, Pleistocene refugia etc.). Incongruence between genetically divergent lineages and nominal taxa is a frequent outcome, but this does not necessarily imply conflict between morphology and molecules. In retrospective and by application of rigorous analyses both character sets often correspond in revised taxon diagnoses.

C. Muster, Institute of Biology II, Molecular Evolution and Animal Systematics, University of Leipzig, Germany, muster@rz.uni-leipzig.de

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Carl Clerck and what became of his spiders and their names
T. Kronestedt An account is given on the life and entomological achievements of Carl Clerck (1709-1765). Focus is given on his book "Svenska spindlar" from 1757 where binary names for spiders were introduced. In 1856 the spider species described by Clerck were revised by Tamerlan Thorell, who subsequently was able to study Clerck's forgotten spider collection. The surviving material largely confirmed Thorell's previous interpretations. In 1892 Clerck's names were invalidated due to the rules adopted at the 2nd international zoological congress in Moscow in which Linnaeus's Systema Naturae Ed. X of 1758 was established as the starting point for zoological nomenclature. Due to arguments put forth by Pierre Bonnet, the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature in 1948 recommended that the names in Clerck's book of 1757 should be formally recognized. The case was confirmed by the Commission in 1959. In 1965 Clerck's insect collection, also including his spiders, was rediscovered. The spiders were later studied by ke Holm, who gave an account of the remaining specimens in the collection in 1978. Their status as type material is considered. The collection is now deposited in the Swedish Museum of Natural History in Stockholm. Presently 53 spider species carry names given by Clerck.

Torbjrn Kronestedt, Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden, torbjorn.kronestedt@nrm.se

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Symposium 01: Carl Clerck symposium on systematics of spiders Talk

Progress in erigonine phylogeny with special focus on the Savignia-group (Linyphiidae)


H. Frick, W. Nentwig & C. Kropf The phylogeny of the 571 genera and 4329 species of Linyphiidae is to a large extent unknown. Todays knowledge is based on the pioneer works on erigonione relationships on genus level by Merrett [1], Millidge [2] and the first cladistic approaches of Hormiga [3, 4] and Miller and Hormiga [5]. We added 19 species in 16 genera of the so called Savigniagenus group (defined by Millidge [2]) to the matrix of Miller and Hormiga [5] based on 176 characters. Data, available from other analyses (e.g. Duprr & Paquin [6]) using the characters from Miller and Hormiga [5] were also included. Altogether, we reconstructed the topologies for a total of 96 erigonine species in 89 genera and 12 outgroup species. The analysis resulted in more most parsimonious trees than before (11 versus 1) and was not helpful in resolving the relationships between the newly added taxa. However, the close relationship of the members of the Savignia-group was supported, but not the monophyly of the group (paraphyly with respect to different clades). So, new taxa should be added to this matrix only if new potentially informative characters are investigated as well.
[1] Merrett, P., 1963. The palpus of male spiders of the family Linyphiidae. Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 140: 347467. [2] Millidge, A.F., 1977: The conformation of the male palpal organs of linyphiid spiders, and its application to the taxonomic and phylogenetic analysis of the family (Araneae: Linyphiidae). Bull. Br. arachnol. Soc. 4: 160. [3] Hormiga, G., 1994. Cladistics and the comparative morphology of linyphiid spiders and their relatives (Araneae, Araneoidea, Linyphiidae). Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 111: 1-71. [4] Hormiga, G., 2000. Higher level phylogenetics of erigonine spiders (Araneae, Linyphiidae, Erigoninae). Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 609: 1-160. [5] Miller, J. & Hormiga, G., 2004: Clade stability and the addition of data: A case study from erigonine spiders (Araneae: Linyphiidae, Erigoninae). Cladistics 20: 385-442. [6] Duprr, N. & Paquin, P., 2007. Revision of the North American genus Scirites (Araneae, Linyphiidae). Zootaxa: 1460: 47-58.

H. Frick, Natural History Museum of Bern, Switzerland and University of Bern, Switzerland, holger.frick@gmx.li

Symposium 01: Carl Clerck symposium on systematics of spiders Talk

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From Clerck to -CT: frozen copulations in huntsman spiders (Araneae: Sparassidae)


P. Jger, P. Michalik, T. Hrnschemeyer & J. Goebbels Spider copulatory organs have been used for spider identification ever since Clerck published his work on Swedish spiders in 1757. Nothing drastically has changed to this method of illustration of morphological characters. However, if we would like to understand copulatory organs, i.e. their parts and the particular functions in order to get a better impression of the phylogenetic value of such structures, we have to analyse them in action. Frozen copulations of two species of Sparassidae in combination with methods of the micro-computer tomography (-CT) show details of functional aspects. We have investigated the anchoring of the retrolateral tibial apophysis and the insertion of the embolus. Statements about systematics and evolution are discussed.

Male palp (top) and female epigyne and internal duct system (bottom) of Holconia sp. (Sparassidae) analysed with the CT-method.

P. Jger, Research Institute Senckenberg, Frankfurt, Germany, Peter.Jaeger@senckenberg.de

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Symposium 01: Carl Clerck symposium on systematics of spiders Talk

Uncovering diversity in Laotian caves: a combined morphological and molecular approach in the genus Heteropoda
S. Bayer Only a few years ago a very large spider species was described from caves in Laos, Heteropoda maxima Jger 2001. This surprising record showed that surveys of such habitats might be worth to be continued. No research about H. maxima was carried out since its original description but in subsequent years more material of cave-dwelling Heteropoda species was collected in different karstic regions of Central and Northern Laos, consisting generally of smaller forms than H. maxima. Now it is investigated whether these new forms belong to one species or represent different (sub)species. Moreover, the taxonomic suitability of characters of copulatory organs is evaluated. For this study morphological methods as well as the examination of genetic differences with molecular methods were applied. Therefore the nucleotide sequences of the cytochrome oxidase subunit one (CO-I) coding gene were compared and analysed. The morphological methods include preparation, measuring and drawing of the specimens. Finally a comparative cladistic study of morphological and molecular characters will be presented using phylogeny computer programs.

S. Bayer, Research Institute Senckenberg, Frankfurt/ Main, Bayers@students.uni-marburg.de

Symposium 01: Carl Clerck symposium on systematics of spiders Talk

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Cladistic analysis of the subfamily Sparianthinae (Araneae, Sparassidae), with the description of three new genera
C.A. Rheims Sparianthinae was first recognized as a subgroup of Sparassidae by Simon (sub Sparianthidi) to include Sparianthis Simon, Pseudosparianthis Simon and Stasina Simon[1]. This grouping was accepted and maintained throughout all subsequent classifications[2][3][4][5] and currently includes 13 genera, namely Defectrix Petrunkevitch, Pleorotus Simon, Pseudosparianthis Simon, Rhacocnemis Simon, Sagellula Strand, Sparianthina Banks, Sparianthis Simon, Stasina Simon, Stasinoides Berland, Stipax Simon, Strandiellum Kolosvry, Thelcticopis Karsch and Thomasettia Hirst[5]. A cladistic analysis using parsimony was applied to test the monophyly of Sparianthinae and discuss the relationships between it's genera and other Sparassidae genera. The data matrix comprised 38 taxa scored for 81 characters. The analysis yielded 5 most parsimonious trees with 298 steps. Results show that Sparianthinae as previously defined is not monophyletic. Thus, Sampaiosia Mello-Leito is transferred to Sparianthinae and synonymized with Pseudosparianthis Simon and Sparianthina Banks is removed from the subfamily. In addition, based on the most parsimonious trees, three new genera are proposed: one to include Sparianthis amazonica Simon, Sparianthis barroana (Chamberlin) and three new species; one to include Thelcticopis pestai (Reimoser), Pseudosparianthis cubana Banks and one new species; and one to include Olios bicolor Banks and two new species.
[1]Simon, E. 1887. Espces et genres nouveaux de la famille des Sparassidae. Bull. Soc. zool. France 12: 466474 [2]Simon, E. 1897. Histoire naturelle des araignes. Paris, 2: 1-192. [3]Jrvi, T. H. 1912. Das Vaginalsystem der Sparassiden. I. Allgemeiner Teil. Ann. Acad. Sci. Fenn. (A) 4: 1131 [4]Petrunkevitch, A. 1928. Systema Aranearum. Trans. Conn. Acad. Arts Sci. 29: 1-270. [5]Roewer, C. F., 1954. Katalog der Araneae von 1758 bis 1940. Bruxelles, vol. 1, p. 1-1040.

C.A. Rheims, Instituto Butantan, So Paulo, Brazil,cris.rheims@butantan.gov.br

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Symposium 01: Carl Clerck symposium on systematics of spiders Talk

DNA barcodes for biodiversity assessment in poorly known regions: the woodlouse hunter spiders of Morocco
M.A. Arnedo & L. Bidegaray-Batista The term taxonomic impediment refers to the inability of traditional taxonomy to catalogue all life on Earth, before extinction occurs. Genetic data provide a powerful tool to improve the efficiency of taxonomic practice. A DNA barcode is a short gene sequence taken from standardized portions of the genome, used to identify species. This technique improves species-level taxonomy by associating all life history stages or genders, providing characters for groups with few morphological features, unravelling undescribed and cryptic species and facilitating rapid identification by non-specialists. About 20 spiders of the genus Dysdera have been reported from Morocco. This number is similar to species counts from nearby regions like Italy or the Iberian Peninsula. However, information on Moroccan Dysdera is very scarce. Half of the species are known from a single sex and identification of female and juvenile specimens is difficult. We have tackled this problem by generating a DNA profile of the cox1 gene from 70 individuals from 45 localities widespread throughout Morocco. Males, and in some instances females, were identified as nominal or undescribed species and used as references to asses the existence of unveiled diversity. Our results clearly illustrate the synergic effects of DNA barcodes on current taxonomic practice.

M.A. Arnedo, Universitat de Barcelona, marnedo@ub.edu

Symposium 01: Carl Clerck symposium on systematics of spiders Talk

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Orbicularian monophyly? A total evidence approach.


N. Scharff, J.A. Coddington, I. Agnarsson, T. Szts, C. Hayashi, J. Wenzel & T.A. Blackledge We present results based primarily on new molecular data that test the monophyly of Orbiculariae, using a taxon sample of 44 genera from 22 families (eight orbicularian). Outgoup families represent current taxonomic categories such as Mygalomorphae, Haplogynae, Australochiloidea, Eresoidea, RTA-clade, and Palpimanoidea. Molecular data included both mitochondrial and nuclear markers (COI and 16S; 28S, 18S, Histone H3 and Wingless). We also reviewed the literature to assemble morphological data for 34 of those genera. Morphological features included genitalia, somatic morphology and behavior. Through parsimony analyses and Bayesian inference of statically and dynamically aligned matrices, we explore and quantify the contribution of different character and taxa partitions and discuss implications for Orbicularian phylogeny, and the evolution of various morphological and behavioural traits.

N. Scharff, Zoological Museum, Copenhagen, Denmark, nscharff@snm.ku.dk

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Symposium 01: Carl Clerck symposium on systematics of spiders Talk

The golden orb weaver: update on Nephila taxonomy


M. Kuntner With the largest orb webs and extreme sexual size dimorphism, the pantropical spider genus Nephila has been the subject of hundreds of biological studies. Unfortunately, their prominence has spawned much substandard taxonomic work, bringing chaos to the nomenclature and despair to revisionary taxonomists, ethologists, ecologists, and other biologists interested in these fascinating spiders. Consequently, the most conspicuous tropical orb weaver with more than 150 available species names has not been revised since Dahl (1912). Two works attempt to fix the problem, the Australasian revision published by Harvey et al. (2007) and the ongoing worldwide revision reported here. The latter attempts to provide a globally consistent concept for Nephila species delimitation by examining over 2500 samples from all major collections and documenting intraspecific variation of unprecedented proportions. The total count of valid species is being reduced to only 14 (two in the Neotropics, seven in the Afrotropics, five in Australasia), and all other names are proposed as synonyms or nomina dubia. The monophyly of the genus and intrageneric species relationships are continually being tested via phylogenetic analyses of morphological, behavioral and molecular data. The revision, when published, will complete the taxonomy of Nephilidae, and the phylogenetic hypothesis will help understand the evolution of morphological (sexual size dimorphism, developmental plasticity) and behavioral (mating strategies, web biology) traits as well as facilitate new research into nephilid ecology, physiology and biogeography.

M. Kuntner, Scientific Research Centre, Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Slovenia, kuntner@gmail.com

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Morphology of the red triangular spiders (Araneidae: Arkys)


T. Szts & N. Scharff The spider genus Arkys is only known from the Austral-Pacific region. It was originally established by Walckenaer (1837) to hold some very conspicuous triangular spiders from New Guinea and Australia, but was synonymised with the bird-dropping mimics belonging to the genus Archemorus in 1984. The morphology and biology (as far as it is known) of the genus is remarkable and the genus has therefore been placed in several different families since it original description. It is currently placed in Araneidae, but was formerly placed in what is currently known as Tetragnathidae, Mimetidae and Thomisidae. We have examined the morphology of the genus in detail in connection with an ongoing project on araneid phylogeny, and we here present details on the genitalia and somatic morphology and discuss character homology in light of previous and present family assignments.

T. Szts, Department of Entomology, Natural History Museum of Denmark, tszuts@snm.ku.dk

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Symposium 01: Carl Clerck symposium on systematics of spiders Talk

Taxonomic review and phylogenetic analysis of central European Eresus species (Araneae: Eresidae)
M. ez & J. Johannesen Ladybird spiders (Eresus spp.) have attracted scientific interest since the 18th century, but taxonomical knowledge of the genus is unsatisfactory. Early classification based on colour and size variation divided European Eresus into numerous species. These were later lumped into one predominant morphospecies, Eresus niger/E. cinnaberinus, which could be found from Portugal to Central Asia. Here, we perform a major revision of Eresus from northern and central Europe using morphological, phenological, habitat, distribution and molecular data. Three species, E. kollari, E. sandaliatus and E. moravicus were distinguished. The name E. niger (originally Aranea nigra) cannot be used as the name A. nigra was used for a previous spider species. The name E. cinnaberinus is considered a nomen dubium. The three species differ in size, colour pattern, shape of prosoma and copulatory organs, phenology, and have slightly different habitat requirements. No morphologically intermediate forms were recorded. In contrast to distinct morphology and phenology, the genus is genetically complex. Genetically, the mitochondrial haplotypes of E. sandaliatus and E. moravicus are monophyletic, whereas those of E. kollari are paraphyletic. Eastern central European E. kollari is likely a hybrid lineage between E. sandaliatus and the monophyletic western central European E. kollari. Because eastern and western European E. kollari are morphologically and phenologically indistinguishable, we did not formally split them. However, detailed population-based research in the future may partition E. kollari into additional species. This research was supported by a grant no. MZE0002700603 provided by Ministry of Agriculture of the Czech Republic.

M. ez, Crop Research Institute, Prague, Czech Republic, rezac@vurv.cz

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Phylogenetic affinities of the enigmatic spider subfamily Penestominae


J.A. Miller, A. Carmichael, C.E. Griswold, J. Johannesen, J. Kral, J. Spagna & C. Haddad The Penestominae was first described from females only and placed in the Eresidae. Discovery of the male decades later brought surprises, especially in the anatomy of the male palp which features a retrolateral tibial apophysis (RTA). The presence of an RTA is synapomorphic for a large clade of spiders exclusive of Eresidae. A molecular data matrix based on four loci was constructed to test two alternative hypotheses: 1) penestomines are eresids and the RTA is convergent, or 2) penestomines belong within the RTA clade. Taxon sampling concentrated on the Eresidae and the RTA clade, especially outside of the Dionycha and Lycosoidea. The results imply revised circumscription of some RTA clade families, including Hahniidae, Amaurobiidae, Dictynidae, and Cybaeidae. Multiple fossil calibration points were used to date events in entelegyne spider evolution. This work was done in the context of a taxonomic revision of Penestominae.

J.A. Miller, Naturalis, Netherlands and California Academy of Sciences, USA, jmiller@calacademy.org

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Symposium 01: Carl Clerck symposium on systematics of spiders Talk

The Oonopid Spider Planetary Biodiversity Inventory: transforming how systematists work
N.I. Platnick A group of over 45 systematists from more than 10 countries are collaborating to achieve a global taxonomic revision of the goblin spiders (Oonopidae) within the space of just a few years. This project is larger than any single systematist could ever accomplish, even over an entire career. Our Internet-enabled collaboration provides a strong contrast with how systematic work has generally been accomplished during the 250 years since the publication of Clerck's Svenska Spindlar.

N.I. Platnick, American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA, platnick@amnh.org

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The male genital system of goblin spiders (Araneae, Oonopidae)


P. Michalik & M. Burger The male genital system of spiders consists of paired testes and deferent ducts, which lead into an unpaired ejaculatory duct. The distinct testes are tube-like and can vary in length and thickness in the different spider groups [1]. The deferent ducts are usually thin and can be coiled (often depending on their length). In this study, we present the general morphology of the male genital system of goblin spiders for the first time. The following species were studied: Oonopinae - Oonops balanus, Stenoonops reductus, Orchestina moaba; Gamasomorphinae - Silhouettella loricatula, Scaphiella hespera, Opopaea recondita, Myrmopopaea sp., Lionneta sp., Neoxyphinus ogloblini. The male genital system of the investigated species consists of an unpaired testis with paired thin deferent ducts originating laterally of the testis. The deferent ducts lead into an unpaired ejaculatory duct, which can differ in size. The organization with an unpaired testis is unique for spiders and thus a new synapomorphic trait for goblin spiders. Further studies will show whether the unpaired testis in Oonopidae evolved from partly fused testes as e.g. present in Dysderidae.
[1] Michalik, P. (in press). Remarkable morphological diversity of the male genital system of spiders (Araneae) with notes on the fine structure of seminal secretions. In: Kropf, C., Horak, P. (Eds.) Towards a Natural History of Arthropods and other Organisms - in memoriam Konrad Thaler. Contributions to Natural History, 16.

P. Michalik, Zoological Institute and Museum, University of Greifswald, Germany, michalik@unigreifswald.de

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Symposium 01: Carl Clerck symposium on systematics of spiders Talk

The Mediterranean Loxosceles: a single species or a species-rich assemblage?


C. Ribera The genus Loxosceles Heineken & Lowe, 1832 groups 100 species, 88 of which are American endemics. In contrast to this high diversity only 11 species have been reported from Africa. After Brignoli's contributions (1969, 1976) on the Mediterranean basin only a single species is currently accepted: L. rufescens (Dufour, 1820), whose type locality is Sagunto (Spain) and two species/subspecies are considered as Nomina dubia: L. decemnotata Franganillo, 1925 from Spain and L. rufescens lucifuga Simon, 1910 from Algeria. The main interest to study the systematics of this genus in the Mediterranean basin comes from the knowledge of a recent severe clinical case as a consequence of a Loxosceles bite in the Canary Islands (Gran Canaria). As a first approach to unravel the diversification of the group in the western Mediterranean, 1000 bp of the COI gene from specimens from Morocco, Tunisia, Canary Islands and the Iberian Peninsula were sequenced in order to find out whether some species introduced from South America were present as a consequence of human activity. Preliminary results show that the genus Loxoceles in the western Mediterranean is represented at least by ten different species and no direct relationship has been found between these species and the species from the American continent. Some of the species are easy to identify but others shows identical copulatory organs. Up to now we have identified 3 species in the Canary Islands (3 of them endemic), 3 in the Iberian Peninsula, 3 in Tunisia and 3 in Morocco. As a result of the few previous morphological and molecular analyses on this group, we predict that many more species will be described in the near future.

C. Ribera, Departament de Biologia Animal. Univesitat de Barcelona, cribera@ub.edu

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The family Nesticidae (Araneae) in the Mediterranean basin: origin, biogeography and phylogenetic relationships
A. Lopez-Pancorbo & C. Ribera Nesticids are represented worldwide by slightly more than 200 species grouped in 9 genera. One quarter (53 species and 6 genera) inhabit the karstic areas surrounding the Mediterranean Basin. Some authors have pointed out that their primigenious habitat could have been the leaf litter of tropical forests [1]. Except for some widespread species (Nesticus cellulanus and Eidmannella pallida) in the Mediterranean nesticids are cave dwellers with only a single exception (Carpatonesticus lotriensis). To study the origin, colonization pathways and phylogenetic relationships of the Mediterranean species, 2000 bp from two mitocondrial genes (COI & 16S) and one nuclear gene (18S) have been partially sequenced. Preliminary results of this phylogenetic analysis indicate that, at least, 3 independent colonization processes from eastern Mediterranean have occurred giving rise to a high number of endemic species in the main European southern peninsulas. The results show that specific radiations that have basically contributed to the high level of endemicity of this family, have been relatively recent phenomena, while ancient groups hardly present specific radiation processes. These data together with the absence of nesticids in North Africa suggest that several extinction independent phenomena may have occurred in the past. According to the phylogeny inferred, a deep taxonomical review at the genus level should be undertaken.
[1] Lehtinen, P. T. & M. I. Saaristo. Spiders of the Oriental-Australian region. II. Nesticidae. Ann. Zool. Fenn. 17

Alberto Lopez-Pancorbo, Animal Biology Department, Faculty of Biology, University of Barcelona, Spain, alopezpancorbo@ub.edu

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Symposium 01: Carl Clerck symposium on systematics of spiders Poster

Guessing game taxonomy or the lack of good genus definitions in European funnel-web spiders (Araneae: Agelenidae)
A. Bolzern & A. Hnggi In Europe the family Agelenidae is represented by 12 valid genera (Agelena, Agelescapa, Allagelena, Benoitia, Hadites, Histopona, Lycosoides, Maimuna, Malthonica, Pseudotegenaria, Tegenaira and Textrix). At least some of these genera do not have a precise description. This leads to the problematic situation that several species could be placed in one or the other genus. Thus, for those genera redefinitions are needed. As a first step, the actual state with a historical view to the original descriptions is presented. Additionally, an overview of the usually used characters is shown. Focused on the speciesrichest genera Tegenaria and Malthonica, some new, potentially useful characters are introduced.

A. Bolzern, Naturhistorisches Museum Basel and Department of Environmental Sciences, Section of Conservation Biology, University of Basel, Switzerland, angelo.bolzern@stud.unibas.ch

Symposium 01: Carl Clerck symposium on systematics of spiders Poster

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Two new spider species Harpactea lazarovi and H. tenuiemboli from Balkan Peninsula (Bulgaria, Serbia) (Araneae: Dysderidae)
C. Deltshev
Harpactea lazarovi is described and illustrated (male/female) from a locality in Central Stara Planina Mountain (Bulgaria). It corresponds well to the lepida species group. H. tenuiemboli is described and illustrated (male/female) from a cave in Rhodopy Mountain (Serbia). Morphologically it fits well to the lepida species group. The new species are discussed and compared with other species of the lepida group.
Disclaimer: The species Harpactea lazarovi and Harpactea tenuiemboli will be described as new species elsewhere in a scientific journal. The author explicitly states that the names Harpactea lazarovi and Harpactea tenuiemboli as they appear in this abstract are herewith disclaimed for nomenclatural purposes until the date of appearance of the original description.

C. Deltshev, Institute of Zoology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1 Tsar Osvoboditel blvd, 1000-Sofia., Bulgaria, cdeltshev@zoology bas.bg

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Symposium 01: Carl Clerck symposium on systematics of spiders Poster

A new genus and species of pouched goblin spider (Oonopidae, Araneae) from West Africa
W. Fannes Oonopidae or goblin spiders are very small (usually less than 2 mm), six-eyed, haplogyne spiders that are particularly abundant and diverse in the tropics and subtropics. In this talk, the morphology and ultrastructure of a new genus, widespread in West Africa but exceedingly rare in museum collections, is described and discussed. The genus single constituent species can be distinghuished from other oonopids by its peculiar type of carapace microsculpture and posteriorly situated epigastric groove. Externally, females lack specialized epigastric structures. The male has an inward-curved embolus and a ventral pouch, a deep depression between the labium and sternum that accomodates the tips of both emboli. Similar features have been documented from several known genera of Oonopidae (e.g. Grymeus Harvey, 1987, Silhouettella Benoit, 1979) and also occur in many presently undescribed genera. This study is part of the PBI project The megadiverse, microdistributed spider family Oonopidae.

W. Fannes, Invertebrate Section, Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Belgium, wouter.fannes@africamuseum.be

Symposium 01: Carl Clerck symposium on systematics of spiders Poster

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Caracladus revision including a new species (Linyphiidae)


H. Frick The genus Caracladus Simon, 1884 with two Asian and two European species is revised and one new species from Europe is presented (Linyphiidae: Erigoninae). We summarize data on the diagnosis, distribution, habitat and phenology of all these species. Detailed illustrations are given for C. avicula, C. leberti, C. montanus, C. tsurusakii and the new species.

H. Frick, Natural History Museum of Bern and University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland, holger.frick@gmx.li

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Symposium 01: Carl Clerck symposium on systematics of spiders Poster

Orbweb features as taxonomically diagnostic characters in Zygiella (Araneae, Araneidae)


M. Gregoric, M. Kuntner & R. Kostanjsek The species classically grouped in the genus Zygiella are thought to all possess a characteristic web feature a missing sector in the upper part of the orb. Zygiella has recently been split into several genera (among them Leviellus, Parazygiella and the monotypic Stroemiellus) and proposed to belong to Zygiellidae rather than the classical Araneidae. To find orbweb features, which can potentially diagnose these genera, we investigated adult female web architectures of L. thorelli, P. montana, S. stroemi, Z. keyserlingi and Z. x-notata. Here, we compare nine characters emphasizing absolute and relative web size, web and hub asymmetry, and radial and spiral counts. The missing sector is facultatively present in all species but its prevalence in adult female webs varies from 41% in Z. keyserlingi to 94% in P. montana. Overall, the webs of Stroemiellus could be diagnosed by its relatively smaller size with dense sticky spirals, and the non-circulating spirals above hub. Parazygiella had significantly less primary radii and sticky spirals compared to the others, and the webs of Leviellus differed from the others by the more pronounced vertical hub asymmetry. No web character could diagnose the genus Zygiella s. str. from the others. However, based on the web architecture, three of these genera seem to be diagnosable, which provides preliminary support for Wunderlichs taxonomy.

M. Gregoric, Scientific Research Centre, Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Slovenia, matjaz.gregoric@gmail.com

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Arachnology in Finland. 1. From Laxmann to Palmgren


S. Koponen Very little has been published on the history of arachnology in Finland. The activity of Finnish-born arachnologists during two centuries from the time of Clerck and Linnaeus (when Laxmann described Aranea singoriensis) to Palmgren (and his Die Spinnenfauna Finnlands und Ostfennoskandiens IVIII) is briefly dealt with here. The following persons have been included: E. Laxmann (173796), P. Forskl (173263), A. von Nordmann (1803 66), F.W. Mklin (182183), K.E. Odenwall (18731965), T.H. Jrvi (18771960), R. Krogerus (18821966), and P. Palmgren (190793).

S. Koponen, University of Turku, Finland, sepkopo@utu.fi

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Symposium 01: Carl Clerck symposium on systematics of spiders Poster

PBI and the goblins: devilishly interesting


Y. Kranz-Baltensperger There are currently more than 30 investigators worldwide from many countries working on a Planetary Biodiversity Inventory (PBI) of the spider family Oonopidae, commonly called "goblin spiders". Oonopidae are an extremely diverse group, with only ca. 20% described species. The investigated specimens come from museums collections and from field trips, where special attention is paid to forest floor and canopy inhabiting species. The morphological data of thousands of specimens from described and undescribed genera and species are databased and are available to every investigator. This internet-accessible database serves both phylogeny reconstructions and standardized species descriptions. Further goals of the project are interactive keys and an automated species identification system. An introduction to the database is given and a short overview of the family Oonopidae is presented.

Yvonne Kranz-Baltensperger, Natural History Museum Bern, Switzerland, yvonne.kranz@nmbe.ch

Symposium 01: Carl Clerck symposium on systematics of spiders Poster

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Vladimir Vagner and his contribution to arachnology


D.V. Logunov A contribution to arachnology and some other areas of biology, particularly of the zoopsychology, of the famous Russian zoologist, Prof Vladimir Vagner is discussed. Unique photographs of Prof Vagner from several archives in Russia are provided.

D.V. Logunov, Manchester Museum, UK, dmitri.v.logunov@manchester.ac.uk

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Symposium 01: Carl Clerck symposium on systematics of spiders Poster

New records of an Iranian spider species and four genera previously unrecorded from Isfahan Province
M.G.R. Marhabaie, N. Nikbakht, Sh. Bahrampour & J. Moshtaghian Not many studies are performed on Iranian spiders. A total of 244 spider species from 33 families are reported in a checklist of Iranian spider fauna from the year 2006. That checklist reports only eight species from Dysderidae, Filistatidae, Lycosidae, Salticidae, Theridiidae and Thomisidae families found in Isfahan Province. Due to the variable local climate (west central Iran), a broader biodiversity of spiders is expected. This study was designed to make a more complete and accurate assessment of spider diversity in the province. The specimens were collected during a two-year period in various seasons from different areas of the province. Since no key for spiders of the region is published yet, the specimens were identified and illustrated using the four published keys and confirmed by a specialist. The genera Microlinyphia, Tetragnatha, Uloborus and Xysticus which respectively belong to the families Linyphiidae, Tetragnathidae, Uloboridae and Thomisidae are being reported for the first time from Isfahan Province. All four genera were previously reported from Iran but not from Isfahan. Interestingly, this is the first time that the Holarctic species Microlinyphia pusilla is being reported from Iran. Not many studies are performed on Iranian spiders. A total of 244 spider species from 33 families are reported in a checklist of Iranian spider fauna from the year 2006. That checklist reports only eight species from Dysderidae, Filistatidae, Lycosidae, Salticidae, Theridiidae and Thomisidae families found in Isfahan Province. Due to the variable local climate (west central Iran), a broader biodiversity of spiders is expected. This study was designed to make a more complete and accurate assessment of spider diversity in the province. The specimens were collected during a two-year period in various seasons from different areas of the province. Since no key for spiders of the region is published yet, the specimens were identified and illustrated using the four published keys and confirmed by a specialist. The genera Microlinyphia, Tetragnatha, Uloborus and Xysticus which respectively belong to the families Linyphiidae, Tetragnathidae, Uloboridae and Thomisidae are being reported for the first time from Isfahan Province. All four genera were previously reported from Iran but not from Isfahan. Interestingly, this is the first time that the Holarctic species Microlinyphia pusilla is being reported from Iran.
[1] Ghavami, S. (2006): Renew Checklist of Spiders (Aranei) of Iran. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 9 (10): 1839-1851 [2] Huber, B.A. (2005): The ZFMK Spider Key, Retrieved May 20, 2008, from http://www.unibonn.de/~bhuber1/spider_key/Key_Index.html [3] Kaston, B.J. (1953): How to know the spiders, Brown Company Publishers, U.S. [4] Logunov, D.V., Marusik, Y.M. & Mozaffarian, F. (2001): Faunistic Review of Jumping Spiders of Iran (Aranei: Salticidae). - Arthropoda Selecta, 10 (2): 155-167 [5] Mozaffarian, F. & Marusik, Y.M. (2001): A checklist of Iranian spiders (Aranei). - Arthropoda Selecta, 10 (1): 67-74 [6] Nentwig, W., Hanggi, A., Kropf, C. & Blick, T. (2003): Central European Spiders - Determination Key, University of Bern, Retrieved May 20, 2008, from http://www.araneae.unibe.ch/index.html [7] Ovtsharenko, V. & Tanasevitch, A. (2002): Key of Spiders of Black Rock Forest, American Museum of Natural History, Retrieved May 20, 2008, from http://research.amnh.org/entomology/blackrock2/key.htm [8] Platnick, N.I. (2008): The World Spider Catalog, Version 8.5, American Museum of Natural History, Retrieved May 20, 2008, from http://research.amnh.org/entomology/spiders/catalog/ [9] Roberts, M.J. (1993): The Spiders of Great Britain and Ireland, Harley books

N. Nikbakht, University of Isfahan, Iran, negar.nikbakht@gmail.com

Symposium 01: Carl Clerck symposium on systematics of spiders Poster

47

Revision of the South American genus Polybetes Simon (Araneae: Sparassidae)


C.A. Rheims, P. Jger & A.D. Brescovit The genus Polybetes Simon occurs exclusively in South America and includes to date 13 species[1]. It was revised by Gerschman & Schiapelli[2] who considered it to be a senior synonym of Streptaedoae Jrvi 1912 and Leptosparassus Jrvi 1912. Nevertheless, these authors examined mostly material from Argentina. In this paper a taxonomic revision of the genus is presented based on the examination of ample material from all the largest South and North American collections. Based on these results, three species, Olios fasciatus Keyserling 1880, Olios vitiosus Vellard 1924 and Olios hyeroglyphicus Mello-Leito 1918 are transferred to the genus and four synonymies proposed: Polybetes obnutus Simon 1897 with Polybetes pythagoricus (Holmberg 1875), Polybetes pallidus Mello-Leito 1941 with Polybetes quadrifoveatus Jrvi 1912, Polybetes punctulatus Mello-Leito 1944 with Polybetes fasciatus (Keyserling 1880) and Olios vitiosus Vellard 1924 with Polybetes germaini Simon 1897. Two new species are described from Piau and Santa Catarina, Brazil, and the male of Polybetes delfini Simon 1904 is described for the first time. Polybetes rubrosignatus Mello-Leito 1943 and Polybetes proximus Mello-Leito 1943 are not congeneric with P. martius and are thus placed as incertae sedis until further knowledge on the Neotropical sparassid fauna is attained.
[1]Platnick, N. I. 2008. The world spider catalog, version 8.5. American Museum of Natural History, online at http://research.amnh.org/entomology/spiders/catalog/index.html [2]Gerschman de P., B. S. & R. D. Schiapelli. 1965. El gnero Polybetes Simon, 1897, en la Argentina (Araneae-Sparassidae). Revta Mus. Argent. Cienc. Nat. Bernardino Rivadavia (Ent.) 1: 313-339.

C.A. Rheims, Instituto Butantan, So Paulo, Brazil, cris.rheims@butantan.gov.br

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Symposium 01: Carl Clerck symposium on systematics of spiders Poster

Phylogenetic justification for the erection of a new monotypic genus of Afrotropical erigonines (Araneae: Linyphiidae)
R.R. Seyfulina & R. Jocqu The Linyphiidae are represented in the Afrotropics by 88 genera and 414 species. The present paper reports on a new genus and species of canopy dwelling erigonine spiders from western Kenya. Males are characterized by the curved femur I, a feature that is unique among afrotropical linyphiids. Other somatic features for both females and males are quite ordinary, whereas the genitalia have a peculiar structure. The male palp has a cymbium with a button shaped retromedian process. The embolic division is characterized by a blade shaped radix, a ctenoid tailpiece, and a special L-shaped embolus with flattened tip, connected with the radix via a membrane. The epigynum has a featureless pentagonal dorsal plate. The copulatory and fertilization ducts are very thin and hardly visible against the background of the spermathecae. With this combination of characters, there is no obvious relationship of the new taxon with any of the known genera. In order to justify the erection of the new genus we incorporated the taxon in the most recent detailed phylogenetic analysis of Linyphiidae [1]. The most parsimonious trees suggest that the taxon, which is sister to a large clade of distal erigonines, is highly autapomorphic and deserves its own genus.
[1] Miller J. & G. Hormiga. 2004. Clade stability and the addition of data: A case study from erigonine spiders (Araneae: Linyphiidae, Erigoninae). Cladistics, 20: 385-442.

R.R. Seyfulina, Moscow State University, Russia; Royal Museum for Central Africa, Belgium, rseyfulina@yandex.ru

Symposium 01: Carl Clerck symposium on systematics of spiders Poster

49

Did the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary events cause the extinction of numerous spider (Araneae) families, and gave the start to an "exploding diversification" of advanced spider families in the early Tertiary?
J. Wunderlich (1) The proof of six extinct spider families of the Cretaceous Period argue against the resistence of spiders to Cretaceous-Tertiary extinction events in contrast to families of most insects. (2) Gaps of the more "advanced" spiders (Araneae: Infraorder Araneomorpha) in the Cretaceous faunas indicate a geologically late - post Cretaceous - diversification of the more "advanced" spiders (of most members of the Araneoidea and the RTA-clade); this finding is discussed and compared with the diversification of ants which probably influenced strongly the spiders (co-)evolution. (3) The "advanced" spiders displaced probably most of the more "archaic" Cretaceous spiders during the Early Tertiary (Paleogene), corresponding to the Placentalia which displaced most Marsupialia during this period.

Joerg Wunderlich, Germany, joergwunderlich@t-online.de

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Keynote talk

Kin selection and sexual selection in cooperative spiders


T. Bilde The transition to permanent group living in spiders is associated with the elimination of juvenile and adult dispersal and complete inbreeding among group members. Phylogenetic analyses suggest multiple origins of sociality and that permanent group living evolves in subsocial families that have maternal care and temporary cooperative groups of young. Survival benefits to larger groups may drive this transition, and inclusive benefits are also likely to favour the cooperation and group living. Experimental data showing direct benefits of cooperation among kin in a subsocial spider supports the role of kin selection in the transition to sociality. The transition to an inbreeding mating system represents an evolutionary puzzle, sine continued inbreeding is expected to reduce fitness due to inbreeding depression and ultimately reduce the adaptive potential of populations. In the transitional subsocial species, it has been hypothesized that sexual selection for female choice of unrelated males, or female multiple mating has evolved to increase genetic variation of offspring and offset potential costs of inbreeding. This would create selection for genetically dissimilar groups. The lower relatedness of such groups, however, would reduce kin selected benefits of cooperation. I will discuss the role of these opposing selective forces in the transition to cooperative societies.

T. Bilde, University of Aarhus, Denmark, trine.bilde@biology.au.dk

Symposium 02: Symposium on dispersal of spiders Talk

51

Limited male dispersal in a social spider with extreme inbreeding


Y. Lubin, K. Birkhofer, R. Berger-Tal & T. Bilde Cooperatively breeding animals commonly avoid incestuous mating through pre-mating dispersal. However, a few group living organisms, including the social spiders, have low premating dispersal, intra-colony mating and inbreeding. This results in limited gene flow among colonies and sub-structured populations. The social spiders also exhibit female-biased sex-ratios, as survival benefits to large colonies favor high group productivity, which selects against 1:1 sex-ratios. While propagule dispersal of mated females may occasionally bring about limited gene flow, little is known about the role of male dispersal. We assessed the extent of male movement between colonies in natural populations both experimentally and by studying colony sex-ratios over the mating season. We show that males frequently move to neighboring colonies, whereas only 4% of incipient nests were visited by dispersing males. Neighboring colonies are genetically similar and movement within colony clusters does not contribute to gene flow. Post-mating sex-ratio bias increased with time and with increasing colony size, suggesting that males remain in the colony when mated females have dispersed. Thus male dispersal is unlikely to facilitate gene flow between different matri-lineages. This is consistent with models of non-Fisherian selection for the maintenance of female biased sex-ratios, which predict the elimination of male dispersal.

Y. Lubin, Ben-Gurion University, Israel, lubin@bgu.ac.il

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Symposium 02: Symposium on dispersal of spiders Talk

Distribution and spread of the wasp spider (Argiope bruennichi) in Europe


S. Kumschick, S. Fronzek, M.H. Schmidt & W. Nentwig The wasp spider (Argiope bruennichi) originally comes from the Mediterranean part of Europe and occasionally was found in warmer regions of central Europe. In the second half of the 20th century, the spider started to spread and to expand its range northwards. There are a few studies which describe the spread in several countries, but a continent-wide survey of this spread is lacking. Furthermore, not much has been done to analyse the reason for this spread. We collected data of the distribution of the wasp spider over time for most European countries and correlate this with climate (temperature, precipitation, ) at that time. We will report on how the spread of the wasp spider is correlated with climate and its change. In addition, we analyse the question up to which degree this spread is also triggered by anthropogenic changes of landscape use since A. bruennichi is restricted to some types of habitats and benefits from habitat disturbance.

S. Kumschick, University of Bern, Zoological Institute, Bern, Switzerland, s.kumschick@students.unibe.ch

Symposium 02: Symposium on dispersal of spiders Talk

53

Climate change and the dynamics of ballooning spiders


O.T. Bruggisser, G.Blandenier & L.-F. Bersier Dispersal abilities of plants and animals are essential for the persistence of populations. Especially in agricultural landscapes, where convenient habitats are patchily distributed and disturbance levels high, effective dispersal abilities are essential. Spiders have a highly efficient mode of dispersion, which involves passive aerial movement by ballooning on silk threads. Food limitation and habitat crowding were demonstrated to induce ballooning, but little is known about the decisive stimuli triggering this behaviour. The ballooning propensitiy is definitely dependent on local meteorological conditions. Because of this dependency, the influence of the current climate change on the ballooning behaviour of spiders is of ample interest. We used a unique data set of 11 years to study the evolution of a ballooning spider community and its dependency on meteorological conditions. More than 15000 ballooning spiders were caught in weekly intervals by a 12 m high suction trap between 1994 and 2004 in the agricultural landscape of Changins, Switzerland. Meteorological conditions were measured at the site. While trends in meteorological variables were weak during the study period, their yearly coefficient of variation increased markedly. Over 11 years, most ballooning spider species showed a declining trend in abundances. On a weekly basis, the ballooning community responded to temperature, global radiation and humidity. Moreover, we were able to show that ballooning species occupying different ecological niches differed in their response to meteorological conditions. On a yearly basis, the variability of total spider abundance was closely linked to the variability of temperature. The extreme climatic event of 2003 had a strong impact on ballooning abundances, which appeared to have effects lasting the following year. Because variability of spider abundances correlates with variability of temperature, we expect spider communities to become more vulnerable to extinction as extreme climatic events are predicted to increase.

O.T. Bruggisser, University of Fribourg, Fribourg, Switzerland, odile.bruggisser@unifr.ch

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Symposium 02: Symposium on dispersal of spiders Talk

Do trapped ballooners reflect epigeal spider communities?


G. Blandenier, O. T. Bruggisser, L.-F. Bersier We compare a dataset of 11 years of captures with a 12 m high suction trap in western Switzerland (Changins) with ground-level data in about 30 sites in the immediate surroundings of the trap. First, patterns of ballooning phenology are clearly different according to ecological groups of spiders. Adults of open habitats spiders show more periods of aerial dispersal than those living in trees and bushes. This is a well-adapted strategy to survive in disturbed areas like agricultural land. Second, the majority of spiders showing a decreasing trend in ballooning are common spiders of agricultural landscapes. Some species however increased markedly during the study period, both in the suction and ground-level traps. Their expansion can be followed at the landscape level. Theoretical distances of aerial dispersal are shown by an approach based on the distance of a ballooning spider to its nearest potential or known habitat. We compare the communities of newly created habitats (fallow meadow, hedgerow) with species distribution among spiders ballooning simultaneously. Preliminary results suggest that suction traps could be used as a standard method to monitor trends of spider fauna, which is highly needed in the context of the current biodiversity crisis.

G. Blandenier, Centre Suisse de Cartographie de la Faune, Neuchatel, Switzerland, g.blandenier@bluewin.ch

Symposium 03: Special symposium on scorpions and smaller arachnid orders Talk

55

Liochelid scorpions of the Indo-Pacific: systematics and biogeography


L. Monod & L. Prendini Phylogenetic relationships in the scorpion family Liochelidae Fet & Bechly, 2001 are poorly understood. The taxonomic validity of several currently recognised genera remains uncertain. A phylogenetic analysis of relationships among the Indo-Pacific liochelid genera, based on ca. 3 kb of DNA sequence from four loci in the nuclear (18S rDNA and 28S rDNA) and mitochondrial (12S rDNA and 16S rDNA) genomes, was conducted to test hypotheses concerning factors that may have shaped their current pattern of distribution. Based on the phylogeny and known distributions, the high diversity and endemism of Liochelidae in the Australasian region may be explained by its complex geological history and major climatic changes. The Melanesian liochelids apparently diversified by consecutive speciation and integration events along island arcs that now form part of larger, composite landmasses. In contrast, the diversity of Australian liochelids appears to have resulted (1) from the fragmentation of a once widespread rainforest habitat due to the onset of aridification and decline of rainforests during the Middle Miocene; and (2) from the subsequent, successive expansion and contraction of the remnant forest refugia. Congruence between the phylogeny, the distribution of Liochelidae and the temporal sequence of geotectonic and climatic events in the Indo-Pacific region will be discussed.

Lionel Monod, American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA, lmonod@amnh.org

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Symposium 03: Special symposium on scorpions and smaller arachnid orders Talk

Biogeography of the bark-scorpions, Centruroides Marx 1890


L.A. Esposito & L. Prendini The New World buthid genus Centruroides Marx, 1890, contains many of the world's most dangerously venomous species. Envenomation by these scorpions is a significant cause of morbidity and, in some cases, mortality in Mexico and the southwestern U.S.A., Central America, the Caribbean and northern South America. Despite its medical importance, the taxonomy of the genus is in shambles. Many of the species are poorly defined, and their relationships the subject of much speculation. A molecular data matrix for 48 species and 15 outgroups comprised of DNA sequences from six loci in the nuclear (28S rDNA, 18S rDNA, Histone H3) and mitochondrial genomes (cytochrome oxidase I, 16S rDNA, 12S rDNA) was analyzed phylogenetically. Various biogeographic hypotheses were tested against the resulting phylogeny, with interesting implications.

L.A. Esposito, American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA, esposito@amnh.org

Symposium 03: Special symposium on scorpions and smaller arachnid orders Talk

57

Ecomorphotypes of scorpions of Khoozestan (Southwestern Iran) (Scorpiones: Buthidae, Scorpionidae, Hemiscorpiidae).


Sh.Navidpour, F.Kovak, M. E. Soleglad, V. Fet, B. Masihipour & E. Jahanifard Khoozestan Province (63,236 km2), with its hot and humid climate, is located in the SouthWest of Iran. Scorpions and scorpionism (human envenomation cases) are common in Khoozestan due to its geographical location and climate. In this study, 19 species of scorpions were collected from the different parts of province by UV light at night during two years (see Navidpour et al., 2008). Three general ecomorphotypes of scorpions are recognized for this part of Iran. (1) Psammophilous and semi-psammophilous species such as Apistobuthus susanae, Buthacus macrocentrus, and Vachoniolus iranus Navidpour et al., 2008 (all Buthidae), are found in the desert portion of Khoozestan (e.g. Omidiyeh, Bostan, and Hamidiyeh areas), with sandy and soft substrata. (2) Pelophilous species such as Scorpio maurus townsendi (Scorpionidae) and Odontobuthus bidentathus (Buthidae) live in burrows in clay soils and hard substrata (south, west, north, and central Khoozestan). (3) Lithophilous species such as Hemiscorpius lepturus (Hemiscorpiidae) and Compsobuthus matthiesseni (Buthidae) are adapted to life in narrow cracks and rock crevices in the mountains of Izeh, Masjedsoleyman, and Baghmalek areas (eastern Khoozestan). Adaptive morphology of these three ecomorphotypes is illustrated and discussed.
[1]FARZANPAY, R. 1988. A catalogue of the scorpions occuring in Iran, up to january 1986. Revue Arachnologique, 8(2): 3344. [2]FET, V. & G. LOWE. 2000. Family Buthidae C. L. Koch, 1837. Pp. 54286 in Fet, V., Sissom, W. D., G. Lowe & M. E. Braunwalder. 2000. Catalog of the Scorpions of the World (17581998). The New York Entomological Society, New York, 689 pp. [3]NAVIDPOUR S., F. KOVAK, M. E. SOLEGLAD & V. FET. 2008. Scorpions of Iran (Arachnida, Scorpiones). Part I. Khoozestan Province. Euscorpius, 65: 141.

Sh.Navidpour, Razi Reference Laboratory of Scorpion Studies (RRLS), Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute, Sepah St., Hejrat Sq., Ahvaz, Khoozestan, Iran, , navid1038@hotmail.com

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Symposium 03: Special symposium on scorpions and smaller arachnid orders Talk

Gross morphological investigations of scorpion lungs


C. Kamenz, J.A. Dunlop, G. Scholtz, A. Staude & J. Goebbels Comparative morphological studies on scorpion book lungs intend to figure out the morphospace of variation, with particular reference to the spacial orientation of their lamellae. This is needed due to conflicting accounts of scorpion lamellar position in the literature, whereby description of the lung anatomy was generally rather vague. Our investigations with histological methods and micro-tomographical techniques reveal the most precise 3dimensional reconstruction of these organs to date. We studied 10 species thus far and present here the first results, which show tendencies of the evolution of scorpion book lungs.

C. Kamenz, Comparative Zoology, Humboldt-University, Berlin, Germany, CarstenKamenz@gmx.de

Symposium 03: Special symposium on scorpions and smaller arachnid orders Talk

59

Fundamental trends in the karyotype evolution of Pedipalpi: comparison with spiders, solifuges, and palpigrades
J. Krl, F. hlavsk, J. Musilov, A. Sember, L. Dulkov, S. Pekr, P. Weygoldt, J. Haupt, A. Gromov, S. Huber & L. Prendini Fundamental trends in the karyotype evolution of Pedipalpi are assessed by comparison with the karyotypes of spiders, solifuges, and palpigrades [1]. Karyotypes of amblypygids, schizomids, and solifuges were previously unknown. Male chromosome numbers were as follows: Amblypygi: Charinus neocaledonicus 74, Charon grayi 70, Phrynus sp. 64, Damon medius 66, Phrynichus deflersi arabicus 30; Thelyphonida: Labochirus proboscideus 78, Hypoctonus siamensis 54, Typopeltis tarnanii 52, Typopeltis sp. 44; Schizomida: Agastoschizomus lucifer 22, Orientzomus sp. 16; Solifugae: Solpuga zuluana 22, Paragaleodes heliophilus 12, Rhagodes sp. 18, Biton planirostris 22, Gluvia dorsalis 10. A high chromosome number is hypothesized to be synapomorphic for basal clades of amblypygids, thelyphonids, and spiders. Karyotype evolution of amblypygids and thelyphonids is characterized by reduction in the chromosome number, accompanied by increased numbers of biarmed chromosomes, caused by pericentric inversions and centric fusions. Low chromosome numbers of schizomids may reflect derived position of this group within Uropygi (Thelyphonida + Schizomida). Alternatively, a low chromosome number may be synplesiomorphic for Schizomida, Palpigradi, and Solifugae which would bring schizomids into base of Tetrapulmonata. The absence of differentiated sex chromosomes in solifuges, palpigrades, and many pedipalpi, as well as acariform mites, suggests a late differentiation of sex chromosomes during evolution of Arachnida.
[1]This research was funded by the Grant Agency of the Czech Republic (No. 206/08/0813) and the Grant Agency of the Charles University in Prague (No.186/2006/B-BIO/PRF)

J. Krl, Charles University in Prague, Prague, Czech Republic, tegenaria@seznam.cz

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Symposium 03: Special symposium on scorpions and smaller arachnid orders Talk

Systematic of the Opiliones family Trogulidae


A. L. Schoenhofer & J. Martens Among European Opiliones the family Trogulidae is one of the exceedingly difficult to deal with in respect to systematics, taxonomy and evolutionary biology. External morphology is extraordinarily homogeneous. Clear-cut characters to delimit species remained difficult to establish as it was likewise for the limit of intraspecific variation. Most species described during the last three decades did not shed new light on the situation because previously described similar species were not re-characterized carefully enough. Considering the high degree of morphological homogeneity cryptic species had to be expected. A consequent revision of Trogulidae was therefore demanded by many scientists. Within this approach on systematics and taxonomy we established a molecular phylogeny (28S, cytochrome b gene) and combined phylogenetic informations with geographic, morphologic and morphometric data. This allowed us to re-evaluate species limits and characters for determination. It became clear, that genital morphology is important for the recognition of genera and species groups but not sufficient for the determination of species. We found the number of cryptic species highly underestimated. Furthermore the genus Dicranolasma is recovered and the generic structure of the family Trogulidae is revised. This work was supported by Feldbausch Foundation and Wagner Foundation at the Fachbereich Biologie of Mainz University.

A. L. Schoenhofer, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitt, Mainz, Germany, schoenho@students.uni-mainz.de

Symposium 03: Special symposium on scorpions and smaller arachnid orders Talk

61

A new opilioacarid mite in amber, with comments on the fossil record and affinities of mites
J.A. Dunlop, C. Sempf & J. Wunderlich The second fossil opilioacariform mite (Acari: Anactinotrichida: Opilioacarida) is described as a new species of ?Opilioacarus recovered from Baltic amber (Palaeogene: Eocene). Compared to the previously described amber opilioacarid, the new fossil reveals more of the genital region, as well as an unusual pattern of long setae towards the distal end of the first leg. Unlike the previous species, the new fossil bears only two pairs of eyes and the fourth pair of legs are shorter in relation to the body, which clearly indicate a new fossil taxon. Recent work on the phylogenetic position of the mites and their constituent subgroups is briefly reviewed, together with a summary of the fossil record of mites in general.

Ventral view of the new amber opilioacarid

Dorsal view of the new amber opilioacarid

J.A. Dunlop, Museum fr Naturkunde Berlin, Berlin, Germany, jason.dunlop@museum.hu-berlin.de

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Symposium 03: Special symposium on scorpions and smaller arachnid orders Talk

Luring behaviour as a complementary strategy to forced copulation in Galeodes caspius subfuscus (Solifugae: Galeodidae)
M. Hrukov-Martiov & S. Pekr There are two opposing male strategies how to overcome female's resistance to mating: luring behaviour (courtship) and coercive behaviour (forced copulation). Majority of males do not perform luring if they force females to mate. We studied the mating in camel-spider Galeodes caspius subfuscus in order to find traits of the luring and/or coercive behaviour. This also included morphological description of the intersexual differences in the body parts used during the mating. We observed that males used superior speed to grip the female, restrained her by locking her extremities and paralyzed her by biting. In all cases post-mating cuticular damages were found on the female's body. All these characteristics indicate the presence of forced copulation. In spite of clearly coersive character of the copulation two forms of luring behaviour were observed as well: courtship prior the copulation (stroking and tapping with pedipalps) and during the copulation (copulatory courtship). Occurrence of pre-copulatory courtship in forcibly copulating males has not been reported before. While pre-copulatory courtship facilitates males being accepted as mates, copulatory courtship appears to influence cryptic female choice. We suggest that in G. caspius subfuscus both forms of luring behaviour have evolved as complementary strategies to forced copulation in order to increase the paternity success.

M.Hrukov-Martiov, Institute of Botany and Zoology, Faculty of Sciences, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic, hruskova.m@tiscali.cz

Symposium 03: Special symposium on scorpions and smaller arachnid orders Talk

63

Scorpions in the art


R. Stockmann The representations of scorpions concern not only works of art such drawings, paintings,sculptures,curios, but also usual things. The more ancient art object is made of flint. Ancient egyptian and babylonian arts are rich in representations. Astrology, as well as christian, jewisch or islamic art play a great part in figurations of all ages. Databases on the Internet of the different museums in the world and consultation of very various Web sites , as well as the search of objects in different countries allow a wide view of scorpions in art. Figurations often include obvious mistakes of zoological morphology, which we give a list.

R.Stockmann, 34 Av.Cousin de Mricourt 94230 Cachan France, roland.stockmann@wanadoo.fr

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Symposium 03: Special symposium on scorpions and smaller arachnid orders Poster

The double function of sperm in scorpions: The mating plug of Euscorpius italicus (Euscorpiidae) is formed by sperm
S. Althaus, A. Jacob, W. Graber, D. Hofer, W. Nentwig & Ch. Kropf The mating plug of Euscorpius italicus is investigated with respect to its fine structure and changes over time. The mating plug fills the females gonopore after one mating only. Sperm forms the major component of the mating plug, a phenomenon previously unknown in arachnids. Three parts of the mating plug can be distinguished. The part facing the outside of the female (outer part) contains sperm packages comprising roughly 500-900 inactive spermatozoa. In this state sperm is transferred. In the median part the sperm packages get uncoiled to single spermatozoa. In the inner part, free sperm is embedded in a large amount of secretions of different densities. Fresh mating plugs are in a soft-gelatinous state, later they start to harden from outside towards inside. This process is completed after 3-5 days, possibly under female participation. Sperm from artificially triggered spermatophores could be activated by immersion in Insect Ringers solution indicating that the fluid condition in the female genital tract causes sperm activation..

F. hlavsk, Department of Zoology, Faculty of Sciences, Charles University, Vinin 7, CZ-128 44 Prague, S. Althaus, Natural History Museum Bern and University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland, sarah.althaus@students.unibe.ch Czech Republic, stahlf@natur.cuni.cz

Symposium 03: Special symposium on scorpions and smaller arachnid orders Poster

65

Pseudoscorpions of the genera Neobisium and Roncus from Carpathians prospects of karyotype and molecular studies.
F. hlavsk, T. Vail & J. Christophoryov During the last ten years the cytogenetic studies provided better identification of similar species within pseudoscorpions. This arachnid order is characteristic by very similar external morphology in many taxons but simultaneously exhibits high variability in karyotypes. It is typical especially for the genera Neobisium and Roncus (both from the family Neobisiidae). Despite of the fact that the number of the karyotyped species enable as think about the trends of the karyotype evolution in these groups, hypothesis about the karyotype evolution were not compared with the morphological or molecular phylogeny so far. That is why we start more detailed analysis of these two genera from Carpathians. This 1500 km long mountain range enables to study the differentiation and prospective speciation very well. During the first stage of our study we try to summarize knowledge about the distribution of Neobisium and Roncus species from the studied area. Our first results of cytogenetic and molecular analyses indicate that many cryptic species can be distributed in this area, especially within the genus Neobisium. That is why the number of the endemic pseudoscorpions species probably will be higher in Carpatians. Our research is funded by four projects: GAUK B/BIO/197/2006, GAR 206/07/P161, MSM 0021620828 and VEGA 1/3266/06.

F. hlavsk, Department of Zoology, Faculty of Sciences, Charles University, Vinin 7, CZ-128 44 Prague, Czech Republic, stahlf@natur.cuni.cz

66

Symposium 03: Special symposium on scorpions and smaller arachnid orders Poster

An unidentified harvestman Leiobunum sp. alarmingly invading Europe (Arachnida: Opiliones)


H. Wijnhoven, A. L. Schoenhofer & J. Martens Since about the year 2000 a hitherto unidentified species of the genus Leiobunum C. L. Koch, 1839, has rapidly invaded central and western Europe. Records are known from The Netherlands (probably the country of first occurrence in Europe), Germany, Austria and Switzerland. This introduced species, until now, mainly inhabits walls of buildings and rocky environments. Adults characteristically aggregate during daytime into groups of up to 1,000 individuals. Undoubtedly this introduced species has the ability to become a threat to our indigenous opilionid fauna. This work was supported by Feldbausch Foundation and Wagner Foundation at the Fachbereich Biologie of Mainz University.
1. Wijnhoven, H., Schnhofer, A., L., Martens, J. (2007): An unidentified harvestman Leiobunum sp. alarmingly invading Europe (Arachnida: Opiliones). Arachnologische Mitteilungen, 34: 27-38.

A. L. Schoenhofer, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitt Mainz, Germany, Axel.Schoenhofer@uni-mainz.de

Symposium 03: Special symposium on scorpions and smaller arachnid orders Poster

67

Effect of the antibacterial peptide parabutoporin on neutrophil granulocytes


J.Willems & Q.Remijsen Parabutoporin (PP) is one of the many bioactive peptides found in scorpion venom of the Parabuthus genus. In our research group it was initially characterized as a strong antimicrobial peptide which at micromolar concentrations- is mainly active against Gramnegative bacteria. At much lower concentrations however PP also affects activities and viability of neutrophils: it strongly inhibits the production of reactive oxygen intermediates via the NADPH oxidase system and it has a striking anti-apoptotic effect on the same cells. The molecular mechanisms responsible for these actions were recently clarified. As to the inhibition of superoxide production we could show that PP, which is cationic and contains serine residues, is a very potent competitive inhibitor for the phosphorylation by PKC of p47phox, one of the components of the active NADPH oxidase complex (1). As to the pathway by which PP can induce the delay of spontaneous apoptosis of neutrophils, we could show that the inhibition of NADPH oxidase is not responsible for this effect but it is caused by the activation of PI3K and Akt. (1) Remijsen Q.F.M. et al Febs Letters 2006, 580, 6202-6210

J.Willems, I.R.C. K.U.Leuven campus Kortrijk, Belgium, jean.willems@kulak.ac.be

68

Symposium 04: Ecology and evolution Talk

Evolutionary patterns of web investment in orb-weaving spiders


T.A. Blackledge, N. Scharff & I. Agnarsson Orb-weaving spiders are classic models for foraging theory due in part to the ease of describing the shapes of their webs. While orb web architecture does provide information about spiders investment in foraging, it only part of the story. Energetic investment is better measured by the total amount of silk spun in a web and spiders can potentially produce larger looking webs with less silk in them by modulating the diameters of silk threads. Moreover, the function of orb webs in prey captured is determined as much by the biomechanics of silk threads as by the overall shapes of webs. Here, we provide a preliminary investigation of patterns of intra-and inter-specific variation in silk investment and biomechanical performance of threads by several taxa of orb-weaving spiders including araneid, nephilids, tetragnathids and uloborids.

T.A. Blackledge, University of Akron, USA, blackledge@uakron.edu

Symposium 04: Ecology and evolution Talk

69

Spider abundance and phenology as influenced by climate and climate change


J.-P. Maelfait, E. Karacoc, L. Baert & F. Hendrickx From 1990 onwards till present spiders and carabid beetles of a dune and saltmarsh nature reserve along the Belgian coast were continuously sampled by means of pitfall traps emptied at fortnightly intervals. For the most abundantly retrieved species the captures were summed per yearly cohort. Year to year variation appears to be predominantly influenced by winter temperature conditions. A trend towards an earlier reproductive activity can be seen in spring breeding species.

J.-P. Maelfait, Institute for Nature and Forest Research (INBO), Belgium, jean-pierre.maelfait@inbo.be

70

Symposium 04: Ecology and evolution Talk

Study on the divergence patterns in an adaptively radiated wolfspider genus on the Galapagos
C. De Busschere, F. Hendrickx, L. Baert & J. Maelfait Adaptive radiation is the process in which an ancestral species induces a range of species adapted to different niches and characterized by unique features to explore these niches1. Although this is a well studied topic, there is still a lot of uncertainty about the underlying processes creating this divergence. Whether divergence in ecological traits is merely influenced by ecological processes (ecological opportunity)1 or rather by the potential of species to produce alternative phenotypes2,3 is crucial for understanding the mechanisms of speciation. This research is focused on different populations of the genus Hogna occurring on the Galapagos. These populations are difficult to distinguish morphologically and constitute several species, until now 3 species are described H. albemarlensis, H. galapagoensis and H. snodgrassi. Preliminary analyzes of the cytochrome oxidase subunit I reveals that these populations are primarily diverged in function of the geographical position of the islands and secondly in function of the habitat. These populations are recently diverged and give the potential to get insight in the first steps of speciation. Furthermore a biometric study revealed morphological differences between H. albemarlensis and H. galapagoensis occurring on Santa Cruz due to the different vegetation4. The main goal for further research is to contrast the degree of divergence in both ecological and molecular traits in order to explain the observed patterns of this differentiation. Furthermore we would like to know to what extent this divergence in traits can lead to reproductive isolation. Practically, this research involves morphometric methods, biometric measurements and genetic analyzes.

H. galapagoensis occurring in the pampa zone on Isla Santa Cruz [1] Schluter, Dolph. The Ecology of Adaptive Radiation. 2000.288. [2] West-Eberhard, Mary Jane. Developmental plasticity and the origin of species differences. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.2005;6543-6549. [3] Shapiro, Michael D. et al. Genetic and developmental basis of evolutionary pelvic reduction in three spine sticklebacks. Nature. 428(6984)717-723. [4] Loosveldt K. (2004). Biometrische en populatiegenetische studie van het genus Hogna (Araneae, Lycosidae) op Isla Santa Cruz (Galapagos, Ecuador).

C. De Busschere, Ghent University, Belgium, Charlotte.debusschere@ugent.be

Symposium 04: Ecology and evolution Talk

71

Unraveling the patterns of genetic and morphological variation in the Canarian endemic spider Dysdera verneaui
N. Macas-Hernndez, P. Orom & M. Arnedo Studies at the species/population interface provide key insights into the causes of speciation. The Canarian species of the genus Dysdera are one of the most remarkable examples of evolutionary radiation among spiders. Tenerife is the largest island and harbours the richest Dysdera fauna in the archipelago. Among Tenerife endemics, Dysdera verneaui shows the widest distribution and broadest ecological tolerance, providing an excellent model to investigate the geographic patterns of genetic and morphological variation and their association to environmental and historical factors. Phylogenetic and population analyses of multi-gene sequence data from 80 individuals sampled throughout the island, indicate high to moderate levels of gene flow among neighbouring populations from different habitats, but also unravel the existence of isolated populations corresponding to ancient protoislands. On the other hand, morphological analyses of these individuals hint at the environmental involvement in the generation of phenotypic diversity. Overall, this study shed light on some of the factors that have prompt diversification in the woodlouse hunter spiders of the Canary Islands.

Nuria Macas-Hernndez, Universidad de La Laguna, Spain, nemacias@ull.es

72

Symposium 04: Ecology and evolution Talk

Scale-dependence of diet composition in spiders: effects of hunting strategy, habitat and global distribution
K. Birkhofer & V. Wolters Analysing effects of spatial scale on food-web properties is experimentally challenging and field studies are rare [1]. Apart from the total extent of a study area, the grain or individual sample area size may determine proportions of different resources in a consumers diet [2]. In this review of 178 published records of species-specific diets we analysed the impact of hunting strategy (small grain size), habitat type (medium) and geographic distribution (large) on diet composition and food-web properties in spiders. Diet composition differed between levels of all three factors with 5-6 prey orders significantly contributing to the observed patterns. The proportion of Diptera prey contributed most to differences between spiders with different hunting strategy, habitat or worldwide distribution. At the habitat level, Hemiptera prey contributed to a similar extent, distinguishing the proportional prey composition of spiders in agroecosystems from species in other habitats. Predation rates on other spiders only differed between hunting strategies, with cursorial spiders showing the highest proportion of intraguild prey independent of habitat or distribution. This review indicates the importance of scale for diet composition and suggests strong effects of different sample area sizes on food-web properties.
[1] Brose, U., M. Pavao-Zuckerman, A. Eklof, J. Bengtsson, M. Berg, S.H. Cousins, C. Mulder, H.A. Verhoef, and V. Wolters. 2005 Spatial aspects of food webs. Pages 463-469 in Dynamic Food Webs: Multispecies Assemblages, Ecosystem Development and Environmental Change. P.C. de Ruiter, V. Wolters, and J.C. Moore (eds). Academic Press. [2] Wiens, J., A. 1989 Spatial Scaling in Ecology. Functional Ecology 3, 385-397.

K. Birkhofer, Justus-Liebig-University Giessen, Germany, Birkhofer@bio.uni-giessen.de

Symposium 04: Ecology and evolution Talk

73

Is sex-ratio distortion a strategy resulting in stable male coexistence in the dwarf spider Oedothorax gibbosus?
F. Hendrickx, B. Vanthournout, V. Mazalov, D. Vanacker & J.-P. Maelfait The dwarf spider Oedothorax gibbosus is characterized by a male dimorphism in which the cephalothorax of the gibbosus morph possesses a grooved hunch while tuberosus lacks these features. Previous results, obtained by Vanacker et al. 2004, demonstrated that both morphs have different mating strategies. Non-virgin females prefer the gibbosus morph as mate, while the tuberosus morph has a longer adult lifespan. As eggs are primarily inseminated by sperm of the last mated male prior to cocoon production, the mating strategy of gibbosus can have a strong fitness advantage if females are inseminated by multiple males. Breeding results moreover suggest that females mated with the tuberosus morph produce a female biased sex-ratio, which is expected to lower the fitness of this morph according to Fishers theory of sex-ratio selection. We present a game theoretical model that serves as a possible hypothesis explaining how sex-ratio distortion of the tuberosus morph serves as strategy to increase its fitness relative to gibbosus, which might ultimately lead to the stable coexistence of both morphs.

Frederik Hendrickx, Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences, Belgium, frederik.hendrickx@ugent.be

74

Keynote talk

Spider venoms: from deadly cocktails to drug lead libraries


P. Escoubas Spider venoms contain a dazzling array of peptide toxins and represent an enormous resource for the discovery of novel molecular probes and drugs. Venom analysis by mass spectrometry has shown the presence of up to 1000 peptides. Various structural families and multiple isoforms form combinatorial libraries of bioactive peptides. To explore this diversity, we have developed a new methodology based on LC-MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Mining of venom peptidomes can single structurally and pharmacologically related toxins. De novo peptide sequencing via tandem mass spectrometry is used in combination with cDNA libraries to generate full peptide sequences, as illustrated for Australian funnel-web spiders. Spider venom exploration is applied to the search for novel toxins to be be evaluated in drug discovery programs. Current interest in toxins modulating ion channels involved in nociception, is linked to the need to discover novel routes of analgesia. Spider toxins selective for ASIC (Acid-sensing Ion Channels) and Nav (voltage-dependent sodium) ion channels were shown to possess analgesic properties in animal models and are promising leads for the development of novel drugs. The combined use of cutting-edge proteomics and genomics technologies allows for the exploration of the vast potential of spider venoms.

P. Escoubas, Institut de Pharmacologie Molculaire et Cellulaire (IPMC) - CNRS, France, escoubas@ipmc.cnrs.fr

Symposium 04: Ecology and evolution Talk

75

When mate search is costly, but males are polygamous: an ecological perspective on a desert spider
R. Berger-Tal & Y. Lubin Theory predicts that males who provide little or no parental investment should strive to increase their reproductive success by reaching as many females as possible. This view is challenged, however, by the occurrence of species with high costs of mate search, in which the males encounter only few females. Male monogamy is often related to species with high investment in a single mating. In some mating systems, however, high search costs are associated with low male investment in a single mating; these have been mostly overlooked in the literature. I followed marked males in a natural population of the spider Stegodyphus lineatus. The males encountered up to five females. Yet, there was a large cost when searching for females, as only 50% reached a single female's nest. During most of the mating season there was a highly female biased operational sex-ratio and females mated on average with a single male in their lifetime. We suggest that high cost of search can reduce intrasexual selection and the chance of finding additional mates. Thus, if the benefits of paternity protection are lacking, the need to invest in a single mating is reduced. We predict that the density of available females will influence the stability of this mating system.

R. Berger-Tal, Blaustein Institute for Desert Research, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Israel, tre@bgu.ac.il

76

Symposium 04: Ecology and evolution Talk

Spiders - linking land and sea


K. Mellbrand, P. Lavry, G. Hyndes & P. Hambck Flows of nutrients and energy across ecosystem boundaries, subsidies, may have profound consequences for food web structure and function in receptor ecosystems. We have used stable isotope analysis and two-source mixing models to analyze the marine contribution to terrestrial arthropod predator diets and construct a bottom-up food web for Baltic Sea shore ecosystems, where marine inflows mainly consists of wrack and emerging insects with aquatic larval stages. We have also used stable isotope analysis to track the inland reach of marine subsidies to examine the roles of arthropods in the inland transport of marine subsidies. Our results show that spiders are the predators mainly utilizing marine material on Baltic Sea shores, and that spiders and dipterans together function as important vectors for the inland transport of marine nutrients and energy. In both Baltic Sea shore meadows and Australian sandy beaches, marine nutrients and energy reach further inland than the actual inflow of matter (wrack) or animals (emerging insects) by entering the terrestrial food chain. This indicates that highly mobile arthropod vectors can substantially increase the reach of marine subsidies, causing them to affect not only beaches but inland ecosystems as well.

Suggested coastal food web of Baltic Sea shores.

Kajsa Mellbrand, Stockholm University, Sweden, kajsa.mellbrand@botan.su.se

Symposium 04: Ecology and evolution Talk

77

Influence of habitat structure on flood avoidance behaviour and flood resistance in salt-marsh lycosids
J. Ptillon, K. Lambeets, W. Montaigne & J.-P. Maelfait Vegetation and underground structures are known to influence flood avoidance (e.g. Cooke, 1962; Adis, 1997) and flood resistance (e.g. Foster & Treherne, 1976; Kneib, 1984) in invertebrates. In monthly-flooded European salt marshes, recent invasions by the nitrophilous grass Elymus athericus strongly modified natural habitat structure, notably by the presence of a deep litter. We therefore investigated the effects of such a habitat change on flood avoidance and resistance in a major terrestrial component of salt-marsh fauna, spiders. We hypothesize that invaded habitats may change the ability to resist flooding for ground-living invertebrates by the presence of new refuges during tides. Two dominant cursorial species in salt-marshes were studied, both belonging to the family of Lycosidae, Arctosa fulvolineata and Pardosa purbeckensis. These species first differ by their rarity within their habitat which may be explained by their dispersal abilities, high for P. purbeckensis. Their aut-ecology is also different, A. fulvolineata being much more abundant in invaded habitats than in natural ones. We thus hypothesised differences in tidal effects depending on habitat structure, in the sense of a better flood withstanding for A. fulvolineata in habitat with litter. This hypothesis has been tested using both experimental and field designs.

Julien Ptillon, University of Rennes I, France, julien.petillon@univ-rennes1.fr

78

Symposium 04: Ecology and evolution Poster

Body size determines the outcome of competition for webs among exotic and native sheetweb spiders (Araneae: Linyphiidae)
B. Eichenberger, E. Siegenthaler & M.H. Schmidt The exotic sheetweb spider Mermessus trilobatus (Araneae: Linyphiidae) has become abundant in large parts of Central Europe within the last three decades. We conducted laboratory experiments to test if its invasion might negatively influence native spiders. The exotic Memessus. trilobatus and five native sheetweb spiders (Erigone dentipalpis, Erigone atra, Gnathonarium dentatum, Dicymbium nigrum and Micrargus herbigradus) were compared with respect to their success to take over webs of E. dentipalpis. The rate of web takeover or defence was determined by body size, whereby individuals with a wider thorax invaded webs more successfully. After taking body size into account, the frequency of defence or web takeover did not differ between species. Our results do not indicate that the invasion of Mermessus trilobatus is facilitaed by strong competitiveness. However, immature or smaller sized native species may be at risk. Apparently, introductions of large-bodied spiders pose the greatest threat to native spider communities.

B. Eichenberger, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland, beata.e@students.unibe.ch

Symposium 04: Ecology and evolution Poster

79

Arboreal spider community: a preliminary study of abundance and diversity of spiders on the European beech
S.Y. Hsieh & K.E. Linsenmair Spiders were sampled by insecticide knockdown fogging from the canopies of the European beeches (Fagus sylvatica) in the Wuerzburg University Forest, Germany. Totally 24.216 specimens from 324 beeches arranged into three different growth stages (A: over 140 years, B: 50 60 years and C: 20 25 years) were collected between June 2005 and October 2007 on a monthly basis. Beating trays and pitfall traps were also used in order to complete the data of the whole community structure. There are three main seasonal patterns with the highest abundance in August and least in February. The amounts of spider and insects sampled with beating trays are strongly positive correlated in winter. The results contribute to our understanding of how important forests of different age classes are and which age classes conserve a maximum of diversity of the tree crown spider fauna for sustainable forestry.

S.Y. Hsieh, University of Wuerzburg, Germany, hsieh@biozentrum.uni-wuerzburg.de

80

Symposium 04: Ecology and evolution Poster

Conservation of spiders in pitfall traps


P. Jud & M.H. Schmidt Pitfall trapping is a common method for catching surface active arthropods such as spiders (Araneae). Usually, a fluid is employed to increase trapping efficiency and to preserve the catch. Possible differences between widely used trap fluids are sparely documented. Here, we compared ethylene glycol, propylene glycol and formalin with respect to capture efficiency and preservation of the spider catch. The two glycols were employed at two different concentrations. The resulting five types of fluid were prepared with and without quinine sulphate. Each of these ten combinations was employed in six pitfall traps in a fallow. Capture efficiency was similar across all combinations of fluid and bitter agent. In contrast, preservation differed between the treatments. Undiluted glycols showed higher percentage of expanded pedipalps, coated epigynes and damaged abdomens. Quinine sulphate improved conservation in glycols, but impaired conservation of abdomens in formalin. Ethylene glycol caught more slugs than formalin traps. Overall, we recommend dilution of both ethylene and propylene glycols with water in order to facilitate spider determination. Undiluted glycols should only be used when the risk of traps drying out is high. Formalin can be preferred over ethylene glycol when it is likely that slugs would otherwise spoil the catch.

P.Jud, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland, priskajud@students.unibe.ch

Symposium 04: Ecology and evolution Poster

81

Intraguild predation of Anyphaena accentuata and Philodromus spp. during overwintering


S. Korenko & S. Pekr We surveyed overwintering spider populations on the bark of a commercial apple tree orchard. We found 35 spider species overwintering on the apple tree bark, with dominant three species: Anyphaena accentuata, Theridion spp. and Philodromus spp. There was a negative correlation between abundance of A. accentuata and Philodormus spp. (r = -0.37, Pearson product moment). This could either result from interspecific competition or intraguild predation. Individuals of A. accentuata mostly overwintered as subadults, whereas Philodromus spp. overwintered as juveniles. Thus, overwintering individuals of A. accentuata were on average larger and had a potential to predate on smaller Philodromus spp. However, the intraguild predation depended on the relative ratio between the two spider species. Smaller species had higher chance to find a shelter and thus escape predation. In laboratory conditions we investigated predatory activity of the two spider species at low temperatures. Spiders were kept at -4, -2, 0, 1, 2, 5 and 7 C and fed with Theridion spp. A. accentuata was able to catch and consume prey at -2 C and higher temperatures, whereas the lowest temperature threshold of prey capture for Philodromus spp. was 0 C. Due to predatory activity at low temperatures, A. accentuata has high potential in the control of orchard pests overwintering on bark during winter and early spring, when other predators are inactive.

S. Korenko, Department of Botany and Zoology, Masaryk University, Czech Republic, korenko.stanislav@yahoo.com

82

Symposium 04: Ecology and evolution Poster

Life-history of a parthenogenetic oonopid spider, Triaeris stenaspis Simon 1891 (Araneae, Oonopidae)
S. Korenko & S. Pekr Life-history of oonopid spiders was unknown. We present analysis of the life-history of Triaeris stenaspis that has been introduced into greenhouses over Europe. Spiders were reared under laboratory conditions, under constant physical and diet conditions, and followed from hatching to their end of life. We found that the spiders pass through 3 juvenile instars, with each instar lasting approximately a month. The longevity was on average about 6 months. The mortality was higher for eggs, and rather constant for all juvenile instars. Five morphological characters (length of prosoma, width of anterior eye region, length of tibia, number of ventral spines on patella and tibia) were recorded for each instar providing basis for a reliable identification of developmental stages. All reared spiders developed were only to females. Although kept isolated they laid fertile eggs, providing sound evidence for parthenogenesis. Eggs were always enclosed in disc-shaped egg sacs, each containing 2 eggs. The total fecundity was on average 27 eggs, decreasing with age. Fertility was rather low (56 %). Beside egg sacs, females regularly produced empty sacs with an increasing frequency toward their end of life. Explanation of this is not clear.

S. Korenko, Department of Botany and Zoology, Faculty of Sciences, Masaryk University, Czech Republic, korenko.stanislav@yahoo.com

Symposium 04: Ecology and evolution Poster

83

Value of the aphid Hyalopterus pruni as food for the spider Clubiona phragmitis
B. Larsen & S. Toft It has been suggested that the aphid Hyalopterus pruni from Phragmites plants might be an important prey for the sac spider Clubiona phragmitis during summer and early autum. However, studies on other aphids and spiders have all indicated a low quality of aphids as spider food. We tested the food value of the aphid against hatchlings of C. phragmitis using the collembola Sinella curviseta as a high-quality comparison prey. Both growth and development were very low in spiders fed aphids compared with spiders fed the collembola. However, a mixed diet of aphids and collembola led to a higher growth rate than a pure collembola diet. These results show that the aphid in itself is a low-quality prey but it may contribute some nutrients that are in short supply in other prey. H. pruni is probably not a staple prey of C. phagmitis but it may be a valuable supplement.

Soeren Toft, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Aarhus, Denmark, soeren.toft@biology.au.dk

84

Symposium 04: Ecology and evolution Poster

Similar ecological mechanisms in plants and spiders? Strong between-group correlation in community diversity and specialisation
I. Le viol, C. Kerbiriou, J.C. Abadie, N. Machon, E. Porcher, W. Entling, W. Nentwig & R. Julliard A well known phenomenon in community ecology is the amazing variation of niche width across species: some occur in many habitats (generalists), others in few (specialists). Within a given habitat, a gradient of community specialisation may be observed, with communities supporting more or less specialist/generalist species. However, it remains generally unknown which mechanisms are responsible for this variation in community specialisation, and whether the same mechanisms influence different taxonomic groups. To address this, we examined whether community characteristics (species diversity and mean community specialisation) were correlated between plant and spider communities. We investigated these relationships at different spatial scales, using presence/absence and abundance data, in 24 sites of highway verges located in an agricultural landscape. Significant correlations were found for richness, diversity and community specialisation indices between taxa. In particular, sites with more specialised plant communities also sheltered more specialised spider communities. These strong correlations suggest that plant and spider communities are driven, at least in part, by similar mechanisms. Consequently, our results have implications for our understanding of community-level processes. Moreover, as specialist species decline in the context of global changes and their conservation is now of great concern, our results also have implications for species conservation.

I. Le viol, Conservation des Espces, Restauration et Suivi des Populations, UMR 5173 - MNHN-UPMCCNRS, Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, ileviol@mnhn.fr

Symposium 04: Ecology and evolution Poster

85

Sex ratio distortion in the male dimorphic dwarf spider Oedothorax gibbosus
D. Vanacker, F. Hendrickx, J.-P. Maelfait & B. Vanthournout According to the sex-allocation theory of Fisher, a 50:50 sex ratio is considered to be an evolutionary stable strategy. In a population with uneven numbers of males and females, the underrepresented sex will have a fitness advantage at the time of mating, hence increasing in the population which ultimately leads to the evolution of a stable 50:50 sex ratio. Despite this theory, many examples of distorted sex ratios can be found in nature. This is also the case in the dwarf spider Oedothorax gibbosus where it is observed that some females produce more females than males in each clutch causing a female biased population sex ratio. Moreover, this species is characterized by the presence of a male dimorphism. Specific breeding designs were performed to understand the underlying mechanism of this sex ratio distortion. These data suggest that both parents control the offspring sex ratio. At present, additional methods such as sperm flow cytometry and chromosomal analyses are used to further clarify this mechanism. These data will be used to examine the possible interaction between the male dimorphism and the sex ratio distortion, which might result in the evolutionary stable occurrence of both the distortion and the dimorphism in the population.

B.Vanthournout, University of Ghent, Belgium, Bram.vanthournout@ugent.be

86

Symposium 05: Behaviour Talk

Out of the frying pan and into the fire? Not really!
S. Pekar & M. Jarab A novel adaptive trade-off for Batesian mimics was recently discovered for ant-mimicking salticid spiders of the genus Myrmarachne. By mimicking ants, Myrmarachne achieves protection from ant-avoiding predators but falls prey to myrmecophagous predators. We investigated the existence of this trade-off in European ant-mimicking gnaphosid and corinnid spiders. Namely, Micaria sociabilis (Gnaphosidae) that imitates Liometopum microcephalum, Phrurolithus festivus (Corinnidae) that imitates Lasius niger and Liophrurillus flavitarsis (Corinnidae) a mimic of Aphaenogaster senilis. Myrmecophagous Zodarion spiders were tested with all three ant-mimics and their models. Zodarion captured all ant individuals of all three species but only 45 % of M. sociabilis, 10 % of L. flavitarsis and none P. festivus. The ant-mimics were captured 3-times later than their ant models suggesting that they imitate ants closely but not perfectly. Ant-mimics avoided capture by sudden fast running after Zodarion approached. Obtained results show that ant-mimics possess adaptations that protect them also from falling prey to myrmecophages. Besides fast running, all ant-mimics are clearly diurnal while myrmecophagous Zodarion is nocturnal. This limits their mutual encounter rate at places of syntopical occurrence.

S. Pekar, Department of Botany and Zoology, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic, pekar@sci.muni.cz

Symposium 05: Behaviour Talk

87

Colour matching is not equivalent to crypsis in crab spiders


R. Brechbhl, J. Casas & S. Bacher The ambush predator Misumena vatia varies its body colour between white and bright yellow thereby matching the colour of the flower it sits upon. This phenomenon is thought to avoid their detection by potential prey (pollinators), a phenomenon called crypsis. Such cryptic spiders are thus expected to have more encounters with pollinators resulting in a higher foraging success. We tested if the visitation frequency of pollinators to flowers harbouring a crab spider is higher when colours of spider and flower match. Yellow or white spiders were placed on yellow, white and violet flowers in a complete factorial design, resulting in six different colour combinations of crab spiders and flowers differing in their degree of colour matching. In contrast to our expectations, we found that pollinators generally avoided flowers harbouring spiders, independent of the degree of colour matching. Thus, crypsis cannot explain the observed colour matching behaviour of crab spiders.

R. Brechbhl, University of Fribourg, Switzerland, rolf.brechbuehl@unifr.ch

88

Symposium 05: Behaviour Talk

The long and short of it: properties of highly elongated orb-webs of Australian ladder-web spiders
A.M.T. Harmer & M.E. Herberstein Australian ladder-web spiders (Araneidae: Telaprocera maudae) build highly elongated orbwebs that in natural conditions may be up to seven times taller than wide. In a typical circular orb-web, the radial threads tend to be of approximately the same length. However, in a ladder-web, the radials are of varying lengths, with threads in the vertical ladder sections of the web being drastically longer than horizontal threads. All radial threads within a web need to serve the same basic functions, that is, they must support the capture spiral and assist in absorbing prey impacts, and they must be able to accurately convey information produced by struggling prey to the spider at the hub. Due to the radical variation in radial length present in ladder-webs, these functions must be performed over greatly different relative distances. Using an Instron 5542 universal material testing machine with a 0.5N load cell, we tested the material properties (tensile stress, Youngs modulus) of ladder-web radial silk, both at breaking point, and under fixed deflection in intact webs. In addition to this we also tested the effect of elongated radials on the propagation of vibrations through ladder-webs. Early evidence suggests a relationship between material properties of radial silk and web elongation, with radials in more elongated ladder-webs being stronger and stiffer than those in ladder-webs which more closely resemble a typical circular orb. Discussed are the potential costs and benefits for ladder-web spiders of variation in radial silk properties.

Web of Australian ladder-web spider.

A.M.T. Harmer, Macquarie University, Australia, aharmer@gmail.com

Symposium 05: Behaviour Talk

89

New findings on the courtship behaviour of Pardosa wagleri and P. saturatior (Araneae: Lycosidae), a pair of sibling species.
A. Chiarle, M. Isaia & S. Castellano Pardosa wagleri and P. saturatior are twin species previously studied by Tongiorgi [1], who established the validity of the two species on the basis of differences in ecology, phenology, color and size, and by Barthel & von Helversen [2] who provided preliminary evidence for their separation by reproductive isolation mechanism and morphometric parameters. In this paper the courtship displays of the two species is described for the first time and compared by the examination of the sequence successions and optical flow, both based on video analysis. Intra-individual, intra- and inter-specific differences were tested with classical statistical analysis, including Anova, Nested-Anova and Paired t-test. The two displays are characterized by two phases, the first (A) involving several parts of the spider body and the second (B) the males palps only. Main differences between P. wagleri and P. saturatior displays are found in phase A, which is characterized by two sub-phases (A1 and A2) involving synchronic movements of palps, legs and abdomen. According to Nested Anova, Phase B resulted identical for the two species. In conclusion our study deepens the work of Tongiorgi [1] and Barthel & von Helversen [2], providing new insight on the biology of the two species.
[1] Barthel, J & von Helversen, O. (1990). Pardosa wagleri (Hahn, 1822) and Pardosa saturation Simon, 1937, a pair of sibling species ()Araneae, Lycosidae). Bull. Soc. Eur. Arachnol. 1: 17-23. [2] Tongiorgi, P. (1966). Italian wolf spider of genus Pardosa (Araneae: Lycosidae). Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harv., 134: 275-334

Alberto Chiarle, Dipartimento di Biologia Animale, Universit di Torino, Italy, a_chiarle@tiscali.it

90

Symposium 05: Behaviour Talk

Argiope bruennichi shows a drinking-like behaviour in web hub decorations (Araneae: Araneidae)
A. Walter, P. Bliss, M.A. Elgar & R.F.A. Moritz As stationary predators, araneid spiders that lack protective retreats are especially vulnerable to abiotic influences. Species of the genus Argiope are hub-dwelling and are therefore especially exposed to desiccating circumstances. Like other land arthropods, these spiders must balance their hygric status. Apart from desiccation avoidance behaviours, they can manage this balance by water gain through either liquefied prey items or direct ingestions of free water. However, drinking-like behaviours are sparely documented for Araneids so far. We observed Argiope bruennichi ingesting accumulated water droplets from the silkoverstitched web hub, a part of the web decoration. We tested whether this behaviour is a regular feature of this species. We show that A. bruennichi females that have been sprayed with water actively and exclusively search the hub decoration for water droplets and ingest them. All elements of this drinking-like behaviour are very stereotype among the individuals. These data suggest that hub decorations of A. bruennichi might have an adaptive significance by helping to balance the water metabolism, adding yet another element to the spirited debate about the functional significance of web decorations.

A. Walter, Martin-Luther-Universitt Halle-Wittenberg,Germany, andre.walter@zoologie.uni-halle.de

Keynote talk

91

The role of nutrition in spider physiology, behaviour and ecology


S. Toft Nutrition penetrates many aspects of animal and human biology. In spite of this, entomologists until recently believed that nutrition was an irrelevant concern with respect to predatory animals. The argument was that the food of carnivores was likely to be of the same nutritional value whether one prey species or the other was eaten. This premise has turned out to be wrong. Spider prey differ in quality due to differences in content of defensive chemicals and the ratio of macronutrients (especially protein and lipids) differ vastly between species and between individuals of the same species. The predators themselves may vary in nutrient composition even within an individual along the phases of the life cycle, thus their demands for nutrients may change with the life cycle. The talk will summarise studies indicating the role of nutrients for spiders and other arthropod predators at physiological, behavioural and ecological levels: food utilisation, feeding behaviour and web building strategies, individual growth and development, courtship behaviour and sexual selection. The potential role of nutrient enrichment for the dynamics of food webs will be discussed based on results from the lab and the field.

S. Toft, Aarhus University, Denmark, soeren.toft@biology.au.dk

92

Symposium 05: Behaviour Poster

To feed or to wrap: males of the trechaleid spider Paratrechalea ornata eat preys or build nuptial gifts according to the occurrence of female silk cues
M.J. Albo, L.E. Costa-Schmidt & F.G. Costa By wrapping a prey and offering it as a nuptial gift, males can obtain mating or parental benefits despite some costs. Males of the Neotropical spider Paratrechalea ornata (Trechaleidae) offer to females a nuptial gift consisting in a prey wrapped with silk. What stimulus inhibits male feed and also elicits prey wrapping? We hypothesized that female silk threads could determine male decision and designed three experimental groups using males carrying a captured prey. In the treatment S, males were exposed to an arena with female silk; in SF, males were exposed to both silk and a female confined in a cell; in the control group, males were exposed to a clean arena. Gift construction was observed only in S and SF groups, with similar occurrence rate. After touching females (SF group), males did not change their pattern of gift construction. Gift construction occurrence increased with male age, while old females seemed to elicit more gifts than young ones. Being ready to mate, males diminish risks of predation, female desertion, or male-male competition. Results indicate that some cues associated with the female silk of P. ornata elicit searching behaviour and gift construction, allowing males to decide between eating or wrapping preys, according to the immediate possibilities of sexual encounter. Old males would be more able to constructed gift because they are physiologically matured, acquired experience and/or had a better body condition to assume costs of prey wrapping than young males.

M.J. Albo, Clemente Estable Biological Research Institute, Uruguay, mjalbo@iibce.edu.uy

Symposium 05: Behaviour Poster

93

Is orb-web asymmetry an adaptation to prey capture or to web building?


M. Coslovsky & S. Zschokke Orb-web spiders build vertically asymmetric webs, in which the lower part is larger than the upper part. One hypothesis explaining this asymmetry suggests that the spiders weight imposes higher building costs in the upper part of the web, causing the spider to reduce this part of the web. We tested this hypothesis by assessing building costs of different parts of the web. We found that the specific time-cost of building (i.e. the time required to build a certain length of silk) differed between the two parts of the web and that the difference in time-costs influenced web asymmetry. Contrary to predictions, however, building costs were larger in the lower part of the web, suggesting that additional factors affect the spiders decisions while building the web, which are likely to be prey-capture considerations.

S. Zschokke, University of Basel, Switzerland, samuel.zschokke@unibas.ch

94

Symposium 05: Behaviour Poster

Natural history of an ant-mimicking spider, Liophrurillus flavitarsus (Corinnidae), from Portugal


M. Jarab & S. Pekr We studied natural history, i.e. phenology, circadian activity, mimicry, reproduction and prey preference, of a corinnid species, Liophrurillus flavitarsus. This species imitates Aphaenogaster senilis ants in shape, colour and behaviour. The imitation is not as precise as in Myrmarachne spp., for example. L. flavitarsus was active during the whole year with maximum seasonal activity in the autumn and spring. The reproductive period was in March and April. This species was active during a day, mainly between 12:00 and 15:00 hour. The circadian activity thus correlated with that of Aphaenogaster ants. The copulation of L. flavitarsus lasted on average 84 min. Within two weeks after mating females produced one to two successive egg sacs, each containing on average 5 eggs. Spiderlings hatched about 25 days after laying eggs. As concerns the prey, the spider species captured only tiny invertebrates (smaller than its body), such as fruit flies, springtails, dipluras, and spiders. The highest capture success was recorded for springtails. The attack consisted of a rapid grasp of the prey, followed by bite into preys frontal part. After the attack, the spider held its prey in fangs, pedipals and the first pair of legs. They refused beetles, mites, ants, and millipedes.

M.Jarab, Department of Botany and Zoology, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic, jarab@centrum.sk

Symposium 05: Behaviour Poster

95

Preliminary study on the predatory behaviour and diet of Zodarion cyprium Kulczynski 1908 and Zodarion morosum Denis 1935
C. Uruci, C. Gherzan & I. Duma Zodarion cyprium Kulczynski 1908 and Zodarion morosum Denis 1935 are myrmecophile spiders. Our study presents their predatory behaviour. In the diet of these two species of Zodarion the main prey items were Tetramorium sp., Messor sp., Cataglyphis sp., Lasius sp.. We have observed different tactics of predation depending on the size of the ants. Smaller ants were bitten on the abdomen and medium size ants were bitten on one of the forelegs. We have observed feeding on dead ants, too. These two species of Zodarion present a specialized predatory behaviour, depending on the ant species.
[1] Brohmer P., Ehrmann P., Ulmer G., Die Tierwelt Mitteleuropas, Insekten 2.Teil, Hymenoptera, Verlag von Quelle & Meyer in Leipzig [2] Cushing P. E., Santangelo R. G., (2002) Notes on the natural history and hunting behavior of an ant eating zodariid spider (Arachnida, Araneae) in Colorado, The Journal of Arachnology, 30: 618-621 [3] Duma I. (2007) On the Ant Eating Spiders (Araneae: Zodariidae) of Romania: New Faunistical Data, Studia Universitatis Babe-Bolyai Biologia LII: 11-18 [4] Jackson R. R., Li D., Barrion A. T., Edwards G. B., (1998) Prey-capture techniques and prey preferences of nine species of ant-eating jumping spiders (Araneae: Salticidae) from the Philippines, New Zealand Journal of Zoology, 25: 249-272 [5] Nelson X. J., Jackson R. R., Edwards G. B., Barrion A. T., (2005) Living with the enemy: jumping spiders that mimic weaver ants, The Journal of Arachnology, 33: 813-819 [6] Pekr S. (2004) Predatory behavior of two European ant-eating spiders (Araneae, Zodariidae), The Journal of Arachnology, 32: 31-41 [7] Pekr S., Hrukov M., Lubin Y. (2005) Can solitary spiders (Araneae) cooperate in prey capture?, Journal of Animal Ecology, 74, 63-70 [8] Pekr S., Toft S., Hrukov M., Mayntz D. (2008) Dietary and prey-capture adaptations by which Zodarion germanicum, an ant-eating spider (Araneae: Zodariidae), specializes on the Formicinae, Naturwissenschaften, 95: 233-239 [9] Platnick I. N., (2008) The world spider catalog, version 8.5. American Museum of Natural History, online at: http://research.amnh.org/entomology/spiders/catalog/index.html accessed on 15 May 2008

C. Uruci, West University of Timisoara, Romania, calin_1vet@yahoo.com

96

Symposium 06: Toxicology and physiology Talk

Antimicrobially acting compounds produced in the hemocytes of Cupiennius salei


T. Baumann, L. Kuhn-Nentwig, S. Schrch, C. Largiader, J. Schaller & W. Nentwig Since invertebrates are constantly exposed to microbial infections, they had to develop immune defense mechanisms to defend themselves. These defense mechanisms, which are similar to vertebrate innate immunity, involve cellular as well as humoral responses. One of the possible humoral responses is the secretion of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and other antimicrobially acting factors by hemocytes. These factors can either be produced constitutively and stored in hemocytes granules, or their production can be induced upon infection. The aim of our studies is to identify and characterize AMPs and other antimicrobially acting compounds in the hemocytes and the hemolymph of the neotropical wandering spider Cupiennius salei (Ctenidae). This is done on one hand on protein level by reversed phase HPLC (RP-HPLC), liquid growth inhibition assays and sequencing of peptides by Edman-degradation. On the other hand, our investigations also take place on RNA level by transcribing mRNA to cDNA and using different PCR techniques and sequencing to identify the DNA sequences of the AMPs. So far, we were able to identify one antimicrobially acting acylpolyamine which seems to be common to spiders, and several peptides, whose purification and characterization is still in progress.

T. Baumann, University of Berne, Switzerland, tommy.baumann@zos.unibe.ch

Symposium 06: Toxicology and physiology Talk

97

How spiders use their venom


W. Nentwig & L. Kuhn-Nentwig The venom of the ctenid spider Cupiennius salei consists of neurotoxins, antimicrobial peptides, enzymes, and low molecular substances. Nearly 100 substances could be identified so far. One important reason to understand this extreme number of substances is the synergistic mode of action between them which helps the spider to economize the use of its venom. Depending on kind and size of the prey, C. salei needs 0.01 to 10 l venom to kill a prey item. Since its venom glands contain only 10 l and regeneration requires 8 to 16 days C. salei should use its venom very economically. To do so, C. salei needs two informations: How much venom is available in the venom glands? and how much venom does a given prey item need? By a monoclonal antibody essay, we know the amounts of venom injected by a spider into different prey types. Insects without special defence mechanism receive only the minimum amount of venom which is in the range of the LD50. Items difficult to overwhelm or dangerous prey receive considerably more venom than the LD50 suggests because they may endanger the spider. Thus C. salei is very selective with respect to the venom injected into a prey item and obviously knows how much venom it has to inject. In a series of additional experiments with different cockroach species we showed that C. salei knows the venom content of its venom glands. It also knows the venom demand of a given prey item. We identified olfactory input from the prey as critical information which enables the spider to do its decision. Thus, the support by chemosensitive hairs C. salei is able to inject very precisely the minimum amount of venom. This is the central aspect of our venom optimisation hypothesis which supposes that spiders use their venom as economically as possible.

W. Nentwig, University of Bern, Switzerland, wolfgang.nentwig@zos.unibe.ch

98

Symposium 06: Toxicology and physiology Talk

A case of traditional use of a tarantula (Araneae: Theraphosidae) as medicine in Mexico


R. Rojo, Y. Henut & S. Machkour MRabet We present an indigenous use of the tarantula Brachypelma vagans, performed by some medicine men in six Chol communities. The Chol is an indigenous ancient group that inhabits the southeastern of Mexico. From November, 2003 until February, 2007, we made surveys to the local shamans and some of the villagers in Tila, Tumbal, lvaro Obregn, el Limar and Frontera Corozal in Chiapas State and Once de Mayo in Campeche State to learn about this phenomenon. We found that some people may occasionally present an illness that they call aire de tarntula (tarantula air) with symptoms similar to those of asthma. When that happens, they come up with the hierbatero who makes a beverage using tarantula and other substances. The shaman then, performs a ceremony with chants and incense, in which he prepares the beverage and makes his healing labor. In all but in on one (El Limar) the process and the materials were constant with just slight differences between them. The specimen is always killed, mixed with the preparation and is given by different means to the patient. In their traditions, the shaman gets paid with substance, either animals like hens or food.

R. Rojo, El Colegio de la Forntera Sur, Mexico, chibebo@yahoo.com

Symposium 06: Toxicology and physiology Talk

99

Spider silk as a novel humidity-driven biomimetic muscle


I. Agnarsson, A. Dhinojwala, V. Sahni, & T.A. Blackledge The abrupt halt of a bumble bee's flight when it impacts the almost invisible threads of an orb web provides an elegant example of spider silk's amazing strength and toughness. Spiders depend upon these properties for survival, yet silk's impressive performance isn't limited solely to tensile mechanics. For instance, spider dragline silk 'supercontracts' in high humidity. During supercontraction, unrestrained dragline silk contracts up to 50% of its original length while restrained fibers generate substantial stress. Here we discuss novel findings which demonstrate that dragline silk exhibits two qualitatively different responses to humidity. We show that supercontraction is a permanent, rate dependent, tensioning of restrained silk in response to high humidity, and that post-supercontracted silk differs in some mechnical properties from virgin silk. However, silk also undergoes a previously unknown cyclic relaxation-contraction response to wetting and drying, which involves cyclic intake and loss of water. These powerful cyclic contractions give silk the potential to act as a high performance, water-controlled, mimic of biological muscles, repeatedly generating work 50x greater than that of human muscle. Silk may emerge as a new and powerful model for biomimetic muscle with possibilities in designing light weight and compact actuators for various applications.

I. Agnarsson, University of Akron, USA; iagnarsson@gmail.com

100

Symposium 06: Toxicology and physiology Talk

High incidence of maternally inherited bacteria in spiders


O. Duron, G.D.D. Hurst, E.A. Hornett, J.A. Josling & J. Engelstdter Inherited bacteria are now recognised as important players in arthropod evolution and ecology. Here we test spiders for the presence of several bacterial endosymbionts, including Wolbachia pipientis, Cardinium hertigii, Rickettsia sp., Arsenophonus nasoniae, Flavobacterium sp., Spiroplasma ixodetes and S. poulsonii. All of these bacteria are known to act as reproductive parasites in other arthropods. We estimated incidence, prevalence, sex bias in infection, and infection diversity, for a panel of field collected specimens. In line with previous studies, we demonstrate a high incidence of Wolbachia in spiders (33% of species). Cardinium and S. ixodetes were also common (incidence of 23% and 19%, respectively), whilst the other bacteria were rare or absent. In two cases, Wolbachia was found significantly more commonly in females than males, indicating it may act as a sex ratio distorter in some species. For the other bacteria, there was no evidence for sex ratio distortion. Breeding work confirmed that Wolbachia and Cardinium were transmitted maternally in two cases, which represents the first proof of inheritance of these symbionts in spiders. Overall, this study demonstrates the majority of spider species are infected with inherited bacteria, and their role in host biology clearly requires determination.

J.Engelstdter, ETH Zurich, Switzerland, jan.engelstaedter@env.ethz.ch

Symposium 06: Toxicology and physiology Poster

101

Karyotype study on four European wolf spiders (Araneae: Lycosidae)


P. Dolej, V. Opatov, J. Musilov, J. Krl, L. Kubcov & J. Buchar Presented study is part of a project concentrated on natural history and cytogenetics of four European wolf spiders, Tricca lutetiana (SIMON, 1876), Arctosa alpigena lamperti DAHL, 1908, Xerolycosa miniata (C. L. KOCH, 1834) and X. nemoralis (WESTRING, 1861), and taxonomy of the problematic genus Tricca SIMON, 1888. Karyotypes of studied species consist of acrocentric chromosomes including X1X20 sex chromosome system. Male complement of T. lutetiana and A. a. lamperti contains 28 chromosomes whereas male karyotype of Xerolycosa species possesses 22 chromosomes only. In contrast to the remaining species, sex chromosomes of T. lutetiana show unusual behaviour during diplotene being despiralised. All species display terminal, pericentromeric blocks of constitutive heterochromatin (CH). Remarkably, T. lutetiana and Xerolycosa species have only negligible amount of CH in comparison with A. a. lamperti and other wolf spiders studied so far [1, 2, 3, 4]. Interestingly, diploid chromosome number of A. a. lamperti is different from that reported in A. a. alpigena (DOLESCHALL, 1852) [5]. Similarly, various 2n are reported for both Xerolycosa species [5, 6]. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate karyotypes of other species of the studied genera as well as to confirm 2n of A. a. alpigena. This research was fully funded by the Grant Agency of the Charles University (GAUK 208/2005B-BIO/PrF and GAUK 140907).
[1] Brum-Zorrilla, N. & Cazenave, A.M. (1974): Heterochromatin location in the chromosomes of Lycosa malitiosa (Arachnida). Experienta, 30: 9495. [2] Yang, Z., Wang, X., Wang, Y., Cui, S. & Hu, H. (1996): On karyotype analysis of the Pardosa astrigera (Araneida: Lycosidae). Acta Arachnologica Sinica, 5(2): 145148. [3] Gorlova, O.Y., Gorlov, I.P., Nevo, E. & Logunov, D.V. (1997): Cytogenetic studies on seventeen spider species from Israel. Bulletin of the British Arachnological Society, 18: 249252. [4] Yang, Z., Wang, X., Wang, Y. & Cui, S. (1997): On the karyotype of Pirata piratoides (Araneae: Lycosidae). Acta Arachnologica Sinica, 6(1): 2325. [5] Hackman, W. (1948): Chromosomenstudien an Araneen mit besonderer Bercksichtung der Geschlechtschromosomen. Acta Zoologica Fennica, 54: 1101. [6] Gorlov, I.P., Gorlova, O.Y. & Logunov, D.V. (1995): Cytogenetic studies on Siberian spiders. Hereditas, 122: 211220.

P. Dolej, Charles University in Prague, Czech Republic, dolejs@natur.cuni.cz

102

Symposium 06: Toxicology and physiology Poster

Hemocyte classification of the spider Geolycosa vultuosa (Araneae, Lycosidae), by Giemsa, Pappenheim and acridine orange staining
S.Kemfelja, D.iki & O. Springer Hemocytes of the spider Geolycosa vultuosa (Koch, 1838) using Giemsa, Pappenheim and acridine orange staining and their total and differential counts were studied. In all specimentes studied prohemocytes, plasmatocytes, granulocytes, oenocytoides and one type of unidentified cell were observed. Granulocytes and plasmatocytes are the most numerous cells in the hemolymph of Geolycosa vultuosa. Difference in total hemocyte count in studied spiders was observed.

C. Puzin, URU 420, University of Rennes 1, France, charlene.350@hotmail.fr

Symposium 06: Toxicology and physiology Poster

103

Niche breath as a function of physiological components: salinity tolerance in some stenotopic lycosid species
C. Puzin, D. Renault & J. Ptillon Physiological abilities partly determine the distribution of species, as for instance microhabitat partitioning [1] or differences in geographical range sizes [2]. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the range of salinity conditions spiders can tolerate is an important parameter in their repartition between habitats. We compared survival abilities and haemolymph osmoregulation in three stenotopic lycosids: two salt-marsh species, Arctosa fulvolineata and Pardosa purbeckensis, and a forest species, P. lugubris. After acclimation in three salinity conditions (0, 35 and 70), measurements were done on body water mass, concentrations of mineral elements (ICP-MS) and free amino acids (UPLC). When salinity increases body water mass decreases and total amino acid concentration (dominated by asparagine, glutamine, alanine and proline) increases for the three species. Sodium concentration seems to be higher when salinity is equivalent to that of seawater. However, no general trend was found to differentiate the physiological components of the three species. Survival of the two halophilic species (actually superiors to that of P. lugubris in salt conditions), especially for A. fulvolineata, confirms the existence of other factors explaining their restricted ecological niche.
[1]: De Vito et al. 2004. Canadian Journal of Zoology. [2]: Spicer & Gaston 1999. Blackwell Science.

C. Puzin, URU 420, University of Rennes 1, France, charlene.350@hotmail.fr

104

Symposium 07: Agroecology Talk

Do natural grasslands enhance arable spider populations? First results of a planned landscape experiment.
F. Samu, . Szita, K. Fetyk, E. Botos, A. Veres, B. Bernth & A. Horvth We carried out a landscape experiment in eight 5 x 5 km quadrates in the Mezfld region of Hungary. We studied (i) how the proximity of grassland habitat patches at the local scale, and (ii) the amount of grassland and other non-crop habitats at the true landscape scale affect natural enemy - in this case spider - populations of arable fields. Results from the first two years of this three years long experiement showed a strong effect of proximity: cereal fields had nearly twice the abundance and species number of spiders if they had a neighbouring grassland habitat patch, as opposed to remote fields in pure agricultural settings. On the other hand, when we compared remote fields across landscape quadrates, we could not show any significant correlation between the ratio of various non-crop habitats in the quadrates and spider community parameters. The study proves the usefulness of the inclusion of natural habitat patches in a landscape, and underlines the importance that they should be interspersed with fields.

F. Samu, Plant Protection Institute, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Hungary, samu@julia-nki.hu

Symposium 07: Agroecology Talk

105

Do agricultural crops change the composition of spiders in nearby desert habitats?


I. Opatovsky, T. Pluess, M.H. Schmidt, E. Gavish & Y. Lubin The agro-ecosystem combines agricultural and natural habitats and is characterized by spatial and temporal heterogeneity. In desert agro-ecosystems, unlike those in temperate regions, there are extreme differences in biotic and abiotic conditions between natural habitats and cultivated fields. These differences result in sharp boundaries between the habitats that affect the organism movement between them (edge effect). This edge effect and the different characteristics of spiders influence spider habitat preference and result in distinct spider assemblages in the two habitat types. Landscape composition can influence the diversity of arthropods, including the spider community, in the desert agro-ecosystem. In this research we tested the effects of landscape composition (percentage of natural habitat in 1 km radius) and of biotic and abiotic factors on spider assemblages in the natural desert habitat of a wheat agro-ecosystem in the Negev desert. We attempt to determine the factors that affect the habitat preference of common species. We predicted that larger areas of crops would change the composition of spider assemblages in nearby natural desert habitats. We found that the spider assemblage was not affected by the percent of crop habitat but there was a dominant effect of geographic location and rainfall on the assemblage of the different spider species in the desert habitat. Planted tree habitat had a positive effect on the abundance of some common spider species.

I. Opatosky, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Sede-Boqer Campus, Israel, itaiopa@bgu.ac.il

106

Symposium 07: Agroecology Talk

Habitat loss vs. isolation: effects on spider communities in apple orchards


J.D. Herrmann, P. Eberhardt, F. Herzog, D. Bailey & M.H. Schmidt European landscapes are dominated by agriculture, and traditional forms of land-use are increasingly replaced by intensive arable crops. This leads to the loss and isolation of seminatural habitats, which is a major threat to biodiversity. As habitat loss and isolation usually occur together, most existing studies have examined only their combined effect. To investigate the independent effects of habitat loss and isolation, we have chosen 30 apple orchards within north-east Switzerland. The study orchards were selected to vary in two respects: (i) in the amount of woody habitats in the surrounding landscape within a 500 m radius, and (ii) in isolation from other woody habitats, which were directly adjoining in half of the study sites and at least 75 m apart in the other half. We studied spiders, because they are dominant, species-rich terrestrial predators. In addition, spiders have variable dispersal power by either walking and/or ballooning. We expect a positive influence of increasing amounts of woody habitat in the surrounding landscape on density and diversity of woodrelated spiders. Furthermore, the influence of isolation was expected to reduce density and diversity of cursorial spiders more strongly than spiders with aerial dispersal.

J.D. Herrmann, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland, john-herrmann@gmx.de

Symposium 07: Agroecology Talk

107

Diversity of epigeic spiders in grass-clover leys and under sown cereals


R. Pommeresche, A.K.Bakken & A.Korsth This study compares diversity an abundance of spiders in barley with different sub crops and in young ley. Spiders were sampled from 14 cereal and 4 grass-clover fields distributed within three different sites in eastern and central Norway. Two sites are long term experimental field trials and one is an organically managed farm. Pitfall traps were used to sample spiders from May to Sept 2004. In total 4130 spiders were found. The density and number of species varied between fields. More individuals of both Linyphiidae and Lycosidae were trapped in fields with leys compared to fields with cereals (fig 1). There was no clear difference in total density of spiders according to type of sub-crop, but more Lycosidae were found in cereal fields undersown with ley than in fields under sown with ryegrass. A higher density of Linyphiidae was found in the cereal fields at the farm (site C) than at the two experimental sites, whereas the frequency of Lycosidae was about the same at the three sites. Only minor differences in number of species were found, but an ordination technique, based on both species and number of individuals, reveals differences in the spider community structures (fig 2).

Density of spiders in different fields in 2004, at three sites (A,B,C) in Norway. Fields in systems marked with and aster are managed conventionally, the rest organically.

Ordination of the different fields based on species composition and density of spiders in each field. Rare species are down weighted. Black dots are leys, the rest cereal fields, and the fields at site B and C are defined by lines.

H.M Tahir, University of Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan, tahirvector@hotmail.com

108

Symposium 07: Agroecology Talk

Predatory efficacy of three hunting spiders of rice ecosystems of Pakistan


H. M Tahir & A. Butt The diets of three hunting spiders of rice ecosystem (i.e., Lycosa terrestris, Pardosa birmanica and Oxyopes javanus) were elucidated in laboratory and by direct observations in paddies from August to November 2006. In laboratory each of the three hunting spiders readily consumed larvae and nymphs of major rice pests. Generally female spiders consumed more pests compared to males. Results of direct observations showed that in August, dipterous insects were the most numerous rice pests consumed by Lycosa terrestris, Pardosa birmanica and Oxyopes javanus, comprising over 56.3%, 38% and over 48% of their respective diets. In contrast, in September, the proportion of dipterous insects decreased dramatically and hoppers become the most numerous pests, comprising over 50%, 51% and over 41% of all pests and spiders consumed by Lycosa terrestris, Pardosa birmanica and Oxyopes javanus respectively. In October, predators such as wolf spiders and aquatic Heteroptera were frequently observed in their diets. Predatory potential of these hunting spiders did not differed statistically in the laboratory. Prey preferences of hunting spiders were also investigated and compared in laboratory.

H.M Tahir, University of Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan, tahirvector@hotmail.com

Symposium 07: Agroecology Talk

109

Comparative toxicity of botanical and chemical insecticides on spiders in the rice ecosystem of central Kerala, India
J. Joseph, M.J. Mathew, P.A. Sebastian & S. Murugesan Sensitivity of spiders to widely used insecticides in the rice fields of central Kerala in India was evaluated in the laboratory in comparison with neem. The spiders selected for the study were Pardosa sumatrana (Thorell 1890) and Tetragnatha mandibulata Walckenaer, 1842. The insecticides tested were Ekalux EC 25 (Quinalphos 25% EC), Hilcron 36 SL (Monocrotophos 36 SL) and Metacid (Methayl parathion 50% EC). All these three insecticides are commonly used in the study area for the control of rice bug, brown plant hopper, green leaf hopper and other insect pests of rice. The commercial neem product used was Nimbecidine 0.03% EC. The insecticides were diluted to four different concentrations (0.02%, 0.04%, 0.06% and 0.08%). Nimbecidine was diluted to 0.2%, 0.5%, 0.75% and 10%. Spider susceptibility to insecticides and the neem products was evaluated in the laboratory by two methods viz., dipping method and topical application. The observed mortality was corrected using Abbots equation and the LC50 (median lethal concentration) and LC90 values were calculated by probit analysis. Toxicological studies indicated that contact insecticides were more toxic to spiders. Dipping method was found to be more fatal compared to topical application. Methyl parathion, a contact insecticide, recorded the lowest lethal concentration values indicating its comparatively higher toxicity to P. sumatrana in the dipping method and topical application. The commercial neem product, Nimbecidine was safer to the spiders with very high LC50 and LC90 values and with very low mortality responses. Methyl parathion recorded the lowest LC50 and LC90 values revealing its high toxicity to T. mandibulata. Monocrotophos recorded the highest median lethal concentration values among the chemical pesticides tested indicating its comparatively low toxicity. Nimbecidine was again safer to T. mandibulata with very high LC50 and LC90 values and low mortality responses. In summary, the commercial neem product was apparently harmless to both P. sumatrana and T. mandibulata. Results of the present investigation indicate that the botanical insecticide neem can be used an as an important component of integrated pest management in rice.

John Joseph, Sacred Heart College, Kochi, India, johnjosephku@rediffmail.com

110

Symposium 07: Agroecology Poster

Spiders as biological controller in apple orchards infested by Cydia spp.


M. Isaia, S. Beikes, M. Paschetta, S. Suriyanarayanan & G. Badino Spiders have been considered commonly as polyphagous predators. For this reason, it has been argued that spiders may not be efficient in controlling pests. However, in recent years it has been demonstrated that they are able to significantly decrease the damage caused by insects to harvest. In this paper we present the results of a field experiment that has taken place in 2007 in a biological apple orchard at Caraglio (CN, North- Western Italy). The aim of the experiment was to reduce the damage caused mainly by Cydia spp. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) to apples by increasing the population of spiders living on trees through the provision of artificial refuges (polyethylene bark-traps). Compared to control, the total number of spiders found on trees, increased significantly in all trees provided with artificial refuges. The spider community was found to be strongly dominated by Anyphaena accentuata (42%), followed by Dictyina arundinacea (16%) and Philodromus spp. (6%). The effectiveness of spiders against pests has resulted in a significant reduction of damages, ranging from 13 to 52%. The results are proved by considering the reduced number of damaged apples (easily distinguishable by the presence of circular holes caused by Cydia spp. on apple peels).

M. Paschetta, Dipartimento di Biologia Animale e dell'Uomo, Universit di Torino, Italy, falcogiocoliere@yahoo.it

Symposium 07: Agroecology Poster

111

Aerial dispersal of spiders in middle-east Germany modelling of meteoro-logical and seasonal parameters
M. Rensch, C. Volkmar & J. Spilke Since spiders play a more and more pronounced role in integrated pest management and organic farming but little is known how weather parameters influence the composition and number of aerial dispersal spiders in middle-east Germany. During the years 2000, 2002, 2003 airborne spiders were collected with a Rothamsted insect survey trap in Aschersleben (Saxonia-Anhalt) in a height of 12,2 meters from April to October. Simultaneously meteorological conditions were continuously measured at the bottom of the trap. First analysis shows that Linyphiidae (42%, 2003), Theridiidae (35%, 2003), Tetragnathidae (9%, 2003) and Araneidae (8%, 2003) dominate the composition of the aeronautic spiders with a sexual ratio of 77,4% juvenile, 9,2% male and 13,4% female. Among the adults, species of the Linyphiidae did reach a dominant position (e.g. Erigone atra). With a generalized linear mixed model in SAS we try to calculate which meteorological aspects are significant for long distance flights by spiders dependent on family, sex, species, and seasonal changes. This model will be used to further elucidate the possibility of using airborne spiders as biomarkers for integrated crop management and organic farming to reduce insecticide expenditure. In addition, prediction of recolonisation rates and migration tendencies will be possible.

C. Volkmar, University of Halle, Germany, christa.volkmar@landw.uni-halle.de

112

Symposium 07: Agroecology Poster

Diversity and ecology of spiders in vegetable ecosystems of central Kerala, India


P.A. Sebastian, M.J. Mathew, S. Murugesan & J. Joseph Being highly diverse and abundant predators, spiders are important regulators of terrestrial arthropod populations. Consequently, there have been a growing number of investigations in which spiders in agroecosystems are used as tools to gain insight into the role of generalist predators in community and ecosystem function. Study of spider community and species diversity is a prerequisite for any kind of attempt for studies of spiders and their role as biological control agents in any agroecosystem. Studies on the spider fauna of vegetable crops in India have not been undertaken so far. In view of this, a pioneering study was conducted to document the diversity and ecological dynamics of spiders in selected vegetable crops in four central districts viz., Idukki, Ernakulam, Trichur and Palghat of Kerala state in India. The vegetable crops selected were bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.), snake gourd (Trichosanthes cucumerina L.), ivy gourd (Coccinia grandis (L.) Voigt, cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) and cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata). The study was conducted for a period of 3 years from June 2002 to June 2005. Fortnightly sampling was carried out in three cropping seasons (one crop per year). In bitter gourd, a total of 3504 individuals belonging to 66 species, 41 genera and 14 families were sampled. In snake gourd, surveys yielded 1276 individuals belonging to 41 species, 29 genera and 11 families. In ivy gourd, 472 individuals belonging to 33 species, 23 genera and 10 families were sampled. In cowpea, sampling yielded a total of 862 individuals belonging to 33 species, 23 genera and 8 families. In cabbage, a total of 266 individuals belonging to 21 species, 15 genera and 6 families were sampled. In all the crops studied, Araneidae and Lycosidae constituted the taxonomically and numerically dominant families, respectively. At the species level, Pardosa sumatrana (Thorell 1890) turned out to be the numerically dominant species in bitter gourd, snake gourd and cabbage while P. pseudoannulata (Bsenberg & Strand, 1906) was the dominant species in ivy gourd and cowpea. Guild structure analysis revealed that ground runners were the abundant spider guild in all the crops surveyed. Observations on the seasonality of spiders revealed a general trend of a steady increase in population growth as the crop advanced and reaching the peak at early flowering and early fruiting seasons, followed by a decline towards the end of the vegetative growth of the crop. The results substantiate the fact that population densities and species abundance of spider communities in agricultural fields can be as high as in natural ecosystems. However, further investigations are warranted to study their interaction with the environment, breeding behaviour, prey preference, predatory potential and sensitivities to chemical and botanical pesticides in order to fully utilize them as successful biological control agents in these ecosystems.

P.A. Sebastian, Sacred Heart College, Cochin, India, drpothalil@rediffmail.com

Symposium 08: Biogeography and faunistics Talk

113

Where do they come from? Biogeography of linyphiids from agroecosystems in the north-western Negev desert
E. Gavish-Regev, T. Pluess, I. Opatovsky, M. H. Schmidt & Y. Lubin Linyphiidae is one of the most diverse families of spiders, with more than 4000 species. This family is cosmopolitan, with the highest diversity in the north temperate region. Linyphiidae are well studied in many regions of the world, yet they are poorly known in the Middle East. Indeed, although at least 50 spider families are known from Israel, only few families (e.g. Gnaphosidae, Theridiidae, and Salticidae) are well studied in this area. This research is a first step in the investigation of the linyphiid fauna of Israel. We describe the geographic ranges of linyphiids found in the north-western Negev desert during two studies of the Negev agroecosystems. We examined the association of the different species with climatic conditions and habitat types found in the area. We found that the two main habitat types in the north-western Negev, i.e. arid natural habitats and agricultural fields, have different linyphiid assemblage and species dominance. Israel has a unique location in a meeting point between three continents - Asia, Africa and Europe. This biogeographic background, together with heterogeneity of the arid agroecosystem, variable climate and ecological conditions, and a gradient of precipitation may explain the differences in the linyphiid assemblages between the two habitats.

E. Gavish-Regev, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Israel, efratg@bgu.ac.il

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Symposium 08: Biogeography and faunistics Talk

The diversification patterns of the spider genus Harpactocrates provide clues to the origins of Mediterranean biodiversity
L. Bidegaray-Batista & M.A. Arnedo The Mediterranean basin is one of the 25 biologically richest hotspots on Earth. Tertiary tectonics and climatic oscillation have been identified as causal agents of the generation of this outstanding biodiversity. The ground-dwelling spiders of the genus Harpactocrates provide an excellent model to test the role of historical factors in the diversification of Mediterranean biota. The genus includes about a dozen species distributed along the mountain chains of the Iberian Peninsula, the Alps and the northernmost Apennines. They are most often found at high elevation (1000 m) temperate and moist forests, suggesting a preference for cool and humid environments. We conducted phylogenetic analyses of multigene sequence data including most Harpactocrates species and a broad sampling of outgroups, from which we derived a molecular-clock based temporal framework. Our results support monophyly of western Mediterranean Dysderinae genera and suggest that their split from eastern relatives predated Alpine orogeny. The Alps and the Apennines were colonized from the Iberian Peninsula following diversification of the main Iberian lineages. Although Pleistocene glaciations may have played a key role in the origins of some present day species, the main evolutionary lineages can be traced back to the Tertiary period.

Leticia Bidegaray-Batista, Universitat de Barcelona, Spain, letigaray@yahoo.com

Symposium 08: Biogeography and faunistics Talk

115

About Phyxioschema (Araneae: Dipluridae)


P.J. Schwendinger New results on the diplurid spider genus Phyxioschema, based on a revision of the two described species and on new species from Thailand and Uzbekistan, are presented. Taxonomic characters are discussed and considerable variation in the genitalia of some species is shown. Female genitalia appear to be most informative for establishing interspecific relationships. The known geographical distribution of the genus is disjunct, as is the distribution of a new species from Thailand. Phyxioschema species occur in various habitats, from deserts to semi-evergreen rain forests; some are restricted to limestone. At least one species from Thailand has two mating seasons and two parallel generations of males per year.

Schwendinger, P. J., Musum d'histoire naturelle de Genve, Switzerland, peter.schwendinger@ville-ge.ch

116

Symposium 08: Biogeography and faunistics Talk

Canopy spiders from savanna trees in the Afrotropical region


D. De Bakker, K. Loosveldt & R. Jocqu So far, no data were available on the spiders of the canopy in trees of wooded savanna in the Afrotropical region. In parallel with a study focusing on the spider canopy fauna of a large array of forest types, we tried to fill this gap with the study of a number of sampling campaigns in typical wooded savanna. The canopy spider fauna of existing collections from Tanzania (Mkomazi Game Reserve) and Ivory Coast (Como National Parc) was analysed and compared to samples of our own campaigns in Cameroon (Faro Game Reserve) and South Africa (Limpopo Province). These collections yielded slightly more than 3000 adult specimens distributed over more than 300 morphospecies and 23 families. The first results reveal important differences with the forest canopy fauna in connection with the family composition, with the rarity of Linyphiidae and the importance of Oonopidae and Corinnidae as striking characteristics. The paper further highlights diversity, similarities between and within sites and comparison with rainforest data.

D. De Bakker, Royal Museum for Central Africa, Belgium, domir.de.bakker@africamuseum.be

Symposium 08: Biogeography and faunistics Talk

117

The spiders of city subhabitats. Surprisingly high species diversity in a densely built city area
K. Van Keer, H. Vanuytven, H. De Koninck & J. Van Keer During 4 years, a intensive faunistic study of the densely built city area of Antwerp (Belgium), was carried out. Larger green areas at the border of the city were deliberately not included in order to get a clear view on the spider fauna of densely populated and built upon city areas, without forest and countryside spider fauna record "contamination". The unexpected high species diversity of 249 species was recorded. Among other city subhabitats like parks, sewers, non-used grounds and buildings, over 120 city gardens, surrounded by walls, were sampled. This provides a representative view on what species inhabit these "microhabitats". The faunistic results of the study are given and the recorded spider faunas of several subhabitats are compared. A thorough ecological analysis including e.g. the influence of the degree of urbanisation on the spider fauna, is in progress.

K. Van Keer, Belgian Arachnological Society ARABEL, Belgium, koenvankeer@telenet.be

118

Symposium 08: Biogeography and faunistics Talk

Changes in composition of epigeic spider communities in oak-hornbeam forest in Bab after 40 years
P. Gajdos Author compares changes in composition of epigeic spider communities in oak-hornbeam forest within horizon of nearly 40 years. In past (1971), research was realised by Zitnanska, who found 45 spider species. Repeated research was done on 2007/2008 and 79 species were documented. The number of common species found during both researches is only 26 species. Out of them only 13 species were classified to the same categories of abundance. Abundance of other common species was quite different. At present, eudominant species Pardosa lugubris shows the greatest changes in its abundance. On the other hand, dominant species in 1971 as Pisaura mirabilis and Microneta viaria were documented presently as subrecedent. Out of 53 species that were captured only during the current research, Urocoras longispinus, Scotina celans and Ozyptila praticola were represented abundantly. Out of 19 species that were not confirmed after 40 years, Entelecara acuminata was found in samples of 1971 as dominant. Based on results, huge changes in composition of epigeic spider communities were documented in horizon of nearly 40 years. They are represented mainly by increasing number of thermophilous species and by decreasing abundance or absolute disappearing of species preferred humidity. They can be reflection on climate changes.

P.Gajdos, Institute of Landscape Ecology, SAS, Slovakia, nrukgajd@savba.sk

Symposium 08: Biogeography and faunistics Talk

119

Diversity of the spiders of Russia east of Ural


Y.M. Marusik Until very recently, in the beginning of 80th, some 500 species of spiders were known from Russia east of the Ural. Arachnological studies in the Asian part of Russia were initiated by K.Yu. Eskov, who started to study the fauna of middle Siberia and the taxonomy of Linyphiidae, the most rich spider family in the Holarctic and least studied in Asia. During the last three decades, intensive faunistic and taxonomic studies of spiders have been performed. Detailed checklists have been published for different parts of north Asia, and over 400 species have been described by Russian and foreign arachnologists from Siberia and the Russian Far East. Up to now, more than 1800 spider species belonging to 38 families have been reported from Russia east of Ural. Siberian spider fauna consist of some 1400 species belonging to 28 families; some760 species of 38 families occur in the south part of the Russian Far East. In Siberia, there are over 250 endemic species and 28 endemic genera; 150 species and 28 genera are (sub)endemics of the south part of the Russian Far East. The latter region encompasses four families not known from other parts of Russia: viz., Ctenidae, Cybaeidae, Leptonetidae, and Pimoidae.

Y.M. Marusik, IBPN RAS, Magadan, Russia, yurmar@mail.ru

120

Symposium 08: Biogeography and faunistics Talk

Diversity and faunistic features of spiders of Western Ghats of India


M.J. Mathew, P.A. Sebastian & S. Murugesan Investigations were carried out on species composition, richness, diversity and faunistic features of spiders in the forests of Idukki district, lying along the Western Ghats, one of the Biodiversity Hotspots of the World. Sampling over a period of two years in four protected forests viz., Periyar Tiger Reserve, Idukki Wildlife Sanctuary, Eravikulam National Park and Chinnar wildlife sanctuary resulted in the collection of 4890 individuals belonging to 118 species, 68 genera and 23 families. The taxonomically dominant family was Araneidae while the numerically dominant one was Lycosidae. Pardosa sumatrana (Thorell 1890) (Family Lycosidae) was the most abundant species. Three new species of spiders (Ctenus idukkiyensis sp. nov., Linyphia striata sp. nov. and Achaearanea icfreyi sp. nov.) were collected during the study. Out of the 118 species recorded, 7 species are new records to India. Biogeographical analysis revealed that araneofauna of central Kerala bear affinities mainly to Oriental and Palearctic regions, as well as to the fauna of Sri Lanka. Faunistic analysis also revealed a high degree of endemism. Guild structure analysis revealed 7 ecological guilds with orb weavers and ground runners equally dominant contributing 35% each to the total individuals collected. Quantitative estimation of diversity revealed the highest diversity index values and species richness at Periyar Tiger Reserve. Analysis of seasonality of spiders revealed the highest species occurrence during post-monsoon months (October to January), followed by pre-monsoon months (February to May) and the least occurrence during the monsoon period (June to August). The high species diversity and abundance of spiders in the various study sites coupled with the discovery of new species and the existence of the high degree of endemism indicate the importance of conserving spiders in Western Ghat forest ecosystems for the maintenance of overall biodiversity in this biodiversity hotspot, which is currently experiencing alarming rate of deforestation and degradation.

M.J. Mathew, Govt. Higher Secondary School, Elankunnapuzha, Kochi, India, mathewmj@asianetindia.com

Symposium 08: Biogeography and faunistics Talk

121

African and Southeast Asian elements in spider fauna of the Western Ghats of India
A. V. Sudhikumar, J. P. Maelfait, L. Lens & P. A. Sebastian The Western Ghats, one of the biodiversity hot spots of the world, is home to large number of arachnids of which spiders have a huge share. However, compared to other hot spots of the world, spiders of the Western Ghats are a poorly worked out group. Biota of this area is the product of drastic climatic, ecological and biogeographical history. A few studies are conducted to reveal the faunal affinity of the Western Ghats with other regions of the world. Unfortunately there are no studies focused on spiders. In this study, we attempted to expose the faunal affinities of this very important invertebrate group distributed along the Western Ghats based on their taxonomic distribution throughout the world. This study reveals that a total of 270 species of spiders belonging to 138 genera of 39 families are reported from the Western Ghats so far. The faunistic analysis at generic level revealed that a total of 6 genera endemic to this area. Among the total 138 genera, 5 showing affinity to African fauna and 17 showing affinity to Southeast Asian fauna. Twenty genera are common to Africa, India and Southeast Asian regions and 90 genera are cosmopolitan in distribution. These results substantiate the geographical history of both the Western Ghats and India, because India was the part of African continent for about 160 million years ago. It detached from there are moved towards north and finally collide with Eurasia about 60 million years ago. Between these period India was an isolated island for about 100 million of years. This isolation may be leads to the creation of its distinct spider fauna. After the collision with Eurasia, Indian fauna underwent drastic changes due to the faunal migration between Southeast Asian region and India. There are different hypotheses explaining this migration of different animal groups. Actually the Western Ghats is the product of regional uplift during Deccan volcanic episode held about 120 million years ago. So the presence of African lineage in the Western Ghats indicates that there was no actual mass extinction of spiders during volcanic episode. If we consider this, the spider fauna in the Western Ghats can be divided into an ancient African lineage, late Southeast Asian immigrant and endemic. If there was mass extinction, the present day African lineage in the Western Ghats is the result of recent immigration. If we consider so, the spiders of the Western Ghats can be divided into Southeast Asian immigrant, recent African immigrant and endemic. Further studies based on molecular phylogeny can reveal the truth.

A. V. Sudhikumar, Department of Biology, Ghent University, Belgium, ambalaparambil.sudhikumar@ugent.be

122

Symposium 08: Biogeography and faunistics Talk

Studies on the diversity of wandering spiders in Wayanad Wildlife Sanctuary, south Western Ghats, India, with special emphasis on mygalomorphs
E. Sunish, A.V. Sudhikumar, M. J. Mathew & P.A.Sebastian Spiders represent a diverse and functionally important group of arthropods. They are frequently the dominant predators in arthropod communities. The assessment of their status can provide much information useful in monitoring the integrity of biotic communities. In order to determine the araneofauna, a preliminary study of nomadic ground as well as foliage dwelling spiders was made at the Wayanad Wild Life sanctuary, North Kerala, India for a period of one year. Spiders were collected from four sites by hand picking, pitfall traps, sweeping, beating and sieving. A total of 893 individuals belonging to 66 species belonging to 42 genera and 18 families were collected during the study. They were widely distributed in all samples, as their frequency of occurrence was high. The mean relative densities of spiders, however, was low, ranging from less than 6% in rainy seasons to about 15% in summer. There was a seasonal fluctuation of relative densities indicating that the population of carnivores may increase relatively faster than that of the preys from rainy seasons to summer. Actual numbers of spiders trapped seasonally ranged from 160 individuals at all sites in late winter to about 320 in early summer. The mean number of species per season per site ranged from 8 in cold season to nearly 18 in early summer. The most dominantly present family was Salticidae (21%) whereas the least encountered one was Sparassidae (2%). The most encountered spider families in the order of dominance was Lycosidae (16%), Oxyopidae (14%), Thomisidae (11%) and Linyphiidae (9%). The primitive mygalomorphs represented 12 species of 7 genera (20%). The analysis of collected spiders on the basis of foraging mode revealed 8 types of feeding guilds viz., ground hunters (40%), foliage hunters (22%), stalkers (11%) and ambushers (27%). The collection includes 6 species of spiders being reported for the first time from Kerala. Analysis of the collected spiders also revealed a high degree of endemism shown by the spiders in Western Ghats. This study was carried out with the view to bring forth the status of spiders in Western Ghats and amend the spider fauna of this region into the conservation radar screen.

E. Sunish, Sacred Heart College, Thevara, Kerala,India, esunish@yahoo.com

Symposium 08: Biogeography and faunistics Poster

123

Jumping spiders (Araneae: Salticidae) in Afrotropical canopies


G.N. Azarkina, D. De Bakker & R. Jocqu Canopy jumping spiders were collected with the pyrethrum knockdown method at 15 localities in fairly different habitats ranging from lowland forest (Ghana, Congo) over montane forest (Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania) to wooded savannah (Ivory Coast, Tanzania, Cameroon, South Africa). In four localities, three of which were savannah, the shrub layer was sampled by beating and sweeping. The collections contain 262 species of which an estimated 60% was estimated to be new to science. Salticids range among the most abundant spiders in the canopy but tend to be relatively more important in wooded savannah than in dense forest. A cluster analysis reveals that the salticid fauna from savannah trees is clearly different from that of all forest types. It is surprising that the shrub and canopy layer faunas cluster together for each locality indicating that this family, in contrast with other families like oonopids and linyphiids, does not present a highly specialized canopy assemblage.

Galina N. Azarkina, Section of Invertebrates non-insects, Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Belgium, urmakuz@yahoo.com

124

Symposium 08: Biogeography and faunistics Poster

Spider coenoses in strict forest reserves in Hesse (Germany)


T. Blick The spider fauna of eight strict forest reserves in Hesse (situated centrally in Germany) has been investigated intensively since 1990. At present there are 31 strict forest reserves in Hesse with an average size of 40 ha. Strict forest reserves are areas where all forestry operations were stopped (since about 1988) allowing undisturbed development. The aim is "Primeval forests of tomorrow". The spiders of four reserves, all at a height of 300 to 500 m a.s.l., were identified so far by Andreas Malten and the present author. Most reserves have adjacent normally treated forest patches for comparison to show the influence of forestry on the succession and the fauna. The common beech (Fagus sylvatica) dominates the majority of the strict forest reserves and the four analysed sites. A total of 278 spider species have been found in the reserves until now, 40% of the spider species known from Hesse. 162 to 202 spider species were recorded in each reserve (30,000 to 49,000 spiders, incl. juveniles) using a broad set of methods over two whole years. Most important for the spiders are: pitfall traps and different types of stem eclectors. Spiders are one of the seven standard groups which are analysed completely to species level in each reserve others are Lumbricidae, Heteroptera, Coleoptera, Hymenoptera-Aculeata, Macrolepidoptera and Aves. Additional groups are monitored if possible ("all taxa biodiversity inventory approach"). The spider fauna has been analysed in different aspects: (A) frequency of occurrence in Germany, (B) distribution type (parts of Europe to Holarctic), (C) habitat types, and others like preference of strata, height (a.s.l.), phenology, size groups and the status of endangerment in Germany. (A) several rare species were recorded (including new records for Hesse), and interestingly (B) a set of species with very restricted areas in Europe was seen to occur. The data show that (C) the forest spider fauna in Germany is deficiently known and that the diversity of spiders (as well as that of the other groups) even in normally treated forests is unexpectedly high. Research is conducted in co-operation with and financially supported by Landesbetrieb Hessen-Forst.

T. Blick, Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg, Frankfurt am Main, Germany, theo.blick@senckenberg.de

Symposium 08: Biogeography and faunistics Poster

125

The effects of urbanization on spider communities


D. De Bakker; H. Dekoninck & E. Gaublomme We analyzed spider assemblages in a range of different forest fragments along an urbanization gradient in Brussels, Belgium. From March till November 2002, 13 forest plots in 10 forest patches, ranging in size from 5 to over 4000 ha were sampled for their spider fauna by means of pitfall trapping. These were placed along a transect from the edge to a distance of 100m inside the forest. Effects of urbanization, forest size and forest edge are investigated on total species number, abundance and habitat preference groups (known ecological preferences of the species). A total of more than 16000 specimens of more than 160 species were caught. Clusteranalysis and ordination on the most abundant species revealed that spider communities per site did not differ too much along the gradient. This would mean that spider communities caught on the edge of the forests already display a fauna typical for the one found inside the forest. Sites situated outside the forest differed the most from the others in the gradient and were mainly composed of pioneer species. Next to this difference, the second most important characteristic that separates spider communities in this dataset is humidity.

D. De Bakker, Royal Museum for Central Africa, Department of African Zoology, Invertebrates non-insects, Leuvensesteenweg 13, B-3080 Tervuren, Belgium, domir.de.bakker@africamuseum.be

126

Symposium 08: Biogeography and faunistics Poster

Theridion banaticus (Araneae: Theridiidae) a new spider from southern Carpathians


I. Duma A new species of Theridion belonging to petraeum group is described and illustrated. The species is very similar to Theridion petraeum (L. Koch, 1872) and Theridion uhligi Martin, 1974. Theridion banaticus is found in low altitude mountains (south-western Carpathians) a zone that can be placed between grassy lowlands inhabited by Theridion uhligi and alpine zone inhabited by Theridion petraeum.
[1] Agnarsson I., Coddington J. A., Knoflach B., (2007)Morphology and evolution of cobweb spider male genitalia (Araneae, Theridiidae), The Journal of Arachnology, 35: 334-395 [2] Deltshev C. D., (1992) A critical review of family Theridiidae (Araneae) in Bulgaria, Acta Zoologica Bulgarica, 43: 13-22 [3] Duma I. (2008) Theridion uhligi Martin, 1974 (Araneae: Theridiidae) new to Romania, Entomologica Romanica 13: 297-299 [4] Jocqu R. 1977a. Contribution la connaissance des araignes de Belgique. Description de Theridion hublei n. sp. Revue Arachnol., 1: 59-63. [5] Nentwig W., Hnggi A., Kropf C., Blick T. 2003. Spinnen Mitteleuropas Bestimmungsschlssel, from: www.araneae.unibe.ch. [6] Weiss, I., Petrior, A., List of the spiders (Arachnida: Araneae) from Romania. Travaux du Museum National dHistoire Naturelle Grigore Antipa, 41: 79-107. Bukarest, 1999.

Disclaimer: The species Theridion banaticus will be described as a new species elsewhere in a scientific journal. The author explicitly states that the name Theridion banaticus as it appears in this abstract is herewith disclaimed for nomenclatural purposes until the date of appearance of the original description.

I. Duma, West University of Timisoara, Romania, ioan.duma@gmail.com

Symposium 08: Biogeography and faunistics Poster

127

Beta diversity explains the latitudinal gradient of species richness in European spiders
W. Entling, M.H. Schmidt, S. Kumschick, S. Bacher, R. Brandl, W. Nentwig In this study we estimated the influence of latitude and its connected environmental factors on regional and local spider diversity using two independent datasets. Regional diversity was derived from species occurring in European countries and large islands. To measure local diversity, spider communities were sampled in 17 locations between Sweden, Spain and Greece. In a second step we estimated beta diversity among countries and islands and among the communities for three latitudinal bands. While regional species richness declined with latitude, there was no such relationship within local communities. Instead, beta-diversity was higher in the Mediterranean than in central and northern Europe both among countries and large islands and among locations. Thus, latitudinal gradients of species richness in European spiders were strongly scaledependent. Obviously, the increase of species richness on the regional scale is not caused by an increase of alpha-diversity but by an increase of beta-diversity with decreasing latitude. As most large-scale diversity research is based on interpolated or coarse-resolution data and not on community data, beta diversity as a reason for increased species richness at low latitudes could be more frequent than previously thought..

M.Isaia, Universit di Torino, Italia, marco.isaia@unito.it W. Entling, Zoological Institute, University of Bern, Switzerland, wiebke.entling@zos.unibe.ch

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Ecology and distribution of the genus Troglohyphantes Joseph, 1881 in the western Italian Alps
M. Isaia, E. Lana & P. Pantini In Italy, the linyphiid spider genus Troglohyphantes is represented by 36 species distributed all over the Italian Alpine range. the known distribution is often confined to very restricted areas and several species are recorded from just one or a few localities. Knowledge of the genus has grown considerably in the last twenty years, especially in the Central and Eastern Italian Alps, but fro the Western part of the Alpine range data are lacking. For several years we have been collecting data to study the distribution, thte ecology and the phylogenetic development of Troglohyphantes in the Western Alps. In this paper we present the first preliminary contribution to the knowledge of this genus in Piemonte and Valle d'Aosta, including data on taxononomy, ecology, habitat and data on altitude and temperatures of finding localities gathered from direct observation or GIS processing.

M.Isaia, Universit di Torino, Italia, marco.isaia@unito.it

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129

Biodiversity of spiders on flooded and non-flooded meadows in the Lonjsko Polje Nature Park, Croatia
L.Katusic & S.Kemfelja Lonjsko polje represents one of the largest and the best preserved flooded areas in Europe. Periodical flooding of this area occurs mostly during spring and autumn, and water remains here for more then 100 days. These hydrological conditions provide high habitat diversity and represent interesting objects of research. Field research for this paper was performed from April to November 2004 on two locations; one flooded and other non-flooded. The purpose was to determine differences in species composition, biodiversity and in seasonal dynamics of spider on researched areas, as well as to determine the influence of periodical flooding on spider communities. During the research, 85 species of spider belonging to 13 families were captured. Using the main method, pitfall traps, 6124 individuals belonging to 74 species were captured. On non-flooded meadow 62 species were found, opposed to 46 found on flooded meadow. Index of biodiversity shows that the non-flooded meadow has considerably higher species richness than flooded. The examination of seasonal spider population dynamics has shown that there is no considerable difference between study areas. Eighteen new species of Croatian spider fauna was recorded.

Variation of the Shannon-Wiener Index during research period

E. Kolundzic, Division of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Zagreb, Croatia, ekolundzic@gmail.com

130

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Araneofauna of the nature park Ucka


E. Kolundzic, M. Zec, M. Majer & J. Bujan This research of the spider (order Araneae) fauna of the Uka Nature park was conducted during 10 days, from July 22nd to July 31st, and its the first systematic research of the araneofauna on that area. Nature Park Ucka is unique for its great diversity of habitats and species. Samples were collected actively (by hand, pooter, catcher - sweep net) and passively (pitfall traps), and a total of 630 individual samples from 63 localities was collected. 598 samples were identified to genus level. A total of 93 species belonging to 21 families was identified. 15 species belonging to 3 genus are new records for Croatian araneofauna. Collection and determination of all materials was done by biology students of the Biology Department at the Faculty of Sciences in Zagreb.

Agelenidae in the web

Araneus angulatus feeding [1]Roberts M J (1995) Spiders of Britain and Northern Europe. Collins Field Guide, Bath [2]Heimer S, Nentwig W (1991) Spinnen Mitteleuropas. Paul Parey, Berlin [3]http://www.araneae.unibe.ch [4]http://www.pp-ucka.hr [5]http://www.faunaeur.org

E. Kolundzic, Division of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Zagreb, Croatia, ekolundzic@gmail.com

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Araneofauna of the Mediterranean island Vis


M. Majer, M. Zec, I. Kelava & E. Lugi Spiders (Araneae) are a poorly explored order in Croatia. Considering that there is no complete list of spider species there is a need for making one. Systematic listing started in protected areas (national and nature parks), and in time extended to other areas, like possible centres of endemism. Vis is the most remoted island from the Croatian mainland in the Adriatic sea. The research of araneofauna of the island Vis was conducted from the 30th of September until 10th of October 2005, covering the whole area of the island. The samples were collected in different habitats, thus resulting in great variety of species. During the research classic methods were used, like sweeping net, pooter or exhauster, arial, ground, and the method of pit-fall traps [1]. Samples were conservated in 70% ethanol and determinated in laboratory using the light microscope. The collecting and determination of the material [2],[3] has been carried out by the biology students of the Department of Biology, Faculty of Science in Zagreb. This research represents the first systhematical investigation of the island araneofauna in Croatia, and the represents considerable contribution to the checklist of Croatian spiders.

Argiope lobata, inhabitant of the island

Our favorite method: Collecting samples with the sweeping net [1] Roberts M J (1995) Spiders of Britain and Northern Europe. Collins Field Guide, Bath [2]Heimer S, Nentwig W (1991) Spinnen Mitteleuropas. Paul Parey, Berlin [3]http://www.araneae.unibe.ch

M. Majer, Division of Biology, Faculty of Sciences at the University of Zagreb, Croatia, mmajer98@gmail.com

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Symposium 08: Biogeography and faunistics Poster

Diversity of the spiders of the Wrangel Island, NE Russia


Y.M. Marusik & O.A. Khrulyova The Wrangel Island is a remote, relatively small island with the highest elevation of 1000 m. A unique feature of this arctic island is a very limited extend of the Pleistocene glaciations combined with the lowered sea level during the Last Glacial Maximum, making the Wrangel Island a part of the Bering land bridge. This enabled enrichment of the fauna and flora by very different elements originating from the boreal, forest-tundra, tundra and even steppic. This has resulted in a species composition on the Wrangel Island being different from all other Arctic islands. According to the published surveys and most recent taxonomic papers, the fauna of the island encompasses 42 species belonging to 7 families. New material and a re-examination of the old collection have revealed 9 additional species. Among arctic islands, the Wrangel Island has the second richest araneofauna after Greenland (76 species). It has a unique composition of species and families due to the highest value of endemic species (over 15%), the highest in the Arctic diversity of the Dictynidae (3 species), the occurrence of a jumping spider (Chalcoscirtus sp.) and the presence of Hilaira gertschi, which is absent from the neighbouring Chukotka Peninsula.

Y.M. Marusik, IBPN RAS, Magadan, Russia, yurmar@mail.ru

Symposium 08: Biogeography and faunistics Poster

133

The epigeic spider fauna (Arachnida: Araneae) of dry meadows in the Untere Lobau (Vienna, Austria)
N. Milasowszky, M. Hepner, C. Hrweg & D. Rotter The effect of scrub invasion on epigeic spiders in dry meadows, the so called Heilnden, in the National Park Donau-Auen in Vienna was investigated. Heilnden are xeric alluvial biotopes characterised by gravel ground and dry grassland vegetation. The study was carried out at 50 randomly selected plots in the area of Untere Lobau in Vienna. Epigeic spiders were sampled by means of pitfall traps during three periods lasting two weeks each (29 April to 13 May, 25 June to 9 July and 6 to 20 September 1999). At each plot scrub coverage was estimated within a radius of 8 m around the plot centre. The principal threat to the dry meadows is likely to be from encroachment of scrub and the development of rank vegetation that may result from fertiliser application and/or a lack of grazing. In this study we tested the effect of scrub invasion on the total spider species richness, as well as on different subsets, i.e. forest, forest steppe, grassland, dry grassland and ubiquist spiders. We aimed to determine the amount of scrub coverage that might be beneficial or detrimental for spiders with high conservation value. We expect that the results can be used for further management projects in the National Park Donau-Auen.

C. Hrweg, Naturhistorisches Museum Wien, Wien, Austria, christoph.hoerweg@nhm-wien.ac.at

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Graecophalangium marenzelleri comb. nov. a new systematic position for Egaenus marenzelleri Nosek, 1905 (Opiliones, Phalangiidae)
P.G. Mitov The genus Graecophalangium was established by Roewer in 1923. Currently it includes 5 species (Graecophalangium militare (C.L.Koch, 1839), G. atticum Roewer 1923, G. cretaeum Martens, 1966, G. punicum Starga, 1973, G. drenskii Mitov, 1995), distributed on the territory of the Balkan Peninsula and the Near East. During the revision of the Turkish opilionid materials, deposited in the Arachnid Collection of the Natural History Museum Vienna, it became clear, that Egaenus marenzelleri, described by Nosek in 1905, is related to the genus Graecophalangium Roewer, 1923. This results in the new combination Graecophalangium marenzelleri (Nosek, 1905). A redescription of Graecophalangium marenzelleri (Nosek, 1905) comb. nov. was made, including the male external and genital morphology.

P.G. Mitov, University of Sofia, Faculty of Biology, Department of Zoology and Anthropology, Bulgaria, pl_mitov@yahoo.com

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135

Spider fauna of oceanic islands of Japan


H. Ono Specimens of spiders from Ogasawara Islands (= Bonin Islands), Japan, preserved in the arachnid collection of Department of Zoology, National Museum of Nature and Science, Tokyo were taxonomically studied. A list of 72 species was made on the basis of the study and of the records from preceding literatures. Three Hawaiian oonopids, Ischnothyreus omus Suman, 1965, Gamasomorpha lalana Suman, 1965, Oonopinus humus Suman, 1965, and an anapid, Pseudanapis aloha Forster, 1959, widespread from Pacific islands and Australia are newly recorded from Japan. A new species of the genus Acantheis of the family Ctenidae was found and its description was prepared. Ogasawara Islands, including Iwojima, a hard-fought area between Japan and United States in the Second World War, are situated in the northwestern Pacific (23-28N/141-143E) ca.1000 km apart from the middle of Honshu, the nearest land, and perform a typical oceanic fauna. The spiders of the islands are composed of 25% endemics, 37.5% widely distributed species and 37.5% artificially imported ones. Of the 45 species excluding unnatural ones 14 species seems to be originated from Japanese lands, 12 are immigrants from southern and eastern Pacific islands and 19 are regarded as the Southeast Asian origin. The fauna of islands is discussed on the basis of the zoogeographical composition of species and an analysis of ecological factors in dispersing as well as some assessment of artificial effects.

H.Ono, National Museum of Nature and Science, Tokyo, Japan, ono@kahaku.go.jp

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Spiders (Araneae) of a young dune island at the German North Sea coast
S. Schwarz & O.-D. Finch The faunistical investigation of terrestrial habitats on islands of the East Frisean Island chain has a long tradition. Arachnological work on the islands was first intensified during the 1980s by Walter Schultz and it still proceeds (e.g. [1]). An actual compilation of species richness data of a large variety of taxa [2] included also spiders (Finch 2008 in [2]) and revealed that a total of 260 spiders species is present on the 11 older and younger East Frisean Islands. Actually we are interested in changes in species richness and community composition of spiders on the young dune island of Mellum within a long term ecological research project that was started in 1985. The island in its present form exists now for about 100 years. First representative data of its colonization by spiders are from 1985/86 [3]. These now can be compared with results of trapping programmes during the year 1995 and during 1998, respectively (our data and data by [4]). Against the theoretical background of island biogeography our analyses are focussed on time and scale depending processes structuring the spider communities in different habitats of the small island that is still unpopulated by man. Additionally, potential climate change effects on the spider communities will be regarded in more detail.
[1] Finch, O.-D., H. Krummen, F. Plaisier & W. Schultz (2007): Zonation of spiders (Araneae) and carabid beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in island salt marshes at the North Sea coast. Wetlands Ecology and Management 15: 207-228. [2] Niedringhaus, R., V. Haeseler & P. Janiesch (Hrsg.) (2008): Die Flora und Fauna der Ostfriesischen Inseln Artenverzeichnisse und Auswertungen zur Biodiversitt. Schriftenreihe Nationalpark Niederschsisches Wattenmeer 11: 1-470. [3] Schultz, W. (1988): Besiedlung junger Dneninseln der sdlichen Nordsee durch Spinnen (Araneida) und Weberknechte (Opilionida). Drosera 88: 47-68. [4] Dormann , W. (2000): Reaktionen terrestrischer Salzwiesen-Zooznosen auf Temperaturerhhungen und verstrktes Flutgeschehen infolge globaler Klimanderungen. Projektbericht Univ. Bremen.

S. Schwarz, Carl-von-Ossietzky-University of Oldenburg, Faculty V, Department of Biology and Environmental Sciences, D 26111 Oldenburg, Germany, stoeps-schwarz@web.de

Symposium 09: Conservation and management Talk

137

Alien spider introductions to Europe supported by global trade


M. Kobelt & W. Nentwig Global trade is permanently ongoing and increases its volume every year. In this study, the occurrence of 87 unintentionally introduced spider species alien to Europe is analysed. The analysis includes (1) the introduction potential of six different origin areas of the world according to trade volume, area size, and geographical distance; (2) the body size of native and alien species; and (3) occurrence in or at buildings (synanthropic) or in natural habitats. We found the eastern Palearctic as the most influencing origin area with 44 introduced spider species to Europe. The eastern Palearctic and the Indomalayan provided a significantly higher number of introductions than expected, whereas the Nearctic, Neotropical, and Afrotropical provided a significantly lower number of introduced species than expected. This can be explained with their lower trade volume, smaller area, larger geographical distance to Europe, and stronger climate differences to Europe. Comparing the body size of introduced and native European spider species of the same family, we found for Theridiidae significantly larger alien spiders and for all other tested families a trend to a larger body size of alien species compared to the native spiders. The family affiliation of alien spiders is the most important factor for synanthropic occurrence in Europe. On the base of a very conservative estimation of spider species introductions to Europe combined with possible effects of climate change, we predict for the near future a permanent increase in the number of alien spider species in Europe.

M. Kobelt, University of Bern, Beern, Switzerland, manuel.kobelt@zos.unibe.ch

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Developing a predictive system utilising spiders for assessment of habitat quality


M. Nolan A databasing system allowing prediction of spider species associated with habitats was previously introduced as being in the early stages of development with respect to the Irish spider fauna1. This project was funded again by the National Parks and Wildlife Service of Ireland through 2007, and another round of funding was confirmed in June 2008. This will allow for the composition of an account of all spider species found in Ireland and for coding of a considerable proportion of these into the system. A range of issues which necessitated consideration during the construction of the database are discussed: composition of species accounts and what information to include; categories to be included in the traits file; the problem of scoring affiliations between species and habitats. It is hoped to field test the system in 2009 and an appropriate sampling methodology is proposed and discussed with respect to how best to gain a representative sample of the predicted species. Recent progress in Irish spider studies is briefly discussed.
[1] Nolan, M. (2008) An Expert System approach to digitising ecological information on spiders for habitat assessment. Revista Ibrica de Aracnologa 15: 137 141.

M. Nolan, Ireland, mylesnolan@hotmail.com

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139

Effects of tradional coppicing and game keeping in European lowland forests on epigeic spiders
R. Tropek, L. Spitzer, M. Konvicka & J. Benes Evidences from birds, butterflies and plants support the hypothesis that deciduous woodlands of lowland temperate Europe would be sparser than both non-intervention reserves and commercially grown high forests prevailing in present [1,2,3]. The demise of techniques such as coppicing and forest pasture is causing a closure of formerly sparse woods across Central Europe. Effects of this transition on epigeic arthropods are little known. We used pitfall traps to sample spiders in the Milovicky wood, Czech Republic, a former coppice now partly used as intensive deer park and partly still coppiced. A two factorial design allowed simultaneous assessment of forest openness and game density effects. Spiders preferred open stands and avoided high game density. Ordinations showed that spiders of conservation concern were associated with open stands. These results are consistent with patterns in other epigeic groups surveyed in parallel: carabids, milipedes, centipedes and woodlice [4]. The results support the necessity of restoring traditional management methods to maintain woodland diversity, at least in selected protected areas. The recently prevailing nonintervention management in most of protected woodlands in Europe may soon prove as a gigantic failure. They also show that high ungulate densities in game parks are intolerable for conserving woodland epigeic invertebrates.
CCA ordination of composition of spiders from the Milovicky wood models with GAME and OPENNESS as explanatory variables (~ GAME + OPENNESS). Positions of all species are shown, different symbols stand for relic (filled circles), adaptive (filled triangles) and eurytopic (X-crosses) species[5]. Abbreviations of species names are given for relic species only: ATYPIC Atypus piceus (Sulzer, 1776); CERMAJ Ceratinella major Kulczyski, 1894; DRAVIL Drassyllus villicus (Thorell, 1875); MEGPSE Megalepthyphantes pseudocollinus Saaristo, 1997; OZYBLA Ozyptila blackwalli Simon, 1875; OZYBRE Ozyptila brevipes (Hahn, 1826); OZYSCA Ozyptila scabricula (Westring, 1851); SCOCEL Scotina celans (Blackwall, 1841); TRIAFF Trichoncus affinis Kulczyski, 1894; XYSLIN Xysticus lineatus (Westring, 1851); XYSROB Xysticus robustus (Hahn, 1832). [1]Benes, J., Cizek, O., Dovala, J. & Konvicka, M. (2006). Intensive game keeping, coppicing and butterflies: The story of Milovicky Wood, Czech Republic. Forest Ecology and Management 237: 353-365. [2]Buckley, G.B. (Ed.) (1992). The Ecological Effects of Coppicing. Chapman & Hall, London. [3]Vera, F.W.M. (2000). Grazing Ecology and Forest History. CAB International, Wallingford. [4]Spitzer L., Konvicka M., Benes J., Tropek R., Tuf I.H., Tufova J. (2008). Does closure of traditionally managed open woodlands threaten epigeic invertebrates? Effects of coppicing and high deer densities. Biological Conservation 141, 827-837. [5]Buchar, J., Ruzicka, V. (2002). Catalogue of Arachnids of the Czech Republic. Peres Publishers: Prague.

R. Tropek, Faculty of Science, University of South Bohemia, Czech Republic, robert.lobo@email.cz

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Effects of vegetation, microclimate and space on spider assemblage in Terai Conservation Area, India
U. Hore & V.P. Uniyal The role of vegetation, microclimate and spatial factors on the spider assemblages in Terai ecosystem were investigated. This ecosystem is characterized by alluvial floodplains of tall grassland interspersed with woodland, swamps and riparian patches. High water table, annual flooding, and managed grassland burning maintains its dynamic complexity. A mosaic of five vegetation types was sampled for spiders by using pitfall traps and other semi-quantitative collection methods. A total of 3666 adult spiders representing 22 families, 60 genera and 160 species were documented. Correlations were investigated between the dissimilarity matrices representing the spider composition with matrices of vegetation and microclimate variables. Geographic distance between sampling locations was found to have weak, yet statistically significant influence on spider composition. The effects of microclimate and vegetation structure (matrix) were controlled independently using partial Mantel test. Henceforth, significant association was found between species composition and vegetation structure, but not with microclimate across habitat at regional level.

V.P. Uniyal, Wildlife Institute of India, uniyalvp@wii.gov.in

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141

Colonization of a newly created dune grassland by spiders


E.Karako, L.Baert, J.-P.Maelfait At the turn of the century a major restoration project was realised on the right bank of the estuarine part of the river Yser (Belgian coast). The first two phases consisted of the demolition of the buildings and roads of the former naval basis and the removal of the jetties and the quays of the former military harbour and slipway. The excavated sandy soil from the quays was used to build dune like hills above the pits left by the removal of the buildings and a dune like dike along the tidal mud flat created after the removal of the harbour and the slipway. These works ended in 2001 and immediately afterwards a multidisciplinary monitoring was started. In this paper we report the results of six years of monitoring of the dune like dike on which a dune grassland gradually developed.We assess the spider assemblages having colonised this newly created habitat in comparison with the assemblages occurring in adjoining old dune habitats, which were sampled in the same way (pitfall traps) during the same period (20022007). The two old dune habitats were a well stabilised dune grassland and the seaward side of a foredune. We shortly describe the life cycle timing of most abundant species. We can distinguish several phenological patterns (e.g. summer active species like Haplodrassus dalmatensis, winter active species like Centromerita concinna). By comparing the species composition of the newly created dune grassland with that of the old dune habitats we can asses which type of species could already colonize that new habitat.

K. Lambeets, Ghent University, Belgium, kevin.lambeets@UGent.be

142

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Multi-species inference of environmental conditions for the conservation of riparian spiders


K. Lambeets, D. Bonte & J.-P. Maelfait River banks are naturally disturbed habitats, in which local flood events and landscape structure are expected to govern riparian assemblages. Not solely effects of flooding per se, but also related changes in vegetation structure will affect species distribution. By elucidating the relationships between species occurrence and environmental conditions, insight into conservation strategies to preserve riparian species is gained. By means of variable reduction and multiple regression analysis, environmental constraints on the incidence and density of stenotopic riparian spiders were clarified. Riparian spiders are expected to go extinct by increased flooding, but benefited densities of hygrophilic, dispersive species. Increased vegetation complexity had a positive effect on the latter. Local topography and landscape composition affected riparian lycosids in opposite ways, indicating the importance of a less hostile lateral transition and suitable hibernation sites nearby. Increased channel connectivity favoured incidence of a linyphiid and benefited density of a rare lycosid. Our analyses show the importance of an evidence-based approach of river management. River restoration should generate the required variation in environmental conditions (dynamic processes) on the river bank and landscape level to preserve vulnerable riparian spiders. Hence, accounting for responses of multiple species provides a more complete framework to guide future conservation strategies.

K. Lambeets, Ghent University, Belgium, kevin.lambeets@UGent.be

Symposium 10: Conservation and management Talk

143

Wolf spider-coenoses of alpine rivers: habitat preference, recolonisation of renaturated areas and conservation-strategies (Araneae: Lycosidae)
Ch. Komposch At present alpine rivers are of great interest to the water and energy industry as well as nature conservation institutions. Consequently, there is a high potential for conflicts between producing eco-energy and preserving the very last near-natural stretches and their stenotopic threatened biocoenoses respectively. Spiders, spring-tails, carabid and staphylinid beetles represent the four main arthropod taxa of gravel banks of alpine rivers. The composition of wolf-spider-coenoses is used as a sensitive descriptive parameter to reveal and evaluate the ecological status and nature conservation value of riverside areas. Available data extracted from EU-LIFE-Nature-projects of the last 10 years are used as baseline indicators for this study on Austrian river systems. Rivers investigated are the Upper Drau and Vellach in Carinthia, the Mur, Enns and Sulm in Styria; these are compared with Steinbergers data from the Lech in Northern Tyrol. The reference stretches show highly diverse lycosid-coenoses with an evenly distribution of their up to 7 ripicolous species (e.g. Arctosa cinerea, Pardosa morosa, P. wagleri, P. torrentum, Pirata knorri). Restored stretches in quite early stages of succession are colonized on average by 3 (1 to 5) ripicolous wolf spider species; surprisingly, and despite of their geographical proximity, the assemblies studied differ highly from each other. The ratio of big spider (Lycosidae) versus small spider abundances (Linyphiidae) shows a clear dominance of the former in near-natural riversides and demonstrates the extreme position in the hydropeaking-influenced range with prevailing linyphiid spiders.

Figure 1: Pristine conditions of alpine rivers: the Vellach river in Carinthia, Austria. Figure 2: Distribution pattern of ripicolous wolf spider coenoses in Eastern Alpine riverside areas: regulated stretch (Drau, Dellach), hydro-peaking influenced restored stretch (Drau, Spittal), near-natural restored stretch (Drau, Dellach) and reference (Vellach).

Ch. Komposch, KOTEAM - Institute for Animal Ecology and Landscape Planning, c.komposch@oekoteam.at

144

Symposium 09: Conservation and management Poster

Grazing, mowing or burning? What is the comment of the spiders on this?


Cs. Szinetr Within the frames of the Life Nature Project (Habitat Management on the Pannonian Grasslands in Hungary, LIFE 05NAT/HU/000117 project), we started the arachnological study in spring of 2007 in the Belsobarand loess-valley, which is one of the most valuable loess ridges in Hungary. We examine the effects of the following implemented management actions through the changes in the spider assemlages. I. close out of grazing and control (massively overgrazed grassland (sheep) II. burning (early spring) and control unmanaged (sparse grazing at most) III. hand-mowing and control unmanaged (sparse grazing at most) Collection of spiders has been done two times, during one-month periods, by Barber-trapping on the managed and control areas. Trapping results have shown several significant differences between the untreated (control) and treated habitat patches. The highest spider density and species number was observed in the case of hand-mowing. We have found the lowest volue of the species and specimen number in the overgrazed grassland patches. Grazing and mowing makes the area equally more homogeneous, the traps are becoming strongly uniformized. In the case of management by burning and the spots studied as the control of the same, the diversity of the burned areas were significantly over the control area on the short term.

Cs.Szinetr, University of West Hungary Savaria University Center, szcsaba@bdtf.hu

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