SEMINAR REPORT On SYNCHRONOUS DIGITAL HIERARCHY

SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE AWARD OF THE DEGREE OF

BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY (Electronics & communication)
SUBMITTED BY Vikram Kumar 3208190 June 2012

GANPATI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING ANDTECHNOLOGY-BILASPUR

KURUKSHETRA UNIVERSITY, KURUKSHETRA

CONTENTS

TITLES

PAGE NO.

1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 SDH CONCEPT 1.2 EVOLUATION OF SDH 1.2.1 WHAT IS SDH 1.2.2 EXISSTING NETWORK 1.2.2.1 LIMITATION OF THE PDH

1.2.3. BENEFITS OF THE SDH 2. NETWORK SIMPLIFICATIONS 2.1 SURVIVABILITY 2.2 SOFTWARE CONTROL 2.3 BANDWIDTH ON DEMAND 2.4 FUTURE PROOF NETWORKING 3 STANDARISATION 3.1 PRINCIPLE OF THE SDH 3.2 SDH FRAME STRUCTURE 3.3 SECTIOMN OVERHEAD 3.4 TERMINAL MULTIPLEXER 3.5 ADD AND DROP MULTIPLEXER 3.6 DIGITAL CROSS CONNECT 3.7 REGENERATORS

3.8 NETWORK MANAGEMENT SYSTEM 3.9 NETWORK TOPOLOGY 3.10 POINT TO POINT TOPOLOGY 3.11 POINT TO MULTIPORT TOPOLOGY 3.12 RING TOPOLOGY 4 SYNCHRONOUS MULTIPLEXING 4.1 INTRODUCTION 4.2 TERMINOLOGY AND DEFINATIONS 4.3 INPUT TO MULTIPLEXER 4.4 PRIMARY SYNCHRONOUS MULTIPLEXER 4.5 FORMATING CONTAINER C-4 4.6 FORMATING VIRTUAL CONTAINER VC-4 4.7 FORMATION OF ADMISTRATIVE UNIT AU-4 4.8 FORMATION OF ADMISTRATIVE UNIT GROUP 4.9 ADDING SDH TO FORM STM-1 4.10 FORMING VIRTUAL CONTAINER VC-12 4.11 FORMING TRIBUTARY UNIT TU-12 4.12 MULTIPLEXING OF TU-12S TO FORM TUG-3 4.13 EQUIPMENT 4.15 BENEFITS 4.16 KEY FEATURES 4.17 NM2100 ELEMENT MANAGER\

24 BENEFITS .4.19 FIBCOM 6310 EDGE NODE 4.22 FIBCOM 6370 EDGE NODE 4.20 FIBCOM 6320 EDGE NODE 4.23 SOFTWARE USED TO PERFORM SDH 4.18 INSTRUMENT USED IN BSNL IN SDH 4.21 FIBCOM 6325 EDGE NODE 4.

1 SDH CONCEPTS Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) signals the beginning of a new phase in the evolution of the world‟s communication network. Using essentially the same fibre. meant that network operators are unable to meet this demand.INTRODUCTION 1. pressure builds up for a reliable and a flexible network with unlimited bandwidth. As end-users (particularly business-users) become more dependent on effective communication.Deployment of synchronous transmission systems will be straight forward due to their ability to interwork with existing plesiochronous systems. serviceproviders and equipment manufacturers alike. The complexity of current network. and enables them to deploysynchronous equipment in manner suited to the particular needs of their network As synchronous equipment becomes established within the network the full benefits it brings will become apparent. The SDH defines a structure which enables plesiochronous signals to be combined together and encapsulated within a standard SDH signal. SDH will bring a revolution in telecommunications services which will have far reaching effects for end-users. The network operator will experience significant cost savings associated with . In addition the provision within the SDH for sophisticated network management introduces significantly more flexibility into the network . With the introduction of SDH. The current Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy (PDH) evolved in response to the demand for plain voice telephony (sometimes called POTS. This protects network operators ‟investment in plesiochronous equipment. a synchronous network is able to significantly increase available bandwidth while reducing the amount of equipment in the network.Plain Old Telephony Service) is not ideally suited to the efficient delivery and management of high bandwidth connections. Synchronous transmission systems address the shortcomings of PDH.1. based on plesiochronous transmission systems. the transmission network will enter a new era which can be compared in scale to that occurred following the introduction of PCM and Optical Fibre.

As a result. 1. Improved network restoration and reconfiguration capabilities will result in better availability. and European transmission hierarchies.S. CCITT became interested in the work being carried out on SONET and after much debate on how to incorporate both U. final agreement was reached in Feb‟1988 and CCITT working group XVIII brought out the recommendations on Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH). at the beginning of 1984. The SDH offers network operators a future proof network solution. published in the CCITT Blue Book 1989.reduced amount of hardware in the network. synchronous transmission was thought to overcome the problems associated with plesiochronous transmission. etc. In order to move away from proprietary interfaces and achieve true interconnectivity between vendors. in particular the availability of PDH to extract individual circuits from high capacity systems without having to demultiplex the whole system. and the increased efficiency and reliability of the network will lead to savings resulting from a reduction in operation and maintenance costs. It has been designed to support future services such as MetropolitanArea Network (MAN). Since then.The sophisticated network management capabilities of a synchronous network will give a vast improvement in control of transmission networks.2 EVOLUTION OF SDH PDH (Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy) has reached a point where it is no longer sufficiently flexible or efficient to meet the demands being placed on it.Attempts to formulate a set of standards covering optical transmission of synchronous signals began in U. Broadband ISDN. an ongoing standards effort has continued to develop and refine the SDH standards. The aim was to have a synchronous standard to allow the interconnection of equipment from more than one vendor. . and faster provisioning of services. In 1986. subcommittee T1X1 of the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) began work in 1985 on developing a Standard Optical NETwork (SONET) based on a proposal by Bell Core.S.

2 EXISTING NETWORK The type of transmission network that exists till today before adoption of SDH is Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy (PDH) and it is called so because the type of signal that are processed is Plesiochronous.1 pdh mutliplexing . standardized for the transport of suitably adapted payloads over physical transmission networks”.2. The recommendations also define a multiplexing structure whereby an STM-1 signal can carry a number of lower bit rate signals as payload. normally referred to as STM-1 (where STM stands for „Synchronous Transport Module‟). Higher transmission rates of STM-4 (622 Mbit/s).4 Gbit/s) and STM-64 (10 Gbit/s) are also defined. thus allowing existing PDH signals to be carried over a synchronous network. The first of these is 155 Mbit/s. Diagram 1 Fig no.2. 1. The ITU-T recommendations define a number of transmission rates within the SDH.1 What is SDH ? As defined in CCITT recommendations “the SDH is a hierarchical set of digital transport structures.1. STM-16 (2.

The use of plesiochronous operation throughout the hierarchy has led to adoption of the term “Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy” or PDH. Diagram 2 Fig 2 mapping of the pdh signal into sdh The same problems with synchronization as described above occur at every level of the multiplexing hierarchy and justification bits are added at each stage. before 2Mbit/s channels can be multiplexed (bit interleaved) they must all be brought up to the same bit rate by adding „dummy‟ information bits also known as „justification bits‟. Thus. . while multiplexing a number of 2Mbit/s channels: likely to have been created by different pieces of equipment. But there are complications encountered in processing. each generating a slightly different bit rate.The PDH multiplexing hierarchy shown in Figure 1 appears simple enough.

1. reductions in floor space required by the equipment and lower power consumptions. .1 LIMITATIONS OF PDH The availability of cheap transmission bandwidth has led to the proliferation of new. A single synchronous multiplexer can perform the function of the entire plesiochronous “multiplexer mountain”. non-voice. The use of justification bits at each level in a PDH means that identifying the exact location of the frames of a single 2Mbit/s line with say a 140Mbit/s channel must be completely demultiplexed to its 64 constituent 2Mbit/s line via 34and 8 Mbit/s as shown in Figure 1. If a high-speed channel passes near the customer. businesses rely on these services to maintain a competitive edge. simplified maintenance.2. higher availability of service and more flexible connection patterns.The problem of flexibility in a plesiochronous network is illustrated by considering what a network operator needs to do in order to provide business customer with a 2Mbit/s-leased line.3 BENEFITS OF SDH network. 2 NETWORK SIMPLIFICATION One of the main benefits seen by a network operator is the network simplification brought about through the use of synchronous equipment. both to telecom network operators and to the end users. 1. The more efficient “drop and insert” of channels offered by an SDH network. telephone service. It allows the network to evolve to meet the new demands being placed upon it.2. Lower operating costs will also result through reductions in space inventory required. and this has led business users to demand ever-improved transmission quality. Once the required 2Mbit/s line has been identified and extracted. mostly aimed at business customer. will lead to greater ease in provisioning of high bandwidth. Often. SDH offers a number of benefits. together with its powerful network management capabilities.2. leading to significant reduction in amount of equipment used. the channels must then be remultiplexed back up to 140Mbit/s. the operation of providing him with a single 2Mbit/s line from within that channel would not be so simple.

ISDN and mobile radio through to data communications (LAN. SDH has been selected as the bearer network for the next generation of telecommunication network. 2.3 BANDWIDTH ON DEMAND In a synchronous network it will be possible to dynamically allocate network capacity or bandwidth on demand. WAN. the broadband ISDN (B-ISDN). for example dial-up video conferencing and many other new services.2 SOFTWARE CONTROL Provision of network management channels within the SDH frame structure means that a synchronous network will be fully software controllable. resource management.4 FUTURE PROOF NETWORKING SDH offers future proof platform for new services. 2. Network management systems will not only perform traditional event management dealing with alarms in the network. These will represent new sources of revenue for network operators and increased convenience for users. 2.). but will also provide a host of other functions. etc.2. The management capability of the synchronous network will enable the failure of links or even nodes to be identified immediately. monitoring. such as performance configuration management. network security.1 SURVIVABILITY The deployment of optical fibre throughout the network and adoption of the SDH network elements makes end-to-end monitoring and maintenance possible. etc. Users anywhere within the network will be able to subscribe at very short notice to a service offered over the network some of which may require large amounts of bandwidth. . It is the ideal platform for services ranging from POTS. It is able to handle very latest services such as video on demand and digital video broadcasting via ATM.

1 PRINCIPLES OF THE SDH:Despite its obvious advantages over the PDH. All plesiochronous signals between 1. SDH would have been unlikely to gain acceptance if its adoption had immediately made all existing PDH equipments obsolete. Information from the plesiochronous container is mapped into the relevant container.3 . The input signals are processed to have a basic frame called the synchronous transport module (STM-1). Each container then added with some control information known as “path overhead”. however. The SDH standards also facilitate inter working between North American and European transmission hierarchies. STANDARDISATION The SDH standards mean that transmission equipment from different manufacturer can inter work on same line. all equipment is synchronized to an overall network clock.5 Mbit/s and 140 Mbit/s can be accommodated except 8 Mbit/s. It is important to note. The way in which this is done is similar to the bit stuffing procedure carried out in a conventional PDH multiplexer. This standardisation of equipment and interfaces in the SDH means network operators have freedom to choose different equipment from different vendors. The path overhead bytes allow the operator to achieve end-toend path monitoring. In Synchronous network. Frame structure overhead and payload mappings are also defined. power levels. Figure 3 shows the multiplexing structure as recommended by ITU-T. The ability to achieve this so-called “mid-fibre meet” has come about as a result of standards which define fibre-to-fibre interfaces at the physical (photogenic) level. The ways in which they can be combined to form a basic transmission rate of 155. wavelength.52 Mbit/s is defined in ITU-T Recommendation G. such as error monitoring. pulse shapes and coding. that the delay associated with a transmission link may vary . This means that operators can avoid the problem traditionally associated with being locked to a proprietary solution from a single vendor. The container and the path overhead together form a “Virtual Container (VC).709. They determine the optical line rate. The SDH defines a number of “containers” each corresponding to existing plesiochronous rate. 3.

It can be incremented or decremented as necessary to accommodate changes in the position of the VC.2 SDH FRAME STRUCTURE A basic STM frame is represented by a matrix of 9rows and 270 columns. starting with the byte in the upper left corner and ending with the byte in the lower right corner. Their purpose is to provide communication channels for functions such as OA&M facilities. This process is repeated until the largest size of VC (VC-4 in India) is filled. performance monitoring.32 Mbit/s · STM-64 : 9. The process of loading containers and attaching overhead is repeated at several levels in the SDH. When a higher transmission rate than the 155Mbit/s (STM-1) is required in a synchronous network is achieved by using a relatively straightforward byte-interleaved multiplexing scheme. meaning that a byte in the payload represents a 64 Kbit/s .with time.953. The pointer indicates the position of the beginning of the VC in relation to an STM-1 frame. ITU-T recommendation G. some more control information bytes called “Section Overhead” are added. As a result.709 defines different combinations of Virtual Containers which can be used to fill up the pay load area of an STM-1 frame. protection switching.52 Mbit/s · STM-4 : 622. When the payload area of STM-1 frame is full. Transmission is row by row. These variations are accommodated by associating a pointer to each VC. resulting in the “nesting” of smaller VC‟s within larger ones. each column being one byte as shown in Figure V.08 Mbit/s · STM-16 : 2.28 Mbit/s 3. The frame repetition rate is 125 m s. the location of virtual containers within an STM-1 frame may not be fixed. frame alignment and a number of other functions. The section overhead bytes are so called because they remain with the payload for the fibre section between two synchronous multiplexers. Following hierarchy levels are defined in the SDH: · STM-1 : 155.488. and this is then loaded into the payload of the STM-1 frame.

944 · Number of bits per second = 9*270*8*8000 = 15. The STM-1 frame is capable of transporting any PDH tributary signal (≤ 140 Mbit/s). pointer and the payload.3 SECTION OVERHEAD (SOH) The first 9 bytes in each of the 9 rows are called Section Overhead (SOH). How do we arrive at the bit-rates? Diagram 3 Fig sdh frame structure We may proceed through the steps as given below: · Number of rows in a frame = 9 · Number of columns in a frame = 9+261 = 2. SOH bytes are used for communication between adjacent pieces of synchronous equipment.43019 · Number of bits/frame = 9*270*8 = 1.channel.70 · Number of bytes/frame = 9*270 = 2.000 = 155. The frame comprises of section overhead (SOH).52 Mbit/s 3. Top three rows of SOH are RSOH. used for the needs of the regenerator .552. SOH is classified as the Regenerator Section Overhead (RSOH) and Multiplex Section Overhead (MSOH).

Synchronous multiplexers can accept a wide range of tributaries and can offer a number of possible output data rates. or line side we have higher bit rate STM-N signals. Bottom five rows of SOH are MSOH. used for the needs of multiplex section. there are some additional equipment in SDH to perform function like cross-connection and OA&M as explained further. .A2 : Frame alignment B1.K2 : Automatic Protection Switching (APS) channel M1 : Transmission error acknowledgement S1 : Clock quality indicator • : Media Dependent Bytes In SDH.B2 : Parity bytes for error monitoring D1…D3 : Data Communication Channel (DCC) networkmanagement D4…D12 : Data Communication Channel (DCC) network management E1. The reason for this is to couple the functions of certain overhead bytes to the network architecture. 3. Though the regeneration of signals is similar to PDH.E2 : Orderwire Channel F1 : Maintenance J0 : Trace Identifier K1.4TERMINAL MULTIPLEXERS Terminal Multiplexers are used to combine plesiochronous and synchronous input signals into higher bit rate STM-N signals as shown in Figure 3 On the tributary side. all current plesiochronous bit rates can be accommodated. On the aggregate. The purpose of individual bytes is detailed below: A1. multiplexers perform both multiplexing and line terminating functions.section.

Diagram-4 Terminal multiplexer pdh Stm-n sdh Figure 4 Terminal Multiplexer 3. Diagram 6 Fig 6 digital cross connect switch . 3.6 DIGITAL CROSS CONNECTS (DXC) Cross-connection in a synchronous network involves setting up semipermanent interconnections between different channels enabling routing to be performed down to VC level. This feature makes it possible to set up ring structures. which have the advantage that automatic backup path switching is possible using elements in the ring in the event of a fault.5ADD DROP MULTIPLEXERS Plesiochronous and lower bit rate synchronous signals can be extracted from or inserted into high speed SDH bit streams by means of ADM‟s.

etc.8 NETWORK MANAGEMENT SYSTEM The network management system is considered as an element in the synchronous network. have the job of regenerating the clock and amplitude of the incoming data signals that have been attenuated and distorted by dispersion.This network element can have widest range of functions such as mapping of PDH tributary signals into virtual containers and switching of various containers up to and including VC-4. 3.7 REGENERATORS Regenerators. They derive their clock signals from the incoming data stream. F1. Fig 8 nms . Messages are received by extracting various 64Kbit/s channels (e. Diagram 7 Fig7regenerator 3. in RSOH) and also can be output using these channels.g. as the name implies. service channels E1.

In other words. which precisely is the job of NMS.11 POINT TO MULTIPOINT TOPOLOGY In Point-to-Multipoint Topology two terminal multiplexers are connected via ADM or DXC to provide drop and insert at ADM location as shown in Figure 10 . Elements such as Terminal Multiplexer. but lacks the benefits of other topologies. 3. These elements can be used in a number of configurations.9 NETWORK TOPOLOGY We have already discussed various elements which can be seen in a SDH network.10 POINT TO POINT TOPOLOGY In Point-to-Point Topology two terminal multiplexers are connected directly as shown in Figure 9. Diagram 9 Fig 9 3. It is no doubt simple and cost effective. 3.All the SDH network elements mentioned so far are software-controlled. Add and Drop Multiplexer and Digital Cross Connects have similar functions to the extent that they provide interface for transportation of tributary signals. Some commonly used topologies are explained further. the waythey are connected in a network is known as Network Topology. This means that they can be monitored and remotely controlled.

as shown in Figure 12.12 RING TOPOLOGY In Ring topology the elements used are ADM‟s connected together in ring form. though DXC‟s can also be used. whom input as well as the output are plesiochronous signals. this topology provides a special feature called “Self Healing”. These are commonly known as Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy (PDH) multiplexers. and hence is most commonly used topology. . Apart from the facility of drop and insert possible at every ADM locations.Diagram 11 Fig 11 3.1 INTRODUCTION Present transmission systems interconnecting switches use multiplexers. Diagram 12 Fig 12 4 SYNCHRONOUS MULTIPLEXING 4. This feature protects the traffic carried by the ring automatically against equipment/fibre failure.

Diagram 13 Fig 13 Transmission systems planned for the future will use multiplexers that accept plesiochronous synchronous signal at its input and synchronous signal at the output and are called Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) multiplexers. standardized for the transport of suitably adapted payloads over physical transmission networks. .SYNCHRONOUS DIGITAL HIERARCHY (SDH) SDH is a hierarchical set of digital transport structures. 4. This handout explains in a simplified manner the principles of synchronous multiplexing and narrates various signal processing steps by taking different input signals from PDH.2 TERMINOLOGY & DEFINITIONS 1.

4) This element comprises either a single Container-n (n= 3.4) or an assembly of Tributary Unit Groups (TUG 2s or TUG 3s) together with Virtual Container POH appropriate to that level. A basic STM is defined at 1. The information is suitably conditioned for serial transmission on the selected media at the rate. · HIGHER ORDER VIRTUAL CONTAINER-n : VC-n (n= 3.2. Alignment information to identify VC-n frame start is provided by the server network layer.2.520 Kbit/s. which repeats every 125 or 500 m s. It consists of information payload and Path Overhead (POH) information fields organized in a block frame structure. 3.55.2. It consists of an information payload (the higher order Virtual Container) and an Administrative Unit pointer which . Higher capacity STM‟s are formed at rate equivalent to N times this basic rate. STM capacities for N= 4. · LOWER ORDER VIRTUAL CONTAINERn : VC-n (n= 1.3) This element comprises a single Container-n (n= 1. N= 16 and N= 64 are defined by ITU-T. VIRTUAL CONTAINER-n (VC-n ) A virtual container is the information structure used to support path layer connections in the SDH. which is synchronized to the network. ADMINISTRATIVE UNIT-n (AU-n ) An administrative unit is the information structure which provides adaptation between the higher order path layer and the multiplex section layer. which repeats every 125 m s. Two types of virtual containers have been identified. 4. It consists of information payload and section overhead information fields organized in a block frame structure. SYNCHRONOUS TRANSPORT MODULE(STM) An STM is the information structure used to support section layer connections in the SDH.3) plus the lower order Virtual Container POH appropriate to that level. This is termed STM-1.

The AU-4 consists of a VC-4 plus an Administrative Unit pointer which indicates the phase alignment of the Vc-4 with respect to an STM-N frame. A TUG-2 consists of a homogeneous assembly of identical TU-1s or Tu-2. TUG‟s are defined in such a way that mixed capacity payloads made up of different size Tributary Units can be constructed to increase flexibility of the transport network. occupying fixed. 5.2.indicates the offset of the payload frame start relative to the multiplex section frame start.CONTAINER-n (n= 1…4) A container is the information structure which forms the network synchronous information payload for a Virtual Container. The TUn (n= 1. An AUG consists of a homogeneous assembly of AU-4. It consists of an information payload (the lower order virtual container) and a Tributary Unit pointer which indicates the offset of the payload frame start relative to the higher order Virtual Container frame start. defined positions in an STM payload are termed as Administrative Unit Group (AUG).TRIBUTARY UNIT-n (TU-n) A Tributary Unit is an information structure which provides adaptation between the lower order path layer and the higher order path layer. 7. One or more Tributary Units. . defined position in a higher order VC-n payload is termed a Tributary Unit Group (TUG). 8.3) consists of a VC-n together with a Tributary Unit pointer.NETWORK NODE INTERFACE (NNI) The interface at the network node which is used to interconnect with another network container. 6. One or more Administrative units occupying fixed. For each of the defined Virtual Containers there is a corresponding container. A TUG-3 consists of a homogeneous assembly of TU-2s or TU-3.POINTER An indicator whose value defines the frame offset of a Virtual Container with respect to the frame reference of the transport entity on which it is supported.

448 Kbit/s PDH signal. SDH MAPPING A procedure by which tributaries are adapted into Virtual Containers at the boundary of an SDH network. SDH ALIGNING A procedure by which the frame offset information is incorporated into the Tributary Unit or the Administrative Unit when adapting to the frame reference of the supporting layer.368 Kbit/s · 1. The SDH multiplexer only accepts only following PDH bit rates from European hierarchy: · 2.048 Kbit/s · 34. 4. As European standards for PDH working is followed in India. .SDH MULTIPLEXING A procedure by which multiple lower order path layer signals are adapted into a higher order path or the multiple higher order path layer signals are adapted into a multiplex section.39 264 Kbit/s SDH does not accept 8. let us consider only European standards for PDH rates for explanation. 12.CONCATENATION A procedure whereby a multiplicity of Virtual Containers is associated with one another with the result that their combined capacity can be used as a single container across which bit sequence integrity is maintained 10.3 INPUT TO MULTIPLEXER The basic input to a synchronous multiplexer is plesiochronous signal from European or North American or Japanese hierarchy and basic output is synchronous signal called Synchronous Transport Module of level one (STM-1).9. 11.

VC-3. These variations are accommodated by associating a pointer with each VC. performance monitoring etc. In a synchronous network. all equipment is synchronized to an overall network clock. the process is called mapping. Each container is then added with control information known as Path Overhead which is to help the service provider to achieve end to end path monitoring. However there may be a slight delay associated with a transmission link. The VC and the pointer together is called the Administrative Unit (AU) if it contains VC-4 and Tributary Unit (TU) if it contains VC-3 or VC-1. 34 Mb/s and 140 Mb/s respectively.4. The container and the path overhead together is called Virtual Container. Further some more control information bytes called Section Overhead (SDH) is added to provide communication channel for OA&M. . Figure12 shows the reduced multiplexing structure which takes care of only European PDH hierarchy. Details of synchronous multiplexing taking various input bit rates are explained in the following sections. TU‟s are further combined in a definite fashion to obtain VC-4 and in turn AU-4 and AUG are obtained. each corresponding to an existing plesiochronous rate. Depending upon the PDH bit rates various VC‟s are formed. frame alignment. The pointer value can be incremented or decremented as necessary to accommodate movements of the position of the VC. VC-1. These containers are filled in with the information from a plesiochronous signal. which indicates the position of the beginning of the VC with respect to the STM-1 frame. The way in which this is done is similar to the justification procedure carried out in PDH multiplexing. the location of VC‟s within an STM-1 frame may not be fixed with time. For example. protection switching. Figure 11 shows a genetic multiplexing structure standardized by ITU-T which takes care of both American as well as European PDH rates. An AUG and a section overhead together form STM-1.VC-4 are formed for European PDH bit rates 2 Mb/s.4 PRINCIPLES OF SYNCHRONOUS MULTIPLEXING The SDH defines a number of containers at its boundary.

Diagram 14 Fig 14 .

4. 4. Each of the 9 rows of payload (260 columns by 9 rows) portioned into 20 blocks of 13 bytes. In above provision each row will have one „S‟ bit and five „C‟ bits. The container and the path overhead together is called Virtual Container (VC).e. 96 D bits).6 FORMING VIRTUAL CONTAINER VC-4 The container is then added with control information known as path overhead (POH) of 9 bytes (one Column by nine rows) which help the service provider to achieve end-to-end path monitoring. S and C bits as shown in Figure 14. where CCCCC= 00000or majority vote will indicate „S‟ bit as data bit. The last 12 bytes of each block contain data bits (i. . Container-4 is filled out by taking 140 Mbit/s PDH signal in a manner similar to the justification process carried out in PDH higher order multiplexing. The size of the VC-4 will be 261 columns by 9 rows (261*9 bytes) in a time frame of 125 m s. O. R. “a container is the information structure which forms the network synchronous information payload for a Virtual Container”.5 FORMING CONTAINER C-4 As defined by ITU-T. VC-4 is formed when POH is added to C-4. The size of the C-4 is 260 columns by 9 rows (260*9 bytes) in a time frame of 125 m s. The first byte of each block is W\X\Y\Z containing D.

The SOH includes bytes for block framing. whose value indicates the position of the beginning of the VC with respect to the STM-1 frame and the process is called SDH aligning.9 ADDING SOH TO FORM STM-1 More control information bytes called section overhead (SOH). Figure 15 depicts all the steps involved to obtain STM-1 frame from C-4. 4.4.8 FORMATION OF ADMINISTRATIVE UNIT GROUP(AUG) One AU-4 moves further to form AUG without any addition of bytes. MSOH bytes pass transparently through regenerators. SOH is further classified as regenerator SOH (RSOH) terminated at regenerators and Multiplex SOH (MSOH) terminated where AUGs are assembled and disassembled. bytes for order-wire and other bytes to provide communication channel for OA&M. The VC-4 and the pointer together is called Administrative Unit-4 (AU-4) 4. is added to the AUG to form STM-1 frame. is associated with VC. bytes for error performance. Fig 15 . etc. The pointer value can be incremented or decremented as necessary to accommodate movements of the position of the VC.. but its necessity may be appreciated while forming AUG from AUS-3 (applicable to SONET). protection switching.7 FORMING ADMINISTRATIVE UNIT AU-4 A pointer which is physically located in 4th row of the SOH area. Formation of AUG may appear redundant.

4. The size of the VC-12 will be 140 bytes in a time frame of 500 m s. As size of TUG-3 is 86 columns by 9 rows. This is depicted in Figure 16 The payload size of TUG-3 while multiplexing from Tu-12s via TUG-2s will be 756 bytes which accounts for 84 columns by 9 rows in a time frame of 125 m s. 4. The NPI is used to distinguish between TUG-3 containing TU-3 or TUG-2s and is contained in first three bytes of the first column. The C-12 and the POH together is called VC-12. the byte in extra two columns are used as Null Point Indicator (NPI) and fixed stuff. seven numbers of TUG.2s are multiplexed to obtain TUG-3. Second. Conceptually the size of TU-12 will be 36 bytes (4 columns * 9 rows) in a time frame of 125 m s.11 FORMING TRIBUTARY UNIT TU-12 The VC-12 together with the pointer is called Tributary Unit (TU-12). in a multiframe (4 frame) structure. image 140 bytes are for VC-12. The size of the TU-12 is 144 bytes.10 FORMING VIRTUAL CONTAINER VC-12 The container VC-12 is added with control information of 4 bytes called path overhead to achieve end-to-end path monitoring. First.12MULTIPLEXING OF TU12s TO FORM TUG-3 It is achieved in two stages. 4. Two bytes (V1 and V2) out of remaining four bytes are the pointers indicating the location of the first byte (V5) of the V-12 . three TU-12s are multiplexed by byte interleaving to form one TUG-2. .

Diagram17 Fig 17 4. It is a very robust.the craft terminal for local operation and maintenance.the network manager with advanced network layer functions and management of network elements · FIBCOM 6300CT . The FIBCOM 6300 is a combined element and network management system with a Windows NT-based user interface. Gurgaon (Harayana) The FIBCOM 6300 is an open ITU-T compliant TMN system. It is divided into two main products: · FIBCOM 6300NM .13 EQUIPMENT The software used for managing the STM I equipment is NM 2100/6300 Element Manager CT 6300 Craft Terminal which is developed by Fibcom Technologies. The product family covers applications ranging from craft terminals over element management systems to complex network management systems. scalable and reliable carrier-class .

15 BENEFITS The operator can concentrate on the circuits and services without losing the visibility of and access to the individual network elements. Performance data is collected.16 KEY FEATURES · Multiple operating platform • TMN • Element Manager • Craft Terminal · Distributed GUI · Supports all FIBCOM products · Remote SW downloads · World -wide field proven Management System · Management of SDH. 4. fault and performance management · Compliant with ITU-T and ETSI standards . and alarms are retrieved and related to paths.system from which all SDH elements can be managed. It provides with open interfaces (Q3) for easy integration with other management systems. ATM and primary rate elements · Windows NT graphics user interface · Distributed management platform based on CORBA · Scalable.internal or external. A single server can handle several thousand-network elements and more servers can be added. reconfiguration of paths and grooming of paths. the FIBCOM 6300 is highly scalable and can be configured with duplicated computer servers for extremely high availability. Furthermore. Paths can be related to customers . 4. To put it simply. flexible and cost effective solution · Configurable. The FIBCOM 6300 provides automated or semi-automated path setup including protection. the FIBCOM 6300 involves element and network management of transmission networks including optical networks.

The 6300EM/NM can be configured as a fully distributed multi-user system with the software located on a number of computers working together as one virtual computer platform. Both products have a graphical user interface. B. A range of network management system is available to suit any type of customer requirements. · FIBCOME 7200 Optical Transport System. the data distribution facility permits tailored management solutions with element manager configurations ranging from simple single user systems managing small networks to large multi-user management systems managing complex networks with thousands of network elements 4.L is one of their active customers. adaptability and expandability. · FIBCOM 6310 & 6320 Edge Node are managed using the same 6300 System. PDH and primary rate equipment. (DWDM). The 6300EM and the 6300CT can manage different types of equipment via element access modules. is the leader in SDH equipment and optical fiber network solutions from concept to commissioning in technical collaboration with Tellabs Denmark A/S.N. · FIBCOM 6330 SDH product family for trunk and regional networks. HDSL. The data distribution is supported by CORBA. · FIBCOM 6340 SDH for multi service applications.S.4.18 Instruments Used By BSNL In SDH Fibcom India Ltd. ATM. some of the equipments used by B. standards based and field proven SDH/DWDM product range can satisfy the needs of most demanding customer by virtue of its flexibility.L are as follows:- .N. Fibcom‟s high quality. The 6300CT runs under Windows 95 on a portable PC. Together with the modular system design. SDH product family for regional and access networks.17 NM2100 Element Manager The 6300 EM runs under Windows NT for management of SDH. For Example.S.

Fibcom 6320 edge node 3. Fibcom 6370 edge node 4. Fibcom 6340 edge node 5. Fibcom 6325 edge node 4.fig 18 Various Phases In SDH where Fibcom‟s equipmentsare used 1.19 FIBCOM 6310 Edge Node FIBCOM 6310 Edge node is a flexible. cost-effective ADM/TM providing access for up to 21x 2 Mbit/s ITU-T G.703 services and ATM 155 Mbit/s. E3/DS3/E4 Transportation . Fibcom 6310 edge node 2. Fibcom 6345 edge node 6.

FIBCOM 6310 is a complete SDH node. providing all thebenefits of SDH. Ultra low power consumption.21 FIBCOM 6325 Edge Node Optical SDH trunk platform for multiple services Fibcom 6325 is a compact Multi-Service Provisioning Platform supporting SDH. such as protection and performance monitoring with various applications in access networks 4. Ideal for access & regional network. Wide range of Tributaries E1/E3/E4/STM.1/STM1e/STM1o & 10/100 Ethernet. FIBCOM 6320 offers STM-1 and STM 4 optical interfaces. ATM Payload supports. Which makes it possible to provide fully managed STM-1 lines Running only at third of the capacity FIBCOM 6320 can operate over extended temperature range. DTMF Engineering Order Wire (EoW). PDH and data services. ADM/TM network element with 4/1 connectivity for access/regional network 6320 is an acronym for Add. High reliability and redundancy enable the node to be used not only in . which is sufficiently low to carry synchronisation signals.Drop Multiplexers and Cross Connects for VC1 level switchin excellent choice for access and regional transport networks. Diagram 19 4. STM-4. a special feature unique to this product is "Sub deployed lines". It offers 2 Mb/s signals with an output jitter.20 FIBCOM 6320 Edge Node Compact STM-1.

Fig 21 . Small. This.. allows flexible and rapid inservice expansion of both capacity and services.access networks. which can carry most types of traffic such as SDH/SONET. fits anywhere. fast and dense. one-optical-platform-carriesall.22 FIBCOM 6370 Edge Node High-capacity optical networking FIBCOM 6370 provides transparent light paths. It offers speeds of up to 2.. Formed in ring or meshed networks.).signal-formats.5Gbps (STM-16) and enables a wide mix of services from traditional SDH and PDH to colored WDM and IP interfaces Cross-connection redundancy makes the Fibcom 6325 node reliable as HUB node handling high traffic load. Fibre Channel etc. but also in core networks. It can reduce infrastructure cost of long haul and regional systems. At only 1RU (44mm) in height. all traffic going through the Fibcom 6325 node is fully protected against single point of failures Diagram 20 Fig 20 4. IP and ATM over SDH and a large variety of data signals (Gigabit Ethernet.

Gurgaon (Harayana). A single server can handle several thousand-network elements and more servers can be added.In WDM systems a single optical amplifier operates as a multi-channel repeater. and alarms are retrieved and related to paths.23 SOFTWARE USED TO PERFORM SDH The software used for managing the STM I equipment is NM 2100/6300 Element Manager CT 6300 Craft Terminal which is developed by Fibcom Technologies. It is a very robust. The product family covers applications ranging from craft terminals over element management systems to complex network management systems. . reconfiguration of paths and grooming of paths. It is divided into two main products: · FIBCOM 6300NM . The FIBCOM 6300 is a combined element and network management system with a Windows NTbased user interface.the network manager with advanced network layer functions and management of network elements · FIBCOM 6300CT . Performance data is collected. The FIBCOM 6300 is an open ITU-T compliant TMN system. scalable and reliable carrier-class system from which all SDH elements can be managed. The FIBCOM 6300 provides automated or semi-automated path setup including protection. To put it simply.the craft terminal for local operation and maintenance. Paths can be related to customers . as against individual regenerators required per channel in traditional single channel systems FIBCOM 6370 provides 32/64-channel DWDM platform for operation at the ITU-T grid in C Band and L Band respectively 4. the FIBCOM 6300 involves element and network management of transmission networks including optical networks.internal or external.

the FIBCOM 6300 is highly scalable and can be configured with duplicated computer servers for extremely high availability. The 6300CT runs under Windows 95 on a portable PC. The 6300EM and the 6300CT can manage different types of equipment via element access modules. Together with the modular system design. The data distribution is supported by CORBA. 4. Furthermore. SDH product family for regional and access networks. Both products have a graphical user interface. ATM. . The 6300EM/NM can be configured as a fully distributed multi-user system with the software located on a number of computers working together as one virtual computer platform. · FIBCOM 6340 SDH for multi service applications. . It provides with open interfaces (Q3) for easy integration with othermanagement systems. · FIBCOM 6330 SDH product family for trunk and regional networks. FIBCOM 6310 & 6320 Edge Node are managed using the same 6300 System. PDH and primary rate equipment. For Example.24 BENEFITS The operator can concentrate on the circuits and services without losing the visibility of and access to the individual network elements.25 NM2100 Element Manager The 6300 EM runs under Windows NT for management of SDH. · FIBCOME 7200 Optical Transport System. HDSL.4.

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