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# Physics Basic Questions: Level MS

Chapter 5: Electronics

Section 5.1 (Page-78) BG 1. What material is used to build the electronic devices? Why? Solution:
Semiconductors are used to build electronic devices, since these materials, under standard conditions, have intermediate conductivity between good conductors and insulators, and their conductivity depends on temperature, illumination, and the degree of impurity they have.

## Section 5.1.1 (Page-82) BG 2.

G a) In which direction p-n junctions conduct current? A p-n junction conducts only from the p-type to the n-type layer.

Solution:
b)

## Explain the way a p-n junction conducts the current.

Solution:

When the positive pole of the cell is connected to the p-side, the positive terminal pushes the holes towards the junction. The negative pole of the cell is connected to the n-side and it does the same with the electrons. The junction becomes rich in carriers and an electric current passes. The electrons crossing the junction are taken up by the positive terminal of the power supply and circulated to the other terminal, where they re-enter the junction, maintaining an electric current in it.

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## Physics Basic Questions: Level MS

Section 5.2.2 (Page-91) BG 3. What are the conditions for a diode to be forwardbiased? Solution:
In order to be forward-biased, a silicon junction diode should be connected: (a) (b) (c) With p at a higher potential than n; Across a potential difference greater than 0.6 V, below which it does not conduct; In series with a resistor to protect it from over current.

Section 5.2.2 (Page-91) BG 4. With the aid of a diagram, describe the principle of the four-diode bridge rectifier. Solution:
*) The four-diode full-wave rectifier, called a bridge rectifier, is constructed using four half-wave rectifiers and works by providing two alternative paths for the current, one path for the positive half-cycle, and one for the negative half-cycle, such that each time the current flows in the same sense in the output device (here the resistor R):

When A is at a higher potential than B, the current follows the path ADCB, through the diodes D1 and D3 and so has sense DC through R. When B is at a higher potential than A, the current follows the path BDCA, through the diodes D2 and D4 and still has sense DC through R. Through R there will be a direct current.

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## Physics Basic Questions: Level MS

**)

Each path contains two diodes in series and so it swallows up about 1.2 V (= 2 0.6 V) of the peak voltage. Also, while the potential difference is less than 1.2 V in either sense, there are gaps of no current.

Section 5.3 (Page-93) BG 5. A capacitor is a device that stores charge and energy. How can a capacitor be:
(i) charged?

Solution:

When the terminals of the capacitor are connected to a d.c. voltage supply, a current called transient current momentarily passes. Electrons are attracted to the positive terminal of the voltage supply from one plate of the capacitor and an exactly equal number of electrons flows from the negative terminal of the voltage supply to the other plate.

The capacitor becomes charged, one plate is positively charged and the other plate is negatively charged. (ii) discharged?

Solution:

If the capacitor is disconnected from the battery, and the plates are connected by a conducting wire, electrons will flow from the negative to the positive plate creating a momentary current, which starts as a large current, but decreases to zero as the opposite charges on the plates neutralize each other. The capacitor is now discharged.

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## Physics Basic Questions: Level MS

B 6.

Draw the currenttime graph and voltagetime graph for charging and discharging a capacitor.

Solution:

## Section 5.3.5 (Page-98) B 7.

Draw a diagram of a simple power supply and explain briefly the role of each component.

Solution:

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## Physics Basic Questions: Level MS

A simple power supply consists of the following parts: 1. 2. 3. Step-down transformer (earthed and fused): Steps down the a.c. voltage. Bridge rectifier: converts a.c. into pulsating d.c. Capacitor: Smoothens pulsating d.c. into continuous d.c.

Section 5.4.4 (Page-110) BG 8. Explain how the transistor acts as an amplifier and as a switch. Solution:

Transistor as an amplifier: When a small current passes through the base b, it will permit a much larger current to pass through from the collector c to the emitter e. The current Ic is controlled by the current Ib and the ratio Ic / Ib is constant for a given transistor. However, if the transistor is fully ON, Ic becomes independent of the current Ib. Transistor as a switch: The transistor can be switched ON and OFF depending on the value of the input voltage Vin. If Vin < 0.6 V the base-emitter diode does not conduct, no current flows into the base and hence no current flows in neither collector nor
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Physics Basic Questions: Level MS the emitter; thus the transistor is switched OFF. If Vin > 0.6 V a current Ib starts flowing into the base. The voltage Vcc causes a current Ic to start flowing into the collector and the transistor will be switched ON.

Section 5.5.1(Page-114) BG 9.
G (a) What is a thermistor.

Solution:

## A thermistor is a resistor whose resistance decreases with increasing temperature.

(b) Draw a graph showing the variation of resistance with Celsius temperature for a thermistor.

Solution:

Section 5.5.2 (Page-115) B 10. (a) What is the energy change in a LDR? Solution:
In a light dependent resistor (LDR), light energy is changed to electrical energy.

(b) Draw the graph of the variation of resistance with the intensity of illumination for a LDR.

Solution:

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## Physics Basic Questions: Level MS

BT 11.
I) Draw a circuit showing the use of an LDR in a light-dependent switch. Explain how this circuit works.

Solution:

When light falls on the LDR, its resistance decreases and the voltage across the LDR decreases. The resistance of the variable resistor is adjusted such that VBE < 0.6 V and the transistor is OFF. The currents in the base and in the collector are zero and the lamp is off. At night when no light falls on the LDR its resistance increases and the voltage across the LDR increases. When VBE > 0.6 V, the transistor is switched ON. A current IC flows into the collector and the lamp is ON.

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II)

Solution:

## a) A: Resistor; B: LDR; b) C acts as a switch.

C: Transistor;

D: Lamp

c) The resistance of the LDR is low in light and it increases in the dark; therefore, in the dark, the potential difference across the LDR also increases. At a certain time, Vin becomes greater than 0.6 V and the transistor switches ON, a small current flows in the base and a larger current flows in the collector, turning the lamp ON.

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## Physics Basic Questions: Level MS

B 12.

With the aid of a diagram, describe the principle of the time-operated switch.

Solution:

Initially, the switch S is closed. The potential difference across the terminals of the capacitor is zero and hence Vbe = 0 V. The transistor is OFF, the current through the collector is zero and the lamp is OFF. When the switch is opened, the capacitor C will slowly start to accumulate charge, as electrons leave the upper plate, through the variable resistor R, toward the 6 V supply, making the upper plate positively charged. Electrons also come from the negative terminal of the battery to the lower plate of the capacitor, charging it negatively. The potential difference across the capacitor increases. When Vbe > 0.6 V, the transistor is switched ON, there is a current Ic through the collector and the lamp is ON. There is a time delay between opening the switch and the lamp going on. Notice that the time delay can be increased by increasing the capacitance of the capacitor, or the resistance of the variable resistor.

B 13.

## Write the truth table of the following combinations of logic gates:

M

Solution:
A 0 0 1 1 B 0 1 0 1 M = A AND B 0 0 0 1 N = B NAND B C = M OR N 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1

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## Physics Basic Questions: Level MS

Solution:
A 0 0 1 1 B 0 1 0 1 M = NOT B 1 0 1 0 C = A OR M 1 0 1 1

## BT 14. Show that the following circuits are logically identical:

Solution:
M

A 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1

B 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1

C 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1

M = A NAND B 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 0

D=M NAND C 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1

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## Physics Basic Questions: Level MS A 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 B 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 C 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 M = A AND B N = NOT C 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 D = M OR N 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1

Comparing the columns of the output (D) from the two tables, it can be seen that they are identical, so the two combinations of logic gates are equivalent.

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II)

Solution:

(a)

(b)

## (i) Low, OFF or zero. (ii) Low, OFF or zero.

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## (ii) No change, same output.

B 15. Recognize and draw the logic gates symbols (new and old) for Inverter (NON), AND, OR,
NAND and NOR.

Solution:

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