GREATER NOIDA GIRLS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
This is to certify that following report submitted by the following student of third year of course “COMPUTER SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING” as a part of seminar/project work as prescribed by the board of technical education for the subject “CELL PHONE OPERATED LAND ROVER ” . And that I guided him for the term work from time to time and I found him to be satisfactory progressive. And that following student were associated with him for his work however his contribution was proportionate. NAME Ankita Agarwal Anjana Pokhriyal Garima Sharma CS CLASS CS CS 2 DIV 1 1 ROLL.NO 0834710004 0834710003 0841631012
And that the term work has been assessed by me and I am satisfied that the same is upto the standard envisaged for the level of the course. And that the team work may be presented to external examiner DATE:
HEAD OF DEPARTMENT
NO 0834710004 0834710003 0841631012
.GREATER NOIDA GIRLS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
We hereby declare that student of third year of course “COMPUTER SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING” kindly submit that we have completed from time to time the seminar/project work as described in this report by our own skill and between the period from to as per the guidance of MR MANISH SHARMA For the subject “CELL PHONE OPERATED LAN ROVER” And the following student were associated with us for this work however quantum of our contribution has been approved by teacher
NAME Ankita Agarwal Anjana Pokhriyal Garima Sharma CS
CLASS CS CS 2
DIV 1 1
C) FINAL DESIGN
PCB LAYOUT……………………………………………… PROGRAM CODE……………………………………. iii) FLOWCHART…………………………………………….... DESIGN OF THE PROJECT
A) PRELIMINARY DESIGN i) BLOCK DIAGRAM…………………………………………….INDEX
1.. C) TECHNOLOGY USED (DTMF SIGNALLING)………………………
B) PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED………………………………………..
A) INTRODUCTION……………………………………………………… B) HISTORY… … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … . ii) COMPONENTS USED…………………………………… iii) CIRCUIT DIAGRAM………………………………………….. PREFACE
......... 4... BIBLOGYAPHY… … … … … … ....… … … … …
4......... DISADVANTAGES………………………………………….... 2... ii) ISP Programmer......... APPLICATIONS……………………………………………. ADVANTAGES…………………………………………….... DATASHEETS……………………………………
3..................D) SOFTWARES USED i) PINACAL……………………………………………………..... SCOPE OF THE PROJECT
1... FURTHER IMPROVEMENTS & FUTURE SCOPE………... 3...............
express our heartiest gratitude to respe cted MR. This project w o r k reflects c o n t r i b u t i o n s of many people with whom we had long discuss ions and without which it would not have been possible.O. We must first of all. It would be unfair if we do not mention the invaluable contribution and timely co-oper ation extended to us by staff member of our department. MANSIH SHARMA for providing us all guidance to complete project.D. And especially we can never forget the most worthy advices given by Miss Garima (H.
. that would help us the entire lifetime.. Dept of CS1).ACKNO WLEDGEMENT
We feel profou nd ple asure in bringing out this projects report for which we have to go from pillar to post to make it a reality.
In the project the robot is controlled by a mobile phone that makes a call to the mobile phone attached to the robot. processing is done by the on board microcontroller and the task is performed using motors or with some other actuators.Abstract
Conventionally. if any button is pressed a tone corresponding to the button pressed is heard at the other end called ‘Dual Tone Multiple frequency’ (DTMF) tone.revarse…etc
. which have a drawback of limited working range. processing.these ic sends a signals to the the motor driver ic l293d which derives the motor forward. The robot receives these tones with help of phone stacked in the robot.
Although. working range as large as the coverage area of the service provider. The received tone is processed by the microcontroller with the help of DTMF decoder ic cm8870 . no interference with other controllers and up to twelve controls. the apperanceand capabilities of robot vary vastly. all robots share the feature of a mechanical. action. Generally. wireless controlled robots user circuits. The control of robot involves three distent phases: perception. the preceptors are sensors mounted on the robot. Use of mobile phones for robotic control can overcome these limitations. It provides the advantages of robust control. movables structure under some form of control. limited frequency range and limited control. In the course of a call.
A remote control vehicle is defined as any mobile device that is controlled by a means that does not restrict its motion with an origin exte rnal to the device.INTRODUCTION
Radio control (often abbreviated to R/C or simply RC) is the use of radio signals to remote ly control a device.
One of the key technologies which underpin this field is that of remote vehicle control. Industrial. This is often a radio control device. cable between control and vehicle. The term is used frequently to refer to the control of model vehicles from a hand-held radio transmitter.
. and scientific research organizations make [traffic] use of radio-controlled vehicles as well. or an infrared controller. It is vital that a vehicle should be capable of proce eding accurately to a target area. A remote control vehicle (Also called as RCV) differs from a robot in that the RCV is always controlled by a human and takes no positive action autonomously. maneuveri ng within that area to fulfill its mission and retur ning equally accurately and safely to base.
. Radio is the most popular because it does not require the vehicle to be limited by the length of the cable or in a direct line of sight with the controller (as with the infrared set-up).Recently. Sony Ericsson released a remote control car that could be controlled by any Bluetooth cell phone. Bluetooth is still too expensive and short range to be commercially viable.
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Once in position. is the original prototype of all moder n-day uninhabited aerial vehicles and precision guided weapons. a command would be sent to deto nate an explosive charge contained within the boat!s forward compartment. Tesla Presents Series Part 3. In fact . built by Nikola Tesla in 1898 . Powered by lead-acid batteri es and an electric drive motor.HIS TORY OF REMOTE CONTROLLED
The First Remote Control Vehicle I Prec ision Guided Wea pon : This propeller-driven radio controlled boat. land or sea.
. all remote ly oper ated vehicles in air. the vessel was designed to be maneuvered alongside a target using instructio ns received from a wireless remotecontrol transmitter. with comme ntary by Leland Anderson. The weapon!s guidance system incorp orated a secure communications link between the pilot!s controller and the surface-ru nning torpedo in an effort to assure that control could be maintained even in the prese nce of electronic countermeasures. To learn more about Tesla!s system for secure wireless comm unications and his pioneering imp lementation of the electronic logic-gate circuit read ‘Nikola Tesla — Guided Weapons & Computer Technology’.
They were the radio-controlled Henschel!s Hs 293A and Ruhrstahl!s SD1400X. one version. primarily against ships at sea. known as ’Fritz X.S. The next evolution involved the fitting of a bomb to a glider airframe.’ both air-launched. The first weapon was essentially a standard bomb fitted with steeri ng controls. It!s known that Germany deployed a number of more advanced guided strike weapons that saw combat before either the V-1 or V-2. the GB-4 having a TV camera to assist the controller with targeting.Use of Remo te Con trolled Vehicles During World War II :
During World War II in the Europe an Theater the U. In each case. the weapon would be direct ed to its target by a crew member on a control plane. The third class of guided weapon was the remote controlled B-17.
. Air Force experime nted with three basic forms radiocontrol guided weapons.
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As a method of in-band signaling. The version of DTMF used for telephone tone dialing is known by the tradem arked term Touch-Tone (canceled March 13. DTMF tones were also used by cable television broadcasters to indicate the start and stop times of local commercial insertion points during station breaks for the benefit of cable companies. It is also known in the UK as MF4. fast.
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Dual-Ton e Multi-Frequency (DTMF) Dual-tone multi-freq uency (DTMF) signaling is used for telecommu nication signaling over analog telephone lines in the voice-freque ncy band between telephone handsets and other commu nications devices and the switching center. Until better out-of -band signaling equi pment was developed in the 1990s . and loud DTMF tone sequences could be heard during the commercial breaks of cable channels in the United States and elsewhere. Other multi-frequency systems are used for signaling internal to the telephone network. and is standardized by ITU-T Recomme ndation Q. 1984 ).
For example. The multiple tones are the reason for calling the system multifrequency. These tones are then decoded by the switching center to determi ne which key was presse d. so each button activated two contacts. When used to dial a telephone number. The original keypads had levers inside. pressi ng a single key will produce a pitch consisting of two simu ltaneous pure tone sinusoidal frequencies.
A DTMF Telephon e Keypad
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.Telephon e Keypad
The contempor ary keypad is laid out in a 3x4 grid. pressi ng the !1! key will result in a sound composed of both a 697 and a 1209 hertz (Hz) tone. and the column dete rmines the high frequency. The row in which the key appe ars dete rmines the low frequency. although the original DTMF keypad had an additional column for four now-defu nct menu selector keys.
480 Hz 350 Hz 440 Hz
620 Hz 440 Hz 480 Hz
High Freq.DTMF Key pad Frequencies (With Sound Clips)
1209 Hz 697 Hz 770 Hz 852 Hz 941 Hz
1 4 7 *
2 5 8 0
3 6 9 #
DTMF Event Frequencies
Event Busy Signal Dial Tone Ringback Tone(US)
i. it as a DTMF acts generator pressed. BLOCK DIAGRAM :
DESCRIPTION: As shown in the above block diagram. IC CM8870
decodes the received tone & gives binary equivalent of it to the microcontroller.. controller programm such ed The is that
. first block is the Cell Phone.1. So. DTMF with tone
depending upon key
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. ultimately the two motors rotateaccording to the key on keypa of cell the d the phon pressed e. So.appropriate output given to Motor Driver IC L293D is which will drive the two DC Motors connected to it. The concept used for driving is ‘Differential Drive’.
1 uF 2 22 pF 4
3) OSCILLA TORS:
V ALUE QUANTITY 3.57 MHz 1 12 MHz 1
V ALUE CM 8870 QUANTITY Atmega16 74ls04 L293D NE L7805 CV 1 1 1 1 1
1) RESIS TORS:
V ALUE 100k 10k QUANTITY 330k 2 5 1
V ALUE QUANTITY 0.
50 RPM D C MOTOR DIO DE.COMPONENT 12V . 4007 R ESE T SWITCH 1.5V D C BA T T s ERY C O N N ECING WIRES T
QUANTITY 2 1 1 9 7
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3. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM :
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there were some prob lems faced while actual implementation:
1. Several ways to break up the cords and connect them to the input of IC 8870 were tried & some were newly developed by us (e.PROBLEMS
Although the concept & design of the project seemed perfect.
HandsFree cord!s !Earplugs! were remov ed & resulting set of wires were connected in an appropri ate manner to the Decoder IC!s input. the right one had to be chosen from them. Connecting Audio Jack of PC!s speakers to the cell phone with help of an extender). Conn ec ting Han dsFree deco der IC input:
of ce ll phone
There were several types of HandsFree cords available in the market.g.
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Several cell phones were tested with their respective Hansfree cords. N-series were tried. Finally Nokia N97 mini was used .Nokia 2300 were found to be more suitable for the purpose. But they couldn!t give any output.
The older version phones like Nokia 1100 .2. Selection of Mobile Phone:
. latest cell phone like Nokia 5700 .
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RE A DT H EINPUT FROM DTMF D ECOD ER(PORT 1)
IF INP UT= 2
M1 =F W D M2 =F W D
C AL L APPRO PRIATE DELAY
IF INP UT= 8
M 1= RE V M 2= RE V
C AL L APPRO PRIATE DELAY
IF INP UT= 5
M1 =ST OP M2 =ST OP
C AL L APPRO PRIATE DELAY
IF INP UT= 4
M 1= RE V M2 =F W D
C AL L APPRO PRIATE DELAY
IF INP UT= 6
M1 =F W D M 2= RE V
C AL L APPRO PRIATE DELAY
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Source-Level Debugger/Simulator. 8051 Utilities (linker. 5. Locator/Linker Keil Software provides you with software development tools for the 8051 family of microcontrollers.KEIL COMPILER Keil is a German based Software development company. With these tools. object file converter. Cross Assembler.1. µVision for Windows Integrated Development Environment. 2. you can generate embedded applications for the multitude of 8051 derivatives. Keil provides following tools for 8051 development 1. It provides several development tools like • IDE (Integrated Development environment) • Project Manager • Simulator • Debugger • C Cross Compiler . library manager). C51 Optimizing C Cross Compiler.
working with keil: -
. 3. A51 Macro Assembler. 4.
to open keil software click on start menu then program and then select keil2 (or any other version keil3 etc.
. here the discussion is on keil2 only). Following window will appear on your screen
you can see three different windows in this screen. 1) project work space window 2) editing window 3) output window.
Project workspace window is for showing all the related files connected with your project. Editing window is the place where you will edit the code Output window will show the output when you compile or build or run your project. expand the list and select 8051 (all variants)
. Here I am creating new project in d:\keil2\myprojects\first as shown in figure
give the name of project as "test". now you will be asked to chose your target device for which you want to write the program. By default it will be saved as *. scroll down the cursor and select generic from list.v2 extension. Now to start with new project follow the steps
• • •
click on project menu and select new project you will be asked to create new project in specific directory just move to your desired directory and there create a new folder for your project named "first".
when you click OK. You will see following window. Now on your screen expand target1 list fully. you will be asked to add startup code and file to your project folder. click yes.
Now you can start writing your code. as you start writing program in C.h"
. Because our target is 8051 our header file will be "reg51.•
now click on file menu and select new file. editor window will open. same way here also you have to first include the header file.
after including this file. so one can directly use these register names in coding
. TCON. The following window will appear
if you scroll down cursor you will see that all the SFRs like P0-P3. bit registers and byte registers are already defined in this header file.h>. ACC. TMOD. just right click on the file and select open document <reg51.
Remove all the errors and again build the target till you find "0 Error(s)" now you are ready to run your program. select "add files to source gorup 1" select the C file you have created and click add button
• • •
you will see that the c file has been added in source group now to compile the program from project menu select "build target". In the output window you will see the progress if there is any compilation error then target will not be created. also one more window is now opened named "watches".•
now you can write your program same as c language starting with void main() after completing the code save the file in project folder with ".c" extension. now right click on "source group 1" in project workspace window.
. in this window you can see different variable values. from debug menu select "start/stop debug session" you will see your project workspace window now shows most of the SFRs as well as GPRs r0-r7.
then type F2 to edit and type the name of your variable if you want to see the output on ports go to peripheral menu and select I/O ports. you can give input to port pins by checking or
. select the desire port.•
to add variable in watch window goto "watch#1" tab.
hex". for this you have to create hax file to create hex file first stop debug session.unchecking any check box. Following window will appear. in your project folder you can see the hex file with same name of your project as "test.
select output tag and check "create hex file" box now when you again build your program you will see the message in output window "hex file is created". the output on the pin will be shown in same manner
to run the program you can use any of the option provided "go". Again you will be diverted to project workspace window. here the check mark means digit 1 and no check mark means 0. "step ove" etc. now after testing your program you need to down load this program on your target board that is 8051. right click on "target 1" and select "option for target 1".
. "step by step". "step forward".
this file you can directly load in 8051 target board and run the application on actual environment.
and space exploration. The majority of the probes to the other planets in our solar system have been remote control vehicles.APPL ICATIONS :
Remote control vehicles have various scientific uses including hazardous environments. The sophistication of these devices has fueled gre ater debate on the need for manned spaceflight and exploration. The martian explorers Spirit and Opportu nity have provi ded continuous data about the surface of Mars since January 3. The Voyager I spacecraft is the first craft of any kind to leave the solar system. working in the deep ocean . 2004 . although some of the more recent ones were partially autonomous. Soviet Red Army used remote ly controlled Teletanks during 1930s in the
Milit ary and Enforcement
Military usage of remote ly co ntrolled military vehicles dates back to the first half of 20th century.
Winter War and early stage of World War II. There were also
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remotely controlled cutters and controlled planes in the Red Army.
exper imental remotely
Remote control vehicles are used in law enforcement and military engagements for some of the same reasons. The exposure to hazards are mitig ated to the person who oper ates the vehicle from a location of relative safety. Remote controlled vehicles are used by many police department bomb-squ ads to defuse or deto nate explosives. See Dragon Runner, Military robot.
Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have undergone a dramatic evolution in capability in the past decade. Early UAV!s were capable of reconnaissance missions alone and then only with a limited range. Current UAV!s can hover around possible targets until they are positively identified before releasing their payload of weaponry. Backpack sized UAV!s will provide ground troops with over the horizon surveillance capabilities.
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they are remote ly controlled by a human). These include on-road cars.Sear ch and Rescue
UAVs will likely play an increased role in search and rescue in the United States. Radio-controlled submarine also exist. off-road trucks. These remote controlled vehicles span a wide range in terms of price and sophistication.
. There are many types of radio controlled vehicles.
Rec reation and Hobb y
See Radio-co ntrolled model. airplanes. This was demonstrated by the successful use of UAVs during the 2008 hurric anes that struck Louisiana and Texas. The ’robots’ now popular in television shows such as Robot Wars. boats. and even helicopters. are a recent extension of this hobby (these vehicles do not meet the classical definition of a robot. Small scale remote control vehicles have long been popu lar among hobbyists.
FURTHER IMROVEMENTS FUTURE SCOPE
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FURTHER IMPROVEMENTS 1. Either cell phone should be password protected or neces sary modification should be made in the assembly language code. Password Protection :
& FUTURE SCOPE :
Project can be modified in order to password protect the robot so that it can be oper ated only if correct password is entered. This introdu ces conditioned access & increases security to a great extent.
a high water alarm. a Webcam) robot can be driven beyond line-of-sight & range becomes practically unlimited as GSM networks have a very large range. opening of back window.g. a project called !Alarm Phone Dialer! can be built which will generate necessary alarms for somet hing that is desired to be monitored (usually by triggering a relay). For example.
. Adding a Camera:
If the curre nt project is interfaced with a camera (e.2.
3. So. Ala rm Phone Dialer:
By replacing DTMF Decoder IC CM8870 by a !DTMF Transceiver IC’ CM8880 . low temper ature alarm. garage door. This would be great to get alerts of alarm conditions from home when user is at work. etc. DTMF tones can be generated from the robot. When the system is activated it will call a number of programmed numbers to let the user know the alarm has been activated.
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Edition (july 2008)
8.datashee t4u . http:/ ww w.com/ /
7. http:/ ww w. http:/ www.com/ /
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.8051 projects.The free encyclopedia
2. Wikipedia . Edition (June 2003 )
6. ‘Electronics For You’ Magazine . http:/ ww w. c e ll p h o n e o p e r a te d la n d ro v e r Electronics For You’ Magazine .datasheetcatalog.info/ /
1.alldatashee t.com/ /
4. http:/ ww w. “DTMF Tester” .
2. Surveillance System. This wireless device has no boundation of range and can be controlled as far as network of cell phone
. Takes in use of the mobile technology which is almost available everywhere. Vehicle Navigation with use of 3G technology.
4. Not flexible with all cell phones as only a particular . Cost of project if Cell phone cost included.
Cell phone bill.
3.cell phone whose earpiece is attached can only be used
. Mobile batteries drain out early so charging problem.