to the
Ottoman Armenians?




to the
Ottoman Armenians?
Professor of lnternational Relations

New York, 2006

ISBN 1-4243-1004-0
Copyright O 2006 by Tiirkkaya Ataöv

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lll. Tolerance or Genocidel
lV. Terrorism



- Pure and Simple V. l9l5:ArmedRevolt.




Vl. Transfer, Guidelines and Violence. . . . . . . . . 35

Vll. Forgeries and Falsifications.



Vlll. Deviations from the

Mainstream. . .

X. Epidemics and

......63 .......71


Xl. Tribunals, Verdicts

andJustice .....

Xll.Conclusions. Bibliography.... lndex




Hans Köchler, Global Justice or Global Revenge? International criminal Justice at the Crossroads, Wien and New York, Springer,2003,pp. 185f.


' Telford Taylor, The Änatomy of the Nuremberg Trials, New York, Alfred A. Knopf,


t992, pp. 44f.

For an outstanding book on the psychodynamics of intergroup relations: Vamrk D. to Have Enemies and Allies: From clinical practice to lnternational Relationships, Northvale, New Jersey and London, Jason Aronson Inc.,


Volkan, The Need


v.D' volkan, "Ethnonationalistic
Y a., 4l


Interaction, Charlottesville,

I (December

An rntroduction," Mind and Human
1992), p. g.


become a shared mental longer be important. "Chos moãification6. To stabiliz "foreign" elements, including the rhe mõdified trauma. Historical facts. however. n

and now. Behind the self-styled diplomacy, pressure, interference ciiizens duch as the Armenians.



conseouentlv. *"it?Ït; administration, actiñg witñin the I was censured as if iI had violated


ance served to cover an imPerial ere the iudses in their own cases.

not assiän ãnd practice the same their co-lonies änd often enough

A by-product of involvement in relation to the Armenians was their ãrrired revolt in 1915 in the farthest eastern Ottoman Lcked the Muslim quarters of the rvadins Russian fcirces. Another rm theïar zones near the borders ,toman state. The storY of their L fabrications, inventiotts, sagas, mouslv exaeserated figures or n a seiies ofïars and thé loss of .rmed conflicts are convenientlY

For a historical background ofthe concept ofhumanitarian intervention: Köchler, op. cit., pp. 271-277 .


overlooked, thus portraying one group as snowy white and the other as filthy black.

unsustainable in every respect. the Turks, but also to the Jews.

It is also a greal injustice not only


There exist also several Armenian as well as British,

for the Armenians and the Turks to differ. so much the better. Both stand to gain from mutual understanding, meeting of minds, and

ll. lnventing "Barbarians"


Ne¡at Göyünç, "Turkish-Armenian cultural Relations," The Armenians

in the Late


Empire and the Republic of rurkey served as major places of refuge for peoples suffering from persecution, Muslims and non-Muslims alike. The Ottomans received thousands of Jewish refugees from christian blood libel attacks throughout westerr Europe,

in the lberian Peninsula. They again provided refuge for thousands of Muslims and Jews who survived the Habsburg invasion of parts of the Balkans and the cossack massacres of Jews in the ukraine. They continued to give refuge to eventually

millions of Muslims fleeing from the repeated Russian invasions of the Crimea, Central Asia, Caucasus, and the Balkans. They also received many more Jewish refugees fleeing from massacre and persecution in the Christian-dominated regions of southeastem Europe. For Ottoman role in the rescue of Jews: Stanford J. Shaw, The Jews of the Ottoman Empire and the TurkÍsh Republic, London, Macmillan, and New York' New York University Press, 1991. For Turkey's role in rescuing Jews from the Holocaust: Stanford J. Shaw, Turkey and the Ilolocaust: Turkey's Role in Rescuing Turkish and European Jewry from Nazi Persecution, 1939-1945, New York, Palgrave Macmillan,

Stanford J. Shaw, History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey, Vol. I, Cambridge, University Press, 1976, pp. 58-59, 134-135 and 315-316. The word "míllet" was derived from the A¡abic "milla," used in the sense of religious community. The leader of each such group of people was named "millet baçt" (community head)' 'o The Onhodox comprised the Rum proper (i.e., the Patriarchates of the capital city, Alexandria, Antioch and Jerusalem, and the Archbishopric of Cyprus), Serbs, Vlachs; and Bulgarian Exarchists. Sir Harry Luke, The Old Turkey and the New, London, Geoflrey Bles, 1955, p. 95. ll The ecclesiastical head of the Catholic millet was the high-ranking "agent" of all Catholics, who were considered as a single entity. Likewise, the ethnically Turkish but Christian Gagatz ìilere part of the Orthodox millet. Türkkaya Ataöv, Discrimination and Conflict, Geneva, Switzerland and Haarlem, the Netherlands, EAFORD and SOTA, 2000, pp. 59-60. 12 The Protestants also lived and worked on the same basis. The arrival (1830) of William Goodel, an American missionary, in Istanbul to begin to work among the Armenian population caused wide repercussions on both sides of the Atlantic. Thomas O. Kutvirt, "The Establishment of an American Protestant Mission to the Armenians: 1810-1830," The Armenian Review, Vol. XXV, No. 3-99 (Autumn 1972), pp. 34-49.In 1846, forty Armenians established the Armenian Evangelical Church, to which the Ottoman Sultan granted formal recognition four years later. Rev. Vahan H. Tootikian, "The Rise of Armenian Evangelicals," The Armenian Review, Vol. XXXV, No. 2-138 (Summer l9S2),pp. 128-151. This was the start of the ¡evival of Christianity in Anatolia: O.G.H. Dwight, Christianity Revived in the Near East, New York, Baker and Scribner, 1850. '' Thomas C. Patterson, Inventing Western Civilization, New York, Monthly Review Press, 1997, p. 21.

Armenians looked down on these peoples, who now claim that their former generations suffered at Aimeniari hands, including loss of

One cannot, thus, minimize the overriding role of the powerful nations in the age of imperialism in such ã strategic and iesource-rich area as the Ñear and ihe lrtiddle East. But the situation


'o Clifton Jackson Phillips, Protestant Àmerica and the Pagan World, Cambridge, Harvard East Asian Monographs, 1969, p. 133. '' For an Armenian view (in Russian) on the "plans of the imperialistpowers during the First World War" on the Armenians: S. M. Akopyan, Zapatnaya Armeniya v planah imperialisticheskih derjav v period pervoi mirovoi vayni, Yerevan, Izdatelstvo Akademii Nauk Armiyanskoi SSR, 1967.


'd of all northern Albania. Most of r ancient possesçjons undisturbed, > capital, the

as their

ruler.'o The Turkish

mournins for the whole of the ireeks. Sir Steven Runciman even 'orld Ended." The most beautiful "heathens." That attribution was.

old Constantinople,

ransacked by the Europeans durin But flor scores of, years to come, fell to the Turks. bêcame the most Muslim Turkisú conoueror wat Christians, as the "Bea-st of the A

between the denial of certain fact the colossal multi-racial, multi-lir the ruline MuslimTurks became a w kept inteñsifving.'o ' The idea-that the Ottoman presence in the Balkans, or in the rted especiallv in older non-Turkish , has rio basi-s in fact. For instance,

certainlv fierce, õa of duplic museums
Centre for Islamic History,

manner: "crr
us, despotic, osedly., th.ey
eep thls aber

'o Machiel Kiel. Ottoman Ärchitecture

in Àlbania:

1385-1912, Istanbul, Research


Arl and Culture, 1990, pp. 17-18. Michael Angold, The Fourth Crusade: Event and Context, Harlow, New York,


Vamrk D. Volkan and Norman ltzkowitz, Turks and Greeks: Neighbours in Conflict, Cambridge, U.K., The Eothen Press, 1994, pp. 27f .
'e Some Bulgarian authors of more recent date, who treated the Turks as 'enslavers,' are: B. Cvetkova, Petar Petrov, L Snegarov.

Merriam Webster's Collegiate Dictionary (2001), The American Heritage Dictionary (1982), Webster's New Twentieth Century Dictionary (1976), The Shorter Oxford English Dictionary (1973), Webster's New School and Office
Dictionary (1958), Thorndike Century Senior Dictionary (1941), New Universal
Self-Pronouncin g Dictionary (1937 ).



peoples, who had re¿ched a high level in science and art, ostensibly never Doweo to tne I urKs.

'' For instance: K. Jirecek, N. Iorga, N. Todorov, L. Melnishki, L Dinov. " Machiel Kiel, Art and society of Bulgaria in the Turkish period, Assen/Maastricht,
Van Gorcum, 1985, p 39. " For more examples: Ibid., pp. 47-53.



Justin McCarthy, Death and Exile: The Ethnic Cleansing of Ottoman Muslims, 182l-1922, Princeton, New Jersey, The Darwin Press, Inc., 1995. 25 Justin McCarthy, The Ottoman Peoples and the End of Empire, London and New York, Oxford University Press, 2001.


lll. Tolerance or Genocide?


Uncle '¿geno Turks

gations of Armenian -lvell. Der se. The Seliuk Anatolía when thêse

Kers. tney proDaDly As-mercliants including includine the Turks. As merchants and bankers, they probably cclltury, ln ulroman soclery. ln [ne lvtn century, lormeo tne richest strata in Ottoman societv. In the 19th centurv, formed lhe rlcnest they. held high offices.as cabinet members (for such vital fields.as foréisn anã f,rnancial affairs). parliamentarians. provincial soveinors. ambassadors r äìüiðái p å#' ;uåü' as Berlin.'Brussels, ;ä;iä;.'. ääu, J.äåãi ä' (in criticái pósts such ä'Ëä i ",'e'úì óË ; "I-.ondon- ând S.ome), cònsuls- university nrofessors. ano local London, and ztRomel- consuls, uníversitv prolessors, and London, Jlome), L1^^r rL^ unlverslty 11-^ 1^^L - t,- -.:,-.l---L,--L-,-r

as in the fat years of the empire. T.r.ey entered freely all walks of life as traders, bánkers. wrìters,l ournal isis, physi ci ans,- lawyers and men 6 than the rest, Economicallv. thev of the arts. -Economicallv. the were better -





Ottomari administration entrusted The' fact that the ^++^*^-

Samuel S. Cox, Diversions of a Diplomat in Turkey, New York, C.L. Webster and Co., 1887, pp.54I-544. " For an Armenian source: Mesrob K. Krikorian, Armenians in the Service of the Ottoman Empire: 1860-1908, London, Henley and Boston, Routledge and Kegan Paul,



lV. Terrorism

- pure and Simple


neighbours lacked these two were never worse off than their

pursue a policy of ethnic and refir lands fof therirselves. Various B

done in the Balkans after their i that the Armenians, a minority

y urban Armenians, were satisfied of some others were already being

slims as well. But the Armenran lnd
reir nde


letter to the Foreisn Office that th him, on the eve olthe lB77-7g Ot

'* sir Henry
205-206. E1liot to the Foreign ofhce on 7 December lg76:



424146,No. 336, pp.

'n sir Henry Layard to Lord Salisbury, Foreign secretary on 14 July lgTg: Fo, 424172, No.211,pp.160-161.


latter's killing and wounding of Turkish soldiç¡s was reported in Europe as a "massacre" of the Armenians.'" On the Babrali (Istañbul) demonstrations of 1895, the British Ambassador wrote: with pistols and knives of a uniform n issued to them bv the organizers ol ason to suppose thât the oÈ-iect of the -bloodshed...[I]f order .pnd was the shot."" The Russian Consul in Van

'ed his orovince nreachins that he nd buv'a gun."33 Anothe"r British Embassy report stated that the Aç¡nenián Pãtriarch was responsible to a sreát eitent for the incidents.'*

The Armenian-American Louise Nalbandian states in her doctoral dissertaJion that they "incited trouble and committed


terroristic acts."" Some Armenian sources confirm, then, that terror on constituted the means to reach Part III of the Hinchae Prosram
I Lenin's brother before the Tsar's

of the



en o

lhe words of Dr. Nalbandian. "to



Istanbul: British Blu 3L Si. P. Currie to the
32 e-t

The British Consul (Erzurum) Clifford Lloyd's report to the British Embassy in


s provinces de [General1 de Bitlis, Petersburg, l'Imprimerie Militaire, 1916, pp. 33-39. "" FO,4241220, No. 48. 'o The British Ambassador's reoort of 4 Mav 1909: FO.424l2l9.No. 83.




Louise Nalbandian, The Armenian Revólutionary Movement: The Development of Armenian Political Parties through the Nineteenth Century, Berkeley, Los Angeles,

University of Califomia Press, 1975, p. 101.


Ibid., p.



sanctioned terrorism as a methc Dashnaktsuthiun had used terror

Ottoman capital. Accordins to Dashnags, "èven before 1878...tI

France untouched by the óttoman

Great Powers intervened, and


The ottomaii-archivesaT are expectedly rich as to the deeds and misdeeds of all the Armenian revolutionâiy oie""irâ7il;rs, Most


and content.


A list of such sources may be found in the Bibliography section of the following source: Ataöv, ed., The Armenians in the Late Ottoman Period, op. cit., pp.341-360. Also: Türkkaya Ataöv, "Procurement of Arms for Armenian Terrorism: Realities Based on Ottoman Documents," International Terrorism and the l)rug Connection, Ankara, Ankara University, 1984, pp. 169-177 .



The brutal assassination of the latter urged an Armenian-American to write the following book: K.s. Papazian, Patriotism Perverted, Boston, Baikar press, 1934. Also: Türkkaya Ataöv, An Armenian Author on "Patriotism perverted" (un Auteur armenien s'exprime sur le ,rPatriotisme Perverti,,, Ein Armenischer Autor über "Patriotismus Missbraucht"), Ankara, Sistem Ofset, 1 984.


floor of tl Istanbul. There were instaîcêS
underneath the wooden

a leacher at the Armenian School of the French School in the Hoca itary training with actual guns to presented to European (and later rided "exterminatioñ." thè inflated usands in each case. For instance.

liian writes tha-t- 3,500 Armenians were killed in the Sassoun rebellion of 1894." îhe Rev. A.W. Williams, in a-qsociation with ian. quotes a larser fisure - 6000." The Protestant wiú Éliss states that th-e Armenian losses were "at In the caption of a drawins in the same book. he cit, 000 or moie" as the number-of the dead in Sasóoun. However, the first combined report

One okka is 2.83 oounds. Hrand Pastermadjian, Histoire de I'Arménie, Paris, Librarie Orientale H. Samuelyan, 1949 and 1971. o. 384. 52 A.W. Williams and M.S. Gabrielian, Bleeding .A.rmenia: Its History and Horrors, Chicago, Publishers Union, 1896, p.331. " Edwin M. Bliss, Turkey and the Ärmenian Atrocities, Philadelphia and London,


Edgewood Publishing Co., 1896, pp. 370-371. Missionary Bliss reproduced several illustrations and sketches supposedly depicting "the slaughter ofinnocents...unarmed and unoffending Armenians...terrible massacres of Armenians..clubbed and shot to death by the fanatìcal and the bloodthirsty Moslems...resulting in the murder of some 50,000 or more" only in Sassoun and only in the year 1896. The drawings claim to report on monstrous acts of bayonetting babies, strangling children, beheading women, and then cleaning the blood off the blades. None of such scenes are photographs. They are wellthought scenarios every detail of which aims to present the "culprit" Muslim or Turk in a variety of cruel exploits. One photograph in the same book, however, is introduced to the reader as the picture of the famous Church of Santa Sophia, the well-known finest example of Byzantine architecture built in the sixth century. But it is actually the Mosque of Sultan Ahmed (or 'The Blue Mosque'), a masterpiece of Ottoman construction done more than a thousand years later. Missionary Bliss, who commits such a grandiose blunder in a topic so close to his professional work and the site situated in the hearl of Istanbul where he spent his years, expects the reader to accept drawings, supposedly depicting bloodshed in far-away southeastern Anatolia, as reflecting nothing but the truth.


of the foreign consuls established a m,uch lower figure, i.e., 265 wrth no mention of the Turkish losses.'*

Kamuran Gürün, The ,A,rmenian Filel The Myth of Innocence Exposed, London, K. & Bro. and Weidenfeld & Nicolson Ltd., 1985,p. 142. s5 consult also: The British "Blue Books" and rurkey No. 1 (1s96) as well as the British Ambassador's report: FO, doc. 4241184-5.



A Turkish writer records why and how the Ottoman Armenians and the Muslims, affectionate towards each other for cenfuries, unexpectedly became antagonists and threw down each other's babies from a bridge. He traces the reason to "Russian gold." Although this explanation does not reveal all possible reasons, it accentuates a foreign interest that was true for some time. Barbaros Baykara, $irzr: Nefret Köprüsü, Istanbul,

Akar Yayrnlaru 1982. Also: The British Ambassador's report
concedes the colossal responsibility



of the Armenian Patriarch Musheg, who carried a rifle, made provocative public statements and distributed guns to the Armenian
population. He left for Egypt, escaping trial while the Ottoman court convicted a number of Muslims and one Armenian. The published memoirs of Mehmet Asaf, then Lieutenant Govemor (Mutasantfl of an Adana city (Cebel-i Bereket, now Dörtyol) is a reply to Musheg's allegations. Mehmet Asaf, 1909 Adana Ermeni Olaylan ve Anrlanm, Ismet P_armaksrzofilu, ed., Ankara, Türk Tarih Kurumu, 1982. '' FO.4241188. Nos. 149 and 169. t8 Selwyn Gurney Champion, Racial Proverbs, London, Routledge, 1938, p.346. )v Heath W. Lowry, "Nineteenth and Twentieth Century Armenian Terrorism: 'Threads ofContinuity'," International Terrorism and the I)rug Connection, op. cit,, pp. 7l-83.


vithin and the latter from outside. ccupying publ I tnem besan ad not in lg8t u
The residue a


I served as a "witness of Authority" (Témoin d'autorite in the French courts, where the two groups of contemporary Armenians were tried and convicted in 1984 and in 1985 for assault on the Turkish consulate, killing a Turkish employee and wounding another, and also for planting a bomb at the Orly Airport causing many deaths.


V. l9l5: Armed Revolt
The weak affirmation of historian well-known for his Ar supportive works, that this people rated as a desperate under-statbm works and multitudinous documer proofs. of.(what qe today call) armed terrorism, violent assaults, assassrnatrons and whoresare



Armenia's Role

192 "L'Arménie General Gabriel Gorganian, '
1918, Paris, Imp. Massis, 1916; R. Pinon,

in the Present War, Boston, Hairenik, 19lg; G. Korganoff, La Participation des Àrméniens à la guerre mondiale sur le front du caucase: l9l4Van, Genève, Droschak, nie, paris, I (1918), etc.; Wa¡ I on the Caucasian


Dremeditated asainst them. Armenian soldiðrs deserted fr

The Armenian author Hr Turkish Governor of Van. the e follows: "ìt i,s. the Armenians fiehtins us."o* Alwavs harpin th"e Ru"ssian cause."- he rèfe notebook of a killed Turkish off with us, we would have defe Armenian writers, almost invar

arli I cavalry battalions supported by Ithe Ottôman Armenians officiallv would defend the fatherland in thê

be cited

Armenians are evén hisher.





and the Armenian Catholicos'Gvors V. felt free to warn the latter that the "Armenian activity both on- oui fRussian] side and beyond

General of the Caucasus actins as the intermediarv between the Czar


I. I. Vorontso

)ashkov. the Russian Governor-

64 6s 66 6't

ia Vedemosti, no. 205.

Armenian commander: "Antranik," Blackwoodts Magazine,

Edinburgh, October 1915; Ärarat, New York, Vol. XII, No. 3 (Summer 1970),pp.3-20;

Andranik: Roman vécu d'un héros arménien, d'aprés le hlm édité par "Armenia Film," Paris, Ed. Mon Ciné:, 1929. Professor Hovannisian describes him as the Commander of the "Western Armenian Division." Hovannisian, op. cit., pp. 113-114,



o' Esat Uras, The Armenians in History and the Armenian Question,

Hovannisian, op. cit,, p. 43.

Istanbul, Documentary Publications, 1988, p. 845. 70 Hovannisian, op. cit., p. 45. " C.F. Dixon-Johnson, The Àrmenians, Northgate, Blackbum, Geo. Toulmin and Sons, 1916; Türkkaya Ataöv, A British Source (1916) on the Armenian Question, Ankara, Sistem Ofset, 1985, p. 16. '' W.E.D. Allen and Paul Muratoff, Caucasian Battlefields: Ä History of the Wars on the Turco-Caucasian Border, 1828-1921, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1953, pp. 299,301-302.


materially to the success of Russian arms in the Caucasian theatre of -A the war. few thousand able-bodied Armenians from France and Anatolia joined the French Foreign Legion, and some even came from as fdr awav as the United Stat"es. It is nót difficult to conceive that what the Armenians described as "service" to the Otto seemed to the Turks to be an act secession and loss of territory and Armenian assistance to the Rússian determine the outcome of the war itself, as many Armenian sources s.o underli+e, their participation cannot have béen limited to sglfdefence. There was no quèstion of Turkish suspicion of them. The Turks, Turks. who invited them to be on their side and who were prepared them-to an o to go a l.o.ng ryay to keep them loyal to their common state,-stobd to Þi""";tlii;? ir;* ;g g r-.ir r"iiän.r".l ä "ir Ë un rea I r s tr ca I y an d un ta r rly ãttributed tõ them. TÏere are trustworthy Ottoman dócuments that attributed There trustworthv dôcuments

must have followed the earlier Armenian use of arms in irrefutable dimensions. When the Ottoman decision to transfer the bulk of the

Armenian quarter of Van into a fortress...[and consequently] the Turkish Goïernment took the decision...to èvacuate thè Armenran

'' Ttirkkaya Ataöv, A Brief
1984. o. 28.

Glance at the 'Armenian Question', Ankara, Sistem Ofset,

M..iarcher, La Guerre turque dans le guerre mondiale, Paris, Etienne Chiron, 1926, pp. 395-396. "La population armënienne de la zone des opérations faisait ouvertemenl



avec les

Russes...Une partie...avait...ëmigrë

Transcaucasie...s'enroler dans les bataillons arméniens organisës

quartier armënien 30

de Van,

par les

en Russes...Le

transþrmé en forteresse...Le gouvernemenl turc

décida...l'évacuation de la population armënienne de la zone des opërations..."



The Ottoman stalõentered the war on 29 October 1914. Its total Armenian population, includine the Gresorian. Catholic and -living Protestant citizeñs all the waV from the- western borders of Kars to Thrace and the southern sñores of the Black Sea to the StqU^rqn^ ^ deserts, numbered most_ probably a little less than 1,300,000. Some other suggested lgures' are s_liehtlv hieher. According _to a distinguishéti expert-researcher." "th"" Ottõman According to distinguishéã expert'researcher," the' censuses, the provinci_al yearbooks (salnames) and other archival censuses, yearbooki matenals provrde relrable facts materials provide reliable-facts and figures on'Ottoman population flgures on Ottoman nooulati ror arr rellglous lor all religious groups. Such data are unquestionably'thè prir Jucn oata aïe unquestlonably the þnme source.for the study of the Ottoman populatiòn, whether Musfim or source for

JFp's snapped the commanding general oI Western Defence.'o '

of the white public

into. virtual racists.-


a Jap!"

The Ottoman authorities soon found themselves in an exceptionally dilficult situation. They had ioined a GermanBulgarian force lacing the Rumaniáns and the Russians in
" Between May 1942 and January 1946,nearly 120,000 Japanese-Americans were taken from their homes and placed in detention camps -some for years-- because of their supposed threat to national security. chief Justice Earl Warren (then Governor of california), william Randolph Hearst (an American publisher who owned, at the peak of
his fortune, 28 major newspapers, 18 magazines, radio stations, movie companies, and news services) and Walter Lippman (one of the most respected political columnists in the world and the author of Public opinion, perhaps his most influential work) supported this ofhcial policy. A stanford university law professor explained (charles Fairman, "The Law of Martial Rule and the National Emergency," Harvard Law Review, 55/8, Irlne 7942, pp. 1253-1302) that there was enough disloyalty, "potential if nor active,', among the Japanese community to make it "expedient to evacuate the whole." For a contemporary who questions this "intellectual game". Tara McKelvey, "Rogue Scholars," The Nation, 28122 (26 December 2005),p.36. 'o "No Japs Wanted," This Fabulous Century, Vol. V, 1940-1950, New york, TimeIrife Books, 197 l, pp. 201-206. " Justin McCarthy, Muslims and Minorities: the Population of Ottoman Anatolia and the End of the Empire, New York-London, New York University press, 1983, especially pp. 163-173,175-178. Eliot Grinnell Mears, a former member of the American Military Mission to Armenia and Transcaucasia, writes: "According to reports by Marcel Léart foriginal Armenian name: Krikor Zofuab] in 1913 there were 803 Armenian schools and 81,226 students in Turkey. The Armenian population in Turkey of the country at the time was estimated at 1,125,000." Modern Turkey, New york, Macmillan, 1924, p. 127.


close down the headquarters of the Armenian committees in Istanbul and arrest their leadeis. This move was not a mass arrest or a call for

The establishment of Armenian supremacv in Van with no trace ol official Ottoman authority was in'contestâble bv 20 April 1915, before the relocation order. This lact was sulficienily evident

Lond 7e Th 80 Ho *' Th
a^ J¿

Francis Whiting Halsey, History of the 'World War, Vol. VII, New York and ls Co., 1920, pp.33l-332. War, Vol. IV, New York, P.F. Collier, 1916,pp.344f.

War, op. cit., p. 378.


Vl. Transfer, Guidelines and Violence


away. A time came, about a year later, when they were asked to comê back and settle in their former homes.

actual owners.

those massacred en route.

The Direct basis of Ottoman deviate from the Armenians were r

that abouT 450,000 of a little less than

ciety quotes, on the r toiaf fieuies that


Yusuf Halaçoflu, "Realities Behind the Relocation," The Armenians in the Late Facts on the Relocation of Armenians: Ottoman Period, op. cit., pp. 109-142; 1914-1918, Ankara, Turkish Historical Society, 2002, pp. 83f.


8r to

Ibid., p. I 18.


His wife's supportive biography of him: Lucy Masterman, C.F.G. Masterman,

London, Nicolson and Watson Ltd., 1968. Also: Michael Sanders and Philip M. Taylor, British Propaganda During the First World War: 1914-1918, London, Macmillan, 1982. 86 Arnold J. Toynbee, Àrmenian Atrocities: the Murder of a Nation, London, Hodder and Stoughton, 1915. In French: Les Massacres arméniens, Paris, Payot, 1916. Also by

Toynbee: Documents RelatÍng to the Treatment of Armenian and Ässyrian Christians in the Ottoman Empire and Northwestern Persia, London, 1916; The Murderous Tyranny of the Turks, London, Hodder and Stoughton, 1917; The Western Question in Greece and Turkey: a Study in the Contact of Civilizations, Boston, Houghton Mifflin, 1922; Turkije, London, The Memphis Printing Co., 1917. 87 For -y criticism of this Topbee attempt to create a new philosophy of history:
Türkkaya Ataöv, "History and Prof. Toynbee. a Critique of Westem Interpretatìon," The Turkish Yearbook of International Relations: 1968, Ankara, University of Ankara, I97 I, pp. 40-63 .


the name of Lord defamed for war unchanged, on ly victorious at the e

Dartv were fair-ininded

n would be would stay

For instance: Arthur Ponsonby, Falsehood in War-Time, New York, E.P. Dutton and Co., 1928, 1971; Cate Haste, Keep the Home Fires Burning: Propaganda in the First World War. London. Allen Lane. 197 7 . 8e I personally mentioned the tenibly slanted brainwashing of the whole Masterman bureau and the young Toynbee's role in it in the first (1984) and the second (1985) Paris trials of Armenian terrorists and the subsequent intemational meetings in the Geneva headquarters of the United Nations and the Strasbourg sessions of the European Assembly and published it, with a clear reference to his memorandum, dated 26 September 1919, in the printed verbatim texts as well as my following article: "Morgenthau's Story," Turkish Daily News, 2 and 3 October 1990. I also noted then that Toynbee also confessed in page 50 of his lafet (1922) work, entitled The Western Question in Greece and Turkey, that the "Blue Book" was a piece of war propaganda. e0 The book's tabulation is as follows in terms of the places rèached and the numbers of the survivors: Aleppo, Damascus, Zor (486,000); refugees in other parts of Turkey (300,000); Russian Caucasus (182,800); Armenians in the districts ofTurkey conquered by Russia (12,100); and Armenians in Salmas, Persia (9,000). Total: 989,900. The Treatment of the Armenians in the Ottoman Empire, op. cit., p. 664. The book cites, in the same page, "disease" and "starvation" among the causes of death.




n' Hen¡y Morgenthau, Ambassador Morgenthau's Story, Garden Cify, New York, Doubleday, Page and Co., 1918. Others signed by the same author: Secrets of the Bosphorus, London, Hutchinson and Co., l9l8; The Tragedy of Armenia, London,
Spottiswoods, Ballant),ne and Co., 1919; All in a Life-Time, Garden City, New York, Doubleday, Page and Co.,1922. " F¡ank G. Weber, Eagles on the Crescent¡ Germany, Austria and the Diplomacy of the Turkish Alliance, 1914-1918, Ithaca, Cornell University Press, 1970. pp. 150-152,
I 87.



certainly diplomát, material t
1915, and

in Istanbul and the U.S. Ambassador. The latter was Lepsius work. The American hinlton authorization to pass e German pastor on 3 Auþust


Heath H. Lowry, The Story Behind Ambøssador Morgenthaa's Srory, Istanbul, Isis Press, 1990. Also available in French (Les Dessous des mémoires de l'Ambassadeur Morgenthau) and German (Die Hintergrundsgeschichte zu Botschafter Morgenthaus Memoiren), Dr. Lowry utilized the public collection papers, consisting of 30,000 items in 4l reels of microfilm, relating to Morgenthau, preserved in the Manuscript Division of the Library of Congress. He also consulted the Morgenthau Papers in the F.D. Roosevelt Presidential Library in New York. In addition, he analyzed the personal papers of the late Burton J. Hendrick, who "ghosted" the Morgenthau book. He traced sons, cousins, and

other relatives to check information. But he relied on firsthand material, such as Morgenthau's "Diary", his family "Letters", his cabled dispatches and written reports. My review of the book: Türkkaya Ataöv, "Morgenthau's Story," Turkish Daily News, 2
and 3 October 1990.



Hendrick's letter to Morgenthau, 7 April 1916.



Lowry, op.cit., p. 56. The original German: Die vierzig Tage des Musa Dagh. English ed.: New York, Carroll and GrafPublishers. 1983.


lbid. (English), p. 141.



A case in the role of'art' as propaganda in international politics: Sedat Laçiner and $enol Kantarcr, Art and Armenian Propaganda: Ärarat as a Case Study, Alkara, ASAM Institute for Armenian Research,2002. too The flrlm director and the actors pretend not to have read the Armenian accounts, in the form of books and series of articles, which describe their participation in bloody wars and armed conflicts. tot This writer, when very young, chose to translate and publish in full the ArmenianAmerican Saroyan's My Name is Aram. Neither my family, nor any acquaintance in the community, nor anyone associated with the Turkish publisher objected to this choice. Did Aznavour as himself or as Edward ever realize, attempt or even imagine translating into his mother tongue a Tu¡kish literary work to familiarize his people with the Turks? I had then selected Saroyan because he loved the friendship of small, less complicated environments. "A¡am" was the name of his own son, but the book is an autobiographical collection of stories that revolve around the life of an Armenian-American boy in Fresno, Califomia. My Turkish version of the book, printed three times: Aram Derler Adrma, Istanbul, Varhk, 1953. Saroyan visited Turkey, where he was very well received. I am told that he did not participate in the April demonstrations when he went back to Califomia. 44


see the original of his typed report among the "Admiral Bristol papers" in the u.s. congress Library in washington, D.c. My artìcle based on this report: Türkkaya Ataöv,


"izmir Yangrm," Cumhuriyet,





t03 Salieri guided (1810-16) the training of Schubert, who produced, even in early age, more masterpieces than almost any other composer in history. Although Liszt was a minor while studying with Salieri, he nevertheless made his debut in Vienna in 7822, and Beethoven, unrivalled as the world's most famous composer who uniquely straddled the Classical and the Romantic eras. was alreadv well-known while a student of Salieri.


Vll. Forgeries and Falsifications

called "Hitler statement", often Nuremberg trial volumes, does speeches that are officially end the drive to link the event-s of I hilarious as it is absurd. More, although not exhaustably, fraudulence below.



For the English version: $inasi Orel and Süre1ya Yuca, The Talât Pasha Telegrams: Historical Fact or Armenian Fiction? Oxford, K. Rustem and Brother, 1986. Also: Türkkaya Ataöv, The Andonian 6'Documents" Attributed to Talât Pasha are Forgeries!... Ankara, A. Ú. Siyasal Bilgiler Fakültesi, 1984; -----, Documents on the Armenian Question: Forged and Authentic, Alkara, Barok Ofset, 1985.



eacn ano e The Turkish publication painstakingly. treats each and, every I he I urKlslr DuDllcatlon palnstaKlnglv '-document" of the Armenlan worK, .ùrtricn w.as . probaoly a Armenian' work, wlìlclì was probabl "document" ol coordinated endeavour of a group rathei than of a single individual.

later claimed that they were "lost." The fabrication of fraudulent documents, such as tñe notorious "Zinoviev telegram" or the socalled "HiÍler diaries," is not uncommon in histõry. But usually, serious critics keep away from them. Armenian-'sunooîted publications frequently used a picture of skulls on the èòver of a German bobk, iîside a Persian monograph, accompanying a Bulgarian or a Latin American article,
to' Ofücial written communication during war-time was naturally through periodically
changing systems of cyphering. Andonian and his circle informed of this fact, apparently, made up their own cypher scheme, which does not correspond to the ones utilized by the Ottoman bureaucracy then. Their keys are still available ìn the Ottoman archives now. '06 For instance, Andonian's fabricated "document," bearing 1916 as the year of resettlement order, should have been 1915 instead. The source ofthe error is the fact that the Armenian author is not sufficiently familiar with the complexities of changing from
one calendar system to the other.
r07 For instance, Mustafa Abdülhalik, not yet the Govemor of Aleppo but appointed to that post on 10 October 1915, could not have signed any document in that Syrian city prior to that date. Another person, Bekir Sami, was the govemor then. Moreover, the "signature" below is a forged one.


or on the back of a postcard mailed in France, flagrantlv statins thev were the remnants of "the l9l5 Turkish barbarity-." At-times, it wa's of the Ottomaî Interior Minister

interview', attributed to Mustafa Kemâl Atatürk, calculated to inf opinion. Both'declarations' oster genocide.' While the strategy o ãccusing the Ottoman admiñistr¿ mouth of none other than Turke also prc for thè I fact tha such a statement, there is no proof that he granted an interview to anygne in the asserted way.- On the othei hand, there exists a sufficient amount of reliable documents with hió sisnature that reveals his evaluation of the incidents and counter"s the false

ld the domestic laws of several :tii;'lä"åtedty uses a so-called

Weekly of 20 March 1982, that M. Kemâl "never appeared before such a tribunal, nor did he render such a statenieït." He also published a longer article in his own periodical. The Armenictn Review. dated Autumn,^1982, stressing'in the headline that this allegation is.an "error,"'uo The same "erlor", to say the least, is sti ll used to the benefit of the falsifiers. Publisher Táshjian re¡iortedly lost his job after his honest stand on this article.

For the details of this point: Türkkaya Ataöv, A 'statement' wrongly Ättributed to Mustafa Kemâl Atatürk, Ankara, s.B.F. ve Basm-Yayrn Yüksel okulu Baslmevi, 1984.



Türkkaya Ataöv, Another Falsification: 'statement' (1926) Wrongly Attributed to M. Kemâl Atatürk. Ankara. Sistem Ofset. 1988.
'on rr0

Hürriyet, Istanbul, 50


July 2005.

J. Toynbee, Civilization on Trial and the World and the West, New york, Meridian Books, 1958, p. 252. 112 Türkkaya Ataöv, Hìfler and the '(Armenian Question",.., A¡kara, Sistem Ofset, These documents also appear in Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression, Vol. III, pp.58l596, pp. 665-666 and in Documents on German Foreign Poticy: 1918-1945, Series D, It3


Vol. VII, pp.200-206.


translations,lla however, some of which carry this additional sentence thát does not occur in the authorized German texts' Even if

tra For instance: The New York Times and The London Times, 24 November 1945, pp. 7 and 4 respectively. lrs Heath W. Lowry, "The U.S. Congress and Adolf Hitler on the Armenians," Political Communication and Persuasion, New York, Yol.3l2 (1985), pp. 111-140. " the "u Türkkaya Ataöv, "The Jewish Holocaust and the Armenians, The Armenians in Period, op. cit., pp.315-344. Late Ottoman


the science. arts and literature oi ing about one-third of the Nobel skeletons. lived to see liberation. ,ribed as senocide. the unìliseuised and obvious : coexistencé of the Jews and the Turkey has ncentennial g from the celebrated

o claims either to land or


ottoman Turks who community with For hundreds of yea and the Armenians.

was the
tionalism was pn^e^of the political Revolution of 1908. it can rn no ationalism of the 1930s. The Nazi ven ical
the uch nsfer of the bulk of the Armenian stopped on early 1916. therî were ce. and the he Turks



rg adopted merely for argument's rð Arnienians suffered bõcause of

neral war conditions, sickness and

r17 on Turkey's role in rescuing thousands of Jews from the Holocaust: Stanford J. Shaw, Turkey and the Holocaust, New York, Palgrave Macmillan, 1993.



Vlll. Deviations from the Mainstream
Accordins to them. the culprits are obviouslv the'uncivilized Muslims'-or the 'merciless Türks.' Some Armeriians, nevertheless. do not share this view. Several distinsui Hovhannes Katchaznouni and K.S. Þa deviations from the mainstream. The form
of his vast experience Armenian Republic in American who made adopted country of "ter?orism") of ihe so

Fo. a considerable number of individuals. with some orientation on the Armenians in the late Ottoman period, a genocide, even multiple massacres of victimized innocenis, haúe õccurred.

'm the citizens of his (which we now call

exist surprising acc(

'itish, Americans

Èederation.' There also and

Hovhannes Katchaznouni's book,lls originally in Armenian, consists of his te Dashrias members ii Bucharest. For Leral midd[e-of-the-road approach. it is w<irld. often "Introduction" forever." One should note the followins on the resort to arms: "...Armenian revõl to be


nerâi had

st Turkey." One may note the date in the an underiaking of suôh gravity, fraught with
Hovhannes Katchaznouni, The Armenian Revolutionary Federation @ashnagtzoutiun) Has Nothing to Do Any More, tr. Matthew A. Callender and ed. John Roy Carlson (Arthur A. Derounian), New York, Armenian Information Service, 1955. Also: Türkkaya Ataöv, An Armenian Source: Hovhannes Katchaznouni, Ankara, Sistem Ofset, 1984. My booklet offers a summary of Katchaznouni's long speech. A Tulrkish Historical Society publication, to be released in early 2006, will contain the original Armenian text as well as its Turkish and Russian translations. For an unabridged recent Turkish translation from Russian: Ovanes Kaçaznrni, Taçnak

bands and their future


Partisi'nin Yapacafr Bir $ey Yok (1923 Parti Konferânsr'na Rapor),
Kaynak Yayrnlarr, 2005. The latter


unabridged English: Dashnagtzoutiun Has Nothing to Do Anymore, Istanbul, Kaynak Yayrnlar¡ 2006.


id" from the Ankara

Armenia, requested, in a letter dated 18 Government under ia abandoned all of its territorial demands

tre Professor Hovannisian, from the University of California at Los Angeles, and S. Yratzian fail to mention such significant agreements and the quest for military aid.


broke out in Europe. the Dashnass save assurances to the Turks that in the event of à war between' özarist Russia and the Ottoman

vital reality: "As it is evident from Turkish, Russian and all other world statistics, and from the established soiial situation, we

Richard G. Hovannisian, "Simon Yratzian and Armenian Nationalism," The Armenian Review, Vol. XXIII, No. 1-89 (Spring 1970), pp. 3-35; Simon Yratzian, Armenia and the Armenian Question, Boston, Hairenik Publ. Co, 1943. t'o K. S. Papazian, Patriotism Perverted, Boston, Baikar Press, 1934. Also: Ataöv, An Ärmenian Author on "Patriotism Perverted", op, cit.


Johnson argues, in the crucial year I 916, that there is "another side" to the Arm"enian question, Rnd finallv' the three Czarist officers relate Armenian mãssacre of Turks which they have observed in

East "onl hyst dêcl

ad he


Armenian peoole \¡r'ere "graded into rebellion" bv inflammatory articles pu6lished in Londõn, Vienna and New York. He adds thát the authôrs of these articles, who had never set foot in the Sassoun

Sevinç Matbaasr, 1985.


Türkkaya Ataöv, A British Report (1S95): "The Armenians Unmasked", Ankara,



Türkkaya Ataöv, An American Source (1895) on the Armenian Question, Ankara, Northgate, Blackbum, Geo. Toulmin and Sons, 1916. Ataöv,A British Source (1916) on the Àrmenian Question, op. cit.

Sistem Ofset, 1986.



Armenians, Ankara, Trnaz Matbaasl, 1985.


Türkkaya Ataöv, The Reports (1918)

of Russian Officers on

.A.trocities by





Press, 1996; U.S., The Long Riders Guild Press, 2001,p.28. t'o The Caliph's Last Heritage, London, Macmillan, 1915. r3r

., Oxford University

Dar-ul Islam: a Record of a Journey Through Ten of the Àsiatic Provinces of Turkey, London, Bickers and Son, 1904,pp.72-78. r32 Turkish Memories, New York, Scribner, 1914.



Edward Tashji, Armenian Allegations: The Truth Must be Told, USA, Rose

Intemational Publishing House, 2004. l3a Samuel A. Weems, Secrets of a "Christian" Terrorist State: Ärmenia, Dallas, TX,
St. Jobn Press, 2002.

Guenter Lewy


The Armenian Massacres


Ottoman Turkey:



Genocide, Salt Lake City, The University of Utah Press, 2005.


lX. VØars and Casualties

attacks on the Armenians, and


was the Ottoman courts that tried

eisht vears between 1914 and 1922. What should be properlv
ap"praiéed clashes.

is the fact that many lives on both sides, includiñg ihosê o1'Armenian combatants, weré inevitably lost during these rãpeated

The following words from the official Memorandum, presented by the rep-resentatives of Armenia to the Paris Peace -in l9l 9 is a confession as well as a declaration: Conference


It catesoricallv in the cõmity oT can Committee srareo ln anolner puoilcauqq^tnal '-lolver zuu,uuu Armenlans lougnl stated in another publicatiqq^that "[olver 200,000 Armenians fought in the First Wofld 'War."'" Likewíse. a rnemorandum. dated-15 Likewíse, rnemorandum, Januarv 1922. of 116 members of the French Parliament. addressed 1922;" îü;'-ô;ãï *¿ rtnJ Þre Ji ¿."f õr tt'ä I r'úd R;ñi;iil. t g i,z -zo. "ã. at the time), repea{çod and plr^Te. minister at'the time). reoeated the fact ihat "ínore thai orime that "more than ?lq 200,000" 200.000" Armenians fousht in that war. '' fought The numbers ofãrmed Armenians actively fighting in the war. mostlv on the Caucasian front but also on Otlomãn soil in the EasÍern Méditerranean, South Ana even Galicia, belie the repetitior Armenians were onlv grouòs of c violent, tranquil. peâcé-loving, p, unarmed. and vulnerable civilianr women and children. The staten Armenian and o dict that faulty imase. popularized y as well. then and widely An offi'c November 1918. and addressed to S. Pichon, ign Minister, than Bogos Nubar, thé Ãrmenian Ña ion in Paiis, unreserved e Armenians. nnins of the
war, have
136 r6The

the Chinese or has, for twelve



Armenian Question Before the Paris Peace Conference: A Memorandum Presented Officially by the Representatives of Armenia to the Peace Conference at Versailles on February 26, 1919," The Ärmenian Review, XXVII, No. 3-107 (Autumn 1914), pp. 231-232. The representatives were Avetis Aharonian, the President of the Delegation of the independent Republic of Armenia and Bogos Nubar Pasha, the President of the Armenian National Delesation. r37 American Committee Opposed to thã Lausanne Treaty, The Lausanne Treaty and Kemalist Turkev, New York, 1924, p. 19.

American Committee Opposed to the Lausanne Treaty, The Lausanne Treaty, Turkey and Armenia, New York, 1926,p.143. rao lbid.. o. 137. la| "...les-Armëniens, des le début de la guerre, ont ëtë des belligerents defacto..." This
letter is registered by the French Foreign Ministry on 3 December 191 8.






Katchaznouni, the the early 1920s. w their "afmy was we

' '



according to Lord Bryce, fought the Turks "with knives, forks, pins, and rockõ." Some Wéstern hiõtorians, otherwise known âs sobei and le stories that "3,000 women e supply of poison gave out, their^ líps, hirrled thémselveé escape falling into the hands

la2 la3 taa

Armenian Source: Hovhannes Katchaznouni, op. cit., p. 8.

Quoted in: The Lausanne Treaty, Turkey and Armenia, op. cit., p. 125. 4,058 Armenians deffing the resettlement edict supposedly retreated to that mountain, but were taken from there and transported to Port Said by the French cruiser Jeanne d'Arc assisted by British ships. tou The Luasanne Treaty, Turkey and Armenia, op. cit., p. 128.


arisen had it not been for Armenian aid in the Caucasus. The Armenians, then, frustrated not only the Turkish offensives, but also German designs. Secoñdly, the argument goes, the Armenians fought in the French and the British Torces, in addition to the Russialn armies. Thev ensased. halted. or repulsed Turkish divisions and moreover forcêd tñeñr t'o divert consíderable forces from the Palestine and Basra fronts, tremendously easing the British advance in both theatres of war. It is of cóurse trule that the Armenians furnished the Orient" to serve the also ioined called the " d in rêgular lse to fight o


to the victory of the Allied Army in Syria. The Armenians have been actual bellilerents in this war. Their losses...exceed 1,000,000." This ,gfficia-l message of Armenian belligerency is sûffiiiently clear.'"'

Armenians continued even after the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917

The Armenian Review, XXVIV 3-107 (Autumn 1974), op. cit., pp. 231-232. Besides General Karabekir's memoirs, filled with reports and phótographs, there are abundant documents, too many to cite here, in the Turkish archives as evidence of massacres and other cruelties by Armenians. But the following recording and admission of a British lieutenant-colonel, A. Rawlinson, a witness at the scene, may be apropos. He notes: "...[W]e were confronted by an Armenian cavalry regiment...When...the Allies announced that [the] Kars Province was to be handed to the Armenians, the latter flocked...and took possession of the town itself...the open country round the town watched by parties of Kurds...He fthe tribe leader] began by asking me ..what the Allies meant by announcing to the Armenians that in [the] future his country was to be theirs...I also received further complaints from Kiazim Pasha as to the treatment Moslems were then receiving at the hands of the Armenians...The British troops were then completely withdrawn, and Armenian occupation commenced. Hence, all the trouble; for the Armenians at once commenced the wholesale robbery and persecution of the Moslem population on the pretext that it was necessary to forcibly deprive them of their arms...The Armenian troops pillaged and destroyed all the Moslem vi1lages...[The




also clashes between the soldiers of the Ankara Government, prtl 1920, and the Armenian forces. But even writers asree that massing troops for an attack was nõt on the ageñda óf the Ankara

the clas

Armenian forces, on the one hand, and Armenia's Caucasian

Turkish ofhcerl Eyeep declared that he and his people were prepared to defend their country with their lives...This was straight talking indeed, bearing out exactly the reports I was receiving from Kiazim Pasha." Adventures in the Near Eastl 1918-1922,London and New York, Andrew Melrose, 1923, pp.206-218. tae Review by Thomas A. Bryson of James B. Gidney's A Mandate for Armenia (Kent, Ohio, The Kent State Urjiversity Press, 1967) in: The Armenian Review, Vol. XXII, No. 4-88 (Winter 1970), p. 7 4.



X. Epidemics and Losses

The data available is sufficient to convince us that the number of soldiers who died from disease in the armies which participated in ITth century ìwars was twice as large as the number 7I

killed in fishtins. and that it tot Losses fro"m disease seem to
r decimated bv tvohus durine the ¡ in the Ottoíran-Russian Wãr of he Crimean War of 1854-56, and ian War of 1870-71. Durins re same number of French soldierl by weapons. Losses from disease the Austro-Þrussiãn War. Italian casualties wefe

took a heavier toll in


British Armv durins the Anelo-Boer War was strikinsly similar. ln the American Civil'War. th"e North lost more men ðuê to disease e\ryise, the Spanish lost more from Morocco. The losses of the British rain in 1811-14 were three times The British and the French in the h Turkev in 1877-78. and all lost more lives due to losses in the 1898 V/ar in terms of disease than combat.

in the



when the First World War sta medical aid made it possible to co against cholera, typhus, and tetar
infectious diseases. the creation

easures preventive,

but also some ricles eliminated the concentration

f the Militarv Effort

for the largest share (59.400). The next largest number of deaths from disease was iecórdeil in Mesoootamía Q3.600). a fact that can be explained bv epidemics in the forces opèraiing ihere. An additional l2;000 in thê British Navy brought the'empire-'s total losses to 120,000, one-fifth of whom wére colõnized Indiäns. 175.000 soldiers died otdisease in the French Army and 4,000 in the Navy, chiefly from Spanish flu. Accordins to tlíe publiôations of the Medical-Departmènt of the United Sïates Arniy in the First World War, 60,800 American e. In Italv. atotal of 85.000. in Rumania 30,000, and in Serbia ¿ Montenéfro 50,000 mén were

108,000 soldiêrs from

percent of the entire mobilized lorces entered hospitals during those four years. 1.175,000 out of a total of 2.5 millioir Turkish ioldiers

hospitals and infirmariesî. This is the total number of ihose men who

are recorded as having been admitted to militarv and civilian


9. German original: Fünf Jahre

Boston, Houghton Mifflin Co.,

Five Years in Turkey, Annapolis, Maryland, United States Naval Institute , 1927, p. in Türkei, Berlin, 1920. Clarence D. Ussher and Grace H. Knapp, Àn Àmerican Physician in Turkey, 'tt



of the British Exneditionarv Force in Iraq) died of cholera or tvphus. 'óould not be saved.^ The Some top-ranking commánders, then, notliing, even for the Sovereign's Turkish riredical fãcilities could do son-in-law. Deaths also occurred on account of adverse climatic conditions. Tens of thousands of Turkish soldiers froze to death in the snowy mountains of Sarrkamrç in the space of one or two nights. Just as tÉe Armenians could not'have beên immune to all sorls ofl rctic winter cold, cost the lives of indicate that the For instance. an

taken into consideration when it ons. It was none other than the Pasha who allowed American


La Défense héroiQue de Van, op. cit., p. 4.


Xl. Tribunals, Verdicts a nd Justice
The Armistice of Mudros, which went into effect on 31

153 There exist, even in Turkish, very few scholarly works on the special Martial Law Tribunals. A recent (1996) but unpublished doctoral dissertation by Osman Köksal, submitted to the Social Sciences Institute of A¡kara University, takes up all such tribunals since the year 7877. Hence, only the latter part of this study pertains to the l9l9-22 period. He is also the author of a short þp. 795-803) article in the 13th issue (2002) of Türkler, dealing specifically with martial law administration in the last years of the Ottoman state. But a new, comprehensive, balanced and reliable academic work is: Ferudun Ata, içgâl istanbul'unda Tehcir Yargrlamalarr (The Migration Trials in Occupied Istanbul), Ankara, Ttirk Tarih Kurumu, 2005. In addition, there exist relevant memoirs that shed light to hitherto unknown aspects of the topic. Some publications refer to the case of one or the other accused or convicted person, to the important works of

which I shall provide footnotes at appropriate places.


It will not be unfair to assert

that the Ottoman authorities,

figure 377 (op. cit., p. 63), Kamuran Gürün gives 1,397 as the final total of the Turks tried by the Ottoman courts. Ermeni Dosyasr, Ankara, Türk Tarih Kurumu, 1983, p. 222. For references to the 1915-16 investigations and verdicts in a number of other Turkish sowces, see Ata's fn. 203. Professor Halaço[lu's figure for thç total accused is 1,673, with 67 hanged, 524 imprisoned, and 63 put in solitary confinements.
'to While F. Ata quotes Sami Bey's


petitions. the first being dated 24 November 1918, obviously written by Turks. request=ed the investisators to Drepare lists of thê Armeniaris who had kltled tens of thou-sands of 'Múslim Ottomans. 'While the Armenian applic there is not a sinsle cas-e of the blood of a Tîrk or ano individual and wholesale murders all of which had been n svstematicallv. Such -haid opponents of the implore some balance, but to no avail. The very leaders ol ed Armenian bands and battalions, which had cômmitted so many sanguinary acts against their opponents, roamed freely on the strêets oT lstañbul whi'fe, in some cã-ses. Turkish functionaries. who had had no connection'Á'ith anv illesalitv were sent to the sallows. - Éenõe. the Martial Larí Courts tried and convicted the Turks - only the Turks. includine innocent ones. The court buildinss were surroúnded by tlie occupying forces, and the Entente powerã urged them to reach swift v<ir?licls. Threê members of thé first sevenmember court in Istanbul, established by a decision (14 December 1918) of the Ottoman Coúncil of Ministérs. were nonìMuslims. Six otheí courts welç- later (8 January 1919) established in some Anatolian towns.'" The nìost activé court,'was, nevertheless, the t to be arrested was the former ), and the number taken into ns of 1919. and 321 bv the end of I a-t the famôus Bekirala Company (Dr. Reçid) escaped Trom prison

In the meantime. British interests havins coincided with the le more arrests followed, a non-

in accordance with the wishes õf

aced the Muslim Ottoman Foreisn

simply Progre lnlorm docum


e arrer
e Ottór

to a y(

izmn, Bursa, Tekfurdalr, Edirne, Samsun, Antep. Two more (Van, Beyazú) were later

added, and some abolishec.

The director of the Turkish Historical Society quotes the additional total figure of those -all Turks- arrested after l9l9 as 1,397. Sixteen ofthem were convicted (after 1919), including three who received capital punishments. Yusuf Halaçoflu, "Atalanmrz Canavar Gibi Gösterilemez," Radikal, 13 $ubat 2006, p. 8.



's7 For an unpublished doctoral dissertation submitted to the Turkish Research Institute of Marmara University in Istanbul: $. Can Erdem, "Sad¡azam Damat Ferit Paça," Istanbul,




Yargrlanmasr, Ankara, Köksav Yayrnlan, 1999.

N. gimçir, The Deportees of Malta and the Armenian Allegations, Ankara, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 2003. 160 Ne¡det Bilgi, Ermeni Tehciriìe Bofazhyan Kaymakamr Mehmed Kemal Bey'in


Great Britain, Foreign Office,37l16504/85 19. Great Britain, Foreign Office,371165401F,8745. Also: Bilâl


Armenian woman (öjeni

varvaryan) accused Kemâl Bey of stealing money and also blamed him for the wound on her head, but the accused rejected the theft allegation as "absolute rubbish", and medical examination established that the scar had occurred much earlier. Another Armenian witness (Artin, the son of Agop) said on one occasion that he was 72, and, on another that he was 17, and explained that he escaped wounded, "with the grace of God," while every one else had died. Another Armenian (Serkis, the son of Mrgrrúç) aroused the suspicion of the listeners with his minutely precise display as to the exact times and places of the events of long ago. In the case of another suspect, another Armenian .\¡r'oman ( Alis), not an eye-witness, offered explanations on the basis of what she had been told. witness vahan demanded a bribe from the accused and was caught with the banknotes whose
numbers were earlier noted bv the oolice.

Cemâl Azmi, then a fugitive,'was eventually assassinated (17

April 1922)by two


Courts were set up to expedite the iudicial þrocess. instead of one. Under the circum'stances, it is no wonder that the Zor Lieutenant Governor (Zeki) received capital punishment. The details of the Erzincan càse, which decidecl for the execution of Urfa's former

secured its closure for the second time.


The Ottoman authorities I



:n to hold trials and óass suiltv
sons were tried, and some

failure of the former sovernment of-theri


Entente justice.

ed of the





162 For instance, Talât Pasha and Bahattin $akir in Berlin, Said Halim pasha in Rome, Cemâl Pasha in Tbilisi, and Enver Pasha in Central Asia. Fo¡ a balanced treatment that porhays Bahattin $akir as a "Turhsh Jacobin:" Hikmet Çiçek, Dr. Bahaddin $akir, Istanbul, Kaynak Y ay nlan, 2004. '" The last ottoman sultan under the impasse of the Armistice years: Tarrk Mümtaz Göztepe, Osmanofullarrnrn Son Padiçahr Vahideddin Mütareke Gayyasrnda, Istanbul, Gtiltepe Yayrnlarr, 1983.


Xll. Conclusions

government. If.the subje.cts_ suffered, they did so principally under the misrule of their owñ leaders.


done the same to the Christian minorities when they had first encountered them, the latter would not have survived on the lands

and came closer to the Mediterranean.


hoped that the Muslims could also be reduced in number and pushed out oI Eastern Anatolia as well.

,lleppo formed European coun thereby causin Maronite Chris


groups ln

ims and



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Aksin. Sina. "A General Appraisal of the Armenian lssue", Turkish Re'i¡ew: Qúarterly Digest, Ankara. l/4 (Summer 1986), pp.49-67.

Ataöv, Türkkaya, "Removing Misconceptions About Turkish1997), pp. 42-48.

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Ataöv, Türkkaya, "Turkish Perceptions of Terrorism",_ The 1986 Annuâl on Têrrorism, ed., Yonah Alexander, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, Marünus Nijhoff Publishers, 1987, pp. 101-108.

Corsun, Andrew, "Armenian Terrorism: a Profile", U.S.
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(1986), pp.209-252.

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McCarthy, Justin. "The Report of Niles and Sutherland: an Americañ lnvestieation oI Easiern Anatolia after World War I". Xl. Türk Tarih Kon[resi, Ankara, 1994, pp.1 809-1852.
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World War I", The Armenian Review, Boston, XVII (1964), pp. 24-45.


Sa Fo Jo

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during the Last

Shaw, Stanford J., "Ottoman Years of the Empire: l885-l Journal of Ottoman Studies

Rema-rks", The

n Deportations: a Reappraisal in the elleten, Ankara, XXXVVI4I (January
"Yeni i3elgelerín Içrlr Altrnda Brmeni

Armenian Massacres", Belleten, Ankara, XL 175; in Turkish: "Tehcir ve
Sonyel. Salâhi R.. "How

World in Connection


Propagandasr Hrristiyanhk Dünyasrnr Nasll

Aldattr", ibid., pp. 137-

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a Gullible and

Sonyel, Salâhi R,, "Turco-Armenian Relations and British Profagânda during Íhe First World 'War", Belleten, Ankara, 222 (August 1994), pp. 381-449.


Articles (in Turkish):
Akçam, A. Alper, "Soykrnmcrlar 'Soykrnm' Yasasr Oylayamazlar", Yeii vttidafaá-i ttutrúk, Antalya,30-Marr 2001, pp. 8i10.

Akçora, Ergünö2, "Ermeni Terör Örgütlerinin Dünü, Bugünü ve PKi< Öîgütñ lte içUirtl[i", Türk Düny"asr Araçtrrmatán,92 (Ekim 1994), pp. l-4. Akçora, Ergünö2, "Talât Paça'nrn 1915 Urfa isyanr Hakkrndaki Raporu", XI. Türk Tarih Kongresi, Ankara, 1990, pp. I763-1807.
R-o]Ul', A.U. Türk 1988), pp.1-12.

Akgün, Sççil, "Amgrikalr Misyonerlerin Ermeni Meselesindeki Inkrlâp Tarihi Enstitüsü Dergisi, I (Mayrs

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Baykal, Hülya, "Kurtuluç Savaçr'nda Türk.-Fransrz iJiçkileri ve Bir Franslz Türk Dostu Albav Mousin". A.U. Türk Inkrlâo Tarihi Enstitüsü Dergisi, 7 (Mayís I99ll pp. 455-5I L

Milis Kuvvetleri", Belgelerle Türk Tarihi Dergisi, 7I-72 (OcakMari-Haziran
I 99

"Birinci Dünya Savaçrnda Müttefik Ordulannda Görev Alan Ermeni ), pp. 7 3 -7 6.

Güler, Karçrérn Düzenle
Ankara. n¿ezâlilni:.

" gütlerinin Ayrrhkçr Faaliyetleri

ãr[r Tedbirleí: 1916-1918 FÍukuki Tarih Semineri Bildirileri. l.

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Ilter, Erdal, "Villî Mücadele'de Do[u Lejyo4.u (Légiop d'Orient)'nun Fransrz iseâl Böleesindeki Fonksiy"onu". A.Ü. itiít int<üân Tárihi Enstitäsú-Dergisí, 3 (Mayrs 1989i, pp. 419-436


Kocaoplu, Mehmet, "Millet-i Sâdrka'dan Ermeni Mezâlimine Niçin Gelindi?"'Avrasya bosyasr, Ankara, II/4 (Sonbahar I995-1996), pp.


ÖÉün, Süleyman Seyfi, "Tarihsel Dosyalar Üzerine", Yãzrlarr, Bursa, Asá Kitabevi,l997, pp. I l0-119.

Politik Kültür

Özcelik. ismail. "M illî Mücadele'de Urla'da Ermeni-Fransrz isbirli Éi ve ' Bir' Ermeni Doktorunun Amerika'dan Gönderdifi MektupY, Askeri Tarih Bülteni, 22 ($ftat 7987), pp. 193-204.
Tezcan, Durmuç, "Uluslararasr Tedhiç Suçlarr içinde Ermeni Tedhiç Davalarrndan Uç Ornek", Birleçmiç Milletler Türk Derne[i Yrlh[r: 1984, Ankara, B.M. Türk DerneÉi, 1985, pp. 103-128.

Tu[lacr, Pars, "Osmanh Türkiyesi'nde Ermeni MatbaacrltIt ve Erñeniler'in Türk Matbaacrlrprña Katkrsr", Tarih ve Toþlum. istanbul, XV/86 ($ubat l99l), pp. +a-S6.

LVlll220 (Aralrk 1993), pp. 795-826.

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Yrlmazcelik. Ibrahim. "XIX. Yüzvrlda Anadolu'da Ermeniler'in B.an Belgt Sosval've Ïktisadî Úurumlarr Hakkrnda Bazr Bel eler". Frrat $osyal ve Iktisadî Durumlan Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimter Dergisi, lll (1981),pp.2-3 9-268.



B Balkans





40, 69, 84,

.14, 1.1, 65 83, 84, 85 32, 59,66 buriu . Battle of Malazgirt (1071)



(1444) . .



.42 90

Bitlis . . .23,32,76,93,99 Bliss., Edwin, Protestant


missionary. .....22

Bogos Nribar Pasha . . 36, 63, 64,84


b;d"i;. .'







antisemitism . . . . . .52, 53 44, 45 Ararat (film) Armenakan (party) .17, 2r Armenian Legion . .32, 66 Armenian population. . 30, -

. 5, r1,72 .5. 10. 1 1. 5,10,11, )q 9.32.49. .61,73,85


?-l ??



Byzantine, Byzantium . 3, . 9, 10, ll,14

19,21,22,23 28,29,30,32, 36,37,39, 40, 43, 44, 45, 47, \') 5? 55 5Á 59,60, 6r, 62, 65,66, 67, 68, 71,74,75, J6,
J?) rJ) rr) rvt

7,8,9, 10, 14,


capital punishment . . . 37. . . . .49, 53,76,79, 80, 8l


5, Caucasus . . 9, ll, 12,21,29,35,

. . . 36, 40, 60, 63, 65, 66,

88,90, 91, 92, 93,94,95, 96 Atatürk, M. Kemâl . . 5, . . .47,49,50,5r,
Austria-Hungarv . . . . . 65 Azerbaüanis-. .-. . . . . . 68

81, 83, 84, 85,

Pasha......43 chosenglory.......86
chosen trauma



. . . . .3, 86 convicted persons . . . .76 Council of Calcedon (45 l)
órlmàa'. . . : .'.


Azmlielâl .

.i, it, tz, .....7 Cromwell . 9, l\ Crusaders


CypriotGreeks . . . . . .



Damat Ferit Pasha . . . . 78

Inquisition, European . . 7,


18, 19,21,

bavis,'reåtie'Á. . . .'.n.' |r4
U. S. Consul (Mamur etulazrz)

int.inuiióo"i Court (ICC)



b.'p. .'. 31', 59, 60,91 Diyarbakrr . . . . 23, 76, 77

Islam, Muslims . .2,3,5, .9, 10, 13,17, 2I,23, 24,36, 53,

. . . .77,83, 84, 85, 86, 93 Istanbul . . . 10, 14, 18, 1,9, . . . . .21,22,29,32,


Eliot, Sir Charles . . . . .61 EnverPasha ....32,35,
epidemics . . . . 32, 53, 63,



. . 49, 57,59, 61, .....77,78,79,88, .....92,93,95,96
Japanese Americans 31, 33

Erzurum Marshal
F false

.29,35,37 , . 55, 60, 67,98, 99 d'Espérey, Franchet, Field




witnesses . 16. 19 . .19,2I ,30, 33,49,94, g5 French Foreign Lesion

. . .9,92 Jews, Jewish Holocaust, Judaism . . . .5, 6,7, 8, 10, . .13, 14,45,47,


92, r00


Gearv. Gretan. . . . . . . 61 Geli6olu (Gallipoli), the Dardanelles .29, 32, 59

(Légion Françãise) 30: 63 G

Karabekir. Gen. Kâzrm. . . . .56, 67, 98


Georsians ....68 Goltl, Gen. Colmar von der ......73
Greek Revolt (1821) . . .11

99,100 Katchaznouni, Hovhannes . .55, 56, 57, 65,89 Kemâl Bev. Lieut.Gov. of Bogazlryai .78, 79


H Hafiz Hakkr Pasha . . . . 73 Hamazasp . . .29.66 Harutunian. Samson . . 29 Hendrick, Burton J. . . .42,
43 58

. Kosovo Kurds
Keíi L

Khoreshenov, Dr. . . . . 6l

.......29 ......10 .....9


Lansing, Robert . . 42, 43 Larcher, Comm. M. . . .30, I-eïslos. b;. iohu;r';, . :: .' . . 33, 40, 4r, 43 Lewy, Guenther .62, 92 Lord Bryce Lowrv. Heath V/. . . . . . . . 41,42, 62,92, 10r





immovable property




Major Malta.


79. 80



Plat, Capt. ì.G. . . . . . . 6l Poincaré. Ravmond . . . 64 power politiis . . . . 1, 9,10,39,91

(Armen Gãro) . 29,94:101 Pearl Harbor. . . . . . . . 31 Pears, Sir Edwin. . . . . 61

Pasdermadiian, Gareguine

Protestants ....7,8
R relocation (resettlement)

tuónopilvrites' .'. . . . . .+ Morgênthau, Henry, U.S. Ambl . . . . .'37,39: 40, 41, 42, 43,92,93 Mosul . . .75 N Nasorno-Karabash . . . .45 Nalbandian, Louíse .18, l9 Nathan. Edward. US Consul

. . 63,80, 75, 90, 91 Riggs, Rev. Edward . . . 59



Nazi Gérmany. . . . . . .45,


5I,52,53, gl Norman, Capt. C.B. . . 57,

. 22, 23,26,27,29, . .29,30,32,33,35, . 45, 47, 49, 55, 57, . .59,60,61,63,65, . .66,67,68,72,73, . .74,84,86,90,95, Russian (Bolshevik) Revolution. . . . . . . .. .67

RomanusIV.......14 Russia 4, 5, 6, 9, 1I, . .12, 13, 77, lg,2l,




. ::

Sanders, Gen. Limon von Sassoun rebellion (1894) '.


3;"i;Åiç . sz, eà,'i4,'s:s

o Ossepian, Col. . . . . . . . 66 Ottomanarchives.. 5,
. .77,20,24,27,37, . . 48,78, 88, 90,93 Ottoman Bank, the . . . 19,

. . . .' i,'1:4 Seliml,Sultan.....14
S.ir¡"Ë., irrå

Ottoman censuses . . . . 31 Ottoman-Russian War (1877-78). .I7 , 21,





iu-"ni,'?nilu. ...29,77,90
T Talât


vàpårài, K.S....

32,36, 40,43, 59,63, . 64,66, 69, 84


57, 93

. . . .80, 90,93,97,99, 102 Tashji, Edward . . .62,95 Tashjiân, James H. .49', 50

. . 5, 35, . .42,43,45,48,74,



Tourian, Archbishop Leon

. . 27,24,27, 55, ....88,9r,94,100

6, 17,19,


Weems, Samuel




Wetilnston ftor,...'. .

róvnu"", eirr'of'¿ i. ::'. ;1,

Trabzon 23, 35, 79 Treaty of Berlin (1878), the .4 Treafy of Gümrü (1920), the.-. ......56 Turkish Historical Society . .36, 37, 90, 94,

Werfel, Franz. .43, 45 6t Whitman, Sidney. William, Rev. A.W. . . ))




Wit.on,'wóo¿tb*. . . . 40,






. . . .14, 19, 20, 23, 24, 27, . . . .28,29,30,32,33,38, . . . 43, 44, 45, 47, 53, 55, . . . .56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, . . . .63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 69, . . . .71, 73, 74, 77, 79, 81, . . . . 83, 84, 85, 92, 93, 94 Tverdo-Khlebov. Lieut.-

. : : . . .i, ), r?ti,nf, .7,9, r0, ll,12, 13,




. . .47 Union and Progress Party . 75,76,77 ,80 United Kinedom. the . . 38 United Statés, the . . . . .2, . . 7, 12,21,30,31, . .3B, 4l , 44, 47, 57, . 59, 62,72,78,84 V Vahdeddin. Sultan M 76,

4, 78,21, . 28,29, 30,32,


.35,44,45,53, 63, 73,74,84,91, 93,
. . . 96,97, 99

Venizelos, Eleutherius Vorontsov- Dashkov.




Yratzian, Simon. . . 56,68


ISBN 1 -4243-,t 004-0

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