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LESSION – 1: INTRODUCTION TO QUANTUM MECHANICS CONTENTS
1.0. Aims and objectives 1.1. Quantum mechanics: an introduction 1.2. Difficulties with classical physics 1.3. The birth of quantum mechanics 1.4. State vectors 1.5. Hilbert space 1.6. Dirac notation 1.7. Norm and scalar product 1.8. Dynamical variables as operators 1.9. Change of basis 1.10. Let us sum up 1.11. Lesson end activities 1.12. References

1.0. Aims and Objectives:

In this unit, we are going to discuss Ø The inadequacy of classical mechanics Ø Birth of quantum mechanics Ø Basic formalism of quantum mechanics Ø Introduction to quantum mechanical operators

1.1. Quantum Mechanics: An Introduction

The concepts and formulation of quantum mechanics are not elementary in the sense that they are easily understood. They are based on the outcome of considerable theoretical research supported by experimental evidence. The quantum mechanical approach to physical problems cannot be explained in simple non- mathematical terms. Simple and elegant mathematical techniques have been used to elucidate the physical concepts.

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1.2. Difficulties with Classical Physics
Classical Physics deals primarily with macroscopic phenomena. Most of the effects with which classical theory is concerned are either directly observable or can be made observable with relatively instruments. There is a close link between the world of classical physics and the world of sensory perception. During the decades of 20th century, Physicists turned their attention to the study of atomic systems, which are inherently inaccessible to direct observation. It soon became clear that the concepts and methods of classical macroscopic physics could not be applied directly to atomic phenomena.

1.3. The Birth of Quantum Mechanics
The early development of atomic theory consisted of efforts to overcome these difficulties by modifying the laws of Classical Physics. These efforts reached their successful conclusion in the period from 1925 to 1930, when an entirely new theoretical discipline, Quantum Mechanics was developed by Schrödinger, Heisenberg, Dirac and others.

Quantum Mechanics can be regarded as the fundamental theory of atomic phenomena. The experimental data on which it is based are derived from physical events that lie almost entirely beyond the range of human perception. It is not surprising, that the theory embodies physical concepts that are foreign to common daily experience.

1.4. State Vectors
The values of Schrödinger wave functions ψ(x) at various points x are akin to the components of a vector. While the components are numbers which depend on the choice of coordinate system or basis in the vector space, the vector itself is an abstract geometrical object with an existence and significance independent of coordinate systems. In the quantum mechanics, the abstract mathematical object which is

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3 associated with the physical entity, the quantum state, is known as the State Vector. The different kinds of wave functions for a given state (in the configuration space, momentum space) are simply the sets of components of the state vector as referred to different ‘coordinate systems’ or bases in the state vector space. This notation was introduced by Dirac. It is used to relate different representations. The notation is very general and suitable for handling of systems which have no classical counterpart, e.g. spin angular momentum.

1.5. Hilbert Space
It is an abstract space. The vector spaces of quantum mechanics are called Hibert Space. The mathematical concept of a Hilbert Space, named after the German mathematician David Hilbert, generalizes the notion of Euclidean space in a way that extends methods of vector algebra from the two-dimensional plane and three-dimensional space to infinite-dimensional spaces. In more formal terms, a Hilbert space is an inner product space an abstract vector space in which distances and angles can be measured which is " complete", meaning that if a sequence of vectors approaches a limit, then that limit is guaranteed to be in the space as well.

1.6. Dirac Notation
Bra-ket notation is the standard notation for describing quantum states in the theory of quantum mechanics. It can also be used to denote abstract vectors and linear functionals in pure mathematics. It is so called because the inner product (or dot product) of two states is denoted by a bracket, consisting of a left part, called the Bra, and a right part, called the Ket. The notation was invented by Paul Dirac, and is also known as Dirac notation. Dirac introudced the symbol y to denote an abstract state vector distinct

from its representation, the wave functions. The state vectors constitute a complex

c vectors space, i.e. if y , c are state vectors, so that c y + 'c
numbers c and c'. all vectors c y , c

for any complex

0, which have the same direction y ,

correspond to the same physical state. The set of all such vectors constitute a space

taken in that order. Therefore. for which º i.com 4 called a ray in the space. Vectors of type y which forms the first half of the closed brackets are called Bra Vectors and those of the type y which forms the second half are called Ket Vectors. y º y . y y³ 0y . this symbol represents a single (real or complex) number which is defined to be the scalar product of f and y . and vice versa. By definition y y is a real non-negative number.y = 0 if and only if y = 0 . It is to be mentioned that the relation between y and 1. y y (1) The relation between any vector and its conjugate may be visualized readily if we consider examples of their representations. i. It is to be noted that ® * ) t * f y ¹ y f but f y = y f (2b) . (2a) In general if the vector y and its conjugate f of some vector f are juxtaposed in such a was as to form a closed bracket f y . we can say that any physical state is represented by a ray (rather than a single vector) in the vector space.clicktoconvert. In the Schrödinger picture y ® y(x y .e.7.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . y (* )® x y is not a linear. ).e.http://www. f y ò f ( x )yx( d . The conjugate of a bra vector is a ket vector. Corresponding to every vector y there is a conjugate vector y Dirac used to notation y . In the Schrödinger picture. Norm and Scalar Product The length or norm of the vector y is denoted by y y .

N j ei = å u j =1 *j i j e (2) in which ui j are suitably chosen complex numbers. . is A ( 1yc + c 2y) =2 c 1 y ( A + )1 c 2y A 2 ) ( 1 dynamic variables in quantum mechanics do not commute with each other that is AB BA. e ) = d i' j' i j (3) . 1. .http://www. Linearity of the operator means that a linear combinations of A ψ 1 and A ψ 2. ( ) e d i j i j .( x. Dynamical variables as Operators Each dynamical variable A (x. This new basis are also orthonormal. provided that (e . 1 = (e . p ) .clicktoconvert. = . Change of Basis If the vectors e i are on orthonormal basis for a N – dimensional space.com 5 The scalar product of two vectors is linear in the second vector.9. (1) Then a new basis can be constructed by forming N linear combinations of these vectors.8. 1. system.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . f ( c y + c' c f )= c y' + c f c (2c) Any vector space (in general infinite dimensional) such that between any two vectors of the space a scalar product which satisfies equation (2) is called a Hibert space. The effect of an operator µA on a wave function ψ is to convert it into another wave function denoted by A ψ. The space of ket vectors (or bra vectors) representing quantum mechanical states is thus a Hilbert space. ) .p) is represented in quantum mechanics by a linear operator µA = A ( $x µ . j . Ñi ) The operator acts on the wave function of the º A h . N . . i2 .

clicktoconvert.com 6 If Equation (2) is substituted the above condition becomes åu k. lle )i d j = k j (4) Using equation (1) we get åu k * i k j k i j u =d (5) In other words.If a vector x is represented with respect to the basis {e } by x=å x i i i e (8) and with respect to basis {e' } by x=å x i ' i' i e (9) Then. Hence the necessary and sufficient conditions for the vectors ei ' to form an orthonormal basis is that the matrix U is unitary. (10) . the equation (6) becomes (7) † † U U= U U 1 = Such a unitary transformation has the effect of substituting the basis {e' } for the basis {e } . the matrix U = ui † U U=1 j must satisfy It follows that. l i * k u ( e .This watermark does not appear in the registered version . U must be non singular and U -1 =U† (6) It is also apparent that this conditions is sufficient to insure that the vectors ei ' formed according to equation (2) are orthonormal. åx j j i i ' e= xi juj * e iå j.http://www. Since U -1U =U 1 U= 1 . since these expression representatives of one and the same vector.

1.? 5. Sharma. References 1. V. we have studied Ø The inadequacy of classical mechanics Ø Birth of quantum mechanics Ø Basic formalism of quantum mechanics Ø Introduction to quantum mechanical operators Ø Hilbert’s space and Dirac notation 1.Quantum Mechanics S. LET US SUM UP In this unit.M. Tata McGraw –Hill Publishers.A text book of Quantum Mechanics P. .C. Jai Prakash Nath & Co Ltd. Gupta.Quantum Mechanics Leonard I. x j = iå j * xi ' u i (11) This equation provides the connection between the components xi ' x the i of vector with respect to the bases {e} {e' } . Mathews and K.http://www. Kumar.11. Briefly discuss about Hilbert’s space 3. Define a linear operator in Hilbert space. Schiff. 1. 3. What are bra and ket vectors? 6. H.com 7 hence by orthogonality of e j . Venkatesan.12.L. equation (11) can be solved for xi' in terms of xi . What are conditions under which an operator can be represented by a diagonal matrix. 2. Sharma. McGraw –Hill International edition. 5. R.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . Since U is the unitary matrix. 4.Quantum Mechanics Satya Prakash Sultan Chand Publishers .V. Give an account on Dirac notation 4. LESSON END ACTIVITIES 1.10. List the inadequacy of classical mechanics 2. Devanathan Narosa Publishing house.Quantum Mechanics V.clicktoconvert.

.Angular Momentum Techniques in Quantum Mechanics V. 7.clicktoconvert.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . Powell and Bernd Crasemann Narosa Publishing house.Quantum Mechanics John L. Devanathan Kluwer Academic Publishers.http://www.com 8 6.

0.This watermark does not appear in the registered version .7.5.2 EQUATION OF MOTION 2. Schrödinger Picture In the Schrödinger picture. Heisenberg picture 2. since the dependence of ket on co-ordinate or other variable does not appear explicitly. References 2.6.1.http://www.com 9 LESSON . Interaction picture (or dirac picture) 2.1. Aims and Objectives: In this lesson we are going to study Ø Schrodinger picture Ø Heinsenberg’s picture Ø Interaction picture 2.clicktoconvert. T h e t o t a l time derivative in used here. the state vectors are assumed to be time dependent and the dynamical variables are assumed to be time independent.8. Aims and objectives: 2.3. Schrödinger picture 2.2. Do it yourself 2. Lesson end activities 2. Problems 2. The Hermitian adjoint wave equation will be . The wave equation in the Schrödinger picture is ih d as ( t d t ) Ha =s t( ) (1) The subscript‘s’ refers to the ket as viewed is Schrödinger picture.4.0. Let us sum up 2.

But it represents the change of in to some other ket a s ( 0 ) . The time rate of change of matrix element of a dynamical variable W s in the Schrödinger picture can be found out as d a s (t W) s b (t d t = d = a s( ) { t d W ) } bt (t s s s ) + ts a ( t ¶ dW ) bss t( + ¶ d s ) a t( s W t ) b s t{ ( ) } -1 a s (t W) s b ( H ih t = a s (t s ¶ W 1 s )t a ( t ) + t + b ( s s h ¶i 1 )s t a W ( i h s ) a W( s H b t ) s ( t ) ¶ W ) s+bt ( s ¶t s ) H b s ](t [ . that can be expressed as an operator or square matrix.clicktoconvert. It is essential to remember that the operator e -i H t h is not an unitary transformation in the ordinary sense of rotation of axes in Hilbert’s space as U. Assuming H to be independent of time the solution for the above equations will be of the form a s ( t ) = ea s a s ( t ) =s a -i H e h ( 0) -i H e h and (3) (4) e ( 0) This can be easily verified by differentiating equation (3) and getting the equation (1) d i a s (t ) = H a s d t h ih d as ( t d t -i H t h e (t ) ) Ha =s t( ) -i H t h The operator e is an infinite sum of powers of H . each of which is a dynamical variable. ) The first term on the right hand side arises due to any explicit time dependence W s may have. The second term on the right hand side arises due to the change in the state vectors with time.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . V.http://www. Thus the series as a whole is also a dynamical variable. W. .com 10 d as= t ( d t -i h ) ts a (H ) † = a s (t ) H (2) Since H † = H because H is hermitian.

com 11 A special case of interest will b when W s is time independent. s t ]( ) with a s (t = ea( ) sh 0 ) and a s (t )=s ( e ) a 0 substituting for ket and bra vectors d as ( d i h H -t e0 W s b (e = s ) 0 t i h H t )a ( e t i H 1 + a sW e h s.H ( 0 ) ih -i H t h i . Heisenberg Picture In Heisenberg Picture. We know that the time rate of change of matrix element in Schrödinger picture is given by the equation. 2.This watermark does not appear in the registered version .http://www. In such a case right hand side will be zero and all the matrix elements of W s are constant in time. The dynamical variable W H and its derivative to be WH = e i H T i -H T h h s We and i H T i . and when W s commutes with H. d a s (t W) s b t( d t -i H t s )= a ( t t s ¶ W ) s t+b( s ¶ i 1 ) ts a W ( h i H t h s H[ ) b . the state vectors are assumed to be independent of time and the dynamical variables are time dependent. the explicit mention of t may be omitted.H h s ¶i WH 0 eh )bs s ( ¶ t t 0 t i ) H .clicktoconvert.t ( b h ) e (s W H s 0 ) Assuming H to commute with e and also choosing the state vectors in Heisenberg picture to be time independent as i H t aH ( 0= as ) (= 0a h ) e s ( t ) since a H (t ) does not depend on time.Hs H s e b e H a W H b e H e h t .2. Such a dynamical variable is said to be a constant of the motion.T ¶ W H ¶ W H h =e esh ¶t ¶t ¶ W d H aH W +H a H b = H d t t ¶ i i H t -i H t i H t i H 1 h h h h W .

H } d t¶ t where { F .H] H This equation is called equation of motion in Heisenberg’s picture. and transition probabilities can be obtained from the matrix element.com 12 d a H W Hb d t ¶ W = a H H+ b H t ¶ i 1 a HW h H [H . This is similar to the classical equation of motion for the dynamical variable F given by d F¶ F = + {F . } So the transition from classical to quantum mechanical picture can be made by replacing the poisson bracket with commutator bracket divided by ih 2. The quantities that are not altered are the matrix element of the dynamical variable and this provides the physical content of the system since eigenvalues.b H] H d can be d t since the state vectors in Heisenberg’s picture are independent of time brought inside the ket a H in the above equations and we will have aH d WH b H d ¶ H W 1 =Ha W a H+ b H t t¶ i h H [ .This watermark does not appear in the registered version .http://www. H0 may be simple . expectation values.bH ] H This equation is true for arbitrary bra and ket vectors and hence we can write d W H ¶ HW = + d t ¶t 1 W [ ih .3.clicktoconvert. Interaction Picture (or Dirac Picture) We know that the state vectors alone or the dynamical variable alone are not central to describe the development of a physical system with time. Both the state vectors and the dynamical variables can be altered by means of the unitary transformation operator e i o st H h . the Hamiltonian is split up into two parts as H = H0 + H' where H0 is usually chosen to be independent of time. In the interaction picture. H is poisson bracket.

This watermark does not appear in the registered version .http://www.clicktoconvert.s H Ws I ) ( o ih 1 W I . . H I] [ o ih e o o s h æ .Hs o t (1) st W I (t = es h W eh ) Differentiating equation (1) ih d aI ( t d ) i= h o o s s i do H a h + h (t ) sh a e i s t h d t i H t i H t s e t () = H o -a ts( )+ Ie a H = H o -a ts( )+ IH a e = H o -a s t( )+ H a I s = H ' aI ( t I i o st H h s s (t ) (t ) i o st H h s s t ( t ) i H t i H s ) H t. part of the time dependence is assigned to the state vectors and another part to the dynamical variables instead of having one constant and the other time dependent.com 13 structure as the coloumb interaction and H' may be the external electromagnetic field varying with time. LET US SUM UP In this lesson we have discussed Ø Schrodinger picture Ø Heinsenberg’s picture Ø Interaction picture in detail. 2.i H t d WI i = Ho d h ¶ W I = + ¶t ¶ W I = + ¶t ¶ W I = + ¶t i o s o s o ¶ i W s ho h h h W e s +e s e+ s s e W t t ¶ h 1 W I Ho. H s] [ o ih 1 W I . In the interaction picture we define the state vectors and the dynamical variables as -i o s t H h s a I (t =) a ( e i oH t ) i .4.ç s H è i H t öo h ÷e ø i H s t In interaction picture.

clicktoconvert.http://www.com 14 2. Compare the equation of motion in Schrodinger’s picture with that of Heinsenberg’s picture 4. +t . Obtain the equation of motion in Heinsenberg’s picture 3. where U is eè 2. LESSON END ACTIVITIES 1.8. Do it yourself .7. + 2h ! i ö H 2 2 ÷2 . Obtain the equation of motion in Schrodinger’s picture 2. Problems: Show that If the Hamiltonain H of a system does not contain time explicitly a (t ) = e æ i Hö t ç ÷ è h ø Solution a ( t ) = a( 0 ) t + d d ò a '' t ( )t ' d 0 t = a ( 0) + = a ( 0) 1 a 'H ih ò 0 t t( )d ' t d ù d 'ú (t ) ' d t ' û' t' t t é 1 + ' òa ê ' + H t ( ih 0 ë d 0 )ò t'a 't = a ( 0) 1 1 + 0 H a t'+ )d ' t ( th ih 1 t.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . Obtain the equation of motion in Dirac’s picture 2.5. è ih =e æ -i H t ö ç ÷ è h ø a0 ( ) a (0) æ -i H t ö ç ÷ h ø since H is hermitian U is unitary. ( ø ) a t ' H ( ' t) dò ' 0 æ 1 = ç1 +H .

Venkatesan. Schiff.M. Mathews and K. Devanathan Narosa Publishing house. Tata McGraw –Hill Publishers. é p 2ù H ê .com 15 Obtain the equation of motion for <A> in the Schrodinger’s picture and also in the Heisenberg’s picture. McGraw –Hill International edition. LESSON 3 MATRIX MECHANICS 3.2.9. x +x = ] ú ë 2m û = é 1 . References 1. 3.clicktoconvert.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . 2.x] = 0 1 .ê k ë2 ù x2 ú û since [x. Quantum Mechanics Leonard I. Also we are going to study the Kronig Penny model. Aims and objectives: In this lesson.1. A text book of Quantum Mechanics P. Quantum Mechanics V. we are going to solve the linear harmonic oscillator by the method of matrix mechanics.http://www. p] +}0 2m . 2. One Dimensional Linear Harmonic Oscillator in Matrix Mechanics The Linear Harmonic oscillator can be treated by manipulating the matrix equations directly the Hamiltonian for a linear harmonic oscillator is H= p2 1 k+ x 2m 2 2 (1) where ω = k m The commutator of x with H is [ x. p { p [ x ]p+ [ x. 3.

This watermark does not appear in the registered version .com 16 1 {ihp} + {ihp} 2m 2ihp 2m = = = ihp m The commutator of p with H é p 2ù 1 ù = [ p. ] 2 since [p. H] l = x H -H x l= k x H l k H x l Introducing a dummy operators.E k ) k | p >l < | (8) .é k x2 ú ê ú û ë 2m ë 2 û (2) =0+ = 1 k { x[ p ]x [ p x }x .ihx} 2 -2ih k x = 2 = .k x l hi k k x l h = But k [p .ihkx (3) 3. ]H ê .kE Similarly k [ p .E k k x =l = l (5) ih k p l m ih k p l k x l = m lE. + . H] l =k i. H ] l = p H -H p l= k p H l k H p l k - (6) (7) = ( El .ihx . x ]H = l ih p k l m ih = k p l m (4) k But k [x .p] = 0 1 k {. Energy Representations If there are transition from the initial state l to the final state k k [ .Ek ) k x From equations (4) and (5) El .clicktoconvert.http://www. p + p . l l and k k = k x l .3.H l k H k k x l l = ( El .

E k) i m x l ( El .This watermark does not appear in the registered version .i w x l not equal to zero only when Ek = E .clicktoconvert.m 0x = l w m We see that k p .com 17 From equations (7) and (8) -ih k k p= l k x l ( El . Therefore the energy change can takes place in units of hw 3.E k) = l hw . Raising and Lowering operator Multiplying equation (6) by -ihw then we get k .E = k ) ±w h Thus we see that the energy difference between successive levels will be ± hw .k i m x l w ( El .E k kh.p w ) i . Thus each operation on l will successively reduce the eigenvalue by units of hw .E ) k k p l= -i h k h i k p l ( El . .m x l i w = hw k p l ( El .imwx ) on l decreases the eigenvalue by hw .E k E ) ( l (9) h2k 1 = m ( El .E k) (11) (10) + (11) Þ k p iw m = x hw l k wp ( El .E k) (10) Rewriting equation (9) as k -ihw 2m p= l k x ( El .http://www.E k ) 2 k p l l ) 2 p ( El .4.E k k h 2w 2 p= l k ( El .hw is l Therefore the operator ( p .E k ) m .

hw ÷ m +w ç 2ø è 2m 2 2 x =0 0 2 x 2= 0 0 æ p2 1 ö1 + m w 2 x 2 wh = 0 ç ÷ 2m 2 è ø2 1ö æ 0 ç H .http://www.2.This watermark does not appear in the registered version .i) w 0= 0 Now operating ( p + imwx ) from the left we get ( p +i m )( -p w m )x0 w x i = 0 {p 2 + m 2( x .1.imwx ) by the factor i 2mhw The creation and annihilation operator is defined as .…. we can write 1ö æ En = çn + ÷ hw 2ø è n=0.p 2 p + 2m x =0 i w w x ) } 0 Dividing throughout by 2m Þ æ p 2 i 2wm 2 m öw + ih ÷ + ç 2m ø 2m è 2m æ p2 1 1ö .com 18 But this cannot be done indefinitely. It is a customary practice to represent the raising and lowering operators as dimensionless quantity. ( p + imwx ) is called the raising operator or creating operator and ( p .clicktoconvert. Since this is the lowest eigenvalue and each operation of ( p + imwx ) increases the eigen value by hw . m x Thus ( p .hw = ÷ 2ø è H 0 = 1 h0 w 2 0 0 Thus 1 hw is the eigenvalue of the operator H. 2 m We can also similarly prove that ( p + i w )x increases the eigenvalue by hw .. corresponding to the eigenket 0 . Therefore we multiply the raising operator ( p + imwx ) by the factor -i 2mhw and the lowering operator ( p .imwx ) is called the lowering operator or annihilation operator for the above mentioned reasons.

i 2mhw 1 a = m x{ w + i 2mhw a † p p } } i p} 1 a m x +i p = { w 2 mh w m{ x w }- = 1 m 2wx i+2w p( 2 x x +2 p p m ) 2 mh w { { } ü. H ] we have [a.http://www.ahw a a 2 Premultiply by a in(13) 1 † a = hw a + ahw a a H 2 Since aH .Ha = [a.a =H hw 2 m{ x w }i p} (12) 1 a † a m x +i p = { w 2 mh w = 1 2 m 2wx i + w x-2 p p+2 x p m ( ) 2 m hw { } 2 1 ì 1 2 2 i üwm p = + í mw x +ý hw î 2 2 þ 2 m m 1 1 = (H hw ) hw 2 = H 1 hw 2 1 H = hw †+ hw a a 2 Post multiply by a in (12) Þ 1 † H =ahw a .This watermark does not appear in the registered version .clicktoconvert.i ( 1 ì 1 2 2 i wm h ) p 2 = í mw x + ý + hw î 2 2 m þ 2 m = = 1 ì 1 ü í H + hw ý hw î 2þ H 1 + hw 2 † hw a 1 .com 19 1 a† = m x{ w . H ] = hwa Similarly (13) (14) (15) .

†a a û H + hw H a† a = hw é a. Let us find y n a† a n = y y n H 1 .y n hw 2 = n yn y n =n † y n a yn a =y a an y n = yn + = a n an y 1 y1 n n- (16) = an Comparing equations (16) and (17) an = n a y n =n y -1 n In a similar manner let us find H 1 y n a †ayn = y + y n n hw 2 H 1 = yn + y n hw 2 2 h ( n + 1 +/ )yw = yn n hw 2 (17) 1 2 .clicktoconvert.This watermark does not appear in the registered version .H =a é a . †ù ë a û Let a yn =n a a† y n = n b y n y n +1 where a n and b n are the eigenvalues. ë é a. †ù = ë a 1 û a †a= 1 2 1 2 This is called the number operator Eigen values of raising and lowering operator é a. ë ù H † hw û = -a † ù a a = † a.y n hw 2 ( n + / hw ) 1 1 2 .com 20 1 † a † H h†wa -a hwa † a = 2 1 † H † = hwa +a†hwa a a † 2 † † † ù Since a H.http://www. H we have ë û éa† .

clicktoconvert.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . ' y n a yn '= y n n y n -1 = nd n' .i 2mhw 1 a = m x( w + i 2mhw 1 a† + a = m (2 w x 2mhw p) p) ) = 2mw x h .com 21 = ( n +1) y n y n = n+1 (18) † y n a yn a =y a n † † an y = b n† bn y a y1 +1 n + n = bn 2 (19) = +1 Comparing equations (18) and (19) bn a† y n = n y1 + n n +1 3. Matrix representation for a†a x . +1 n æ ç ç = ç ç ç è 0 2 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 ö ÷ ÷0 ÷ 0 ÷ ÷ 4 ø 0 0 0 0 1 a† = m x( w .5.http://www. æ0 ç ç0 a =ç ç0 ç è0 -1 n 2 0 0 0 0 ö0 ÷ 3 ÷0 ÷ 0 ÷ 4 ÷ 0 ø 0 +1 0 0 0 5 ' y n a yn † = y +' 1 y n n n = n + 1d n . a n d p .

We know that this is ¥ . s ai nw h 'b=f s i n .This watermark does not appear in the registered version .http://www.¥ m . In either case. When µ>1 the situation is reversed.N ® ¥ N ® + ¥ and as .a 2 æ ç mhw ç =i ç 2 ç ç è (-a) 0 2 0 0 -2 0 3 0 ö 0 ÷ -3 ÷ ÷ 0 ÷ ÷ 4 ø 0 0 -4 0 3. w b c o 2 ( ) (2) where . if m < 1 m ® ¥ as N ® . c =o s w. m = eiq (θ real) (1) Also we have 1 c o = m o m s-1+h ' .¥Hence we must have and .clicktoconvert.N possible only if m = 1 For.com 22 Þ x= h a + †a 2mw { } 0 0 0 0 = ìæ 0 ïç h ïç 0 í 2mw ïç 0 ç ïç îè 0 0 2 0 0 2 0 3 0 2 ü 0 0 0 æ ö 0ö 0 0 ï ÷ ç ÷ 2 0 0÷ ï 0 3÷ 0 0 ç +ý ÷ ç ÷ 3 0 0 0÷ 4 0 ï 0 ç ÷ ï ÷ 0 0 0 5 0ç 0 4÷ ø è ø þ ö 0 ÷ ÷3 ÷ 0 ÷ ÷ 4 ø 0 0 0 0 æ ç h ç = ç 2mw ç ç è Similarly (a † - )a 1 = i -( p 2 2hw m † ) Or p = mhw i . . the wave function in the Nth well will diverge in one or both of the limits N ® + ¥ N ® .w s j ( ) q s c a w b s + . An infinite array of square wells The Kronig – Penney Model When the array of potential wells extends to infinity on both sides. we have to make sure that the wave functions does not diverge as x ® ± .6.

This watermark does not appear in the registered version .3.1 V =0 (n-1)' n n' =’ (n+1)' V = -V0 -.25 E V0 Fig. (b )w ' = w 2 Bands of allowed energies are shown as thickened 0 . As the parameter E is varied .75 -2 -1 0 1 2 -2 -1 0 1 2 Fig.clicktoconvert. since the value of the left hand side of equation (2) is restricted to -1 c£ oq s 1 the equation can be satisfied only when the right hand side £ . and the identification of energy bands and gaps are illustrated in Figure 3.1.1 Energy bands and gaps or V0w 2 = 2 a w0 = ) 'w0 . For.5 -. These form energy gaps. also is within this range. The variation of f c ob sw ( j ) with E. and those for which f c ob sw ( j > 1 ) are the ‘forbidden’ regions.com 23 1 2 f = ( c o a h w . An array of identical square wells -. In the limit w ' ® ¥ they reduce to points at the positions of the energy levels of a single potential well.1 fcos(βω-φ) b) fcos(βω-φ) Fig.http://www. since f ³ c o a> w ' .1. 1 The intervals of E ) for which f c ob sw ( j £ 1constitute the ‘allowed’ energy bands. sections on the energy axis. the right hand side. between allowed bands. sai n w ' ) ss + ' h t aj n s at a w h ' =.f (E) which lie outside . n 2 2 2 (3) The above equation (3) determines the allowed energy levels since α and β (and hence f and φ also) depend on the parameter E.) . 1 and 0 ( . s h the limits +1 and -1 admissible for cosθ. shown by arrows in the .5 -.75 -. From the structure of this equation it is immediately evident that the allowed energies form continuous bands with gaps in between. Note the narrowing of the bands as ω' increases. f c ob s w( j as oscillates between the bounds + f (E) and .25 E V0 ω' ω b -.

A to be such e that the column made up of these is the eigenvector belonging to the eigenvalue eiq of M.com 24 The nature of the energy eigenfunctions u(x) corresponding to any energy E within an allowed band can now be easily seen. M ( ) e= ( ) + A0 A0 q + Aiq 0 A 0 (6) q The θ-dependence of the coefficients so defined is explicitly indicated here.clicktoconvert. which resulted in the ‘transfer’ equation ( ) + An An n =M A n + A ( ) -1 -1 (4) and also the condition of finiteness at infinity which gave us the restriction equation (2) on the eigenvalues of the transfer matrix M.s for this E using 2m 2m 2m 2 = a 2 a-2 n ( d 2 E)= b 0 (-V + V 0 2 h h h E= ) (5) determine θ from equation (2) and the matrix M itself from equation (4). There are no further conditions on the wave function. i.This watermark does not appear in the registered version .β. A. Suppose then that we choose some energy E within an allowed band.or B+. B-) in any one of the regions in Figure. We recall that we have already imposed the necessary continuity conditions on the wave function. and in particular.1.e. and take Ae+ . From ( ) A+ N AN =MN A + A ( ) 0 0 (7) we have .2. there is nothing to prevent us from choosing the two coefficients (A+.c.http://www. Now let us avail ourselves of the freedom of choosing the coefficients. and after finding α.

and when it is introduced in equation (9). as forming a ‘unit cell’ of the repeating pattern. 3.7.clicktoconvert. The most general eigenfunction for a given energy E is a linear ( 2+ ) combination c1 qu x ) qc -(u x.This watermark does not appear in the registered version .http://www.iq of M instead of eiq in equation (6). are called Bloch wave functions. of the potential.e. In the usual situation. It is obvious that + a similar result holds good for Bn a n n d B . the coefficients depend on n only through the simple factor ein θ.qn + A q ( ) 0 0 (8) i. The Kronig-Penny model makes the further idealization of treating the potential due to each atom as a square well. The general form equation (10) of the eigenfunctions. the occurrence of allowed energy bands and forbidden gaps follows just from the periodicity property. If we think of a well and the adjacent barrier together. . The above results are of considerable physical importance in the study of crystalline solids where in the array of atoms produces a potential forming a regular repeating pattern. with arbitrary complex coefficients c1 and c2 . the result just obtained may be stated in the following instructive form: The wave functions at corresponding points x and x + nb of wells (or barriers) separated by n unit cells differ only by the constant factor ei qn : i uq ( x + n) = ( qn u ) x b e q (9) This property is often expressed in the form uq ( x =) eiq x/ (b v q ( b x and vq ( x =v x + n ) ) q) (10) ) Equation (10) may be thought of as the definition of vq ( x .com 25 ( ) + An An q = eAi. Besides uq ( x ) there is another independent solution u-q ( x ) obtained by using the eigenvalue e . But the fundamental specifically.also. But the explicit structure of the function vq ( x ) equation (10) in depends on the actual shape of the potential function. the number of atoms is so large that the idealization to infinite number may be made to simplify matters. V(x) = V(x + nb). the periodicity of vq ( x ) follows. LET US SUM UP .

Kumar. Devanathan Kluwer Academic Publishers.9. Quantum Mechanics Leonard I. Schiff. Sharma.C. Mathews and K. Powell and Bernd Crasemann Narosa Publishing house.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . 3. Sharma. Venkatesan. 7. We can calculate the energy eigenvalues. 3. Quantum Mechanics John L.L. A text book of Quantum Mechanics P. 2. Quantum Mechanics S. . 6.com 26 From this lesson one can get an clear idea on linear harmonic oscillator in detail. 3. Devanathan Narosa Publishing house. 2. McGraw –Hill International edition.V. Angular Momentum Techniques in Quantum Mechanics V. Quantum Mechanics Satya Prakash Sultan Chand Publishers . Jai Prakash Nath & Co Ltd. Quantum Mechanics V.http://www. V. 4. H. 4. is discussed in detail which find application field of nuclear physics and material science. Write down the matrices for the ladder operators a. Gupta.clicktoconvert. References 1. 5. Test Yourself 1. Give the matrix theory of harmonic oscillator and obtain the energy eigenvalue spectrum.M. 3. .8. What are raisnig and lowering operators? Explain why they are so called.a+ of the harmonic oscillator in the representation which diagonalises the Hamiltonian. The Kronig – Penny model. Explain Kronig Penny model. Tata McGraw –Hill Publishers. R.

i. The Perturbation Method This method is applicable.1 Aim and Objectives In this lesson. when the Hamiltonian can be written as sum of two parts.2. There are three most important approximation methods in quantum mechanics.e. They are 4. So.Stark effect. The main disadvantage of this method is that. H = Ho + H ' Where H O ® unperturbed Hamiltonian & H ' ® perturbed Hamiltonian & is assumed to be very small.2.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . Pt cannot be extended higher excited states. we are going to give an introduction to various approximation methods and going to study Stationary perturbation theory and its applications in detail 4. Zeeman effect 4.2.2. one has to resort to approximation methods. Applications : .1.Ground state of Hydrogen.clicktoconvert. the equation of motion cannot be solved exactly. Helium. INTRODUCTION In quantum mechanics.com 27 LESSON 4 STATIONARY PERTURBATION THEORY 4. Applications :.http://www. there are many physical systems for which. Variational Method It gives good estimate of the ground state energy by choosing an appropriate trial function. .

Let y &W be the wave function and energy level of perturbed Hamiltonian Therefore we can write. This method is applicable.3. Let U k & E k be the orthonormal eigenfunctions & eigenvalues of the unperturbed Hamiltonian H o . plays an important role in all applications of theory.e. Time Independent Perturbation Theory or Stationary Perturbation Theory The stationary perturbation theory is concerned with finding the changes in the discrete energy levels and eigenfunctions of a system when a small disturbance is applied.http://www. H = Ho + H ' (1) where H o is unperturbed Hamiltonian & is of sufficiently simple structure. the importance of those problems for which exact solutions can be found out. W. They may also help to establish limits of validity for various approximation methods.clicktoconvert. This enhances rather than. Approximation This method gives an approximate but direct solution of Schrödinger equation. Approximation methods. 4. according as they deal with bound states or with scattering states.com 28 4. therefore.K.B. Applications :.Barrier penetration problem. When the potentials are such that. that its Schrödinger equation can be solved. It is assumed that the Hamiltonian H is the Schrödinger equation can be written as sum of two parts.This watermark does not appear in the registered version .2.3. These methods can be broadly classified in to two. the Schrödinger equation is separable to a one dimensional equation and when the potential is a smoothly varying function. H0 U = E U k k k Hy Wy = . & H ' is perturbed Hamiltonian & is small enough so that it can be regarded as a perturbation on H o . i. Also. the exact solutions are often useful as starting points for approximate calculations. diminishes. Alpha decay problem.

... W + . we expand the perturbed eigenfunction & eigenvalues as power series in H ' .. (4) The above equation is valid for a continuous range of l . .. l 0 Þ Ho =Wy y 0 0 0 Þ ( H o )W y0=0 .. H + y .. 2 .. . 2 + ................ + 1 l + W = W + W + 2W +3 W + ..... powers of l correspond to zero. we can write. ) ' + . these two series are continuous analytic function of l for l between zero and one..... first. . ) 2 . .. . . .) W y( W ... ) l 1 . +........ We now. . the zero. We assume that.... + . orders of perturbations..com 29 4... Non degenerate case The assumption that H ' is small suggests that.. y 0 . l = W y( + .This watermark does not appear in the registered version . . 1l W l2 .3. . ... .. y + l 2 y . . .... l is set equal to one.. first..... second…….. l 1 l 2 l3 0 (3a) (3b) using (2) and (3) in equation (1) we get 2 ( H o +)l ( ......W 1 H ' 2 ) Wy y o( y + 0 2= (5c) (5d) l3 Þ ( o.. ...1...1 y ) 0 ' H 0 = 1 (5b) 2 s i m i l al r l Þ f o r (0yH W ) 1..... 1 .............0 l 1 Þ H o +1H y 0 (5a) 0 ' W 0 W + yW = y 1 1 Þ ( H 0. In the final result. .. Therefore.. ...... + 0 (y 0.. This is easily accomplished interms of a parameter l. .. equate the coefficients of equal powers of l on both sides to obtain a series of equations that represent successively higher orders of perturbation. . ... The first of the above set of equations means that y 0 is any one of the unperturbed eigenfunctions.. . .. such that.......W )3= ( 1 W yH 2' ) y W 2 W y H 0 y .. .. ........ The perturbed wave function & energy level are written as y = y 0 l y + 2 2y +3l3 y . . ..clicktoconvert.. The different orders of perturbation approximation are then given by the coefficients of corresponding powers of l. We replace H ' by l H ' and express Y and W as power series in l..... second …….. .......2 + 1 + 0 ..http://www. l.

.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . l ¹ ò l y m Þ n ) å n( 1 [m E dk E n + ]1 d m = k a .' 0 ) H y 0 0 1 ( ) Expressing y1 = a nå1 u n y & = m u n 0 Þ ( H .] ò u) tu d * ò 1 u * k u d * u = H 'm t d E n W + t ò u n k n m k W .W y) ( =W 1. although.n a ( 1 ) n 1 n 1 n W )n u å 0 W n u 1 -Hm ' = m m u E n) u å m W n u 1.2.3. 4.m] un W1 u mH 'm u E = - Multiplying by . It is assumed to be non degenerate as well. since we are dealing with the perturbation of a bound state.+ k m+ 1 w h e r ke = m ' *u tH m' u d k |< H ' |>m H k = ò k = H m ' (7) When k = m equation (7) becomes W1 = m ' m m | H ' | > H = < m (8) which represents the first order perturbation of the energy.http://www.n a n n ) ( aå(n E 1 n u.m ' = H u aå [ En .n W H k m ' Carrying out the summation we get a k ( 1[)m Ek E ]d W .clicktoconvert. k Þ n ( a å[ E m 1.0 ) an= (u1 )( w 1H ' m) u W å o n n Þ Þ Þ ( 1 ) ( n aån H 0 u. K y.com 30 y 0 um & o W m E = = (6) This state u m is discrete.& rearranging we get Þ n ( a ån1 ) Em E n] u+ W1 u mH 'm u [ = k Multiplying the above equation u* and integrating we get.* T dl t1 m f dm = 0 = i f m i = l . First order Perturbation The first order perturbation equation is given by ( H. others of the unperturbed eigenfunctions may be degenerate or continuous.

n u m n n ) a 1 W n u Multiplying by u * & integrating we obtain.3. equation (7) gives ) a (k 1 = Hkm ' ( m. we get.n ) E E where we used the relation H m ' n= ( H n m)*. we have omitted the term n = m. For k ¹ m.2 W m= å n a n . The above equation gives ' the second order perturbation to the energy eigenvalue. equation (10) gives .clicktoconvert. Second order perturbation The second order perturbation equation is given by Þ ( .E k 2 ' ] 1 k W)m d å + a n n k ( Hn = n a å 1 n -m)H m dk ' n Carrying out summation we get ( ) ' a k ( [m 2 E ) 2 E+k ]1md W =n' a k (S H 1 -a ) m H m k n n k (10) For m = k. k * å n a ( n[ E 2 E n ]ò)tu u * d+ò Wk u m u d t m k n 2 = n * a ( nuò 1 H ) ' n u* n dåm 1 -m ) ' k u t u d åk t ( ò H a n n ån a ( n [m 2 n ) d E n( . ' W2 = n S | H m'2 | n ( m. Substituting the value of a (n 1 )from first order perturbation equation we have.http://www.W ) =( W Hy ' )+ W y H y o 0 2 1 1 2 0 E x p r ye2 s = s ( iny n 1) g= ( na 1 å ) .This watermark does not appear in the registered version . ny u = m u un a 0 & å 2 n n weget Þ Þ Þ n n n ( a å H 20 u n a n( å n2 -) W n 0 u) = na( n 1 W å ) n u 1 -(a n 1Hnå ) ' n un+ W 2 1 n ( m m u ( ) a å E 2 u n a n( ån2 u) = a( E m n n n ( 2 ) n n 1 ( W n )u 1 a nå ( 1 ) Hnå) ' n un+ W 2 1 n u a å [ E -m ] n .1 uå a E u u W n H ) n ' n u Rearranging we get Þ n a (n[ å 2 m ( 1 ( 1 E E ) +]n u2= W ån ) a n -H n ' åu . ( 1 W2 = n a n S H m ) ' ( n m -a 1 ) ' m m H = n n¹ m å ' ( 1 ) ' n m n a H where prime over the summation indicates that. a m 4.3.k ) E E (9) N o t i c e t h a t w e h a v e n o t b e e n a b l e t o d e t e r m(ni n e a1e n c )e w e( a s s 1u m e) t h = t a 0 H.com 31 For k ¹ m.

W .+ r1 2 r 1 r2 (1) in which r1 and r2 are the distances of electrons 1 and 2.Ek ) m E n E ) E ( ( m. the wave function y is not normalised since (y . ..This watermark does not appear in the registered version .clicktoconvert. 4 w ith1. y ) = 1 + ' å k |<k | H > | m | ' 2 ( m .E n( è E m û The primes in the above equation denote the omission of k = m or n = m. . . .E n E ) ( øk m m ë E m . . .-E +÷ ) n ( å E Ek ) .k ) E E (12) Similarly we can obtain W3. respectively from nucleus . It is to be noted that.com 32 a (k [ 2 m ) 1 E .E n (13 a) (13 b) y um = ' é |< k | H > | m | <m | Hö> | m | <k | H > | n | < | H ' >| m ù æ ' ' ' ' n uê k + å1 ú çk . s 0 ft y y .k 2) E E (14) tothesecondorderinH'.k ) E ( E E ' a (k 2 = ) n < k | H ' | n < | H '> | m k< | H ' > m m<| H ' > m > n | | S 2 ( m .E (n = 1n a )k H(n '-k a ] S k ) m H m ' ( u s i n g t h e v a l u e o 1f )a w e g e t n ) a (k 2 = n' H ' H ' H ' H ' S k n n. The potential energy of such a system is given by V= 2 Z 2 e Z e2 e .http://www.m k m m m2 ( m .Thisoccuredbecauseoh e c o n d i t0 i o n ( = ) 0>. s Applications of Stationary Perturbation Theory The Normal Helium Atom Or Ground State Of Helium Atom -e r12 -e r1 r2 +Ze NUCLEUS Consider the normal state of helium atom which contains a nucleus of charge Ze and two electrons each having a charge –e. .Ek ) m E n E ) ( m .theenergyandwavefunctiontosecondord n H ' i s g i v e n b y l = eri W =E mm | < '> |n m + H + å1 1 |< m | H | 2 n | > Em .

z1 are Cartesian coordinates of one electron and x2 . Considering the nucleus at rest. y1 .100 = E1(0 ) + E 20 ) = -2 Z 2 E H The first order perturbed energy E(1) is the average value of the perturbation 2 ()=e function H over the unperturbed state of the system. ) . e2 z2 those of the other. r1 .j ) ) (5) = y 1(s0) (q . the wave equation can be solved r1 2 exactly. Hence 1 r1 2 0 ( E (1) = òy n (H ) *y 1 ) n = ( 0 ) ò dt e 2 ( 0 )2 y d 0 0 .http://www. 0 0 .)yr1 )1(q q . 1t 0 1 0 r1 2 (6) we know that æ Z3 ö 0 u1(s0) 1= y ( )0= eç 0 3÷ è p a0 ø -r / 2 (7) in which ρ = 2Zr / a0 and a0 = h2 / (4 π2 me2 ) .This watermark does not appear in the registered version . 0 1 0 2 2 2 . 0 ( y 1( 0)0 y= 1 (0 ) 0( r1 . f 1 . θ1 .j2 and corresponding eigenvalue is (0 ( E100). hence this term may be regarded as perturbation term 2 (1 ) e H = (3) r1 2 The unperturbed wave equation can be separated into two equations by substituting 0 (0 ) (0 ) y ( ) ( x1 y1 z1 . (2 q 2 . If the term is omitted.clicktoconvert. y2 . x 2 y 2 z 2 ) = u1 ( x1 y1 z1 )u 2 ( x 2 y 2 z 2 ) (4) Considering the wave functions in polar coordinates r1 . θ2 f 2 and in normal state. r 1 1 js0 1) y( .com 33 and r12 is the separation of the two electrons as shown in Figure 1. the wave equation for the two electrons becomes 2 2 æ ¶ 2y ¶2 y ¶ y ¶ ö y 2 y 2¶ y ¶ + 2 + 2 + ÷ + 2 + 2 ç 2 2 ¶z ¶2 x ¶2y ¶z 1 1 2 è ¶x1 ¶y ø 2 2 2m é Z e Z ù e 2 e + 2 êE + + ú y = h ë r1 2 rû 1 r2 (2) 0 The variables x1 . and r2 . j 0 0 1.

but the n = 2 energy levels of hydrogen atom is four – fold degenerate.com 34 Z 3 ( . It is found that the splitting of energy levels of the hydrogen atom for weak electric field is proportional to the field strength. Stark effect in Hydrogen: Linear or First order Stark Effect The ground state of hydrogen atom is non – degenerate.4. etc. Solving the integral.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . (12) Thus we can calculate the energy of He.r/ 2 ) e e . respectively.3. p a03 y 1( 0)0 .r1 . Li+. qd 2 j 2 The value of the integral can be calculated by considering the electrostatic interaction energy of two spherically symmetrical distributions of electricity.clicktoconvert. B e ++. we have ) E( 1 = Z 5 EH 4 (11) Thus the total energy of the system is 1 E( = ( ) 2 -2Z5/4Z - ) H E. with density functions e(-ρ1) and e(-ρ2) respectively. 1 0= 0 0 (8) The volume element is dt = r1 dr1 sin q 1 dq 1 df1 r2 sin q 2 dq 2 df 2 2 2 (9) So that the integral for E(1) becomes E (1) = Z 2e 25 p 2a0 ò ò ò 0 0 0 ¥ p ¥p 2 1 2 2 d ò 0r p 2 0 ò ò 0 2 p ) e( . 4.2. with Z = 2. The splitting of energy level for all other atom is proportional to second power of the field strength and that is known as Quadratic Stark Effect.4 etc. The splitting of atomic energy levels due to the application of external electric field is known as Stark effect and it has been discovered as early as 1913.r1/ 2 ) ( .http://www. On the application of an external electric field.r2 r12 r 1 (10) s q1id q1n d. and hence it is known as Linear Stark Effect or First order Stark Effect. the degeneracy is partly removed. .s r d i r nq j d2 1 2 in which ρ12 = 2Zr12 / a0.

u1 =2yR = r q 0 Y) 0 f .= r2q 1 Y) 1f .http://www. The ground state y 1 0 0is non – degenerate. The radial functions are given by .e.clicktoconvert. Since.Er cos θ H 'e = 4p 3 Er 1 0 q jY(. Let us evaluate one of them .eEz = . If the electric field E is along the z – axis.e. but. the matrix elements between the states of same parity (same l value) vanish. the perturbation is given by H' = .r / 20 a and R20 (r) are the radial part of the wave functions. H' is of odd parity. R2 ( 0 . The same result can be arrived at by considering the angular integration involving the spherical harmonics. y2 y2 0 1 Hy2 0 ' Hy2 0 ' 1 0 ü ï ý 0ï þ 0 It can be easily seen that this two matrix elements are equal. We shall write down explicitly the degenerate eigenfunctions. )ï R 1 2 ( 1 ( u4 =2yR1 .This watermark does not appear in the registered version . f are the spherical harmonics and R21(r) ) 1 æ = )r 1 ç 2a03 è rö e÷ 2aø 0 . ) ( ü 0 0 2 ( 0 ï u2 =2y 1 = r q 1( Y) 0 f . the first excited state y 2l m l with n = 2 is four fold degenerate.com 35 q . . Let us denote the eigenfunctions of the hydrogen atom. ï) ( 1 ( 1 þ (1) where. by y n l lm( r .) (5) where.is a positive quantity.r / 20 a (2) R2 ( = r ) 1 2 1 r e 6 0 a0 a 3 (3) (4) a0 = h 2 / m e 2 The Hamiltonian of the hydrogen atom is taken as the unperturbed Hamiltonian H0 and the applied electric field as the perturbation H'. Yl m l (q . ) R 0 2 ( ï 1 ý u3 =2y 1 = r q 1 Y) 1 f . f ) . The only surviving matrix elements are.

Y00 (q . 1 = 4p e 3 1 4p òE 2 ( 0 ) r 2 ( ò 13) r1 Wr. 0÷ 3 è 3ø 4p = e E 4p 3 (8) 1 0 y 2 Hy 0 e 2 = 1E3 0 ' 0 a0 Denoting the matrix elements y 2 0 Hy2 0' and y 2 1 Hy2 0' 0 0 a s H1' 2 and ' H 2 because of the definition equation (1) and denoting the quantity 3|e|E a0 by P1 we 1 have. Y f Y ( Y f ) R R ( ) d 1 ) 0 q .q1H f0 Y q Y f )d ( ) ( . H1' =H' 2= P-2 = 1 e 3 E 0 a (9) ' Substituting the values of H1' 2and H 2 1in the secular equation. f = ) òY 1 0 1 0 Y W = d 1 and hence the angular integration yields 1 .http://www. a0 = a0 æ xö 4 . The radial integral can be performed 4p by substituting the radial function from equations (2) and (3) ¥ 2 0 2 1 ¥ 3 ( ò R ( r) R ) rrò 0 0 æ rö =d r .÷ x e d x 4 3ò è 2ø 0 a0 é 5ù ! ê 4 -!2 ú 4 3ë û ¥ = 9a = .0 4 3 y 2 0 Hy2 0 ' 1 0 (7) a 4p æ 91 ö e= .0q d0 f (r0 q.This watermark does not appear in the registered version .clicktoconvert. . E .com 36 y2 H0'y 2 1 =y 2 d0 H 0*ò y2r W ' 1 d 0 0 0 = ò R2 (r 0 )R 2( r ò2) r '0 dW0 r .x ç1 . where.1r ÷ e ç 4 3 è 2aø 0 1 4 d -r a0 r Letting x = r the integral becomes.ç .

1 2C 0 ï C W = ï ý .com 37 -W1 .P 1 . then C1 = C2 and C3 = C4 = 0 If W1 = 0. 1 ü U1 = u ( . This is diagrammatically shown in the following figure. W1 =P + P .C2 and C3 = C4 = 0 If W1 = -P.0 . 0 .http://www.clicktoconvert. U4 W0 +3_e|Ea0 W0 U2 W0 -3_e|Ea0 in absence of electric field in presence of electric field . Let us write down explicitly the set of linear equations -W1 C 1 P 2 C 0 ü = .W1 C 0 ï = þ 4 If W1 = P. then C1 = . It is seem that out of the four degenerate states only the n two states y 2 0a 0y2 d1 0 are split but the other two states y 2 1 and y 2 .P 0 0 . then C1 = C2 = 0 and C3 and C4 are indeterminate Then it follows that. U1 W 0 u1 u2 u3 u4 U3 .P -W 1 0 0 =0 0 0 -W1 0 0 0 0 -W1 The roots of the above secular equations are .2 ) ï u 1 2 ï 1 ï U 2 = u ( + 2 )ý u 1 2 ï U 3 = 3 u+ C 4u ï C 3 4 ï ' U 4 = 3 ' u+ C 4u þ C 3 4 (10) (11) give respectively the first order correction to the energy and the corresponding zeroth order eigenfunctions. .continue to be 1 1 1 degenerate.This watermark does not appear in the registered version .W1 C 0 ï = 3 .

V. Quantum Mechanics V. ‘There is no first order stark effect in the ground state of an atom’ – Illustrate. V. Gupta. 4. Explain briefly stationary perturbation theory. H. 2. Ghatak and S.clicktoconvert.com 38 4. Schiff. Kumar. Quantum Mechanics A. LET US SUM UP It is very clear that this lesson gives an exposure on stationary perturbation theory and its application such as normal state of Helium and Stark effect. Devanathan Narosa Publishing house. 2. Quantum Mechanics S.K.This watermark does not appear in the registered version .7. 3. Lokanathan McMillan Publishers. Jai Prakash Nath & Co Ltd. References 1. Define the degeneracy of an energy eigenvalue and illustrate its removal by considering the stark effect in the n = 2 level of the hydrogen atom. McGraw –Hill International edition. Quantum Mechanics Leonard I. 3. 5. 4. R. 4. . Quantum Mechanics Satya Prakash Sultan Chand Publishers 4.5.http://www.6. Sharma.L. Obtain the expressions for the first order corrections to the energy and wave function making the use of the non-degenerate stationary perturbation theory. LESSON END ACTIVITIES Check your progress 1.C. Sharma.

If we use the true wave function y o of the lowest state instead of f .clicktoconvert. y . then W will be equal to E o .2. . The choice of the function f is quite arbitrary but the more wisely H is chosen.n 2 f y å a= w iåt n n n n n h *n= a 1 a (2) Substitutinginequation(1)weget W=å a n m y a å òH y m n * n * dm z z =å n m ay å a å * n * n m a * m E n d òy m m =å n m n d m n a E m = å a * an E n n W=å a n 2 n En (3) Subtractingthegroundstateenergyfromthebo i d e s ths .http://www. we are going to concentrate on the other two approximation methods namely Variational method and WKB approximation. . . y . In the above equation. the integral f d W = ò f* H t ³E0 (1) is an upper limit to the lowest energy state of the system. According to this method. H is the complete Hamiltonian operator for the system and the function f is any normalised function of the co-ordinates of the system. Aims and Objectives In this lesson also. we may expand f is terms of the complete set of normalised orthogonal functions y o . Variational Method: The variation method is specially applicable for determining the lowest energy of the system.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . . 5. y1. It f is not equal to y o .com 39 LESSON 5 VARIATIONAL METHOD AND WKB APPROXIMATION 5.1. the more closely W will approach the energy Eo .

.E 0 = åa n n 2 n E- 0 E Qå a n =1 n 2 = å a n ( n E 0E ) n 2 (4) As a n 2 is positive and E n ³ E .1. . 1 ) H l .l. . . In this case wave function is of the general form y = e. . Application of Varitional Method : 5.3. . . 2 n ¶W = ¶ 1 l ¶W ¶W . . . .ò ) f* ( l 2.n l . Ground state energy of the Hydrogen atom. .This watermark does not appear in the registered version . . the potential energy term will be – e2 / r and hence the form of the Hamiltonian operator H will be h2 e2 2 H =.H.com 40 W. . Hence Ñ2 = 1 ¶ æ 2 ¶ ö çr ÷ r 2 ¶r è ¶r ø (3) The value of Ñ 2y will be . the R. .2 . . the value of W also varies. . QW ³ E0 (5) Note :If the function f is not normalised.2 . Minimization of W is then accomplished by finding the values of l1 . .S is positive or Zero.l.l. . . . .clicktoconvert. l .l. 1 2 As the parameters are varied. .http://www. . . .3. Depending on a number of parameters l1 . 0 = ¶2 l ¶ l n 5.l. . then W is given by the expression W= ò f Hf dt ò f fd t * * The variation of f is performed by first choosing a suitable functional form for f . )td l . Thus the have proved 0 that W is an upper bound to the lowest value of energy E 0 . . y ( . n= . . . . l .a r (1) For the ground state of hydrogen atom.l. . . l . . for which . 2 n W ( 1. we need only to consider the radial part of the Laplacian operator Ñ 2 . .=. .2 Ñ r 8p m Ù Ù (2) as the energy occurs in the radial equation.

ar + r 2 a 2 e .aò d2 2 r r .ar = 2 ê 2r + r úe r ë ¶r ¶r 2 û = 1 r2 é ¶ .ar 2 r [ ] (4) ì = e .a ría 2 î 2ü a ý r þ According to variational method.d r 2r . Thus ¶E 2 2 h = 2 -a ¶a 8p m 2 e 0 = .ar ù ¶2 2r e + r 2 2 e . = ò ¥ 0 - h2 a 2 ¥ h r2 2 a ¥ r r 2 . The limit of integration varies from 0 to as r goes form zero to infinity.a 2 a 2ü 2ù .r ê .com 41 é 1 ¶ æ ù¶ ö Ñ 2y = ê 2 2 ç r ú ÷ e è ¶ ë r ¶ r û rø -a r 2 1 é ¶ 2 ¶ ù .e ì r a ýe ú.ar ú ê ¶r ë ¶r û ( ) ( ) = 1 2r (. the energy E is given by Ù y òy * H dt E= òy * yd t ò = ¥ 0 e -a é rh 2 .clicktoconvert.http://www.ea r2 e d r e + 0 8p m 0 ò 8p 2 m ¥ 2 -2a r ò r e d r 0 (5) Applying the relation ò ¥ 0 x n e .ax dx = n! a n +1 The values of the above integrals can be obtained as = h2a2 ì 2 ü h2a ì 1 ü 2 ì 1 ü í ý+ í ý-e í 2 ý 8p 2 m î 8a 3 þ 4p 2 m î 4a 2 þ î 4a þ ì 2 ü í 3ý î 8a þ (6) = h2a2 .e2a 2 8p m Now we shall choose a in such manner as to give a minimum energy.This watermark does not appear in the registered version .2ae .ap 2 m íe rþ û r î ë 8 2 r d 4p r ò ¥ 0 r e -2 a r4p2 d r where 4pr 2 dr is the volume of a spherical shell at a distance r and r+dr from the nucleus.a )e .

2 = h (8) This is same value as we have obtained by other methods. If the refractive index changes rapidly.clicktoconvert. the Bohr.http://www.Sommerfield quantization rules of the old Quantum theory. It is interesting that. If the change is gradual. The behaviour of particle in a varying potential is quite similar. It is applicable to potentials which are such that. Approximation 5. occupy a position intermediate between classical & Quantum Mechanics. we have E min 2 2 h 2 ì 4p 2 me 2 ü 2 ì 4p me ü = í ý -e í ý 2 8p 2 m î h 2 þ î h þ 2 2p 2 m 4 e Em i n .K. should be slowly varying such that 1 d k < k < k(x)dx 1 2é m ù ( where K(x) = p x = ê E2 V (ú x ) h ëh û 1 / 2 represents the local wave number. but there are practically no reflections. 5. the first term leads to classical results. This method is called the “Wentzel – kramer –Brillouin “ or WKB approximation. there is an approximate treatment of the Schrödinger wave equation that shows its connection with the quantization rules. Further. the trajectory is not straight.B. the Schrödinger equation is separable to one dimensional equations.4. which has asymptotic nature is nevertheless useful for the approximate solution of quantum mechanical problems in appropriate cases.4. This is the approximate method of solution of wave function based on the expansion. one has reflections.1. the potential. The W. It is of interest to mention that the motion of a particle in a varying potential is analogous to the behaviour of light in a medium of varying refractive index. Introduction In the development of Quantum Mechanics. the second term to the old .com 42 4p 2 me 2 h2 Or a= (7) Substituting the value of a in equation (6). It is based on an expansion of wave function in powers of h . of which.This watermark does not appear in the registered version .

. we may expect that s is roughly equal to p 2 x Now. expanded as h2 S = (o x ) Sh( x ) S ( x ) . . h .E ú 2 mè d ø x ú ¶x 2 ê ë û ) 0 = Þ 1 æ ¶ öS ç + ÷ (2 èm ø d 2 i¶ hS 2 V . . . . One dimensional Schrödinger equation is written as -h2 ¶ 2 y + ( . S can be . when E > V.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . namely ( i 2p x ) y h e w =h e r e2 p 2 m ( E V ) = - This suggests that. by assuming that the wave function is not changed much from the form it would take of V were constant. it will be convenient to write. .y )= 0 V E 2 m¶x 2 (1) The WKB approximation takes advantage of the fact that the wavelength is changing slowly.http://www.clicktoconvert.ih (+ V . the wave function in the form y = e ( i S ) h (2) where S is a function of x (S may be complex).( uptosecondorderin)inequation(4)weget. to the characteristics of the new mechanics. It V is nearly constant. . 2 (3) Using equation (2) and (3) i ¶ S /¶ ( y y e(= ih SÞ )e =h i S / ) ¶x h ¶x ¶2 i y i( ih ¶SS /2 ) S h ¶ Þ 2 = ´ e ´ 2 e+( h h ¶x ¶x¶h x ¶x i S i /¶ ) S = -1 ( e h2 ih S / ) 2 h i S / ) ( 2 S ¶ i ¶ (+ ) e ¶x h S2 ¶x equation(1)becomes é 1 ê ê2 ë 2 ìæ ¶ S ö2 ¶ S ù ü ï ï .E )2 = x ¶ ¶x m 0 (4) SubstitutingthevalueofSfromequation(3). . + . S + 1 +2 . .ih ú 2 + V íç ÷ ý ( m ¶ xø ¶ú ï x ïè î û þ E - ) ( i S / ) h = e 0 2 ù 1 éæ ¶ Sö ¶ S 2 êç ÷ .com 43 quantum theory results and the higher terms.

clicktoconvert. ¶So = ¶x (8) [ 2±m x (-E v ) ] 1 2 Þ S0 [= 2 ò ± ( E.com 44 ¶S öùh 2 S ¶ 1 éæ ¶So êç + h 1 ÷ú 2 + 2 êè ¶ x ¶ x øú 2¶ x m ë û +( 2 Þ 2 1 éæ ¶So + êç 2 êè ¶m ë 2 2 ¶ ih é ¶ 2 S h 2S ù ¶ S . independently to the value of h . Þ 1 2 æ ¶So ö + E ç ¶ x -( V = ) 0 è ø m ÷ 0 2 (6) Þ 1 é ¶So ¶S1 ¶ S 2 i ù o ê ú = m ë ¶x ¶x û ¶x 2 2 ¶S ¶ S ¶ S 2 i o o r1 .http://www. it is necessary that.V ) 1 ] 2 d x m x0 (9) From equation (7) we have ¶S1 i 1 = ¶x 2S ( o ¶x ¶ / = ¶ 2 So ) ¶x 2 i ¶ æ æ¶ So ö ö çx ø ø ç l o¶g ÷ ÷ è 2 ¶x è i æ ¶S ö S1 = l o çg o ÷ è ¶x ø 2 (10) .o ) 2 0 = ¶x ¶x 2 ¶x ( (7) ( o r ) Þ 1 2 é ¶So ¶S2 æ ¶ Sùö 2 ¶ 1 2 S 1 0 ê + ú ç ¶-x ÷ i ¶= 2 x êm x ¶ xè úø ë ¶ û ¶So ¶S2 ¶1S 2 ¶ S1 -i 2 =0 ¶x ¶x ¶x ¶x Fromequation(6)wehave.V ê 2oE h 2 1 ) + 2 2 + ú 2 ë ¶x m ¶x 2û ¶x 2 ¶ ¶S æ S ö æ ¶S öæS ¶S ù ö ¶2oæ æ 12 ö ö h 2 ç 1 +÷ç o2 hç h ú+ ÷ ÷¶ ÷ ç xè xè ¶ x ¶ú ø x ¶ç x ÷¶ ø è û è ø ø ø è = 0 ö ÷ x ø i +( V E ) 2 é æ ¶ 2Soö +h êh ç ÷ m è ¶x 2 ø ê ë 2 ù æ ¶ 2S1ö úç 2 ÷ =0 ú è ¶x ø û Þ 2 ¶S i h é 1 éæ ¶So öù 0 + ÷ú ( V E + ê ) ê 2 êç m øú x ¶ m ¶ û xë ¶ ëè ¶ S1 ù 2 ¶0 ú x 2û ¶x 2 2 S2 æ ¶ S ùö ¶ 2 -1ú÷ i = 2 0 xç ¶ xúø ¶x è û h2 + 2 é ¶So ¶S2 ê + êm x ¶ ë ¶ (5) Since this equation must be satisfied. the coefficient of each power of h be separately equal to zero. This requirement leads to the following series of equations.This watermark does not appear in the registered version .

E V ) x0 x x i + h x x = A p2 e i ( p2 h x0 d ò B xi h + e p 2 ) x0 ò2( p d - x ) (12) where A & B are two arbitrary constants and P2 = m (.B approx possesses real exponential solution.com 45 ¶S o é -1 l o = g lê 2 ¶x ë 1 S o r i 1e= = ¶S o / ¶ x ¶S ù oo g ú ¶x û 1 -1 / 2 i 1S = [ 2m ( .clicktoconvert.E V . .( [ ò2 m ( E V )1 ]2 d x ) e h 1 4 ( ] [( 2 m ) .thesolnofequation(1)isgivenb y 2 i y e h= ( oS h S ) + 1 i 0S h e= e i 1S Asshaspositiveaswellasnegativevalues.( [ 2 m ( E V )1 ]2 d x ) e ( ] [( 2 m ) . When V is a constant. a wave moving is the negative X direction. the W.3 d x 2ò 5 2 2 [ 2 m . )The positive exponential 2 represents a wave moving in the positive X direction while the negative exponential.E V1 )4 xò0 + i B . The solution is y A h xò0 1 B hx0 ò1 =e + e p1 p 2 p d i x i x x p - d x (13) w h e r1 e p 2 m ( V E ) = - 5. i eh i ( 2 x ) 2( p x ) p h e When V > E. WKB method find its application in alpha decay paradox. 0 y = ( S i A = i0eh / ) +1 e S B ( -ii 1S o / S) h e e A .E2 v ) ] [ .K.http://www.5. the exponential reduces respectively to plane waves.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . Variational method is applicable to study the ground state of system.V] E ) 1 4 similarlyfromequation(8)wecanshowthat S2 = 1 m (¶ v / x ) 1 ¶m 2( v /2 x ) ¶ ¶ .m ( E v ) ] ( 2 (11) NeglectingS. LET US SUM UP By reading this lesson one can get an understanding on the two approximation methods namely variational method and WKB approximation and its applications.

Explain how the ground state energy could be evaluated using the variation method and hence find the ground state energy of helium atom. Also arrive at the solution near a turning point.L. 4. R. H. 2. V. Briefly outline the variation method.C. Sharma.M. .6. Use the technique to obtain the asymptotic solution of the one dimensional Schrödinger equation.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . Sharma. Devanathan Kluwer Academic Publishers.7. Briefly discuss an application of WKB method. Explain how ground state energy could be evaluated using the variation method. 3. Mathews and K. Gupta. Explain the main stages involved in the WKB approximation. 2. Quantum Mechanics John L. Venkatesan. Angular Momentum Techniques in Quantum Mechanics V. Powell and Bernd Crasemann Narosa Publishing house.V.com 46 5. LESSON END ACTIVITIES Check your progress 1. 3.http://www. Jai Prakash Nath & Co Ltd.clicktoconvert. 5. Kumar. 4. A text book of Quantum Mechanics P. Quantum Mechanics S. References 1. 5. Tata McGraw –Hill Publishers.

If y n denotes the complete set of eigen functions.com 47 LESSON 6 TIME DEPENDENT PERTURBATION THEORY AND ITS APPLICATIONS 6. the energy is no longer a constant of motion.1. Aims and Objectives We are going to discuss Ø Time dependent perturbation theory and its applications Ø Fermi Golden rule Ø Harmonic perturbation Ø Constant perturbation Ø Selections rules 6.2. the system may be regarded as being approximately in an eigenstate of H 0 as ‘i’. At a particular instant of time t = 0.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . the time dependence of the Hamiltonian arises due to an external agency. Ey H y = ih ¶ y H = ¶t Ù y (1) In many physical problems. we have .clicktoconvert. In such cases. by applying electric field to atomic system etc. Hamiltonian is written as. We have to calculate the probability of finding the system at a later time t in an eigenstate ‘f’. Time Dependent Perturbation Theory If the Hamiltonian of the system is time dependent. then.http://www. For example. H 0 is the sum of Hamiltonian of the two systems in isolation and V(t) is their interaction. an atom irradiated by light. In such case we have to solve time dependent Schrödinger equation. H =H 0 V ( t ) + (2) where.

w s . all the co-efficients C n will be constant in time. 6.com 48 H0 y n E n y = n = h wn y n The wave function corresponding to the actual state can be expanded in terms of y n w y n ( t )å ( y ) ( r ). Initially at t = 0. ‘i’ before the perturbation is turned on. we get. the perturbation V(t) makes them vary with time and for this reason. On the other hand.n w = s E -E n h is the Bohr angular frequency between the states s and n. If the perturbation V(t) is absent. Suppose the perturbation begins to act at time t.3. Fermi – Golden Rule (or) Closely Spaced Levels (or) Transition to continuum If transitions are taking place to a set of closely spaced levels ‘f’ then.i en t =n C tn n (3) where. this method is called the method of variation of constants. Cn ( 0=) 0 ® o r n i f ¹ Cn ( 0=) 1 ® o r n i f = ¶ 1 i Cf = f ( i t ) +e wf V ¶t ih ti Integrating the above equation between the limits 0 and t.clicktoconvert. Pf ( t ) will be obtained by summing over. . the system is in the unperturbed state say. f o r f i ¹ ih 0 t t This gives the probability amplitude for states of later time other than the initial state. ¶C f t 1 iw f t t V ò ¶t d 0=iòh (f ti ) e i d t 0 1 f Cf ( ot = fVò ( t ) iwe ti d t t ) i ih 0 t t 1 w ti Cf ( t-)f C ( f O ) òiV ( t i) f e d t = ih 0 Q Cf ( 0= ) 0 1 Cf ( t =f) Vò i( t ) eiwfdti t . In such a case.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . all final state levels ‘f’ Therefore.http://www.

clicktoconvert.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . then.¥ E Pf (= | tf ¥ V 2( i 0 f) | 2 iæt w / ö2 r( E f )w ç s ii =n f) ò è wf /i ÷ 2 h h2 ø . the integral. Pf ¥ | V 2( 0 f) | æt w / ö2 ( = t f )2 r( f i E )ò s 2 içf n ÷ d i h è wf / ø 2 i . w e h a v e .¥ (1) Since the integral is practically zero outside w f .¥ + ¥ we can show that + ¥ ò - s i2 n x d = p x x2 ¥ æw t ö 2 / i f ni ÷ d w f 2 = t p ç w / ø2 è f i òs .http://www. Therefore.com 49 Pf ( t = f | C ( t2 ) | ) = å f | fV (i 2 o f 2)æ w | s i n i çw h2 è f tö2 / ÷2 i ø If the level spacing is very close. the summation can be replaced by integration.e) the number of energy is levels per unit energy interval. + ¥ òs .¥to + ¥ . Pf ( = òt ) f rf E ) f s 2 çfi n ÷ d E ( i i h2 è wf / ø 2 i = | f | V 2 ( 0 ) | æt / ö2 w V 2 i 0 f) | 2 ætw / ö 2 ( i r ò ( fE ) ç i f n d E s h2 è wf / ÷ 2 i ø A s s u m i n g e ( fE ) d o e s n o t vfa r y a r o u n d E . consider.¥ dQ [w h E ] Pf æ | V 2( 0 )¥ | 2 t w / ö2 (= t f 2) (i rE hffò) s iç w i n d i f h è wf / ÷ 2 i ø . å =ò f r E)dE ( f f where r ( fE ) the density of the final states around E f (i.¥ 2 .i the limits are chosen from .¥ 2 æ w f ti ö 2 / i ç w n ÷ 2 dw f /ø è f i i p u = xwti / 2 t f d = x ¥ dw f it 2 2 + æ w f ti ö 2 ¥ / w i f i ç w /n ò = d 2 ÷ è f iø ¥ ¥ Þòs - s i2 n x 2 . d x ( x /t 2t ) = 2 2 2s i n x t ò d 2 x t -¥ x + ¥ + ¥ = 2 s i2 n x t 2d x ò x .

´ fù e . will be.clicktoconvert. Constant Perturbation If the perturbation last from time t = 0 to t = t.1 ) ( ùeû i w f it 1 ) w h ée ë ( iwf r .i f w+i e ù wi t ë e û = 2 2-c o w f (i t ) s = 2 [ . Pf ( t )2p = Vf ( 02 ) f( E ) r i t h ThisiscalledtheFermiGoldenrule. in the state ‘f’ at time ‘t’ is given by.com 50 substitutingtheintegralvalueonequation(1 e g e t .http://www. .c owsf (i t ) ] 1 é w t öù æ = 2 ê2 s i2 n úf i ÷ ç 2 è û ø ë æw tö = 4 s i2 n f i ÷ ç 2 è ø Vf ( 0 ) æw tö \ Pf (= t )2 i 4 s i 2nç f i ÷ 2 hwf i è 2 ø = Vf ( 0 ) 2 æ wf ti i s i n ç h2 è wf ti 2 2 /ö 2 ÷ /ø 2 2 In such a case the probability amplitude will be.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . i w ti e û ) ( ) it - f 1 . the probability of finding the system.4.1i w ei t e+ 1 - t -i f = 2 é .1 wif = . - 6. we have. and during this time. then. )w V ( 0 ) Pf ( =t f) i f ( E )p 2 t r h 2p t 2 = Vf r 0 ) f( E ) ( i h 2 Therefore the transition probability per unit time.tei . it is constant. Pf ( t=) C ( t ) f Pf = ( V 2f ( i 0 ) é t -) h 2 w 2f i ë 2 ( iwf t e ´i . 1 i Cf ( tf ) V ( 0 )wf eit d t = i ò ih 0 1 eé iwf( i tù ) = Vf ( 0ê ) ú i ih ië wf û 0 i Cf (= Vf ( 0 )iwf ti i t -) é e.ù1 û hwf i ë t t Thus.

http://www.i ( we.w .wt1 [ f )i ih wf i.ûw This expression differs in having w f .) w replacing w f .w1= -oê ú h ë wf i.w) i ( ) t i ù V é ei ( wf . i i w V 2 é ei wf ( . when w f i approximately equals .)1-t f w 2 Pf ( t=f) c ( t ) =02 ê + h ë (wf . the above discussion treating the terms independently is valid. The entire discussion of constant perturbation can be carried for harmonic perturbation.This watermark does not appear in the registered version .5. with (w f . while squaring will not contribute anything because when w f i approximately equal to w only one term (IInd term) will contribute while the other (Ist term) vanishes.com 51 -V Cf ( t= ) 0 h i ( + é ei wf( .) i wte f w iù )w 1t + ê ú ë w f .û w o ] Vo . the contribution by the two terms will exchange.i w f wûi + w Thereforethetransitionprobability.w 0 can take place with appreciable = i .t 1 ú w i + )w ( û 2 We find that the terms inside the box. Thus. Harmonic Perturbation We know that the probability amplitude for transition from initial state ‘i’ to the final state ‘f’ will be.) w f i ùi )w e(+ . 1 i i Cf ( =f ) Vi ( t )wf( et )d t t ih ò 0 t we introduce a harmonic perturbation given by -i w ( Vf ( i = t 0 ) wV t )e > .wfor harmonic perturbation instead of i just w f i for constant perturbation. only those transitions in which w f .i We conclude that for i large t. 0 1 Cf ( = t 0 ò ) ih 0 = t ( V . Similarly.i w t ) ewf( i td) t e i Vo t i w e -(f ih ò o i w t ) t V = o ih = é ei w(f i-ù w t ) ê ú ) ë i wf ( i.clicktoconvert. 6.

) w . (w f + ) w instead of (w f .i e t ) e w 6. Selection Rules In many cases of interest. On the otherhand.fE i= h w ) In this case we find that E f is lower than Ei by hw and this describes the emission of energy. ) i i Vf ( ti )wfe =t i i (wif o )i t e f V whereV(0)isindependentoftime f i \e q u a t i o n ( 4 ) b e c o m e s .com 52 probability In other words. the energy is given by the system to the external agency.i wt can induce transitions to a level E f whose e energy is higher than Ei by hw . f i n a l f i n a i n i t i a l i n i t i In reality. Here.6.iE=i (.i wt is used for harmonic e perturbation. Vf ( tcan be expressed in the form. Such a transition can be described as absorption of energy hw by the system from the external agency. i Thus.http://www. t V0 (iw +. i .1 Cf ( t= ) o ê ú h ë wf + û w i This induces a transition in which wf + w 0 = i Þ h w f i= h . the transitions will be appreciable. In such a case. then we will have.E = h w . only when E f . the i i probability amplitude is given by.V é ei (wf +t) w ù. if the Hermitian adjoint V0 .This watermark does not appear in the registered version .h o r w E i . the actual potential has to be Hermitian and must be.w Þ E f. the harmonic perturbation V0 .clicktoconvert.

com 53 t ¶C f 1 f d = Vò f( i o ) iwe ti d t t ò ¶t i h 0 0 t 1 Cf ( t= ) V ( oò )iwfeti d t f i ih 0 t This equation shows that Vf ( tis non. transition between the state i and f may still 0 i be possible in the higher order via an intermediate ( l ) state. | w f i| = 2p t .clicktoconvert. ) ) i i transitions in the first order.0 i Transition between any other state are forbidden in the first order.zero only when Vf ( o is non-zero. Thus. However.http://www.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . Thus.i) for which Vf ( o¹ ) . This is the first order selection rule. 5 etc.0then the intermediate state l will connect the initial state i and final state f. Even if Vf ( 0= ) then. è w f i/ ø 2 æw t ö 2 / The main peak of the curve occurs at w f = 0 and has a high proportional to t 2 . the graph will be of the form as shown in the figure below. If we plot the probability Pf ( t as a function of the energy difference w f ) i between the initial and final state of fixed t. can take place between pair state(f. P(t) f – p t – p t 5 3 / / – p t 3 5p/ t / 6p/ t 4p/ t 2p/ t O 2p/ t 4p/ t 6p/ t The behaviour of sin s i çn f i ÷ is depicted in the figure. we see that / p t the transition from the initial state ‘i’ to the final state ‘f’ occurs such that w f i falls within the main peak. probability for transitions in the higher order will be smaller and will proceed at a slower rate. The i subsequent peaks are much smaller and occurs at ± 3 p t± . If both Vfl ( 0 and ) Vli ( 0¹ ) .

2. 2p wf i = t 2p hw f i = h t hwf i h t = which resemble uncertainty principle. LET US SUM UP Here we have studied in detail the followings: Ø Time dependent perturbation theory and its applications Ø Fermi Golden rule Ø Harmonic perturbation Ø Constant perturbation Ø Selections rules 6. Define Fermi Golden rule. Compare the result with the exact solution . 6.clicktoconvert. LESSON END ACTIVITIES Check your progress 1.7.8.9.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . This is the energy time uncertainty relation. 6.com 54 taking only the positive value. What do you meant by selection ruels. Problems Calculate the second order energy correction for the ground state of the charge between linear harmonic oscillator subject to a constant electric field.http://www. 3. Obtain the expression for the transition probability per unit time for first order transition under constant perturbation and show that it is proportional to the perturbation time ‘t’. The magnitude of the energy difference between initial and final is very unlikely to be significantly to be higher than h/t.

Writing X = x + α / k.md n . Calculate the energy correction. i 2m w ë + dn . 2. the above Equation becomes ö -h 2 d y 1 2 2 aæ 2 1 + k =X ç E y + ÷ 2 2m d 2 X è 2 k ø 1ö 1 a2 æ Thus En = çn + ÷ hw . ( n0 1 0h é)( ( 0 ) 0 x) = ( m n a -( m ë i 2mw . which is the exact result.m1 0) n )( ùa û †0 m ) = 1 h é .http://www. A hydrogen atom the energy state with n = 2 is subject to an electric field E parallel to the z – axis.+1 m 1 m ù û ( ) = En 2 = 2 a2 a . The second order energy correction is given by ( ) En 2 = 2 m å 'a 2 ( 0 ) n x m ( 02 ) (E ( 0 ) ( 0 ) n m -E ) Expressing x in terms of the raising and lowering operators. Calculate the splitting of hydrogen energy levels due to spin-orbit interaction.clicktoconvert.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . . 2ø 2 k è First order energy correction is zero.com 55 Solution The schrodineger’s equation for the perturbed system is -h 2 d 2y 1 2 + k y x a x=y E y + 2m d 2 x 2 where α is the product of the charge and the magnitude of the electric field in the xdirection.= 2mw 2 2 k Do it yourself 1.

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6.10. References
1. Quantum Mechanics Leonard I. Schiff, McGraw –Hill International edition. 2. Quantum Mechanics A.K. Ghatak and S. Lokanathan McMillan Publishers. 3. Quantum Mechanics Satya Prakash Sultan Chand Publishers 4. Quantum Mechanics V. Devanathan Narosa Publishing house. 5. Quantum Mechanics John L. Powell and Bernd Crasemann Narosa Publishing house.

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57

LESSON 7 ANGULAR MOMENTUM ALGEBRA

7.1. Aims and objectives:
In this lesson we are going to discuss the one of the most important and exciting topic of quantum mechanics namely, angular momentum algebra.

7.2. Introduction
Knowledge in angular momentum techniques is essential for quantitative study of problems in atomic physics, molecular physics, nuclear physics and solid state physics. The application of angular momentum techniques to solve physical problems has become so common. Angular momentum techniques are widely used in the study of both non relativistic and relativistic problems in physics. In this chapter, we will discuss the Quantum Mechanical definition of Angular m omentum first. Then we will have a discussion on physical interpretation of Angular m omentum. It is then followed by, discussion on ladder operators and coupling of two angular momenta.

7.3. Quantum Mechanical definition of Angular Momentum
In classical mechanics, the angular momentum vector is defined as the cross u r product of the position vector p . ie r v u r (1) L = rp x v u r Both change sign under the inversion of co-ordinate system and so r p& r they are called polar vector. It is easy to see that, L behaves differently and will not change sign under inversion of co-ordinate system, and hence it is known as pseudo or Axial vector.
u r r u r L= r ´p

u r L= x

i px

j y

k z p z p y

r L

=

ˆ (y pz – z py ) ˆ – (z px – x pz) ˆ + (x py – y px ) k j i

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58 i.e. Lx Ly Lz [Lx , Ly ] = = = = = = = = = i.e. [Lx , Ly ] Similarly [Ly , Lz ] [Lz , Lx ] i.e. ( L x L ) (LxL) = i h Lx i h Ly L x Ly – Ly L x i h Lz = y pz – z py z px – x pz x py – y px [y pz – z py , z px – x pz] [y pz , z px ] – [y pz , x pz] – [z py , z px ] + [z py , x pz] y px [pz, z] + py x[z, pz] – i h y px + i h p yx i h [x py – y px ] i h Lz i h Lz (2)

r r r r

= = =

Expressing the angular momentum in units of h , we can write it as (LxL)

r r

=

i L

r

(3)

This Quantum mechanical definition must be generalized to include angular momentum of half integral values. Therefore, generalizing, we can write the

definition for total angular momentum as

ˆ ˆ ˆ (J xJ ) = i J
Now, [Jx , Jy ] = i h Jz [Jy , Jz] = i h Jx [Jz , Jx ] = i h Jy

(4)

(5)

7.4. Physical Interpretation of Angular Momentum Vector
Although the components of angular momentum operator do not commute among themselves, it is easy to show that, the square of angular momentum operator. r2 2 2 2 J = Jx + Jy + Jz commutes with each of its components. i.e. [J2 , Jx ] = 0

but not the other components Jx and Jy . It is possible to find the simultaneous eigenvalues of J 2 and one of the components. Z axis r J Jz r J Fig: 7. one can find the magnitude of angular momentum vector and its projection on one of the axes. The projection on the other two axes cannot be determined. then r2 J y jm = hj y jm & Jz y jm = m y jm Here j & m are Quantum Numbers used to define eigenfunctions and the corresponding eigenvalues of the operators are hj & m. Representing the operators by matrices. Physically this means that.1 The angular momentum vector.com 59 [J2 . If y jm is the eigenfunction of the r operators J 2 and Jz. This is illustrated in the figure(Fig 7.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . it is impossible to find precisely the eigenvalues of Jx and Jy at the same time. say Jz alone.http://www. Jy ] = 0 [J2 . but. in which the angular momentum vector is depicted to be anywhere on the cone. J 2 (6) and Jz can be diagonolised in the same representation.clicktoconvert.1) . . One can say that. but not its projection on the x axis & y axis. for which its projection on the z-axis alone is well defined. Jz] = 0 Equations (5) & (6) gives simple physical interpretation.

J+] = [J2 . Jx ]Jy + Jz [Jz . J+] Solution Now. Jx ] = [Jx 2 + Jy 2 + Jz2 .1 Show that [J2 . Jx ] = 0 Similarly & [J2 . i Jy ] = 0 + i (0) .2 Evaluate [J2 . [J2 .clicktoconvert. {J+} † = (J+) † + (i Jy ) † = J+ – i Jy = J– Similarly {J– } † = (J+) † – (i Jy ) † = Jx + i Jy = J+ \ J+ & J– are not Hermitian. [J2 . Jx + i Jy ] = [J2 . Jy ] = 0 [J2 . Jx ] + [Jy . Problem 7. Jx ] + [J2 . Jx ] = 0 Solution We know that J2 = r r J x J = Jx 2 + Jy 2 + Jz2 \ [J2 . Jx ] Jz = – i h Jy Jz – i h Jz Jy + i h Jz Jy + i h Jy Jz i. Ladder Operators (or) Raising and Lowering operators We define the raising and lowering operators as J+ and J– given by J+ = Jx + i Jy J– = Jx – i Jy It is to be noted that.5. Jx ] + [Jx . the ladder operators are not Hermitian. Jz] = 0 7. Jz] = [Jx 2 + Jx ] + [Jy 2 + Jx ] + [Jz2 + Jx ] = Jx [Jx .This watermark does not appear in the registered version .com 60 Problem 7. Jx ] + [Jz . Jx ] Jx + Jy [Jy . though the angular momentum matrices are Hermitian.http://www.e.

Jz J– – J– Jz = = = = = = J+ in units of h J+ J + Jz + J + J+ (Jz + 1) – J– in units of h – J– i. [Jz .e. J– ] = [Jz .e. [Jz. Jx + i Jy ] = [Jz .com 61 = 0 Similarly Also and Problem 7.3 Find the value of [Jz . J– ] i.This watermark does not appear in the registered version .http://www.clicktoconvert. J– ] = 0 [J+ . J+] or Jz J+ i. J±] = ± h J± Also J2 Jz = Jz J2 and J2 J+ = J+ J2 Problem 7. Jx – i Jy ] = [Jz . J2 ] = 0 And. Jz J+ – J+ Jz . J2 ] = 0 [J– .4 Find the values of Jz J+ and Jz J– Solution We Know that. Jy ] = i h Jy – i (– i h Jx ) = i h Jy – h Jx = h (Jx – iJy ) = – h J– Hence we conclude that [Jz . J+] and [Jz . Jz J+ Similarly [Jz . Jx ] – i [Jz . Jx ] + i [Jz . Jy ] = i h Jy + i (– i h Jx ) = i h Jy + h Jxs = = h (Jx + i Jy ) h J+ [J2 . [Jz. J– ] Solution Now. J+] = [Jz .e.

J2 j + = = = = = = i.e.clicktoconvert. Jz j + = Jz J+ yjm J+ Jz yjm J+ (Jz+1) y jm J+ (m+1) y jm (m+1) J+ y jm (m+1) j+ . J2 j – = J2 J+ y jm J+ J2 y jm J+ hj y jm hj J+ y jm hj j+ hj j+ J2 J– y jm J– J2 y jm J– hj yjm hj J– yjm h j j– h j j– Similarly J2 j– Operating JZ on j+ and j– we have.6. Let us operate J2 on j+ and j– J2 j + = = = = = i.com 62 Jz J– i.e.This watermark does not appear in the registered version .e. Spectrum of eigenvalues for J2 and Jz Let us define J2 y jm = = hj y jm m y jm and Jz y jm The raising and lowering operators can be defined as J+ and J– Let and J+ y jm J– y jm = = = = Jz + iJy Jx – iJy j+ j– Now. Jz j + = = = = = i. Jz J– = = J – Jz – J– J– (Jz – 1) 7.e.http://www.

J+ and J– operators are called as raising and lowering operators.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . we have J– J+ ψ jm 2 (Jx – iJy ) (Jx + iJy ) ψ jm 2 = 0 = 0 = 0 = 0 = 0 [J 2 x + J 2 . Therefore the m values are bounded. respectively. m has a spectrum of eigenvalues. and the highest value of m by m2 .J )ψ z z jm 2 jm 2 .e. It is precisely for this reason. Jz j – = Jz J– y jm J– Jz y jm J– (Jz –1) yjm J– (m–1) y jm (m–1) J– y jm (m–1) j– Thus we find that j+ and j– are eigenfunctions of J2 operator. j+ and j– are also eigenfunctions of Jz operator. the eigenvalues are either stepped up or stepped down by unity.J2 z ] .i (J y J x .J x J y ) ψ jm 2 y (J (J 2 x 2 + J2 y .clicktoconvert.com 63 Similarly Jz j– = = = = = i. the lowest being – h jand the highest value being + h j. with the same eigenvalue hj.. However. Now. Obviously J+ and J– = 2 ψ jm 0 0 (A) (B) ψ jm = 1 Operating J– on the left of equation (A) and J+ on the left of equation (B). let us denote the lowest value of m by m1 .http://www. ie. even though we find that. Now let us find the value of (J2 x + J2 y ) y jm (Jx 2 + Jy2 ) y jm = = (J2 – Jx 2 ) y jm (hj – m2 ) y jm Since the eigenvalues of square of the Hermitian matrix is always positive. we have (hj – m2 ) ³ 0.J )ψ .

1) i.1) = = η j .. Jz y jm = = j (j + 1) y jm m y jm Where m = –j. m2 = j.http://www.com 64 [J [η Þ j 2 .m1 + m 2 . m 2 (m 2 .clicktoconvert. we can write.m (m j 2 j 1 2 + 1) 1 ] .………….1)] = 0 = 0 (E) (F) Since R. j in steps of unity. Note 1.m 1 ( m 1 .e.m1 ) is always > 0. we have m1 = – j..(j –1).m2 Taking the highest value of m2 to be equal to j.m1 = 0 2 Þ (m1 + m 2 ) (m 2 .This watermark does not appear in the registered version . i.1) m1 (m1 .m 1 ( m 1 + 1) ψ jm1 From equations (C) and (D).H.m1 + 1) = 0 (G) Since (m 2 . we have (m1 + m 2 ) Þ m1 = = 0 .J z (J z + 1) ψ jm 2 jm 2 .e.S of (E) and (F) are equal to zero. the second term cannot be zero.e positive).m 2 (m 2 ] + 1)] ψ ] = 0 = 0 = 0 = 0 (D) (C) Similarly J+ J– ψ jm1 [η Þ Þ j . J2 y jm 2. hj – j (j + 1) = 0 Þ hj = j (j +1) Thus the eigenvalue of J2 operator is j (j +1). .1) 2 Þ m 2 . in steps of unity. (– j + 1) ………………. –j +1.e. i. Thus we find that Jz has a spectrum of eigenvalues ranging from – j to + j.m (m [η . η j .( j – 1). [η . j We also find the value of hj Substituting m = j in equation (E). – j. (i.m 2 ( m 2 .

7. we can show that. Eigen values of J+ and J– Let J+ y jm = j+ = é+ y j. |ì+ |2 or ì+ = = = = In a similar fashion.com 65 7. ì– = j(j+1) – m(m+1) j(j1) + -+ m(m1) j2 + j .m) (j + m + 1) d jj'dm'm+1 (j + m) (j . Jz.m + 1) respectively. J+ J– are give below.This watermark does not appear in the registered version .m + 1) (j .m+1 Now <j+ | j+ > = = = = Now.m) (j + m + 1) (j + m) (j . (2) and (3) we can write.m) (j + m + 1) and Thus the eigenvalues of J + and J– operators are (j + m) (j .8. < j' m' | J2 | j m > < j' m' | Jz | j m > < j' m' | J+ | j m > < j' m' | J– | j m > = = = = j (j+1) d jj'd m'm m d jj'dm'm (j .clicktoconvert.http://www.m 2 . . <ì+ y jm+1 | ì+ y jm+1 > = = = = < J+ y jm | J+ y jm > ò y * jm J– J+ y jm dτ ò y * jm (J2 – Jz (Jz+1) y jm dτ ò y * jm[j(j+1) – m (m+1)] y jm dτ ò y * jm+1 ì† { } ì+ y jm+1 dτ + ò y * jm+1 |ì+ |2 y jm+1 dτ |ì+ |2 ò y* jm+1 y jm+1 dτ |ì+ |2 (3) (2) (1) Using equations (1). Matrix Elements The matrix elements for J2 .m (j .m + 1) d jj'dm'm–1 The above matrix elements are sufficient to construct all the angular momentum matrices. 7.

J z . It is customary to label the rows by m' values (i..e. m' = j…………. J + . 1 (J + + J . 3. it is usual to construct angular momentum matrices for a given j value. Then. the possible values of ma are ½ and – ½.5 Find the angular momentum matrices of J2 . 2. (2 X ½ +1) X (2 X ½ +1) = 2 X 2. Solution Dimension of the matrix The dimension of the matrix is (2j+1) X (2j+1) i. For a given j. m'\m 1 2 2 -1 1 é ê0 ë 2 3 4 -1 2 3 0ù ú 4û = 3 é1 0 ù 4 ê0 1 ú ë û The angular momentum matrix for Jz m'\m 1 2 2 -1 1 2 -1 2 é 12 ê0 ë 0ù -1 ú 2û .–j) 5.e.) 2 1 (J + .com 66 Note 1. Jx and Jy when j = ½.http://www. m = j…………. J– .This watermark does not appear in the registered version . The angular momentum matrix for J2 is given by.e.–j) and the columns by m values (i. the dimension of the angular momentum matrices are given by (2j+1) X (2j+1) Problem 7.J .) 2 Jx Jy = = Since all the matrix elements defined above connect states with the same j but different m values. 4.clicktoconvert..

http://www.clicktoconvert.1 0ú ë û 1 é 0 1ù 2 ê .This watermark does not appear in the registered version .1ú 2 ë û = For J+ m'\m 1 2 2 -1 1 2 -1 2 é0 1 ù ê0 0 ú ë û For J– m'\m 1 2 2 -1 1 2 -1 2 é0 0 ù ê1 0ú ë û Angular momentum matrix for Jx Jx = 1 (J+ + J– ) 2 = 1 ì é0 1 ù é0 0 ù ü + í ý 2 îê0 0ú ê1 0ú þ ë û ë û 1 é0 1 ù 2 ê1 0ú ë û = 1 sx 2 = Similarly for Jy Jy = 1 (J+ + J– ) 2i = 1 ì é0 1 ù é0 0 ù ü í ý 2i îê0 0ú ê1 0ú þ ë û ë û 1 é 0 1ù 2i ê.1 0ú ë û 1 é0 .com 67 1 é1 0 ù 1 = sz 2 ê0 .i ù 2 êi 0 ú ë û 1 = sy 2 = = = .

6 Obtain the angular momentum matrices J2 .This watermark does not appear in the registered version .1 ê0 0 0 ú ë û é0 1 0 ù ê0 0 1 ú ê ú ê0 0 0 ú ë û = 2 Angular momentum matrix for J– . –1. Angular momentum matrix for J2 m'\m 1 0 -1 1 é2 ê0 ê ê0 ë 0 0 2 0 -1 0ù 0ú ú 2ú û é1 0 0ù = 2 ê0 1 0 ú ê ú ê0 0 1 ú ë û The angular momentum matrix for Jz m'\m 1 0 .1 ê0 0 .com 68 Note Jx = 1 é0 1 ù 2 ê1 0ú ë û 1 é0 . J– . Jz .1 1 é1 0 0 ù ê0 2 0 ú 0 ê ú . Jx and Jy for j=1.i ù 2 êi 0 ú ë û 1 é1 0 ù 2 ê0 .http://www. Problem 7. Solution Dimension of the matrix (2j + 1) x (2j + 1) = (2 x 1 + 1) x (2 x 1 + 1) = 3 x 3 matrix j = 1 Þ possible values of m are 1.clicktoconvert.1ú ë û 1 = sx 2 1 = sy 2 1 = sz 2 Jy = Jz = are the Pauli’s spin matrices for j = ½. 0.1ú ë û Angular momentum matrix for J+ m'\m 1 0 -1 é0 1 2 0 ù ê ú 0 2ú ê0 2 . J+ .

This watermark does not appear in the registered version .ê 2 ê 0 ú ê0 û ë 0 ù ú 2ú 0 ú û 0 0 2 0ù ü ï 0ú ý ú 0ú ï ûþ = = é0 .2 2i ïê ê 0 îë é 0 1 ê .2 0 ù é0 ú 2ú .1 0 ù i ê ú ê1 0 .http://www.clicktoconvert.com 69 m' 1 0 -1 0 0ù é0 ê 2 0 0ú 0 ê ú -1 ê 0 2 0ú ë û m 1 = 2 é0 0 0 ù ê1 0 0ú ê ú ê0 1 0 ú ë û Angular momentum matrix for Jx Jy = 1 (J+ + J– ) 2 = ì é0 1 ïê í 0 2 ïê ê0 îë é0 1ê 2 2ê ê0 ë 2 0 0 2 0 2 0 ù é0 ú 2ú + ê 2 ê 0 ú ê0 û ë 0 ù ú 2ú 0 ú û 0ù ü ï 0 0ú ý ú 2 0ú ï ûþ 0 = = é0 1 0 ù 2ê ú ê1 0 1ú 2 ê0 1 0 ú ë û é0 1 0 ù 1 ê ú ê1 0 1ú 2 ê0 1 0 ú ë û = Angular momentum matrix for Jy Jy = 1 (J+ + J– ) 2i = ìé 0 1 ïê í .2 2i ê ê 0 ë 2 0 0 2 0 .1ú 2 ê0 1 0ú ë û .

Solution æ 3 ö æ 3 ö Dimension of the matrix = ç 2x + 1÷ x ç 2x + 1÷ = 4 x 4 matrix è 2 ø è 2 ø \ possible values of m are 3 1 -1 3 . one can easily understand the algebra of angular momentum.7 Construct the angular momentum matrices for j = 3/2. One can easily construct the angular momentum matrices for a given j by studying this lesson. .http://www. We can calculate the spectrum of eigenvalues for J2 and J z operators. 2 2 2 2 J2 = é15 ù ê4 0 0 0ú ê ú 15 ê0 0 0ú 4 ê ú ê 0 0 15 0 ú ê ú 4 ê 15 ú ê0 0 0 ú 4û ë é0 ê ê0 ê0 ê ê0 ë 3 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 0ù ú 0ú 3ú ú 0ú û Jz = é3 ê2 ê ê0 ê ê ê0 ê ê ê0 ë é ê ê ê ê ë 0 3 0 0 ù 0 0 ú ú 1 0 ú 0 ú 2 -ú 1 0 ú 0 2 ú ú 3 0 0 ú û 2 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 3 0ù 0ú ú 0ú ú 0û J+ = J– = Jx = é ê 1ê 2ê ê ê ë 0 3 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 0ù ú 0ú 3ú ú 0ú û Jy = é 0 . .3i 2ê 0 2i 0 .com 70 Problem 7.2i 0 ú 1 ê.3i ú ê ú 0 3i 0 ú ê 0 ë û LET US SUM UP By going through this chapter. .clicktoconvert. .3i 0 0 ù ê ú 0 .This watermark does not appear in the registered version .

Venkatesan. Kakani Kedarnath Publishers. 2. Tata McGraw –Hill Publishers. Show that J2 and Jz form complete set of commuting observable and j can take all integral values and half integral values greater than one or equal to zero. 4. Do it Yourself 1. Quantum Mechanics V. A text book of Quantum Mechanics P. 3. Jy it also commutes with Jz 5. Express the matrix for Jx when j = ½.M. Show that if any operator commutes with Jx . Angular Momentum Techniques in Quantum Mechanics V. Mathews and K.12. . References 1. Obtain the spectrum of eigen values for J2 and Jz. 7. Schiff. 3. Find [Jz. What are called raising and lowering operators ? Why they are called so ? 7. Quantum Mechanics Leonard I.L.11. 3.com 71 LESSON END ACTIVITIES Check your progress 1.http://www. 2.clicktoconvert. Devanathan Kluwer Academic Publishers. Devanathan Narosa Publishing house. 2. Give the quantum mechanical definition of angular momentum. McGraw –Hill International edition.This watermark does not appear in the registered version .J+] 4. If J = J1 +J2 show that J X J = ihJ. A text book of Quantum Mechanics S.

or vice versa.http://www. Aims and objectives: Here we are going to study the coupling of two angular momenta in detail 8. 2 J z .com 72 LESSON 8 COUPLING OF TWO ANGULAR MOMENTA OR CLEBSCH – GORDON (C.2. J 2 . zJ2 . we need a unitary transformation coefficient. zJ J 1 The state vectors or wave functions corresponding to the two sets will be j1 j 2 j mand j1 j 2 m m 1 2 The state vector corresponding to the first set j1 j 2 j m is called the coupled representation. And the state vector corresponding do the second set j1 j 2 m m is 1 2 called uncoupled representation. j1 j 2 m m 1 2 = å jm é j1 êm ë 1 j2 m2 jù mú û j1 j 2 j m (1) j1 j 2 j m = é j1 The symbol ê ë m1 å m1 m2 é j1 êm ë 1 j2 m2 jù mú û j1 j 2 m m 1 2 (2) j2 m2 jù is called the unitary transformation coefficient mú û or vector addition coefficient or Clebsch – Gordon (C.1.G) Coefficient r r r When we couple two angular momenta J1 and J 2 . the final J will be between |J1 – J2 | in steps of unity.G) COEFFICIENT 8.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . The transition from one representation to another representation is accomplished by the following two equations.G) Coefficient. We will have two sets of mutually commuting operator given by Set I 2 2 : J1 .clicktoconvert. . J 2 Set II : J1 . 22 . Clebsch – Gordon (C. In order to move from coupled representation to uncoupled representation.

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73

' Now, taking scalar product with j1 j2 j m' on both the sides of equation (1) j1 j 2j' m ' j2 j 1m 2m 1 j1 j 2j' m ' j2 j 1m 2m 1
=

å
j m

é j1 êm ë 1 é j1 êm ë 1

j ù j m ú m 2 û
2 2

j1 j 2j' m ' j2 j 1m 2m 1

=

å
j m

j ù j d d m ú m j 'j m 'm 2 û

Now, doing the summation over j and m on R.H.S, because of the presence of Kronocker delta, of all the possible values of j and m, only those terms corresponding to j = j' and m = m' will remain.

j1 j 2j m j2 j 1 2m m 1

=

é j1 êm ë 1

j2 m2

jù mú û

(3)

Thus we find the C.G. coefficient is the scalar product of the two state vectors in the coupled and the uncoupled representation.
' In a similar manner, taking the scalar product with | j1 j2 m1 m '2 > on both the

sides of equation (2),

j1 j 2 m1 m j j2 j m = 2 1

é j1 êm ë 1

j2 m2

jù mú û

(4)

Taking hermitian adjoint (Congugate transpose) of equation (4)

j1 j 2j m j2 j 1 2m m 1

=

é j1 êm ë 1

j2 m2

jù mú û

(5)

8.3. Orthonormal Properties of C.G. Coefficient

We know that the wave functions in the coupled representation as well as in the uncoupled representation are orthogonal.

j1 j 2' m1 ' j 2j j m j
' ' j1 j 2 m1 m j j2 m m 2 1 1 2

= =

d j 'j d 'm m

(1) (2)

d m mdm ' m '
1 1 2 2

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74 Decoupling equation (1)

j1 j2 j m' = '

å é j1 ' ' ê ' m1 m ë m1 2 å m1

j ù j' ' ú ' m ûm 2
2

' ' j1 j 2 m m 1 2

j1 j 2 j m =

é j1 2j ù j j j m m mê m 2 ú m 1 2 1 2 2 ë 1 mû

Substituting in equation (1), we have
å éj m1 m ê 1' 2 ' ' m m1 m ë 1 2 å éj m1 m ê 1' 2 ' ' m m1 m ë 1 2 j ù j' ' ú ' m ûm 2
2

é j1 êm ë 1

j ù j m ú m 2 û
2

' j1 j 2 m1 m' j j'2 m ' m = d j 'j d 'm m 2 1 1 2

j ù j' ' ú ' m ûm 2
2

é j1 j2 ùj ' ' ê m m ú m d m1 m1dm2 ' ë 1 2 û

m 2

= d jj' dmm'

' Now, summing over m1 and m '2

å é j1 j 2ù j 1 ' é j 2 j ù j ú m1 mê 2 m 1 m 2m '1ê 'm 2 ' m ú m ë û ë û

= d j 'j d 'm m

(3)

In a similar way, starting from equation (2), the orthogonal property for the C.G. coefficient can be written as
å é j1 2j ù j ê ú ' j mm '1 m 2 ú m ê ë û é j1 ' ê m1 ë j ù j m ú m 2 û
2

= d m m' d
1 1

m 2 m '2

(4)

8.4. Symmetry Properties of C.G. coefficients
1.

é j1 êm ë 1 é j1 êm ë 1

j2 m2 j2 m2

jù mú û jù mú û

=

éj (-1) j1 + j2 - j ê 2 ëm 2 é j (-1) j1 + j2 - j ê 1 ë - m1 (-1) j1 -m1

j1 m1

jù mú û jù mú û

2.

=

j2 - m2

3. = 4. = where [ j ] =

[ j] é j1 [ j 2 ] ê m1 ë [ j] [ j1 ]

j j2 ù - m - m2 ú û j2 ù 1j mú m 2 û 1

( - 1 j2 + m2 )
(2j+1)1/2

é j ê -m ë

This watermark does not appear in the registered version - http://www.clicktoconvert.com

75

8.5. Conditions to be satisfied to C.G. coefficient to exist
1. Triangle Rule D (j1 j2 j) must be satisfied. i.e. the final j must be within the permissible limit of |j1 – j2 | to j1 + j2 (in steps of unity).

2. m sum rule must be satisfied m 1 + m2 = m 3. Projection rule must be satisfied i.e. m should be valid projection of j. i.e. m = – j, – j +1 …………….(j–1), j is steps of unity.

From equations (3) and (4) we have

å é j1 m1 m 2 ê m1 ë å é j1 ê j, m m1 ë
2

j2 m2

jù mú û
2

2

= 1

(5)

j ù j m ú m 2 û

= 1

(6)

8.6. Some Special Types of C.G. Coefficients
1. When either j1 or j2 is zero, then the coupled and uncoupled representation, will become equal. In such a case, the corresponding C.G. coefficient will be equal to unity. i.e.
é0 j j ù ê0 m m ú = 1 ë û é j 0 jù êm 0 m ú = 1 ë û

However it should be noted that, if the final j = 0, then
j 0ù éj ê m - m 0ú ¹ 1 ë û

G.http://www. Give the orthonrmal properties of C. LET US SUM UP We have studied the coupling two angular momenta in detail in this chapter.L.9. Write down the special type of C. 5. What are C. Venkatesan. Coeffifiient? Briefly explain their significance. 3.M. coefficient to exist? 4. Kakani Kedarnath Publishers. Devanathan Kluwer Academic Publishers. Also we discussed the symmetry properties of C. A text book of Quantum Mechanics P.G. . Quantum Mechanics V. G.clicktoconvert.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . What are the conditions to be satisfied for C. 2. Angular Momentum Techniques in Quantum Mechanics V. Tata McGraw –Hill Publishers. G. Mathews and K. Schiff. coefficient. A text book of Quantum Mechanics S.com 76 8. Devanathan Narosa Publishing house. 3. LESSON END ACTIVITIES Check your progress 1. coefficient.G. McGraw –Hill International edition. Quantum Mechanics Leonard I.8 . 8. List the symmetry properties of C. 2.G. coefficient. 8.7. References 1. 4. coefficient.

com 77 LESSON 9 RELATIVISTIC QUANTUM MECHANICS 9. The concept of spin has evolved automatically from Dirac’s theory which is applicable to spin ½ systems. The wave equation we used to discuss physical problems is of the first order in time and of second order in space co-ordinates. kaons etc. 9. The difficulties suggest two ways of obtaining relativistic wave equations.) equation. i) to use a relativistic Hamiltonian for a free particle is place of nonrelativistic one ii) to try for a first order equation in both space and time co-ordinates. Aims and objectives: In this lesson we will be studying the important aspects of relativitic quantum mechanics such as Klein Gordon equation and Dirac’s relativistic wave equation. Though Schrödinger himself suggested the first possibility its implications were studied in detail by Klein and Gordon in 1926.2. 9. does not satisfy the requirements of special theory of relativity as it is based on a non relativistic Hamiltonian. Then we will have a discussion on the free pariticle solution for Dirac’s equation. Hence it is popularly known as Klein Gordon (K. Hence it is used to describe spin zero particles such as in pions.http://www. Klein – Gordan Equation The relativistic relation between energy and momentum is given by E2 = c2 p2 +m2 c4 and the operators for the E and P are E = ih ¶ ¶t ® p = -ih Ñ ® The Schrödinger equation will be Hy = Ey .clicktoconvert.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . It does not say anything about the spin of the particle.1.3. This contradicts the space-time symmetry requirement of relativity. Also we are going to study the properties of Dirac’s matrices. Dirac developed his relativistic wave equation.G. Based on the second idea. Introduction The Quantum Mechanics developed so far.

¶t knowledge of the system we need to know not only y but also 2. 3. . 9.3.S. Since it involves the second order time derivative ¶2 . The wave function y in the KG equation is not orthogonal.h 2 c Ñ 2m + 2 ch =4 y } ¶2 -2 y 2 ¶t Dividing throughout by . Demerits of Klein Gordon Equation 1. to have a future ¶t 2 ¶y . Further if the square root is expanded in terms of binomial services we will have even powers of Ñ on the L.com 78 ¶ y ¶t c 2 p 2 + m2c 4 y = i h But it is very difficult to give a physical meaning for the square root of an operator.This watermark does not appear in the registered version .H.= y 2 h2 þ 1 2 ¶ y c 2 ¶t 2 2 ü 1 ¶m c =2 2ý 2 c ¶t þ h y 0 m 2c 2 } y =0 h2 (1) where the D’Alemberts operator. if y transform like a scalar.1. The product y * y in KG equation does not represent the probability current density. which is relativistically invariant • 2 = Ñ2 1 ¶2 c 2 ¶t 2 Equation (1) is relativistically invariant. In order to avoid the difficulties Klein-Gordon proposed that the wave equation will be H2 y = E2y {c 2 2 p + 2 æ ¶ö m =c ç i y y h ÷ t è ¶ø 4 2 } { { u 2 r c .h 2 c2 ì 2 íÑ î ì 2 íÑ î {•2 - 2 mü c 2 ý.ih 2 m + 4c h= Ñ y 2 ( ) } 2 ¶2 .clicktoconvert.y2 ¶t u 2r .http://www.

t ) d 3 x is time – independent.t) to satisfy a continuity equation so that ò P ( x. t ) = S ( x .Ñ(y * Ñy . Plane Wave Solutions: Charge and Current Densities Solutions of equation 1 ¶ 2y æ mc ö . .yÑy *) = 0 ø This is the continuity equation with P ( x.3.clicktoconvert. P is quite different. 9.)t E (2) 2 E = h± = ( 2 m2 + 2) c 4 cw p ± 1 (3) In contrast to the nonrelativistic case where the coefficient ( E h ) of (– it) in the exponent is the positive quantity ( p 2 / m h . the plane wave solutions y ( x .This watermark does not appear in the registered version . The appearance of the ‘negative energy’ solutions is typical of relativistic wave equations.yÑ y* y Ñ y ) ( . There is no way of introducing spin in to the KG equation and hence it is applicable only to spin zero particles like pions and kaons. Another difference from the nonrelativistic case is that y * y cannot be interpreted as the probability density P(x.Ñ 2y + ç ÷ y =0 2 2 c ¶t è h ø 2 (1) may be obtained by corresponding to particles of definite momentum p = hk substituting y ( x. and in the .t).com 79 4.t = ih æ ¶y ¶y * ö y* -y ÷ 2 ç ¶t ¶t ø 2mc è ih ). This leads to we obtain.http://www. and subtract. x . With this choice. To obtain such an equation we multiply equation (1) on the left by y*.w t ) ih ( x p d2 f 2 2 = [c 2 + 2 / m )hc ] f. The resulting equation can be written as 1 ¶2 æ ¶y y* 2 2 ç ¶t c ¶t è ö ÷ .* 2m (4a) (4b) A convenient choice of a common constant factor in P and S has been made here. Solving this (k 2 d t e= e x. its complex conjugate equation by y. =t ) i ( k m. We expect P(x.2. S coincides exactly with the corresponding nonrelativistic expression. here we have solutions with -w as 2 ) well as with +w. However. It vanishes identically if y is real. t ) = f (t ) e ik .

P can even be made negative by choosing appropriately. However. Otherwise this equation will give rise to space and time dependent energies and momenta. Dirac. Clearly. a and b must be independent of space and the time u r derivatives. This means that a and b commute with P and E. P can still have different signs at different points.4. it must be first order in space coordinates too. u r r 2 a b mc get Premultiplying equation (1) by E + c .com 80 ¶y ¶t case of complex wave functions.y mc = } {E -(ac .2 mc y = ( ) } 0 . At this level. P cannot be a probability density. Further we want this equation to be linear in space and time derivatives which already occur in b and E.+ p we { ( ) } {E + (ca .This watermark does not appear in the registered version . It is known that equation (1) can be used to describe a system of arbitrary numbers of particles and their antiparticles by treating y itself as an operator function instead of a numerical – valued function. 9.http://www. the above mentioned properties of P are no longer objectionable.+) pb u r r 2 mc E }{ r u r r . In 1928 Dirac proposed a Hamiltonian that is linear in mass and energy given by uurr H = ca . But this does not necessarily mean that a and b commute among themselves. was probably influenced by Maxwell’s equation as they are first order equations in both space & time co-ordinates.c a . One could multiply P by a charge e and then interpret it as a charge density. +mb c 2 p ( ) Dirac equation will be Ey = { a( c.+ )pb u r r u r r y2 mc 2 . a and b must be independent of space and time co-ordinates. b p .clicktoconvert. Dirac’s Relativistic wave Equation When the wave equation is of first order in time.) bp } 0 (1) Since we want this equation to be independent of space and time co-ordinates. and this is hardly satisfactory in the description of a single particle of given charge.

4.b2 ax = .1. 2.c2 (a z ax + a x a z) pz px – mc3 {(a x b + b ax ) px + (a yb + bay ) py + (a zb + ba z) pz} ] y = 0 Comparing the above equation with the relativistic relation between energy and momentum is E2 – c2 p2 – m2 c4 = 0 we get ax 2 = ay 2 = az2 = b2 =1 ax a y = -ay ax ay a z = -a z ay a z ax = -a x az ax b = .b ay a z b = . a and b must also be Hermitian. axb = .clicktoconvert. The eigenvalues of a and b matrices +1 and -1.bmc2 }y =0 2 2 [ E2 – c2 (ax 2 px + a y2 p y + a z2 pz2 ) .ax Taking Trace on both sides Tr (baxb) = . we can have only one of the matrices to be the diagonal matrix we choose b matrix to be the diagonal matrix.b ax ay b = .This watermark does not appear in the registered version .4.b2 m2 c4 – c2 (a x ay + ay ax ) px py – c2 (ay az + a z ay ) pz py . Since in a group of four anticommuting matrices in pairs.com 81 { E+ c (a x px + ay py + a z pz) + bmc2 } {E – c (a x px + a y p y + a z p z) .b az Thus we find that a and b anticommute among themselves in pairs. Properties of a and b Matrices 1.bax Pre multiplying by b on both sides baxb = . 5.Tr(ax ) Since b 2 = 1 .http://www. Therefore a and b must be square matrices. 3. Therefore they can be conveniently represented by matrices. Since a and b anticommute among themselves in pairs they cannot be numbers. Since we want the Dirac Hamiltonian to be Hermitian. Further we find that eigenvalues for all the four matrices are +1 and -1 9.

...This watermark does not appear in the registered version . But in the case we need 3 a matrices and one b matrix to anticommute among themselves in . It is impossible to find a 4th 2 X 2 matrix that is anticommute with the Pauli’s spin matrices.0 ê 0 ê0 ...û - b = From the knowledge of Pauli’s spin matrices we find that there can be only three 2 X 2 matrices anticommuting among themselves in pairs.Tr(ax ) 2 Tr(a x ) =0 Tr(a x ) = 0 In a similar manner we can prove that Tr(a y ) = 0 Tr(a z) = 0 Tr(b) = 0 6.Tr(ax ) Tr(a x ) = .ú ú.ê. The ith element of the equation axb + bax =0 i. and their eigenvalues are +1 and -1.0 . 7.http://www..e..1 ê0 ..ë ù0 ú0 ú ú. Since b matrix which is a diagonal matrix must be of even dimensions we choose b matrix to be é1 0 0 0 0 ê0 1 0 0 0 ê ê.ê ê0 0 0 0 .clicktoconvert. Since the traces of all these four matrices are zero.0 ê.. å (a ) x k ik b kl + å (b ) m im (a x )ml = 0 Since b matrix is orthogonal (a x )il + (b)ll + (b)ii (a x )il = 0 (a x )il { b ll + b ii } = 0 If b ll = – b il then (a x )il ¹ 0 for i ¹l otherwise (a)il =0 for i=l..ê ê.ú 0 úú1 ú ú-1 ú. there should be same number of +1 along the diagonals as the number of -1 in b matrix..com 82 Tr (b 2ax ) = . Therefore the dimension of b matrix must be even.ú..

This watermark does not appear in the registered version .clicktoconvert.com 83 pairs.1ú ú 0 0ú ú 0 0û é0 az = ê ës z . ê ë 0 0 ù =1 a x 2a x1 ú û ie a x1 a x2 = 1 and a x2 ax1 = 1 We choose both.e. but this will not give anything new and hence we choose the minimum dimension the b matrix 4 X 4. may be possible for b matrix.http://www.1 1 0ù 0 . ë0 -1û Since (a x )il ¹ 0 for i ¹ l and (a x )il = 0 for i = l We choose é 0 a x1 ù ax = ê ú 0 ëa x 2 û Further since a x 2 = 1 éa x1a x 2 i. Therefore b matrix will be é1 ê0 = ê ê0 ê ë0 0 0 0ù 1 0 0ú ú 0 -1 0 ú ú 0 0 . 8 X 8….i ù s y ù ê0 0 i 0 ú ú = ê 0 ú ê0 .i 0 0 ú û ê ú ëi 0 0 0 û é0 0 s z ù ê0 0 = ê 0 ú ê1 0 û ê ë0 . Therefore the minimum dimension of b matrix must be 6 X 6.1û b In short we write é1 0 ù b= ê ú where each element is a sub matrix of order 2 X 2. a x1 and ax2 to be sx é0 ax = ê ës x é0 s x ù ê0 = ê 0 ú ê0 û ê ë1 0 0 1ù 0 1 0ú ú 1 0 0ú ú 0 0 0û In a similar manner we choose é0 ay = ê ës y é0 0 0 .

This watermark does not appear in the registered version . hk ) + b mc }u 2 mc Since hw = E h E uj r r and k we have = p = { c (a. However these two sets will be related by the singular transformation a = s -1 a s b = s -1 b s where S is a non-singular free particle solution 9.ih { u r u r a Ñ b ) c( . r w - e t) u r r i(k.com 84 It is to be mentioned that the above form for a and b is not unique.w e t) -r . r w - e t) where j = 1.wt ) }jmc e hw uj { c (a . Any other set can also be chosen to satisfy the above commutation relations.3. e } )t = = = { .5. p ) +b c a x p x+ ay urur } j u é u1 êu ê 2 mc êu3 ê ëu 4 ù ú ú ú ú û éu1 ù êu ú E ê 2ú êu 3 ú ê ú ëu 4 û = { y p az + z +b p 2 } . (-i) i ( k e w ju w r r u r -i a c( i )k b u h + 2 j r r 2 i ( k .clicktoconvert. Free Particle Solution The Dirac Hamiltonian is u u u r r Ey = ac( + .r mc } j u r r . b p) { 2 y } mc Since a and b are 4 X 4 matrices y must be a 4 X 1 matrix (or) It is a column vector we choose éy 1 êy yj =ê 2 êy 3 ê ëy 4 or yj = ù 1é u ù ú êu ú 2 ú =ê ú ú 3ê u ú ú ê ú û 4ë u û j r r i(k.http://www. + 2i(k.2. r.4 \ The Dirac equation becomes ih ih ¶ ¶t { uj r r i k ( -w t ) r.

u1 + [E-mc2 ] u2 – cp+ u3 + cpzu4 -cpzu1 – cp-u2 + [E+mc ] u3 – 0.u3 + [E+mc2 ] u4 2 = = = = 0 0 0 0 (A) (B) (C) (D) Since the equation are homogeneous in uj the solution will exists only if the determinant of the coefficient is zero.cz p u ïê ú x íê ý 2 ú c p c ( p .c pz 0 E.clicktoconvert.p u y ïê ï ú 2 0 m ( c c ï p +) i y p .This watermark does not appear in the registered version .com 85 éu1 ù êu ú E ê 2ú êu 3 ú ê ú ëu 4 û = ì é0 ïê ï 0 c íê ï ê0 ï ê1 îë 0 0 1 0 0 ù ú 1 ú ú 0 ú 0 û 1 0é 0 0 0ê 0 ê x + p 0 0ê ê 0 ië 0 0 i i 0 ù ú 0 ú + úy 0 ú û 0 i 0 0 0 é0 ê0 ê p ê1 ê ë- 0 0 z 0 1 0 0 1 ù ú ú + ú 0 ú 0 û 0 1 0 0 é u1 êu ê 2 êu3 ê ëu 4 p é1 0 0 ù ê0 1 0 ú ê ú ê0 0 . 2 E.p.u4 E u4 = cp+u1 – cpzu2 + 0.u1 + mc2 u2 + cp+ u3 .u2 – cpzu3 – cp-u4 0.E m c c + 0 =0 -c + p cz p + 0 E m c2 By expanding the determinant we can show that E2 = c2 p2 + m2 c4 E= ± 2 cp 2 + 2 4 mc .iy p)-ï m c 0 u x ïê ú ï êc( x +p y i )z p c ï 0 .http://www.m cu2 ú û îë þ p é ê ê ê ê ë 1 2 3 4 ù ú ú ú ú û E u1 = mc2 u1 + 0.cpz u4 E u3 = cpzu1 + cp-u2 – mc2 u3 + 0.m c0 c p .u3 – mc2 u4 [E.m 2 c c +p c p z 2 -c z p .u4 -cp+u1 + cpzu2 .0.mc2 ] u1 – 0.ú 1 ê ú ë0 0 0 û Adding all the matrices ü ï 2ï mcý 0 ï ï 1 þ ù ú ú ú ú û = ìé m 2 c ù( c 0 p üc z p x) i .u3 + cp– u4 E u2 = 0.u2 + cpz.

2 cp 2 + 2 4 .m 2c u4 = 1 .com 86 Thus we find that both positive and negative energy values are possible for the Dirac particle corresponding to E+ and E. there are two mc Case (iii) u3 = 0 From equation (A) u1 = c -p E . E=linearly independent solutions for the negative energy. Case (i) u1 = 0 From equation (C) u3 = From equation (D) u4 = c -p E + m 2c -c zp E + m 2c u2 = 1 é ê \ The wave function will be ê ê c -p/ ê / ë -c z p Case (ii) u1 = 1 From equation (C) u3 = From equation (D) u4 = c zp E + m 2c c +p E + m 2c 0 ù 1 ú ú E +ú 2c (m ) ú + û m 2c E( ) u2 = 0 1 ù é ê 0 ú ê ú \ The wave function will be ê c z p E +ú 2c / (m ) ê ú (m 2) ëc +p/ E +û c Similarly if we choose the negative root.This watermark does not appear in the registered version .clicktoconvert.http://www. mc there are two linearly independent solutions for the positive energy.we will have two solutions for both Taking first E+ = + 2 cp 2 + 2 4 .

com 87 -c zp E .clicktoconvert. Case (i) u+ u y+ y = = 1 (Nu) + Nu = N2 u+ u N2 = æ ç 01 è c + pö ÷ E + m 2c ø 0 ö æ ç ÷ 1 ÷ c .http://www. Normalization Condition We use the normalization condition that u+ u = 1.5.This watermark does not appear in the registered version .m 2c From equation (B) u2 = é c -p/ ê -c z p / \ The wave function will be ê ê ê ê ë Case (iv) u3 = 1 From equation (A) u1 = From equation (B) u2 = c zp E .m 2c c +p E .1.pz ç = / + + 2m c ç c -P E ÷m 2 c E ç ÷ 2 / E è -c zP + ø m c 1 ì c 2 + pz 2p ü c 2 p N í 1 + + 2 z 2 = ý 2 ( E m c )þ ( E m 2 c ) + + î 2 1 N 2 ì c 2 x 2+ y 2p p ï 1 + í + ( E m2 c + ï î ü c2 z2 p ï = ý 2 2 )ï ( E m 2 c ) + þ 1 2 ì c 2ü p N 2 í 1+ ý = ( E þ 2 c2 ) + m î 1 Therefore the normalized wave function will be .m 2c E -ù 2c (m ) ú .ú m 2c E( ) 0 ú ú 1 ú û u4 = 0 é c z p E -ù 2c / (m ) ê ú (m 2) êc +p/ E -ú c \ The wave function will be ê 1 ú ê ú 0 ú ê ë û 9.

r w - e t) In a similar manner for the other three cases also the normalization constant can be shown to equal to y2 = 1 é ù ê ú 0 1 ê ú 2 2 ê cp z /( E + mc 2 ) ú c p 1+ ê 2 ú ( E + mc 2 ) 2 ëcp + /( E + mc )û y3 = 1+ 1 2 c2 p ( E .¯ y4 = y .This watermark does not appear in the registered version .m ) 2c 2 é c z p E -ù 2c / (m ) ê ú (m 2) êc +p/ E -ú c ê 1 ú ê ú 0 ú ê ë û E = ± c2p 2 + m 2c4 The energy correspond to positive as well as negative states We find that y 1 and y 2 will correspond to positive energy solutions for spin down and spin up particles y1 = y + ¯ y2 = y + In a similar manner the negative energy solutions y 3 and y4 will correspond to spin down and spin up particles respectively.http://www.com 88 é ê ê ê c -p/ ê / ë -c z p 0 ù 1 ú ú E +ú 2c (m ) ú + û m 2c E( ) y1 = 1+ 1 c p ( E + m ) 2c 2 2 2 r r i(k.clicktoconvert. y3 = y .- .ú m 2c E( ) 0 ú ú 1 ú û y4 = 1+ 1 2 c2 p ( E .m ) 2c 2 é c -p/ ê / ê -c z p ê ê ê ë E -ù 2c (m ) ú .

The positive energy levels form a continuum from +mc2 to + ¥ where as the negative energy states form another continuum from –mc2 to -¥.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . In between –mc2 and +mc2 there are no available energy levels. This has led Schrödinger into insurmountable difficulties. Dirac postulated that 1. Meaning of Negative Energy States It was found that necessary condition for the solution of Dirac equation is E= ± 2cp 2+ 2 4 mc The meaning of positive energy state is clear but that of negative energy is not clear.http://www. It was at one time. Dirac proposed that all the negative energy states are completely filled up normally. 1. Therefore if the negative energy states are excluded there will be contradiction. The exclusion of negative energy states will give rises to an incomplete set of solutions and this is mathematically not valid. Consequences of Dirac’s Interpretation The following consequences may arise due to Dirac’s interpretation. However there were two fundamental objections for excluding the negative energy states.1. On the otherhand the Dirac equation starts with positive energy states and there is a possibility of induced transition in to the negative energy states. unobservable the transition of one of these electrons to the positive energy states will manifest .com 89 9. With the sea of electrons in the negative energy states. 4. i) ii) Mathematical and another Physical. The electrons in the negative energy states will not be affected by electric and magnetic fields. In order to overcome the above difficulties. The electrons in the positive energy states will not normally make transitions to the negative energy states that are completely filled. 2. 2. 3.clicktoconvert.6. 9. suggested by Schrödinger himself as having no meaning and hence to be excluded.6. from Physicsts point of view.

This hole is regarded as positions and it behaves like an electron with the positive charge. LET US SUM UP In this lesson we had a discussion on the two prominent relativistic wave equations namely K. equation has nothing to say about the spin of the particle’ – Illustrate. 9. Show that its probability expression is indefinite.G.8. . 3.7. ‘The K. If the Pauli’s exclusion principle is not valid. The fact that the negative energy states are completely filled up implies that Paulis exclusion principle is obeyed.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . If you were a Dirac How would you have predicted the existence of positron? Explain 2. LESSON END ACTIVITIES Check your progress 1. 4. Discuss the difficulties involved in interpreting the probability density. equation and Dirac equation.com 90 itself. Derive the expression charge and current densities from the continuity equation. Since otherwise many electrons rather than one electron will occupy level. 8. Deduce relativistic Klein Gordon equation. the negative energy states cannot be completely filled up. as a hole in the negative energy states. Also we had a discussion on interpretation of negative energy states.G.http://www. 3. Then we presented the free particle solution of Dirac’s relativistic equation. Develop the relativistic wave equation for the particle of spin zero. Develop Dirac’s relativistic wave equation for a free particle and obtain its plain wave solution. 4.clicktoconvert. 9. 6. 5. Establish the Dirac’s relativistic wave equation for an electron and calculate its magnetic moment. Feymann interpreted that negative energy states are electrons moving forward in time (or) positions moving backward in time. 7. Can we use this equation for pions and kaons. Obtain the eigenvectors for Dirac’s relativistic wave equation of a free particle. Explain how Dirac has interpreted the negative energy states.

http://www. V. 5. McGraw –Hill International edition. A text book of Quantum Mechanics P. H. Quantum Mechanics S. Venkatesan. Quantum Mechanics John L. Quantum Mechanics V. Trace of the matrices are zero. . Jai Prakash Nath & Co Ltd.L. 3. 2. R. Tata McGraw –Hill Publishers. Quantum Mechanics Satya Prakash Sultan Chand Publishers .V.9. Gupta. Angular Momentum Techniques in Quantum Mechanics V. Devanathan Kluwer Academic Publishers. References 1. Prove the following properties of Dirac matrices on the basis of Dirac’s theory a. 7. Powell and Bernd Crasemann Narosa Publishing house. d. 9. Kumar. Devanathan Narosa Publishing house. Square of matrices are unity b. 6. e. c. Dimension of the matrices are of even order. The matrices anticommuting among themselves. Schiff. Sharma.clicktoconvert.M. Mathews and K. 4.C.com 91 9.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . Sharma. Quantum Mechanics Leonard I. Eigenvlues of the matrices are ±1.

such that (Lz + Sz) is conserved. H= é x ]y ë x . we know that ih dL z = [L z . H ]. dt d zL = é p ya-x p xù a û d t ë y (2) . i p h û é . a ù pb m x ë Here c is taken to be unity. Hx= [x . yé p . Now [ Lz .p x x ù y + yp ayp a + û z a z+p b m p = é x y . x p = é.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . Spin of Electron We know that the commutation relation between the z component of orbital angular momentum and the Dirac Hamiltonian is urur é pû + [ Lz .a .2. Also [ x.y pû a y ùp x x ë ë û Here we have used the fact that x does not commute with px and y cannot commute with py but they commute will all other quantities. We shall now verify that if Sz is taken to be 1 å where 2 z å =ç 0 ç z æs z è 0ö ÷ sz ÷ ø (4) Then (Lz + Sz) commutes with H . (3) This implies that Lz in not a constant of motion hence it is not conserved. In other words.com 92 LESSON 10 SPIN AND SPIN MAGNETIC MOMENT OF ELECTRON 10.http://www. Aims and objectives: This lesson deals with the expression for the spin of the electron and electron spin magnetic moment.y .yy ] ë ù = . Lz is not the complete angular momentum and there must be another part say Sz.clicktoconvert.y p] ] = ih é pa ë x- ù pa py x û pxù a û y (1) Here h is taken to be unity.1. a ù p x . p . 10. yy x p ë x [ Lz . H] =y x . But from Heisenberg’s picture of time evolution.

H ] = 1 [å z .http://www. H . = i {a x p y.ay ax -x a )ya+ xa( x a y-a y ay ax ay ) x 2 { }. ö æ 0 s æ 0 sy ö -ia x = y i . y i {.a y p x + a x p y }. dt Therefore we find that the angular momentum is conserved only if we include the spin angular momentum operator Sz = 1 1 és åz = 2 ê 0z 2 ë 0ù szú û (7) .y ûp . y ë y y û } y i a x p p (a.y p a x }. 2 = -i{. s xs y ÷ ø 0 ö ÷. (6) From (1) and (6) we find that [(Lz + S z ).This watermark does not appear in the registered version . + 2 ë { x a .xé ap a ù.H ]. 2 [ ] i a xa y . is z ÷ ø (5) Now [S z .yap x a +2 x ) ( x a y ax a + 2p y ) }. a x p x + a y p y + a z p z + b m .com 93 Let us first note that. ÷ çs ès x 0 è y 0 ø ø æ s xs y = -iç ç 0 è æ is = -iç z ç 0 è 0 æs ö =ç z ÷ è 0 søz = åz 0 ö ÷.2a y p x + 2a x p y }. H ] = 0 = i d (Lz + S z ). 2 [ ] i éa x a ù xa . i 2 .ç a ÷ .a x -y a 2 {( a2.clicktoconvert. 2 === = = =i a xa y .

and c E ® E . sz ÷ ø (8) 1 (± 1) are 2 æ1 0ö =ç ç0 1÷ ÷ è ø We find that the eigenvalue of + å = ±1.p b ý + cø ï ï è î þ y 2 mc æ ¶ ö ç ih .com 94 We see that J z = Lz + S z is a constant of motion and should be interpreted as the total angular momentum of the system.ej where A and j are vector and scalar potentials respectively. (E .. 2 of Spin ± 10. u r u r r e A p ® p .This watermark does not appear in the registered version .ej ÷ y è ¶t ø = y 2 mc Assuming the vector function to be independent of time the wave function can be written as y r.ER+ m 2c ) t ( = y (r ) e h . t ( ) . Therefore the eigenvalue of S z z = 1 1 and .clicktoconvert.http://www.ej) y = u r ì u ræ r e ö Aü ï ï ÷ íca ç.From these facts it is evident that the Dirac equation describes particles 2 2 1 such as electrons. å =ç 0 ç z 2 æs z è 0 öæ s z ÷ç s z ÷ç 0 øè 0ö ÷. Since .i N .3. the Dirac equation becomes.p b ý + cø ï ï è î þ u r ì u ræ r e ö Aü ï ï ÷ íca ç. Therefore. Spin Magnetic Moment of Electron (or) Dirac Equation in the presence of Electromagnetic Field A familiar way of introducing electromagnetic field in the Dirac equation is to replace.

t ( ) ( ) y () r y' r ì .) ý ç y + ÷ ï ¶t ï è h ø î þ e = ì ¶ 2ü íih + mc ýe î ¶t þ .i m c t h e = y (r ) e -iE N. 2 .y ÷ B +y A mc c è ø u r u r u re ö A æ cs .i m2 c t h ¶y ih ¶t = 2 r ì¶ .ej ýy '.e î ¶t þ .÷ + ê ý ú 1 mc cø ï ë0 .i m2 c t h e Replacing the wave function y as a two component wave function y A and y B (large & small components) ì ¶ ü éy A ù 2 íih + mc .imc 2 t h y' Substituting in the Dirac equation ì ¶ ü 2 íih + mc .http://www.imc 2 t h = u r ì u æ u re ö Aü ï r ï 2 b ý íca .clicktoconvert.iN .ej ýy A î ¶t þ ¶y A ih ¶t = = u r u r ì é 0 sù æ u 1r e ö A ü 0 ù ï ï é 2 íc ê u r úp.÷ + mc y cø ï ï è î þ ' .ej ýy B î ¶t þ ì ¶ ü 2 íih + 2mc .ER t ü í ý î h þ e 2 .ej ý ê ú î ¶t þ ëy B û ì ¶ ü 2 íih + mc .ej ýy B î ¶t þ = A y - 2 B mc = A (2) Since ih ¶y A ¶y B = ih ¶t ¶t = ih ¶ ¶t {y ' (r.R t h is the non-relativistic wave form . ç p . t EN. ç p .ü æ i mö c ï ï ' ih í yt ' (r. ç p .com 95 where E = = = wherey ' r.i m c t h e ( rt ) . } t) .This watermark does not appear in the registered version . ç p -y ÷ c è ø éy A ù êy ú ë Bû = (1) Similarly ì ¶ ü 2 íih + mc .÷ f B + y eA y c è ø u r u r u re ö A æ cs . ç p .R + mc2 = Non relativistic energy + Relativistic energy y r.y ÷ c è ø u r u r u re ö A æ cs . ç .û ú ï ês 0 è û î ë þ u r u r u re ö A æ 2 cs .

necessarily with each other.A .C = B . ie j = 0.÷s p íç .÷ s c 2 ç p y ÷ .iN . ú ÷ ý2m ê ï è c ï ø ú ïè ï ø î þ îc þ ë û (3) R.R + 2mc2 » 2mc2 ¶y A ih ¶t = = u r u r u æ r e ör A u 1æ u e r öA u r cs . c ø 2mc c è è ø u r u r r ì ö 1 é ì ue ær uü r u eù æ u r ü A Aï ï ï ö ï ê ís .eA ÷ï íçpý c ÷ ç c ÷ï ïè ø è øþ î .http://www. EN.R t h y . = {E N.ej y B } = u r u r u re ö A æ cs .R t ì ü y (r) e h ý í î þ = ih ¶ ¶t = ì E ü ih í-i N .S can be reduced by the following relation urururur u r u r u r u r u r a .eA ÷ .eA ÷ï ís .ER t h e Equation (2) becomes.B a . c ( ) ( ) ì æ öü eA öü ì æ ï ç ÷ï ïs .com 96 -iE N. ç p . R + 2mc f - } e = u r u r u re ö æ A 1 cs . ç p y ÷ A c è ø 2 EN . ç p. C a Bi ´ . Here u r u r u r u re A B= C = p .R <<< 2mc2 & assuming the magnetic field to be constant.f e yA u r u r u re ö A æ -cs . ç y + f A -p ÷ e c è ø Since EN.eA ÷ + is ç c ÷ ç c ÷ è ø è ø ìæ öü eA ö æ ïç ÷ ´ ç p . R2mc + è ø 2 .ç p ýí ç ý c ÷ï ï è c ÷ï ï è øþ î øþ î = æ ö æ ö ç p .ç p .ç p ý.ýR hþ î E N . C + u r where B & C commutes with a but not necessarily with each other. Now. ç p -y ÷ c è ø A yB = { ¶y A ih ¶t u r u r u re ö A æ cs . ç p ÷ c EN .R + 2mc 2 .H.R y e -iE N.This watermark does not appear in the registered version .clicktoconvert.

2 m c 2 m c This is nothing but.p . with the external applied Magnetic field B .clicktoconvert. p . p mc = = = 1 B´ r 2 ( ) 1 e B´ r p 2 mc 1 e B.e ü A 2 A.A 2 c c u ræ .p .A´ . A + is . s 2 m c 2 m c ( ) Since Ñ ´ A = B . Schrödinger equation in N.http://www.com 97 p2 = 2 r e u r u r u 2e u r . the external magnetic field. ¶y A ¶t 2 p2 e + 2m 2 m \ ih = urur e A2 A .ih Ñ. The last term in the above expression gives the interaction of electron spin. R approximation.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . L (where L = r´ ispthe orbital angular mc ( ) = momentum) .r ´ p 2 mc u r r r e B . + p .e ì. ÷ A A. p èc ø ( ) ( ) = Equation (3) becomes ¶y A ¶t p2 + e2 2 .r u r u r u r u e ö + si ç.+ pA + A.p . c m c i h u r u er u r u r u r e h + Ñ A .í (-ih Ñ ´ A)ý 2 c c îc þ { } \ ih = 2 p2 e + 2m 2 m 2 urur e A2 A . 2 c m c i h u r u er u r u r e h + Ñ A. Thus we find that the electrons behaves as a particle having a spin magnetic moment S= 1 hs 2 eh s where the spin of the e is 2mc () Now it can be shown that A Then e A. Ñ . B s .

+ L hs m c 2 m c ( ) 1 Q S hs 2 ih ¶y A ¶t = 2 p2 e i + A2+ 2 2m 2 m c 2 he u r eu r u r u r u r h A Ñ.L. LET US SUM UP This lesson deat with the expression for the spin of the electron and electron spin magnetic moment 10. McGraw –Hill International edition. Quantum Mechanics Leonard I. Derive an expression electron magnetic moment 10.com 98 ¶y A ¶t 2 u i r u r e u r u eh u r u r r p2 e e h + A2 + .This watermark does not appear in the registered version .B . Angular Momentum Techniques in Quantum Mechanics V.http://www.M. Bs . Mathews and K. Schiff. 2.K. Ñ L A . Quantum Mechanics Chatwal Anand Himlayan Publishing house. 6. 3. .4.clicktoconvert. Powell and Bernd Crasemann Narosa Publishing house. Tata McGraw –Hill Publishers. Devanathan Kluwer Academic Publishers. 2m 2 m 2 2 m c 2 m c 2 m c c 2 p2 e i + A2+ 2 2m 2 m c 2 \ ih = = u he u r e r u r u r u r A.6. Kakani Kedarnath Publishers. 2. 5. 10. 7. LESSON END ACTIVITIES Check your progress 1. Lokanathan McMillan Publishers.5. Venkatesan. A text book of Quantum Mechanics P. Quantum Mechanics John L. Ghatak and S. A text book of Quantum Mechanics S.B . 4. Quantum Mechanics A.+ L S 2 m c 2 m c ( ) The last term gives the interaction of the orbital and spin angular momenta with the external applied magnetic field B . Quantum Mechanics V. Ñ . B . References 1. Devanathan Narosa Publishing house. Obtain an expression for spin of the electron.

It is usual and convenient in practice to choose a co-ordinate system. 11. In some collisions. the energy of the incident particle does not change. The polar angles q and f of the scattered beam which describe the scattering centre or scattering potential is chosen to be spherically symmetric. At very large distance the scattered beam will be deflected normally outwards in the radial direction.2. In other words the spherically symmetric potential will only have q dependence and independent of f. The scattering experiments provide useful information about the nature forces. Such collisions are called elastic collisions or otherwise it is called inelastic collision. . INTRODUCTION A beam of particles having a definite momentum when directed towards a target (scattering centre) will undergo scattering in all possible directions.http://www. First we give some simple definitions for scattering amplitude.com 99 LESSON 11 SCATTERING THEORY 11.3. 1 Aim and Objectives In this lesson we are going to give an introduction to Scattering problems.clicktoconvert.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . in such a way that the scattering centre as the origin and the direction of the incident beam as Z-axis. scattering cross section. SCATTERING THEORY When a beam of particles of any kind is directed at matter the particles get deflected from their original path since it collides with particles of matter. and interaction between the particles of matter. Also we will be presenting the kinematics of scattering process and the relation between the scattering amplitude and scattering cross section. 11.

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100

11.4. KINEMATICS OF SCATTERING PROCESS
Consider a parallel beam of particles of a definite momentum is directed towards a target. The particle gets scattered in different directions and finally diverges. At larger distance from the target the particles are subjected to a radically outward motion. Let us choose a co-ordinate system in which the origin is at the position of the target and z-axis as the direction of incident beam. The polar angles q

Scattering Plane

Reference Plane

f
Target
Incident beam

q

Co

ne o

fS

cat t

eri

ng

of

an gle

q

and f indicates the direction of scattered particle with z-axis as the polar axis. Here q is the angle between the incident and scattered direction and is called as the angle of scattering. The azimuthal angle f specifies the orientation of this scattering plane with respect to some reference plane.

11.5. INCIDENT FLUX
Incident flux is defined as the number of particles crossing per unit area per unit time, the area being normal to the incident beam. It is obtained by multiplying the square of incident wave function with velocity.

I =| P r2o b a b+ l i t q d e n s i t y V e l o c i t y | y i y = ´ No.ofparticlesdistance = ´ V o l u m e t i m e No.ofparticles1 = ´ A r e a t i m e

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101

11.6. DIFFERENTIAL SCATTERING CROSS SECTION
If DN is the number of particles scattered into a solid angle d W in time Dt, then naturally DN will be proportional to the solid angle. The tune and the incident flux.
DN a W d a Dt aI

æ ds ö DN = d W t D I ç ÷ è dW ø

(1)
ds is called the differential scattering cross dW

where the proportionality constant

section. Therefore the differential scattering CROSS SECTION. is defined as the Number. of particles scattered per unit solid angle, per unit time, per unit incident flux. It has the dimension of area.
\ ds N D = dW dW t D I

The total scattering cross section is obtained by integrating the differential cross section over all the polar angles q and f
ds s = ò q ò s qi n fd d dW 0 0
p 2p

For spherically symmetric potential which is independent of f, the total scattering cross section becomes.
ds s =ò q s i n q d dW 0
p

11.7. RELATION BETWEEN DIFFERENTIAL SCATTERING CROSS SECTION AND SCATTERING AMPLITUDE
For a spherically symmetric potential, which falls of rapidly than 1/r asymptotic behaviour, the total wave function will consist of incident plane wave and out going spherical wave.
r )i z f (q e u ( q = ei k + , ) r r
k r

(1)

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102 Where f(q) is called the scattering amplitude. The incident flux is given by
I i n =Ui c
2 n c 2

´ J

z = el k ´ J

= 1 ´J = 1 ´J

The outgoing flux is given by
I
2 o u t o u t

=U

´ J
2

=

f (q ) r
2 2

´i e

k 2 r

J

=

f (q ) ´ r2 =

J f (q ) ´ r2
2

Ii

n. c

\ the Number of particles scattered in the solid angle dΩ, in time Dt is given by

DN = Outgoing flux x solid angle x Area x Time

f (q ) = ´ Wn c d Ii ´ r2

2

´ 2 Dt r

= f (qW)I
in time Dt is given by,

2

i n c

´d

Dt

(A)

But we find that the number of particles scattered in a solid angle dΩ,

ds DN = d W t D I dW
Comparing equations A & B.

(B)

ds 2 = f (q ) dW
Thus we find that the differential cross section is equal to the square of scattering amplitude. Thus the scattering amplitude is related to the experimentally observable differential scattering cross section. Since the dimension of length (m).
ds has the dimension of area (m2 ), f(θ) has dW

3. Define differential scattering cross section and total cross section.Modern Quantum Mechanics J.http://thequantumexchange. Sakurai. References 1. Obtain the relations between scattering cross section and scattering amplitude.clicktoconvert.com 103 11. Liboff Addition . 8. 3.http://www.Quantum Mechanics John L.Introduction to Quantum Mechanics David J.M. 6. Tata McGraw –Hill Publishers. 7.K. Ghatak Tata McGraw Hill Publishers 5.Willey. Griffiths.9.Quantum Mechanics A. What do you meant scattering cross section? 6.A text book of Quantum Mechanics P. 2.Introductory Quantum Mechanics Richard L. Ghatak and S. Give the schematic diagram of the scattering event. What do you meant by incident flux? 2. 5. 4.J.Basic Quantum Mechanics Ajoy. 11. Mathews and K. Venkatesan.8 LESSON END ACTIVITIES Check your progress 1.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . What is the unit in which they are measured? 4. Powell and Bernd Crasemann Narosa Publishing house.org/ . Prentice Hall. Give the importance of scattering theory. Lokanathan McMillan Publishers.

S. ) r r i k z r r r .H. 1. 12. Each term on the R. It is done in two steps. θ) which represents the sum of incident and scattered wave is obtained in terms of partial waves.3 are respectively called the s. The waves with l =0. θ) given by f (q e i ) r u( q = e + . r k (1) A plane wave ei k zcan be expanded as a linear combination of spherical waves using Rayleigh’s scattering formula. Pl (cos θ) are the legendre polynomials. The plane wave is thus equivalent to a superposition of an infinite Number. The above methods can be applied to low energy and high energy scattering problem respectively.com 104 LESSON 12 SCATTERING THEORY 12.http://www. represents a spherical wave.wave.2 .1. INTRODUCTION The method of partial wave is elegant procedure for the analysis of elastic scattering and low energy scattering. ¥ k z ei =iå l l ( j 2 1 )l ( )l P c o s ) + K r ( q l =0 (2) Here jl ( K )r is a spherical Bessel function of order l.clicktoconvert.2. First wave function u(r. phase shift analysis and Born approximations. Secondly the asymptotic value of this wave function is equated to the wave function u(r.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . we are going to study the various methods for analyzing scattering problems namely partial wave analysis .1 Aims and Objectives In this lesson. of spherical waves & the individual waves are called the partial waves. d-wave and so on. Substituting the value of jl ( K )r . PARTIAL WAVE ANALYSIS 12. p-wave. 2.

r e e= 2i k r jl ( K )r = )l Substituting in equation (2) k ei = 1 l¥ i z i å (l 0 2i k l =r k l 2 2+r e(1 -/ pi. o f components each of which corresponds to definite angular momentum (i. o ) But jl ( K )r = s i K -( p/l 2 ) n r K r Expressing in terms of exponential.-e ( (p . Here the incident beam of particles a r e represented by a plane wave with definite linear momentum with no definite angular momentum. r=) q h2 ú û 0 .r ) f (q ei ) r k r (3) Which is independent of φ. The process by which a plane wave is decomposed into a partial wave is called the partial wave analysis. For a spherically symmetric potential having asymptotic behaviour.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . Using Rayleigh’s expansion for plane wave ¥ k z ei =iå l l ( j 2 1 )l ( )l P c o s ) + K r ( q l =0 (4) Where jl ( K )ris spherical Bessel function and Pl ( c q s is the legendre polynomial.2 e-) (pi ./ ek) ) r f( 1 )r ( å cq P o + sl ) 2i k r )k q e r r (4) The Schrödinger equation for the scattering problem can be written as é 2 êÑ ë 2m ù +( E ) V-( u . jl ( K )r = ei ( ¥ K.e) into partial waves. Hence a plane wave can be decomposed into infinite number. Partial wave methods can be applied when the potential is central and of finite range. the total wave function will consist of the incident plane wave and the outgoing spherical wave.2 k r p ) i ( K .pr 2 l -) i (K .rp 2 l -i (K 2. z u ( q = ei k + ./ r / p e2i k r 2 l ) (3) i u ( q =.http://www.clicktoconvert./ cl 2 )o l ) k) r P s q) This form shows that each partial wave can be represented as the sum of incoming and outgoing spherical wave.com 105 s i k nr p(l ) . il ( l= o i / p l 2 l + lK2( -r. This method is really useful whenever the energy of the incident particle is low.

rd slKi nlr ( )l ] q o s ) c l j ( ) h P ( c l . only jl ( K ) will remain. The radial part of the solution Rl (r) will involve spherical Bessel function and spherical Neumann function in the field free case.c o Ks r p/ 2 ) . =r ( 2 2m E h 2 mV ) 2 h The solution of the above equation (i.φ ) which will crumble to the legendre polynomial Pl ( c o s for spherically symmetric potential q ) which is independent of φ. This is r r ) the reason why we associate c od ls with jl ( K )r and s i dn with hl ( k r Rewriting the ) l above equation as Rl ( )= [ lA o j sll ( d ) s l i K ( r ) ] r c d . At all other points both jl ( K ) and hl ( k rwill be present.clicktoconvert. Therefore we choose the r radial wave function as R l ( r proportional to ) Rl ( )r c jod l K ( d l)r ls hK n r( ) a s i l In this expression if we choose d l =0 for the field free case. since it becomes infinite at r=0. The angular part of the solution will be spherical harmonics.e) the radial wave function will be a linear combination of jl ( K )rand hl ( K ) r Where hl ( K )= r .( l K r However it should be noted that jl ( K )r is a well behaved function at r=0 where hl ( K ) is not so.r = l l c l =0 (5) The solution of the radial Schrödinger wave equation é 1 d æ r 2 d (l (ö lr ù R ) 1 2 ê 2 2 çd ÷ + Kú r dû è ø ër l U -( r ) + r . Ylm (θ. then at origin.This watermark does not appear in the registered version .com 106 The Schrödinger equation can be separated into radial part and angular part.( ) R r l )= r 0 Where K 2 = U .K r h n l Substituting the value of R l ( r in equation (5) we get ) ¥ U ( r.http://www. Therefore the total wave function can be written as ¥ u ( q ) R(å )r ( qP o s ) .. = å r ) P o s ) q ) ( l q c R l( l =0 ¥ = l =0 Al [ å do Ks .

Using orthogonal property of lengendre polynomial.2 q å e + ( l 2 1e l ) cP lo se 2idl si di nl 2i k= 0 l 1 ¥ )l q i å (+l2 1 P c oe sldll s d n k l =0 f( q ) = (7) .p / 2 sf ( + eo q = 1 ¥ l d ) q eli å i+ ( l 2e 1 idlle c -o p / s2i Pcq l o 2i k l = 0 r 1 ¥ l l å i +( l i2 e12i k= 0 l p / 2 2 id l s 1 ¥ l l åi (+ 2 2i k= 0 l ) = )e c P lo s q Þ f( q ) = 1 ¥ l 2 å i ( l +e 2i k= 0 l = l id l p 1. s K.n lpl + Pdl ) ( q s ) A i r / 2 ( c o K lr 0 ¥ = = 1 ¥ Al é å 2i K l =r0 ë i( .qs 2(idl 1 ) 2i k= 0 l l l l l d i l 2 Substituting i l =i ep / .2.lp r/ 2 ]K .l/ Kp r d / + e -+ 2l )i e-(lKù p(-rl P2do lû cs q) (6) 12.clicktoconvert. -2id 1ei= eid .ol psP( / 2 )q] ( o s ) å o i rl K d n c c l =0 K r 1 ¥ = ål .lp r s ( / 2 ) ù Al c dåê o s l+ s d i úl n l c q o P ( s ) l =0 K r K r ë û ¥ 1 = Al [ c d lKs s . we can easily show that Al = l ( l 1 i) Comparing the coi + e d 2 l efficients of ei k rin equations (4) & (6). we get 1 ¥ l ( åi ( l + 2 P 2i l = 0 k r l ) ¥ f q i / 1 1ql+ .ed e id = eid l [ e-l i edl-] i eld- = eid l .id l A The above equation is valid for all values of θ .np ( / l2+ ) s i lr .2.This watermark does not appear in the registered version .com 107 [ c o é s iK n.r in equations (4) & (6).p / 2 l s + l k r r i l 1l P) qc . 2 s idn i l f( q ) = 1 ¥ i p / l 2 ip / .http://www.i )p / e= 2 l-e på sq A2 c e c o l l r 2 l = 0i k r id l Po s Substituting the value of A l 1 2i Þ ¥ åi l =0 l ( ) f q l ( 2+1i )Pc oqe . SCATTERING AMPLITUDE Comparing the co-efficient of e -i k . we get ¥1 1 ¥ l l li å i ( l 2 P 1 =q c p / åP l s2 qc e p /o + l )e i o = 2i l = 0 k r l2 0i K r se 2l .i e /) 2 2cP lo - s q 1 ¥ l s å i ( 2l+ 1i ) Pc olqe l 2i k= 0 l p/ 2 1 ¥ l 2 e å i ( l2+el1 -i)p /Pc l o.

This watermark does not appear in the registered version .2. OPTICAL THEOREM We know that the scattering amplitude is given by f( q ) = 1 ¥ ) i å (+l2 1 Pl c oqe sldll s d n k l =0 A q = 0 c Þ s = 1 = 1 for all values of l.clicktoconvert.3.http://www. lq l( 1 ¥ l f ( 0= )lå + 1 ) i ds i dn ( 2 e l k l= ¶ Equating the imaginary part of the scattering amplitude Im f (0) = 1 ¥ l n å (+2 1 ) s i2d l k l=0 (1) . 12.3.com 108 12. Scattering Cross Section in Terms Of Phase Shift The differential scattering cross section is defined as ds 2 = f (q ) dW = 1 K2 å+( l l ' l2 1 + '( 2P 1 ) P o' se lc ode s sl ' i ln lsd i n l ) c q q ll d' l .ld Total Scattering Cross Section ds s = 2 pòs iq n d q dW O s= 2p k2 p p d ( å+ l2 l'l 1 + 'ld 2 1idl ) -ds ' i n es i qln ' ò lo s' qlcP o s s qi n ) ( e i lq P c d l o s= 2p k2 ( å+ l 'l 2 l d 1 l) ( 2 ' id ld )-dl s i n l s i dn' 2 + e 1e i l 2l + 1 ' l l {by orthogonal property of legendre polynomial d l ' l= 1i l ' l f= & d l 'l= 0 i l ' l ¹ f } s= 2p k2 4p k2 ¥ 2 ( l å + 2 d1 ) s i n l =0 ¥ 2 2 l 2l + 1 s= ( l å + 2d1 ) s i n l l =0 2 (8) This is the expression for total scattering Cross Section. t P o P ) .

4.4. (å 1 ) s i 2n l + l 2 d k kl= 0 (2) From (1) and (2) s= 4p I mf ( 0 ) k 4p k Thus we find that the total scattering cross section is times the imaginary part of scattering amplitude for q = 0. PHASFSHIFT ANALYSIS 12.This watermark does not appear in the registered version .1 PHASESHIFT The effect of introducing the potential into the picture is just to change the phase angle of the normally outgoing scattered wave by an angle d l .http://www. For an attractive potential the waves are pulled in and for a repulsive potential u(r) is positive and the wavelength of the scattered wave increases and a repulsive potential the waves are pushed out. . We have just seen that the radial wave function in the absence of potential is proportional to jl (K )= r s i K -(lp/ 2 ) n r k r Where as in the presence of potential it is proportional to jl (K )= r s i K -(lp/ 2 ) n r d l + k r Now in the expression for local wave number the radial Schrödinger’s wave equation d2 u l ( +1 ) + [k 2 ( u.com 109 We know the total scattering cross section is given by s= 4p k2 ¥ ( l å + 2d1 ) s i n l=0 2 l = 4p 1 ¥ .2 ) r ]+ (u =r l ) d 2 r r 0 We find that for an attracting potential u(r) is negative and have k 2 + u(r) increases or the wavelength decreases. 12.clicktoconvert. In other words the imaginary part of forward scattering amplitude measures the intensity which the incident beam suffers because of scattering.

k) ® 4p r ® r (iii) G ( r -' r )= 12.com 110 It is to be noted that a phase shift will be introduced only with in the potential of will be maintained through out.r ) =rd r-' r ) ' ( (ii) (Ñ 2 ® 2 z k+ e k = ) i 0 ® 0 -1 ei ( k . BORN APPROXIMATION This method is most useful for those problems whose potential are varying rapidly.clicktoconvert. d l= 0 d l= +ve d l= –ve RESULTS : - (i) The green function for the operator 2 (Ñ 2 +k) is given by ® ® ® ® 2 (Ñ 2 ) k+ ( G .This watermark does not appear in the registered version . It is also used for analysing the high energy scattering problems. The Schrödinger equation for the scattering problem is given by 2m Ñ 2 u ( r )+ E( V .5.http://www.r ( ) h2 U=) ( r 0 .

com 111 2m E 2m = k 22.ro U ' r )u ( r ' d ) r + ò Gò( r' .)r ( U ) r. then the series will be converging rapidly.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . .http://www. ' ® ® ® u ( r = u( r +Gò 'r '. we can write the solution for Schrödinger equation as z + r ) ' U(r) = ei k G ò r ( . r ' by r ' . we will have two terms. ' ' Equation (4) becomes ® ® ® u ( 'r ' =)u ( 'r ' +G(ò ' r' -r ' U ( 'r ' 'u) (r ' 'd' ) r' ' ' ) ' ' ) o Equation (3) becomes ® ® ® ® ® ® u ( r = uo( r )+ G r . Now by replacing r by r ' .ro U 'r )u ( r ' d ) r + ò Gò( r' -r ( U )r (.r ) U( 'r ' u (r ' d ) r ' ' ' ) o ' ) ( ' ) ' (4) Substituting (4) in equation (2) ® ® ® ® ® ® ® ® ® r U ) ( ' U ' ' u ( r ) uo r )+ G r .' U (r ' u) r( d )r ' 2 This can be easily verified by operating (Ñ 2 +k) ® ® (2) on both the sides of equation (2) 2 (Ñ 2) k+ ) =r (r +ò r ) .( ' r) G ' r ' r ) ( r' u )r ( d' r )d ' r' ' = ( ' ò( ' ) ( The above series can be extended further by replacing r’ by r’’ by r ' b' y' r& so on. only the first few terms will contribute and it will be sufficient to terminate the series after two or three terms. In such a case. V ( =r ) U( r) h2 h 2 Ñ 2 u ( r +k (u = U ) u r) ) )r ( r ( 2 (Ñ 2 ) k+ u ) r= (U )r ( r ( u ) letting (1) 2 Noting that (Ñ 2 +k) e lk 2 is zero. Now denoting uo ( r = e k .' ' r' )r ( U ' r) u ' r ' d) r d r' ) ' ) ' G ' ( ' ' ò( ' ) ( ® ® ® ® ® ® +ò ' ( ' òG(ò r'.clicktoconvert.) a function of u which we are ' ) seeking to determine.G ' ® ® r ' r' u)( r ' G ( r' -r ' U' )r ( u ' r' )d( r ' d )r' 'd' 'r ' ' ' ' ) ' ' ' ' ' Such a series is called Born series or Neumann’s series. Thus for first Born approximation.e. If the incident energy is very large.z we have ) i ® ® +ò ( ' u(r) = uo (r )G ( r '-r) U r )u (r 'd ) r ' (3) Here we find that right hand side contains u ( r (i.( r' ) (r ' d ) r ( u 0 'd U u 2 (Ñ 2 ) k+ u ) r= (U )r ( r ( u ) ® ® Thus we find that the expression for u(r) given by equation (2) is valid. we get. This expression is evidently a perturbation expansion of U(r) with the potential treated as perturbation.

k) r ® ® U .K = K the momentum transfer function.= u ) . f B (q e)i ® k r r -1 . For a spherically symmetric potential.com 112 Therefore in the first Born approximation the wave function will be. ® ® ® ® ® ® ® u ( r ) u0 r)+ G r . = U)f ò r ò .f=U ò r ' u ) r( ) ( 4p d )r ' ' Dropping the primes.r ® u -( r ' ) d ( ' r ) ' ò 4p r Comparing the above expression with total wave function z U ( q = ei k + r ) .l ok r f B (q e .i ok) r (r ' d ) r ' ( u 4p r Assuming u(r) = ei k .)0 U ' r ) u ( r ' d ) r ' = ( ( ' r ( ò Substituting for the Green’s function and for uo ( r )we have.K l are shown below Ko K = ko -ki θ ki From equation (7).This watermark does not appear in the registered version . f= e ò ) 4p ® -i ( K K . -1 f B (q e .i (. i -1 f B (q . the potential will be independent of angle f and therefore. we get -1 f B (q e .f =U) òr .http://www.iò k ( ) r q 4p 0 0 0 ¥p 2p r s d 2 qr i nd f d .)i o r Defining K o . the above equation becomes. ® ® ® u( = r ) i k z k ® -1 ei k rei o® r ( )ò ( ® ' u) e U r 4p r ® ® ( r 0 'd ) r ' =e i k z o 1 ei ( k . l ® ® -1 k f B (q e f. rd ) r ò r 4p (7) The directions of K o . it is clear that for the first amplitude depends only on the momentum transfer and not on the initial and final momenta and the angle of scattering.clicktoconvert.

k 2i r This is the Borrn amplitude for the spherically symmetric potential.é eo k r s ù q ) = ò r 2 U( r )d ê r ú 2 0 i k ûr ë ¥ ù -1 2 .q) r U r) .http://www.1 Validity Condition For Born Approximation Born approximation is valid only when the total wave function is greatly different from the incident wave function. .5.clicktoconvert. -m e i k r g ( =V 2rò ( 0 ) e r 2p h g( 2 )d i k z r 2 m ei k r V 0 r2 ) < ( d = e r 2p h i k z )<r 1 This is the validity condition for Born approximation. < ) Let g ( r <e i k z g ( r)2 <| <1 Where g(r) is given by -1 ei (k -r' r) g ( = ) U ( r ' e ) di r 4p ò r -' r k z r Substituting the value of U(r).com 113 -1 r e .i kU ( r ) 2 s di r dq r q n 2 ò 0 ò 0 -1 2 ( c o i k .( rsr c e o ( ò d d 2 ò 0 0 p ¥ p ¥p = = s q) ¥ i -1 ( c.é ei k r ei.) ò (e ' d i) k' zr ' 0 r 2p h 2 r ' Dropping the primes. 12.This watermark does not appear in the registered version .k r U( r )d ê r ú ò 2 0 ë i k ûr ¥ 0 r = -1 f B (q = U ( ò r ) ds ri kn r r ) k 0 since s i kn = r ei k -r ei. we get ' -1 ei (k -r2 r) m g ( =r ) òV ( r ' 2 e ) d 4p r -' r h i k z r = -1 ei (k -r' r) m V ( r ' ei k' )z r' d 2p ò r -' r h 2 2 In several cases g (r a)< t <h e o r g i n t 1 m e i k' r g ( = V .

phase shift analysis and Born approximation. 2 4 ò k h 0 ¥ 2 ® ® ( r d ) 2 r g( 2 ® ® ® m2 0e 2) 4 ò . 12. Also the optical theorem was presented. Once this theory are understand clearly one can extend this methods to scattering problems in atomic and nuclear physics. 2.This watermark does not appear in the registered version .clicktoconvert. What is called Born series.k r -e ö ø ® ® 2 i k r = ® m2 (-2i ker 0 V e ) .6 LET US SUM UP From this lesson one can get a clear idea on partial wave analysis . (r < ) = V( r k h 0 ¥ 1 according to Born approxination. d r e w 0 0 1 1 2 ® ® ® 1 m2 = 4 h ¥ ® òe 0 i k r ® ® ® V (r )r . d r h 0 2 ¥ k r i. 5. Enumerate the two conditions for the validity of born approximation. 3. g( 2 m V 0 r2 = 2p h ¥ 1 2 p ò ) rò 0 -1 ei k . . we have. i k r i ( k r òi k r w d ò e e Vò r )r . Write a brief note on optical theorem. LESSON END ACTIVITIES Check your progress 1. What is called a partial wave ? Why it is called so.http://www.com 114 If V ( r )is spherically symmetric.7. d æ çe ÷ r ® ç ÷ i k ør è ® ®ö i k w r -1 æ ei ® ® ® ® è m i k r = 4 ò e V (r )r .2i1k r ) <d . 12. 4.r ei kwr d ò(r r ) 0 ¥ 2 ® 2 2 d w f d 1 k 2 2 rw g( 2 m e= r2) 4 V( 0 p 4p h = m2 h4 ¥ ¥ ® rò 2 0 ® i d) ® k r 1 rw (ò i e ) d . Define the term phase shift.

Mathews and K. 7. What are called Green function? How they are used in scattering theory? 9.clicktoconvert. 9. Powell and Bernd Crasemann Narosa Publishing house. A text book of Quantum Mechanics P.com 115 6. 8. 3. 7.K. 12. http://thequantumexchange. Ghatak and S. Introductory Quantum Mechanics Richard L. Basic Quantum Mechanics Ajoy. Lokanathan McMillan Publishers.http://www. What do you meant by partial wave analysis? Employ this method to derive an expression for the scattering amplitude in terms of phase shift. Ghatak Tata McGraw Hill Publishers 6.Willey.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . Quantum Mechanics John L. Griffiths.org/ . Quantum Mechanics A. Obtain an expression for the Born approximation amplitude and hence derive the Rutherford formula for Coulomb scattering. Liboff Addition . Tata McGraw –Hill Publishers. 8.8 References 1. 4. Venkatesan.M. Sankar Narosa publishing house 2. Prentice Hall. Sakurai. Quantum mechanics K. Modern Quantum Mechanics J. Define phase shift and hence describe partial wave analysis in scattering theory. 5. Introduction to Quantum Mechanics David J.J.

we are going to discuss in the scattering by different potentials namely Coulomb .http://www. h k = (2) q 2 We know that momentum transfer k = 2k sin 2 mze 2 q h 4k sin 2 2 2 2 \ f (q ) = = mze 2 q 2h k sin 2 2 2 2 (3) Differential scattering cross section is given by . Also we will be concentrating on central field approximation methods.2. Scattering By Coulomb Potential The potential given as ze 2 V (r ) = r (1) The Born Amplitude is given by f (q ) = - 1 r U (r ) sin kr dr kò 0 ¥ ¥ = 2 m 2 sin kr ze ò dr r h2k 0 2 mze 2 1 . Thomas – Fermi Statistical Model and Hartree’s Self – Consistent Fields.clicktoconvert.1 Aims and Objectives In this lesson. 13.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . h2k k 2mze 2 = 2 2 .com 116 LESSON 13 APPLICATIONS OF SCATTERING THEORY 13. Yukawa potential.

i ®k ®re -a .r = e d r 2p h 2 ò r = -1 mVo 2p h 2 -1 mVo 2p h 2 a p2 p ò òe ò 0 0 0 a . introduced to represent the interaction between fundamental particles. the scattering amplitude becomes 1 æ 2mVö = f B (q . It is an example of a central potential.i ®k ®r 2 = e V r d r ( ) 4p h 2 ò -1 mVo . The Born amplitude is defined as ® ® -1 f B (q e f.clicktoconvert. = (4) 13.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . f It was orginally . where p = hk q 4 p sin 2 This coincides with the classical Rutherford formula for coulomb scattering.= U ) -ri k( r d ) r ò 4p -1 m .http://www. Yu kawa Potential The potential of the form V ( r= V ) o e -a r r where Vo and a are constants is called yukawa potential.r d r i- 2 r s id n qd f q p = 2p ´ e -(a rr ò 0 0 c òd k q-r ( c o s ) r qe -o ds ) p æ =ç è m vo ö ¥ -a r e -i k(-rc oq s ÷ ò e r d r -i k r h2 ø 0 -i k r ) 0 ¥ ei k -r e æ mV ö r = ç 2 o ÷ ò e -a d r è h ø 0 i k r æ -2mVo ö =ç è h 2 k÷ ø ¥ òe 0 -a r ks i n d r r Evaluating the integral and simplifying.i k cr q o r e -as.ç 2 0 2 = 2 è h ÷ a + 4k s q2i n / 2 ø .com 117 ds 2 = f k (W) = dW m 2 z 2e4 4h 4 k 4 sin 4 m 2 z 2e4 4 4 q 2 . f ). Here the potential depends only r and not on q .3.

the differential scattering cross section varies with k and so it also varies with energy E. In the limit of zero energy (k ® 0).9 (s / 42 v 2 a 4 h ® m o 4 0.7 0 p q® . It is to be noted that. it is clear that. From the above expression. with in the Born Approx. below.0 ) or repulsive (V0 > ) 0 0.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . This independence is a general result for elastic scattering by a central potential.8 ) 0.1 0. which is shown is fig. the scattering amplitude is independent of angle f .f dW = 4m 2V 2 o 1 2 2 2 h 4 (a 4+ s k i q n / 22 ) ® Thus .2 0. we can see that.clicktoconvert. the differential cross section is independent of sign of Vo and gives the same result if the yukawa potential is attractive (V0 < 0 1.http://www. s peaks in the forward direction ( q =0) and decreases monotonically as q varies from 0 to p . Except at zero energy. the differential cross section is s= 4m 2V 2 o h 4a 4 Thus the differential cross section is independent of q as well as of f .com 118 ® Here q is the angle between the incident wave vector k and the unit vector r in the scattered direction. The differential scattering cross section can be written as ds 2 = f (q .

An important difference between the two situations is the degeneracy between states of the same n and different L that occurs in hydrogen is removed in a noncoulomb central field. l . Before considering these problems. The degeneracy with respect to m is not affected. . This assumes that each of the atomic electrons moves in a spherically. and V(r) is stronger (more negative) than –c2 /r there. me and ms are required to specify the state of an electron in a central field.com 119 13.clicktoconvert.4. Because of the spin. This is because the electrons that have smaller angular momentum penetrate closer to the nucleus. The electron in the hydrogen atom. symmetric potential energy V(r) that is produced by the nuclear and all the other electrons. since for large n the electron wave function is small near the nucleus and only the form of V(r) of large r is significant . four quantum numbers n.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . Application to Atomic Structure : Central – Field Approximation The starting point of calculations on all except the lightest atoms is the central – field approximation. The potential energy V(r) for a neutral atom has the coulomb form –c2 /r at a great distance r from the nuclear. Thus for given n. l and m. since the removal of the electron whose potential is being measured leaves a singly charged positive ion. for which the potential energy is –c2 /r at all r has an infinite number of bound energy levels characterized by the quantum numbers n. we discuss some general properties of the central field. The orbital quantum numbers l and ml are the same as l and m in the hydrogen atom. The two principal problems are the correction of the approximate results obtained from it. The approximation is a good one if the deviation from the V(r) for one election produced by close passage of other electrons is relatively small. ms = ± 1 specifies the spin 2 orientation and n is a natural generalization of the total quantum number that appears in hydrogen. the states of lowest l have the lowest energy.http://www. since this occurs whenever the potential is symmetric. and the latter varies quite slowly (inversely) with the separation distance. since the constant nuclear potential is of the order of Z times as large as the fluctuating potential due to each nearby electron. An infinite number of energy levels is also expected for V(r). since the nucleus is less completely screened by the other electrons. This is actually the case.

This watermark does not appear in the registered version . The electrons can then be treated by statistical mechanics and obey the Femi – Dirac statistics. 13. Fermi statistical model assumes that V(r) varies slowly enough in an electron wavelength so that many electrons can be localized within a volume over which the potential charges by a small fraction of itself.5. We thus obtain a relation between the volume density of electrons. At normal temperatures the thermal energy kT is very small in comparison with V(r) every where except at the edge of atom where the chance of finding an electron is small. In this case. the Fermi – Dirac statistics requires that the electron states fill in order of increasing energy. this definition of n is carried over to the general central field. The number of electron states in a cube if edge length L at the walls of which the wave functions obey periodic boundary conditions was computed to be æ L ö ç ÷ dk x dk y dk 2 . n(r) and the pontentialenergy : n(r) = [. since otherwise the electrons would escape the atom.2m v(r )]3 2 3p 2 h 3 (1) . then the number of states for which the momentum P = hk is less than or equal to P0 . This must be multiplied by 2 to take account of the two è 2p ø 3 possible spin states. as assumed.clicktoconvert.l -1 is the number of nodes of the radial part of the hydrogen wave function. so that l does not exceed n-1. THOMAS – FERMI STATISTICAL MODEL Two – methods have been used for the determination of the potential energy V(r). the number of electrons per unit volume whose kinetic energy does not exceed Po Po is 2m 3p 2 h 3 2 3 Now the maximum kinetic energy at any distance r form the nucleus is –V(r).com 120 The equation l = n = n’+ l +1 shows that n . æ L ö 2ç ÷ d è 2p ø 3 p0 h p 2p òò 0 0 P L3 k dk sin q dq df = o 2 3 ò 3p h 0 2 3 If all these states are occupied. The first of these Thomas.http://www.

As r ® ¥ there must be no net charge inside the 1 and rv (r) ®0.z 2e c r 2 3 r =b x h2 2 1 3 e 1æ 3 ö p b= ç ÷ 2è 4 ø = m 0 . 1 d é( d -) V ù r2 2 êr d úr r d ë û we put = 3 4e 2 [ 2 m V ( r] ) 3 2 3p h (3) V(r) = . where as the Thomas – Fermi potential is that experienced by an infinitesimal test charge.1.5. The diff.1 d æ 2 dv ö Ñ v= çr ÷ = 4p en (r ) e e r 2 dr è dr ø (2) Equations (1) and (2) and two simultaneous equations for n and r. 8 8 o5 a z 1 3 (4) z where a0 = h 2 me 2 with the substitutions equation (3) becomes . as r®0.http://www. between the two potentials emphasizes the statistical nature of the approximation made Thomas and Fermi. the boundary condition of the solutions can be expressed in terms of v along for a neutral atom of atomic number z. The v discussed earlier is the potential experienced by one of the atomic electrons. The r sphere for radius r. The soln. in terms of the charge density – en(r) : - 1 2 .This watermark does not appear in the registered version .com 121 The electrostatic potential – V(r)/e is also determined by poisson’s equation. EVALUATION OF THE POTENTIAL Elimination of n(r) from (1) and (5) leads to an equation. for v is exact in the limit in which m becomes infinite and c becomes zero in such a way that m3 e4 remains constant then the electron wavelength becomes zero and the density of particle becomes infinite.Ze2 /r. the leading term in the potential energy must be due to the nucleus. where v was taken to have the asymptotic form –c2 /r. In this limit the potential is constant over many wavelengths and enough particles are present so that statistical mechanics can be applied 13.clicktoconvert. so that v falls off more rapidly than boundary condition at ¥ is different from that assumed earlier in this section. so that V(r) ® . for V(r).

. Thus the fraction change of the potential in an electron wavelength is proportional to z -1/3 and decreases with z. 13. It is therefore not feasible to solve these equations. by assuming that the charge density associated with an electron is –e times its position probability density. Thus the kth electron is described by a normalized wave function uk (rk ) that is a solution of the equation é. The schrodinger equation is solved for each electron in its own central field. This model assumes that each electron moves in a central field that can be calculated from the nuclear potential and the wave functions of all the other electrons. Moreover since the number of electrons is equal to z. HARTREE’S SELF – CONSISTENT FIELDS The second method for obtaining a central field is due to Hartree. Equation (4) show that the radius of an atom is inversely proportional to the cube root of atomic number. if this radius is interpreted to be that of a sphere that enclose a fixed fraction of all the electrons. If there are z electrons in the atom.h2 ze 2 2 Ñk +å ê rk j¹k ê 2m ë 2 ò | u i (r j ) | e2 3 ù d r j ú u k (rk ) rj k ú û = Îk uk (rk ) (1) where rjk = |rj-rk |. and the resulting wave functions made consistent with the fields from which they are calculated. directly.http://www. The potential at the atomic radius is proportional to z 1/3 so that a typical electron wavelength is proportional to z – 2/3 . and Hartree used a method of successive approximation. equation (1) constitutes a set of z simultaneous nonlinear integral differential equations for the z functions uk (rk ). the use of the statistical method is better justified s z increases.clicktoconvert.6. These equations can also be used to show that the Thomas – Fermi approximate improves with increasing z.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . The distance over which the potential changes by a definite fraction of itself is proportional to the atomic radices or z -1/3.com 122 d 2c =c dx 2 x 1 2 3 2 c = 1 at x = 0 c = 0 at x = ¥ (5) The most accurate solution of Equation (5) was computed by Bush and Caldwell with the help of the original differential analyzer and is expressed form of numerical table.

y (r1 . electron wave fns.....http://www.. . The solutions of (1) can then be expressed as products of radial functions and spherical harmonies. r2 . The principal approximation made is the averaging of the potential energy given as the third term in (1) over the angles of rk to make it spherically symmetric. 1 2 3 3 = åò k * u kÑ ( æ -h 2 rk ) -2 u ç k è 2m 2 öz e ÷ (kr r ø k 3 k d) k r + å> å ò j k e2 * u *ò( r k )u k ( ku jr( 3 u) r ( dk3) r j d k r r ) j j k rj k (4) . .. .1... .. .. . òy.com 123 A potential energy that approximately represents the second and third terms in (1) is assumed. The wave equation with inclusion of interelectronic interactions but neglect of spin – orbit terms is Hy = Ey æ h H = å çÑ k è 2m 2 ö 2e 2 -÷ å r+ k j ø k k 2 e år > j (3) k where j > k implies a double summation over all different pairs of indices j and k we wish to minimize the expectation value of H.. A further simplification is made so that the 2 (2l +1) or fewer electrons in a shell all move in the same potential and have the same radial wave function. .....This watermark does not appear in the registered version . . u2 (r2 ) (2) It is also clear from (2) that antisymmetrized wave functions are not employed. .d. ò . d ... . It is apparent that the Hartree approximation neglects correlations between the positions of the electrons. 13. The antisymmetry is considered only in so far as the Quantum numbers of the one – electron states uk are chosen in agreement with the exclusion principle. . r. *. ..... .. This process is continued until the potentials are self – consistent to a high order of accuracy. .. . CONNECTION WITH THE VARIATION METHOD We now show that the Hartree approximation results from an optimum variation calculation with the trial function (2)..clicktoconvert.. r2 ) = u1 (r1 ) u2 (r2 ) .6.r. . From (2) and (3) we obtain . . Computed and new potentials for each electron found from these wave functions. Hy . . since the entire wave function for all the electrons is assumed to be a simple product of one electron functions.

. we see that the Hartree wave functions are the best from the point of view of the variation method that can be written in the form of equation (2) The energy associated with this wave function is just the integral in equation (4) which can be written with the help of equation (1) ò . Î’s for the remaining electrons..... The optimum y is obtained by varying each of the uk separately to minimize equation (4)...+j å ò | u k( ) 3 | d r Hk º j 2m rk k j ¹ kr j The integral in equation (5) is the expectation value of the operation Hk for the function uk .. Hk uk = Îk uk (6) Since equations (1) and (6) are identical...å >å ò ò | u j (r j ) | 2 | u k (rk ) | 2 e2 r jk d 3 r j d 3 rk The electrostatic interaction terms between electrons are counted twice in the summation over Îk and so have to be subtracted to give (7)... The only dependence of equation (4) on a particular one – electron function uk is through the terms..com 124 since the uk are normalized... since the removal of an electron alters the self – consistent fields and hence the wave fr.... although each Îk ... This is a minimum when uk is an eigenfunction of Hk that corresponds to its lowest eigenvalue Îk .clicktoconvert....... is roughly the energy of removal of the kth electron.. This last is not strictly true. Thus the energy of the atom is not just the sum of the Îk . .http://www.This watermark does not appear in the registered version .. However.... Îk is found to be an especially good approximation to the energy of removal in the case of an inner electron (x – ray level). d 3 r2 = å Îk k ... * ò uk ( æ -h 2 2 r u çk ) Ñ k è 2m + 2 öz e -(k ÷ r r ø k 3 k d) r e2 ) ( 3 ju) r ( dk 3 r j d k r ) k u jr k rj k åò j¹ k * u *ò( r j )u k (r j * = ò u k ( rk ) H k u k ( rk ) d 3 rk (5) r 2 -h 2 2 z 2 2 e e Ñ k .... ò u * H y d j k 3 r1 ...

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125

13.7. LET US SUM UP
In this unit we have discuss with the coulomb and the yukawa potentials. Also we have studied Thomas – Fermi Statistical Model, Central – Field Approximation, Hartree’s Self – Consistent Fields.

13.8 LESSON END ACTIVITIES
Check your progress 1. What is the range of Coulumb potential? 2. Define yukawa potential. 3. Write down Hartree Fock equation. 4. Discuss in detail the problem of Yukawa potential. 5. Discuss in detail the problem of Coulommb potential. Obtain an expression for scattering cross section. 6. Explain the central field approximation method in detail. 7. Explain in detail Thomas Fermi Statistical model. 8. Discuss Hartree Fock self consistent model.

13.9 References
1. Quantum Mechanics A.K. Ghatak and S. Lokanathan McMillan 2. Publishers. 3. Introduction to Quantum Mechanics David J. Griffiths, Prentice Hall. 4. A text book of Quantum Mechanics P.M. Mathews and K. Venkatesan. 5. Tata McGraw –Hill Publishers. 6. Basic Quantum Mechanics Ajoy. Ghatak Tata McGraw Hill Publishers 7. Introductory Quantum Mechanics Richard L. Liboff Addition - Willey. 8. Quantum Mechanics John L. Powell and Bernd Crasemann Narosa 9. Publishing house. 10. Modern Quantum Mechanics J.J. Sakurai. 11. http://thequantumexchange.org/

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126

LESSON 14 APPLICATION OF SCATTERING THEORY TO ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR STRUCTURES
14.1 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
In this lesson we are going to study the application scattering theory to atomic and molecular structure physics.

14.2ALKALI ATOMS
The ground state configuration of an alkali atom consists of a series of full shells followed by a single s electron and so is 2S ½ . The inner rare – gas configuration is so stable that all but quite high excited states of the atom involve only the valence electron. Thus the alkalis can be treated to quite good approximation in terms of a model in which a single electron moves in a spherically symmetric noncoulomb potential energy V(r).

14.2.1 DOUBLET SEPARARTION

The configuration of an alkali atom can be specified by a single pair of quantum numbers nl. Since there is only one electron, the perturbing electrostatic term ii does not appear. In the absence of external fields the hamiltonian, including the spin orbit energy is
H= -h 2 V Ñ 2m
2

+ r

+ ) ÎL (r (

urur ) S.

(1)

where
Î (r ) = 1 1 dV 2 2 2m c r dr

The total angular momentum J = L+S of the valence electron is a constant of the motion, so that states can be designated by jm instead of ml ms, where J2 j(j+1)h2 =

and Jz = mh .The states of different j have different energies, but there is

still a (2j +1) fold degeneracy due to m. The removal of the m degeneracy by a magnetic field is discussed later.

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127

The difference in energy between states of different j is due to the L.S term in (1) and can be found from its expectation value or diagonal matrix element. u r r 2 J 2 = LS + 2 ) L 2 + S + 2 L.S = (

(2)

since e, j and s are all good quantum number (s = ½ ). Equation (2) can be solved for the diagonal matrix element of L.S.
u r r lL.Sl j ½ [j + = (j1) j +l (l1) 3 - 2 J k 4

(3)

Now if L is different from o,j can be either L + ½ or L – ½ . Thus the first order perturbation arising from Î(r) L.S. is
1 l Î nl 2 -1 (l + 1)Î nl 2
¥

if j = l +

1 2 1 if j = l 2

(4)

Înl = h 2

ò |R
0

nl

(r ) | 2 Î(r ) r 2 dr

l >0

where Rnl (r) is the normalized radial part of the unperturbed eigenfunction associated with the nl configuration. Since V(r) represents an attractive potential energy, Î(r) is positive and Înl is positive. Thus equation (4) shows that the state with higher j has the higher energy. The pair of states is called a doublet the doublet structure characterizes all the moderately excited levels of the alkali atoms except those for which l = 0 in which case j can only be ½.

The doublet separations can be calculated from equation (4) if radial function is known using the generating function for the associated lauguerre polynomials.

lj
Înl

h2 z 2 e = 2 m2 2 c

¥

ò
0

1 2 R n rl d r ( ) r

clicktoconvert. f) and the two spin wave functions (+) and (-) that are eigenfunctions of J2 and Jz. f).http://www. The absolute value of the doublet separation and its dependence on l are not given at all by this simple theory. 1(q. 4 e 2 k 2 wkn 4 e 2 wkn 2 | < k | r | n >| = 3h c 3h c3 2 | < k | r | n >| 2 the spontaneous transition probabilities and hence the observed intensities if the two p states are equally likely to be occupied. y1.2.0 (q.-1 (q. since the effective z is difficult to estimate and depends marked by on l because of penetration. 0 (q.com 128 e2h 2 Z 4 æ 1ö 2 m 2 c 2 a o 3 n 3 l ç l + ÷ (L + 1) è 2ø = (5) This is valid only for l >0 . f). . These combinations can be obtained from the Clebsch Gordan co-efficient. It follows from (4) and (5) that the doublet separation is proportional to n-3 and this in fair agreement with observation. so that the perturbation approximation is not valid. are proportional to the squares of the dipole matrix elements The dependence of the two excited 2p states and the ground 2S state as the angular and spin co-ordinates of the electron is obtained by finding linear combination of products of the four spherical harmonics y1 . y1 . From the equation. DOUBLET INTENSITY We now calculate the intensities of the two lines of the allowed doublet 2P 3 1 1 1 & 2P ® 2S under the assumption that the radial wave functions ® 2S 2 2 2 2 are the same for the two excited 2P states. Transitions of this type give rise to the principal series in the alkali spectra. the singularity in Î(r) at r – 0 makes the integral for Îno diverge there.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . f). 14. y0 .2 .

This watermark does not appear in the registered version . +)y ( 0 - )y0 . (-) (+) = 0 etc. The products of spin fns. 0 1 û )1 ) 1 1.com 129 3 2 1 2 + m = = y + -1 é 1 3 2 ê22 ( y1)-. + 2 ë -1 1 é 2 2 ( -.y 3 + ê ( ) 1 y. We assume that the radial functions associated with equation (6) are all the Same.clicktoconvert. 1 -1 2 p3 = 3 1 2 2 = -3 2 - y1 . 0 The wave functions equation (6) can be used to calculate the matrix elements of x = r sinq cosf y = r sinq sinf and z = r cos q. y (2 0 ê + ) 1 y( + ú .http://www. + ë -1 1 é2 ù 2-. In this way we obtain the following values for the squares of the magnitudes of the indicated matrix elements. û ù ú) 1 û 1 1 = 0(m 2 = -1 2 . ë -1 2 0 ù -1 ) ú( . 1 1 m = 2 -1 2 p 1 =3 1 2 2 2s1 2 1 é 2 . ë û ( ù ( ú y ). follows the simple rules (+) (+) = 1.y ) 0ê -2 1 y( +. so that the radial part of the matrix element integral is a common factor throughout.. The angle parts of the integrals are easily evaluated by making use of the explicit expressions for the y’s in terms of q and f. expressed in units of 1 of the common radial factor : 18 m 3 = t 2 3 = 2 = o t= 1 2 m = | x 2| = y2| 3 z | | | = 2 1 o x =| 2|y |=2 | z 2| = | 0 2 1 =| t 2 1 o = | x | 2 1 =o 2 2 0 2 p3 ® 1 s 2 2 2 | = 0 = y 2| z= |2 1 =2 | z | 4 0 1 t 2 | x 2|= | y 2| .

2 2 Similar results are obtained for the transitions that start form m = It follows from equation (7) that the sum of the intensities of all the lines that originate on each of the four 2P3/2 states is equal to 6. 14. proportional to 2J+1.com 130 m = 1 1 to m = 2 2 1 -1 = to 2 2 | x |2 = | y |2 = 0 | z |2 = 2 | x |2 = | y |2 = 2 | z |2 = 0 -1 -3 and . The first problem can be solved only in the simplest cases.http://www. However the total intensity form each of the two 2P1/2 states is also equal to 6. the two lines for the doublet have intensities in the ratio 2:1. although for the higher doublets the intensity ratio exceeds 2. In the example considered here. we now consider in outline an approximate solution for the hydrogen molecule due to Hietler and London. Application to Molecular Structure: Hydrogen Molecule It is clear that two distinct problems arise in connection with molecular structure.intensity upper states in the high – intensity lowest 2p states has little effect. which is that from all the states that are degenerate with respect to m. This is observed for the lowest doublets of the alkalis. and this should not affect the intensity. The equality of total intensities from each state formed form a given L and S is a general property of LS coupling. in the above units. As an example. This is because the spin – orbit energy actually mixes different configurations (2p states with same j but different n ) .This watermark does not appear in the registered version . A small admixture of the low. whereas in the opposite case there is a large effect on the doublet intensity ratio. this makes the absolved intensity. It is expected that these sums are equal since the four values of m differ only in the orientation of the angular momentum. so that the two radial functions are not the same. The first is the solution of Schrödinger equation to obtain electronic wave functions and a potential energy function of the nuclear coordinates. The second is the solution of nuclear motion.clicktoconvert.3. the amount of mixing is different for the two j values. .

and for which electron 1 is on nucleus B and electron 2 on nucleus A are both used at once. This property of degeneracy is sometimes referred to as resonance. R is no longer large in comparison with a0 = h 2 / 2e so that the m approximations implied in equation (2) are no longer useful. The new feature of the work of Heitler and London was the recognition that an appropriate linear combination of unperturbed degenerate wave functions gives a significantly lower energy than the separate wave functions.Heitler and London Method The only nuclear coordinate Rj that appears in the equation æ h 2 n ö2 Ñ å ÷i V+ u j (i r= ) jU (j R ) ui( r ) çR R 2m i =1 ø è (1) in the case of the hydrogen molecule in the magnitude R of the distance between the two hydrogen nuclei. . an interaction between two resonant (degenerate) state in quantum mechanics gives rise to a lower energy eigenvalue (as well as to a higher one). In a similar way.clicktoconvert.Ñ + ) 2m r 1r 2 2 e 2 e2 e 2e H'= + .R 1 2 rB1 r r 2 A (2) however.com 131 14. Nevertheless.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . and the degeneracy need not be of the exchange type. There may of course be more than two degenerate unperturbed states. the degenerate wave functions for which electron 1 is on nucleus A and electron 2 on nucleus B.http://www. The reason for this is that exchange degeneracy is taken into account.3.1 . it is the basis of the present – day theory of homopolar binding in molecules. an approximate wave function based on a simple product of two ground – state hydrogen – atom functions gives remarkably good results. The Hamiltonian is that given in equation H = H0 + H ' 2 h2 e2 e H 0 = -1 ( 2 2 2 Ñ . An analogous situation is that in which an interaction between two classical oscillators that are in resonance (same unperturbed frequency) gives rise to a normal mode that has a lower frequency (and also one that has a higher frequency).

From perturbation theory it is apparent that this is the case if the inter configuration matrix elements of the perturbation are small in comparison with the energy intervals between unperturbed configuration energies. The function x ( r is given ) 2 by x (r = ) 1 1d V 2m 2 c2 r d r in terms of central field potential V (r).http://www.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . which are linear combinations of various configuration wave functions. respectively. It can be shown that from equation (1) that includes electron in full shells is zero. and the spin – orbit energy. In considering the effect of these terms.S k å x (r k k (1) u r u r r here. since the function x ( r is the same for all electrons in the shell and contributions ) from electrons with opposite ml and ms cancel. The latte is an interaction energy between the spin and the orbital motion of each electron and has the form u r u r )Lk . The eigenvalues of L k and Lkz are given in terms of the quantum numbers l and ml for the electron as l ( +1 h)2 and ml h . Thus the electrons in the full shell can be ignored and the summation extended only over the remaining electrons. L k is the orbital angular momentum operator rk x k ofpthe kth electron and has u r u2r the properties of the J operator.2.3. The case in which there is just one electron outside the full shells is of interest in connection with the ground state and low excited states of alkali atoms.com 132 14.clicktoconvert. l r 1 Sk is the spin angular momentum hs k of the kth electron. we shall assume that the perturbed eigenfucntions. . have only negligibly small amounts of all but one configuration mixed in them. Two terms are omitted in the central – field approximation: the difference between the actual electrostatic interaction between electrons and the average interaction that is included in the central field. Spin Orbit Interaction as Correction to Central field Approximation The correction of the approximate results obtained from the central field.

4. Briefly explain the coupling schemes.6 References 1. 6. 3. 7. Mathews and K. Ghatak Tata McGraw Hill Publishers 5.Willey. Basic Quantum Mechanics Ajoy.http://www. LESSON END ACTIVITIES Check your progress 1. Liboff Addition . 6. Explain the Heitler and London method.com 133 14. 5.K. Quantum Mechanics John L. Quantum Mechanics A. 3. We also presented Hydrogen Molecule problem . Discuss the Spin orbit coupling. Introductory Quantum Mechanics Richard L. Ghatak and S. Lokanathan McMillan Publishers. Venkatesan. 2.J.5. Sakurai. Write down Hartree Fock equation. Explain how it can be treated as a Correction to central field approximation. http://thequantumexchange.M.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . Heitler and London Method and Spin Orbit Interaction . Discuss the hydrogen molecular problem. Prentice Hall. Griffiths. 14. Also we discussed the couplings schemes and doublet separation in alkali atoms in detail. Tata McGraw –Hill Publishers. 4. A text book of Quantum Mechanics P. 2. Explain the term spin orbit interaction. 14. 8. Powell and Bernd Crasemann Narosa Publishing house.org/ . Introduction to Quantum Mechanics David J. LET US SUM UP In this lesson we have applied the scattering theory to atomic and molecular structures.4. Modern Quantum Mechanics J.clicktoconvert.

Finally we will be presenting short notes on selection rules and forbidden transition. We are going to discuss spontaneous emission.This watermark does not appear in the registered version .2. Induced Absorption Let us suppose an atom is an low energy state E1 by absorption of quantum of radiation it is raised to higher state E2 .com 134 LESSON 15 SEMI CLASSICAL THEORY OF RADIATION AND QUANTUM FIELD THEORY 15.1 Aims and Objectives In this lesson. 15. 15. we are going to discuss the interaction atoms with radiation field.angular frequency of the photon. induced absorption.E1 = h w . then we have E2 . Introduction Semi classical theory is a mixture of classical & quantum picture matter i. This may happen in 3 ways namely i) induced absorption ii) spontaneous emission and iii) stimulated or induced emission.3. The atomic system may attain in thermal equilibrium with a external radiation.e. Also we will be deriving an expression for transition probability. atoms are assumed to exist in discrete states.4. The semi classical theory is insufficient to describe the spontaneous emission of radiation because the electromagnetic field described classically. We are going to define the Einstein’s coefficients for the above three process. This process is known as induced absorption. The probability of occurrence per unit time of this absorption transition E1 to E2 depends on the properties of the state E1 and E2 and it is proportional to the rate at which the photon fall on the atom and therefore to the spectral energy density. However in the presence of external radiation there will be both absorption and emission. 15. induced emission . Interaction of Atoms with Radiation Field An atomic system in the absence of external radiation will exist in a stationary states. But the electromagnetic radiation with which it interacts is described classically.where w .http://www. .clicktoconvert.

Its probability is determined by the properties of the state E2 & E1 E2 E2 . E2 E 2 . Simulated or Induced Emission An atom is an excited energy state E2 by the influence of electromagnetic field of a photon can come to the lower state E1 by emitting an additional photon of same frequency.http://www.E1 = h w E1 15.This watermark does not appear in the registered version .clicktoconvert.7.5.E1 = h w . so the atom jumps to the lower energy state E1 and it emits the photon of frequency u (angular frequency w ) / E2 . This is known as stimulated or induced emission and its probability proportional to the properties of the state E2 & E1 and to the spectral energy density. This process is known as spontaneous emission.6.E1 = h w 1 N1 E1 .E1 = h w E1 15.E1 = h w E1 15.Usually the life time of the exited state is very small. Einstein’s co-efficients for Induced Absorption and Spontaneous Emission. Spontaneous Emission Let us suppose that the atom is in the highest state E2 .com 135 E2 E2 . Induced Emission N2 E2 E 2 .

It is thus not stimulated by any incident signal but occurs spontaneously. The 1st refers to the spontaneous emission. emission process can occur two different ways. The excitation process occurs on by in the presence of radiation. The 2 nd refers to the stimulated emission in which an incident signal of appropriate frequency triggers an atom is an excited state to emit radiation. Thus the number of absorption per unit time per unit volume is proportional to N1 u( w ). is an excited state. If we represent the co-efficient of proportionality by A21 then N2 A21 would represents number of spontaneous per unit volume per unit time to the lower energy level.http://www.com 136 The above figure represents the two energy states of an atomic system corresponding to the energy E1 and E2 . The rate of transition to the lower energy level is directly proportional to the energy density of the incident radiation at the frequency w . can make transition to the lower energy state through the emission of electromagnetic radiation.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . Thus the number of stimulated emission per unit volume per unit time is given by N2 B21 u( w ) . Let N1 and N2 be the number of atoms per unit volume in the energy level 1& 2. On the other hand when an atom. B21 are known as Einstein co-efficients and are determined by the atomic system. However the absorption process. in which the atom in the excited state emits radiation even in the absence of any incident radiation. Such a process is termed as induced absorption or stimulated absorption. w = E1 .E 2 h The energy density u( w ) is defined in such a way that u( w ) d( w ) represent the number of atoms per unit volume with in the interval w and w +d w . . The quantities A21. The rate of absorption depend upon the energy density u( w ) associated with the radiation field corresponding to the frequency. Atom in the lower energy level can absorb radiation and get excited to the energy level 1 and 2. N1 u( w ) = B12 N1 u( w ) Where B12 – constant of proportionality and it is called Einstein’s co-efficient for induced absorption.clicktoconvert. The rate of spontaneous emission is proportional to the number of atoms in the excited state. B12.

1 Using the above relation equation (2) becomes .N2 B21] u( w ) = N2 A21 u (w ) = N2 2 1 A N1 B .B 1ú ë 2 û From Boltzmann’s law we have the following expression for the ratio of the population of the 2nd level at temperature T ( N1 =e N2 E2 .clicktoconvert. hw p c e KB T . Equation (1) becomes u (w ) = e A2 hw 1 KB T B 1 -B2 2 1 For most of the time B12 = B21 u (w ) = B2 A2 1 1 (e hw KB T -1 ) (2) According Plank’s law. Hence we may write N1 B12 u( w ) = N2 A21 + N2 B21 u( w ) [N1 B12 .N 2B1 1 2 2 = N 2 A21 éN ù N 2 ê 1 B12 .http://www.E ) 1 KB T hw N1 = e KB T N2 where KB – Boltzmann’s constant.com 137 15.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . Relation between Einstein Co-efficients At thermal equilibrium the number of upper ward transition must be equal to the number of downward transition. the energy density of the radiation is given by hw 3 1 u (w =) 2 3.B21 ú ë N2 û A2 1 Or u (w ) = (1) ù é N1 2 2 ê N B1 .8.

1 ( ) A2 1 hw 3 = B2 1 pc2 3 hw 3 A= B 2 3 p c 15.clicktoconvert.1 B2 1 e K B T .hÑ y i urur For coulomb gauge Ñ.( yA ) u r u r u r u r é . + A . 2mc 2 urururur .Ñ y ë û uruuuuur = A .Ñ = ih.A . )yA = .This watermark does not appear in the registered version . A= A p In general ( ) ( ) u r u r u r u r y .( A )y +. ( p.9. 2m c ( ) e2 A 2 can be neglected because the vector potential A is very small. Now we are going to prove that p.com 138 A2 1 hw 3 1 . hw = hw 2 3 p c e KB T . A A p the interaction of the Hamiltonian. ù (Ñ ) A y ë û urur ù = ih é A.h Ñ i ( p. A =0 ( ) ) ( . Expression for Transition Probability The Hamiltonian of the system consisting of an atom in the presence of the radiation field is given by 2 u e u r u r2u r r p2 1 2 e H = V + E + H ò d +t p 2. )A = A yp) ( u r u r u r u r . + p 2m pm 8 c 2 m 2 c ( ) ( ) 2 A (1) H = H1 +H2 +Hinteraction Where H1 = H2 = Hint = P2 + V for the atom 2m 1 ò E 2 + H 2 dt for the radiation field 8p (2) ( ) -e u r u r u r u r p. + .http://www.

t ) e A ( w ( ) ( ) $ Where e is the unit vector along the direction of propagation which is perpendicular u r to the vector potential A .ip + nr 2m c2 ( .iw t e w i e t ) On solving the above equations the transition probability for emission become e A é cs n = s e p 4m c ë h 2 2 0 2 2 r r i .This watermark does not appear in the registered version .wr )t . 2 û æ w + ws n ö ç 2 ÷ è ø . p . p y ( ) i.k r æ w + ws n ö s i2 n ç 2 ÷ t 2 è ø $ n ù e . 2m c m c u r Now the vector potential A can be written as u r r r A = $ 0 c o ks r . k e r. p 2m c 2m c ( ) ( ) The interaction of Hamiltonian becomes u -e u r-e r u r u r Þ 2A p A . Now expressing the vector potential in terms of the exponential function i( u r $ Aé e A =e 0 ê ê ë r r r r k -.com 139 urur = A. 2m c r r r r -e $ A0 i .http://www. r )t e + 2 ù ú ú û From time dependent perturbation theory the probability amplitude for transition from an initial state n to final state s is given by cs n= s 1 V ò ih n n te i iws n t d t where ws n= Now.clicktoconvert. + A = A + .E s h urur s Vn t n =s A . p = . En .e. k e s + e .i ( wk-.A p A . p n i = = urur -e s A p n . -e u r u r-u r u r u r u r u r u r e p.

r k » 1 .k r ei .This watermark does not appear in the registered version .k r æ w + ws n ö s i2 n ç 2 ÷ t 2 è ø $ n ù e . 2 ! r r2 . So in this case we can approximate ei e A é cs n = s p n 4m c ë h 2 2 0 2 2 r r .http://www. 2 û æ w + ws n ö ç 2 ÷ è ø If we consider the atomic dimension the atomic radius is very small. So the transition probability for emission ùe$ û æ w + wö n s s i2 n ç 2 ÷ t è ø 2 æ w + wö n s ç 2 ÷ è ø 15. 1 ! i r ( ) (+-. k )+. The magnitude of the successive term are 1: 2pr 1 æ 2pr ö 1 æ 2pr ö : ç ÷ : ç ÷ l 2è l ø 6è l ø 2 3 The magnitude of the successive term decreases by the factors of order of 10-3 cm.clicktoconvert. æ w + wö n s s i2 n ç 2 ÷ t 2 è ø ùe$ 2 û æ w + wö n s ç 2 ÷ è ø Transition for which the probability can be computed using the above approximation is called electric dipole transition. . . .+ . .k r= 1 . So we can expand the exponential form as r r r r i . of the particle is involved.com 140 For atomic dimension the value of ei becomes e A é cs n = s p n 4m c ë h 2 2 0 2 2 2 r r . Since only the matrix element of the r $ r electric dipole moment e. Electric Dipole Transition The transition probability for emission is given by e A é cs n = s e p 4m c ë h 2 2 0 2 2 r r i . r k r r but is the l l =1.10.

But it should be -1 ( ) ( ) ( ) s where q is the angle between k and r r r ( ) The dominant factor in the nth term of the above series is proportional to the r r r r n r k . Thus if the dipole matrix element vanishes.1is not valid.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . Forbidden Transition r It may happen that the matrix element s r n is zero for particular state r r . c o s 0 . induced absorption. We determined the Einstein’s coefficients for the above three process.com 141 15.13 LESSON END ACTIVITIES Check your progress 1.k r between S and n. since a probability is reduced by a factor (Ka)2 with respect to dipole or allowed transition. 3. In that case the approximation ei expanded in the series of spherical harmonics. Discuss the interaction of atom with electromagnetic field and hence show that probability per unit time for induced emission and absorption are equal. 15. 4. induced emission . Define density operator and density matrix. Write down the .pq2 j5 k. Distinguish induced and spontaneous emission.k jr= k .clicktoconvert. 15. r r r r r r r r ei . r . if k .http://www. but the next term of each series does not vanish.11. we have studied the interaction atoms with radiation field. 12 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. Also we obtained an expression for transition probability. Finally we presented short notes on selection rules and forbidden transition. <<1. How will you distinguish spontaneous and stimulated emission of radiation. The transition of this type is called forbidden transition. 2 rcq po i1 . Define Einstein’s A and B coefficients and obtain the relation between them. We analysed spontaneous emission. The transition matrix element is reduced by a factor that has the magnitude of the order of Ka where the linear dimension of the particle wave function of are of order of a. 2.r 3+ j k 1 r.

3. Sharma. R. Devanathan Narosa Publishing house. Gupta. Angular Momentum Techniques in Quantum Mechanics V. Schiff. Quantum Mechanics John L. Quantum Mechanics Satya Prakash Sultan Chand Publishers . Discuss in detail about the forbidden transition 6. Jai Prakash Nath & Co Ltd. 5. Quantum Mechanics S. Kumar. 6.clicktoconvert. Sharma.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . 5. Explain the selection rules.L. Quantum Mechanics Leonard I. H. V. A text book of Quantum Mechanics P.C. Tata McGraw –Hill Publishers. 15. McGraw –Hill International edition. 7. Quantum Mechanics V. Mathews and K. Venkatesan. .14 References 1.V. 4.http://www. Devanathan Kluwer Academic Publishers.M. Powell and Bernd Crasemann Narosa Publishing house.com 142 expression for the transition probability per unit time for spontaneous emission. 2.

p.com 143 LESSON 16 QUANTUM FIELD THEORY 16.t) at all points r as co-ordinates is analogous to a system that consists of an infinite number of particles and with the particles co-ordinates qi(t) respectively. . Also we will be presenting creation .http://www. t)is a function of the time and a functional of the possible paths qi(t) of the system. The field has an infinite number of degrees of freedom and to use the amplitudes y (r. both total and partial time derivatives were defined in connection with a function F(qi. classical Hamiltonian equations and non – relativistic Schrodinger’s equations. Also a function F(y. y can be expanded in some complete ortho – normal set of functions uk : y (r. t) can depend explicitly on the time as well as on the field.1 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES In this lesson. pi.3. 16. Classical Lagrangian Equation The Lagrangian L(q i. The actual paths are derived from the variation principle. destruction and number operators and anti Commutation relations. We will be discussing the Legrangian .2 . the same way as system of particulars is specified by the positional co-ordinates qi and their dependence on the time. t) of the co-ordinates.clicktoconvert. 16.This watermark does not appear in the registered version .we are going to studied about quantization of wave fields.t) = Sk ak (t) uk (r) (1) where ak is regarded as the fields co-ordinates In classical particle theory. Quantization of Wave Fields: Introduction A wave field is specified by its amplitudes at all points of space and the dependence of these amplitudes on the time. q i. so that it is important to distinguish between dF/dt and ¶F/dt. momenta and time.

y . dt t1 = 0. dy = Then equation (3) becomes t0 ¶ ¶ æ ¶y ö (dy ) . z implies the sum of three terms with y and z substituted for x we have. t )d 3 r (2) where y is ¶y/¶t or dy/ d t The appearance of Ñy as an argument of L is a result of the continuous dependence of y on r. Dy . u r u r u ¶L ¶ L ¶ y æ L ¶ö dL = d + y å ¶ æ ¶y dy +ç ¶ d ÷ ¶y ö è xø x y z ¶ç ÷ è ¶x ø r y & & (4) (5) where the summation over x. .com 144 t2 d ò L. The last term in equation (6) can be integrated by parts with respect to time and the boundary terms vanish because of equation (4).clicktoconvert. t1 ) = dy (r . y. L = ò L (y .http://www. dy (r . Now equation (6) can be written as. d ç (dy ) ÷ = ¶t ¶x è ¶x ø ò t1 é u ê ¶L êò d ê ¶y ê ë r u r ¶ L ¶ +å y d . The variation principle that corresponds to equation (1) is t2 t2 t2 3 d òL t1 dt = d ò L dt d t1 r = ò ò (d t1 L) dt d 3 r = 0 (3) where the variation dy of y is subject to the restrictions. surface terms vanish either because y falls rapidly at infinite distance or because y obeys periodic boundary conditions. dqi(t1 ) = dqi(t2 ) = 0 (1) we expect the field Lagrangian to be a functional of the field amplitude y(r.t). ¶ ¶ x y z æ ¶y öy ¶ç ÷ è ¶x ø ù u ú ¶L úy +( xú ú û ) ¶ d ¶t& r y= (0 ) d t 3d r (6) Then summation terms in equation (6) can be integrated by parts with respect to space co-ordinates. t 2 ) = 0 The variation of L can be written as. It can be expressed as the integral over all space of a Lagrangian density L : .This watermark does not appear in the registered version .

This watermark does not appear in the registered version .y.t). For this we require derivatives of L with respect to y a n d y at particular points.ú ¶y ê ¶ æ ¶yúö t ê ç ¶x ú÷ ë è ûø u r æ ö L ¶ . equation (7) is equivalent to the differential equation.com 145 ì r ï ¶u ¶ ï L -å íò ¶ x y zx ï ¶y ï î ü é u rù ï¶ ê¶ ú L ï ê ú ý¶y ê ¶ æ ¶yúö t ï÷ ê ç ¶x úø ë è ï û þ t0 ò t1 u r ö L ¶æ 3 ç ÷ = d yd t d r0 ¶ è &ø (7) since equation (3) is valid for an arbitrary variation dy at each point in space. and dti is the volume of the cell. the functional derivative of L w. d ®0 d y d t y ¶ ¶y j j ¶y r j u é u r ù ê ú ¶L å z x ê æ ¶yúö ê¶ ú x¶y ê ç ¶x ú÷ ë è ûø r (9) Here all the dyi and dy i are zero except for particular dy j. The expressions for the function derivatives are as follows.4.http://www. u r ¶L ¶ -å ¶y x y¶z x éu ù r êL¶ ú¶ ê .t y is defined by setting all the dy i and dy i zero except for dy i ¶L L d ¶ = L t = & ¶y d r ® 0 y ¶jd dj j u r L t& y (10) . 16. . Functional Derivative In order to peruse further the analogy with particle mechanics. it is desirable to rewrite equation (8) in terms of L rather then L . ¶L ¶L ¶Ld ¶L ¹ L t = = . = ç ÷ ¶ è &ø 0 (8) Equation (8) is the classical field equation derived from the Lagrangian density L (y. Similarly. These are called ‘functional derivatives’and are denoted by ¶L & ¶y and ¶L ¶y Expressions for them can be obtained by dividing up all space into small cells and replacing volume integrals by summate over these cells.r.clicktoconvert.Ñy.

we than have. ¶ L ¶ ¶ L = 0 & ¶t y ¶ ¶ y (11) which closely resembles the Legrangian equations d æ ¶ L ö ¶L = 0 for a system of particle.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . Substituting equations (9) & (10) in (8) gives. Pj = æ ¶L dL = dt j ç ç ¶y dy j è ö ÷ ÷ øj ö ÷ ÷ øj ö ÷ y i dt i . Classical Hamiltonian Equations The momentum canonically conjugate to y j can be defined as in particle mechanics to be the ratio of dL to the infinitesimal change dy j when all the other dyj . The classical Hamiltonian equations of motion . p = d3 d + ÷ òr è ¶y / ¶y ø/& y d+ p (&& 3 d r ) y . The variation of L produced by variations of y and y can be written using equation (4) and ¶ ¶L / ¶L / = 0 & ¶t ¶y / ¶y / æ ¶L / ¶L ö / & d L = ò ç y dd y . ÷ øi (1) It follows that æ ¶L Pj = dt j ç ç ¶y è (2) æ ¶L The Hamiltonian H = å Pi y i . .L = å ç ç i i è ¶y (3) H is written as the volume integral of a Hamiltonian density H and assume that the cells are small enough so that the difference between a volume integral and the corresponding cell summation can be ignored. and all dy i are zero we thus obtain. ç ÷d è ¶ &i øq ¶ i q t 16.L .http://www. will be derived without further recourse to the cell a approximation.com 146 Here again at point r at which the functional derivative is evaluated is in the jth cell.clicktoconvert. H = ò H d 3r H = py -L p º ¶L ¶L = ¶y ¶y (4) The true field Hamiltonian H given in equation (4) which is a functional of y and p from which y has been eliminated.5.

H} ¶t d3 r = (9) The above equation also serves to define poisson bracket expression for two function as of the field variables.å ¶p / p ¶ x y¶z x æ ¶p ö ¶ç ÷ è ¶x ø å¶ x ü ï ï ï ý ï ï ï þ (7) Comparison of equations (5) & (6) for arbitrary variations dy and dp then gives the classical field equations is Hamiltonian form.y y d pd 3 r ] 3 = d H + d L+ & ò (p& d y.com 147 = & ò [ d (p+&y) p &d. . which for simplicity is assumed not to depend explicitly on time or on gradients of y or p . & y = ¶H / = p ¶p / ¶H &¶p / / (8) The Hamiltonian equation for the time rate of change of a functional F of y and p can now be found. ¶H / H ¶ = ¶y / y ¶ ¶ H¶ æ ¶y ö x y z ¶ç ÷ è ¶xø ¶H / H ¶ ¶ H¶ = .y d )pd r (5) The variation of H produced by corresponding variations of y and p can be written. p . æ ¶H / d H = òç d è ¶y / ¶Hö / y÷d + ¶p ø / p . The RHS of equation (9) is not changed if F also depends on Ñy or Ñp.clicktoconvert. d3 r (6) It follows from the earlier discussion of functional derivatives that. t ) .This watermark does not appear in the registered version . u r u r d F ¶ Fæ ¶ F ¶ ö F 3 = +ç + ò è¶ y y& ¶ p÷ p & d r d t¶ t ø = æ ¶F ¶ F ¶ H ¶ F/ ö ¶ H / / / + òç ÷ ¶t ¶ è y / p ¶ pø ¶ y/ / ¶ / ¶F + {F. in this case H is the total energy of the field.http://www. We express F as volume integral of the corresponding functional density F (y . It is clear from equation (9) that H is a constant of the motion if it does not depend explicitly on time. Hence.

For this reason. The equation of the form that results from variation of y is h2 & . .com 148 16. so that y *.http://www. L = h y i* Ñ . we consider here the quantization of the non relativistic Schrödinger equation. The resulting quantized field theory is equivalent to a many – particle field quantization is often called ‘second quantization’. t * Which is the complex conjugate of (a) variation of y * gives h2 2 & ih y = V . p cannot be regarded as a pair of canonically conjugate variables. p is the second momentum.’ Classical Lagrangian and Hamiltonian equations. The Hamiltonian density is. The Lagrangian density may be taken to be u r h2 & y* V y Ñ ( y -.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . and the transaction from classical particles mechanics to equation (1) constitutes the ‘first quantization. As a first example of the application of the field quantization technique. It is therefore impossible to satisfy the corresponding classical poission bracket relation.clicktoconvert. The application implies treating (1) as though it were a classical equation that describes the motion of some kind of material fluid.6.h 2 2 = V Ñ r + y ¶t 2 m (ty .y Ñ r 2m + y .ih y=* V-* y Ñ2 (r 2m + y) . ih ¶y . ) (1) Schrödinger equation. r 2m y) t y * (2) y and y * can be varied separately to obtain the Lagrangian equations of motion. Field Quantization of the non – Relativistic Schrödinger Equation Consider the Schrödinger wave equation. ) (t (3) The momentum canonically conjugate to y is u r ¶L p = = ih * y & ¶y (4) However y * does not appear in the Lagrangian density so that p is identically zero.

.k . . It was found that the solution of aa+. .2. . .. . N= åN k k where N k = ak ak + (3) The states of the quantized field. 1 .= Ñ 2m -i yV p . . . .n . . in the representation in which each Nk is diagonal. . . . Destruction. from the point of view of classical field theory. .. . ( .. . .. . . We also have the relations. .a +a=1 in the representation in which a+a i s diagonal. . . . . . . . .. .). 1 . n. . . .. = . . .. .clicktoconvert.. .. . . =. . .k. . n.n .. . ... and Number Operations Consider the commutation relations † é ak ( t )a . . consists of the matrices. . n... . . are the kets n1 . . . . 1..n . é0 1 0 0 ù ê ú 1 a = ê0 0 2 2 0 ú ê 1 ú ê0 0 0 3 2 ú ë û é0 ê1 ê a+ = ê ê0 ê ë0 0 0 2 0 1 2 0 0 0 3 1 2 0ù 0ú ú 0ú ú ú 0û (2) Let N be Hermitian. . . . . that the Lagrangian density and the canonical variables and hamiltonian derived from it are in agreement with the wave equation.. . 16.n . 1 . Where each nk is an eigen value of Nk and must be a +ve integer or zero. . .. . .. n +. k . & y = i h + y 2 Ñ 2m i i h 2 & p = Vp Ñ p h 2m i -y V h We have thus shown. . þ .. .. . ... . . . its eigenvalues are real.Ñ h y (5) The Hamiltonian equations of motion obtained from the classical field equations with the help of functional derivates are... . . . . . .. .. .2 . . . n. 1 . . .. . . .. / n .7.. .. .k . . . . .k. .. . . .. . k ï ý (5) 1 / 2 n n . ï.com 149 u u r u r -i h H = p & yL p .This watermark does not appear in the registered version . . .1. . . .. . . .. ... .. + . Creation.k. . (4) ak † ak 1 ü . . t =* ò ) k ò' u ù l ( r ( u ë û r-3l r( r)3 d( =3' dd )l r ' ) d r k (1) for the operations ak and ak + were solved in connection with the harmonic oscillator.http://www. .. 1 . .. .. . .

These integrals are just matrix elements of the one particle Hamiltonian... h2 2 & ih y = V .ù H k û where H = å j l æ h2 a † laò ç u *j Ñ . Nk is constant only if all the volume integrals in equation(6) are zero for which either j or l is equal to k. Ñ* j u V l j è 2m a† j l ö + ÷u l ø 3 u3 d r = å j l aj ò * æ -h 2 2 u VlÑ ç è 2m ö + ÷u ø d r (6) diagonal. H= åa k + k ak Ek = å N k Ek k This particular N representation is the one in which H is also the ket n1 . It is reasonable to require that this modification be made in such a way that The quantum equation of motion of y is the wave equation. > has the eigen value ån k k E k for the total energy operator H. The ‘number operation’ Nk need not be a constant of the motion. and the field Hamiltonian becomes. .. . It is apparent that all the Nk are constant in this case..8..This watermark does not appear in the registered version .com 150 These ak + and ak are called ‘creation’ and ‘destruction’ operators for the state k of the field. .http://www. The integrals in equation (6) are than E l d jl .(t .. ih & k = a N é k ë † a . ( 'yë + ) ù = 0 û ï ý éy ()..(') y+ r r d 3 – ’ ù = r ï ë r û þ ( ) (1) It is necessary to modify the above equations if we are obtain a theory of particles that obey the exclusion principle.y Ñ r 2m . nk .clicktoconvert.r ( ' ) ü . that N = å Nk is a constant The rate of change of Nk is given by. ) y when the Hamiltonian has the form. Anti Commutation Relations The commutation relations are [y (r ) y r ] = é) r ( y + ... 16..

aL+]+ = ak +al+ + al+ ak + = 0 [ak .http://www. y ÷ +y Ñ V H = òç è 2m ø y d 3 r It was found by Jordon and Wigner that the descried modification consists in the replacement of the commutator brackets. nk .B] º AB – BA By anticommutator brackets [A. and the particles obey the exclusion principle. 11 For the eigen values... Thus the matrix equation is equivalent to the algebraic equations... [A. Nk2 = ak + ak ak + ak = ak + (1-ak + ak ) ak = ak + ak = Nk 1 11 2 (4) If Nk is in diagonal form and has eigen values nk . These are quadratic equations that have two roots 0 and 1... nk 112. it is clear that Nk is also in diagonal form and has eigen values nk 12 . [y (r ü ï ï + + + éy + (r ) yù+ r( y+=) r ( y) r( + y ) r ( y' =) ( ) 0 ý ' ' r ë û.This watermark does not appear in the registered version .B]+ º AB + BA This means that equations (1) are replaced by.... The eigen values of N = å N k are the +ve integers and zero as before. The eigen values of Nk can be obtained from the matrix equation. 1 nk = nk 2 1 11 2 nk = nk . + ï + éy (r ) y r ( 'y=)+ ( y) ++ 'y ) (=y' ) r ... Thus the eigen values of each Nk are 0 and 1.. The earlier expressions for the Hamiltonian in creation.com 151 æ h2 ö + Ñy + . ) ) ' ) (2) It then follows that [ak ... .. destruction and number operators are unchanged. r r ( r r ( d r ë û + þ ) y r( ]+ 'y= r ( y r( +'y ) r ( y =r ( ) 0 . so that they can be diagonalized simultaneously. and the energy eigen values are ån E k k ..clicktoconvert.)3 ( ' ï) ù ... aL+]+ = ak al+ + al+ ak = d kl (3) We define Nk = ak + ak as before and notice first that each Nk commutes with all the others.. .. aL]+ = ak al + al ak = 0 [ak +...

Define density operator and density matrix. Jai Prakash Nath & Co Ltd. A text book of Quantum Mechanics P. Quantum Mechanics S. Gupta. 3. Venkatesan. Obtain the Legrangian equations of motion. Sharma. destruction and number operators.11 References 1. Obtain the classical Hamiltonian equation. Quantum Mechanics Satya Prakash Sultan Chand Publishers . V. McGraw –Hill International edition. Quantum Mechanics V. 2. Quantum Mechanics Leonard I. Mathews and K. 7. 2. 16. Also we presented creation . 6. Schiff. in detail.L. destruction and number operators and anti Commutation relations. Devanathan Narosa Publishing house.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson.This watermark does not appear in the registered version .com 152 16. Powell and Bernd Crasemann Narosa Publishing house.M. classical Hamiltonian equations and non – relativistic Schrodinger’s equations. Quantum Mechanics John L. we have discussed about quantization of wave fields.clicktoconvert. Kumar.http://www. 4. Tata McGraw –Hill Publishers. Arrive at the non – relativistic Schrodinger’s equation. Devanathan Kluwer Academic Publishers. 3. .10 LESSON END ACTIVITIES Check your progress 1.C. Sharma. 5. R. 16. H. Angular Momentum Techniques in Quantum Mechanics V. Explain the creations. 4.V. 5. We studied the Legrangian .

Discuss the difficulties involved in interpreting the probability density. 6. Distinguish induced and spontaneous emission. Give the matrix theory of harmonic oscillator and obtain the energy eigenvalue spectrum. Destruction and Number Operators. Explain the main stages involved in the WKB approximation. 7. 2. d) Dimension of the matrices are of even order. Enumerate the two conditions for the validity of born approximation. 8. 5. e) The matrices anticommuting among themselves.Sc. (5 x 20 = 100) 1. Also arrive at the solution near a turning point. Obtain classical Lagrangian equation. Define Einstein’s A and B coefficients and obtain the relation between them. Derive the expression charge and current densities from the continuity equation. Briefly explain Heitler and London method. Maximum : 100 marks .clicktoconvert. Write down the expression for the transition probability per unit time for spontaneous emission. Discuss the Thomas Fermi Model and Hartree’s Self Consistent Model in detail. Use the technique to obtain the asymptotic solution of the one dimensional Schrödinger equation.http://www. DEGREE EXAMINATION.com 153 M. APRIL 2008 Model Question Physics QUANTUM MECHANICS Time : Three hours Answer any five questions Each question carries 20 marks. c) Trace of the matrices is zero. Prove the following properties of Dirac matrices on the basis of Dirac’s theory : a) Square of matrices are unity b) Eigenvalues of the matrices are ±1. Also discuss their anti commutation relations. Write down the physical meaning of matrix elements. 4. Develop the relativistic wave equation for the particle of spin zero. Write notes on Creation. 3. Obtain an expression for the Born approximation amplitude and hence derive the Rutherford formula for Coulomb scattering.This watermark does not appear in the registered version .

Develop Dirac’s relativistic wave equation for a free particle and obtain its plain wave solution. (5 x 20 = 100) 1.http://www. Discuss the significance of zero point energy. What are C. APRIL 2008 Model Question Physics QUANTUM MECHANICS Time : Three hours Answer any five questions Each question carries 20 marks.Sc. What do you meant by partial wave analysis? Employ this method to derive an expression for the scattering amplitude in terms of phase shift. 6. Coeffifiient? Briefly explain their significance. Hence calculate the angular momentum matrices for j = ½.com 154 M. What are the consequences of Dirac’s interpretation? 7. Obtain the spectrum of eigenvalues for J2 and Jz. Explain how the ground state energy could be evaluated using the variation method and hence find the ground state energy of hydrogen atom. Obtain Perturbation theory for non degenerate states. Give the matrix theory of harmonic oscillator and obtain the energy eigenvalue spectrum. Distinguish stationary and time dependent perturbation theory. Give the significance of negative energy states. 4. 3. Show that the first order perturbation energy for a non degenerate state of a system is just the perturbation for average over the corresponding unperturbed state of the system.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . Obtain classical Hamiltonian equation.clicktoconvert. DEGREE EXAMINATION. What do you understand by equation of motion? Obtain the equation of motion in the Heisenberg picture and state the distinction between Schrödinger picture and Heisenberg picture. 8. 5. 2.G. Obtain an expression for scattering cross section for Coulomb potential. Maximum : 100 marks . Discuss the interaction of atom with electromagnetic field and hence show that probability per unit time for induced emission and absorption are equal.

Find the angular momentum matrices for j = 1. Show that the angular momentum of electron is a constant of motion only if we include the spin. State and explain optical theorem.com 155 M. 2. Obtain the expressions for the first order corrections to the energy and wavefunction making the use of the non-degenerate stationary perturbation theory. Define Einstein’s A and B coefficients and obtain the relation between them.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . Give the quantum mechanical definition of angular momentum. (5 x 20 = 100) Maximum : 100 marks 1. Obtain an expression for scattering amplitude in terms of phase shift.http://www. Define the degeneracy of an energy eigenvalue and illustrate its removal by considering the stark effect in the n = 2 level of the hydrogen atom. Discuss in detail the problem of Yukawa potential. Explain the terms doublet separation and doublet intensity. 8. Explain how the spin orbit interaction can be accounted as correction to central field approximation. Explain Kronig penny model.Sc. List the symmetry properties of C. Establish the Dirac’s relativistic wave equation for an electron and calculate its magnetic moment. DEGREE EXAMINATION. 6. Define the terms “scattering amplitude” and “phase shift’. G. Write down the physical meaning of matrix elements. Obtain an expression for harmonic perturbation. 5. coefficient. 4. . APRIL 2008 Model Question Physics QUANTUM MECHANICS Time : Three hours Answer any five questions Each question carries 20 marks. Distinguish induced and spontaneous emission. What are the conditions under which an operator can be represented by a diagonal matrix. ‘There is no first order stark effect in the ground state of an atom’ – Illustrate. 3. 7.clicktoconvert. Write down the expression for the transition probability per unit time for spontaneous emission.

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