MOBILE EVOLUTION-4G TECHNOLOGY

B.E. RESEARCH REPORT
Next Generation & Wireless Networks Prepared by Salman Khaliq Bajwa (3746)

Advisor
Asstt. Professor, Fariha Hasnain

College of Engineering PAF-Karachi Institute of Economics & Technology Karachi

DEDICATION

This report is dedicated to

My Parents, Teachers & Friends,

Whose love, affection and support helped me in bringing my work to this level of accomplishments; I am also thankful to them for their unconditional support and encouragement to pursue my interests, even when the interest went beyond the boundaries of field and scope. Without their support and kindness this work would not have been possible.

ACKNOWLEDEMENT

Praise to Allah the most beneficent and the most merciful

I am grateful to my project advisor Ma’m Fariha Hasnain, advisor, for enlightening me with her precious knowledge and vast experience to benefit me in the future. I also like to thank to my teachers and lab assistants for their assistance and support. I would also thank with all gratitude and depth of my hearts to my parents who helped me not only financially but with integrity too and support me in all my hardships. Finally my sincere thanks to my institute PAF-KIET, College of Engineering, for providing me the opportunity to gave me the strength to undertake this research. Special thanks to all my fellows and friends who lend me a hand throughout this project. I pray this effort may prove to be the beginning of new era, a era in which Science and Technology may make great progress in Pakistan and Pakistan may become a part of the developed nations. Thank you.

ABSTRACT

Consumers demand more from their technology. Whether it be a television, cellular phone, or refrigerator, the latest technology purchase must have new features. With the advent of the Internet, the most-wanted feature is better, faster access to information. Cellular subscribers pay extra on top of their basic bills for such features as instant messaging, stock quotes, and even Internet access right on their phones. But that is far from the limit of features; manufacturers entice customers to buy new phones with photo and even video capability. It is no longer a quantum leap to envision a time when access to all necessary information — the power of a personal computer — sits in the palm of one’s hand. To support such a powerful system, we need pervasive, high-speed wireless connectivity. A number of technologies currently exist to provide users with high-speed digital wireless connectivity; Bluetooth and 802.11 are the examples. These two standards provide very high speed network connections over short distances, typically in the tens of meters. Meanwhile, cellular providers seek to increase speed on their long-range wireless networks. The goal is the same: long-range, high-speed wireless, which for the purposes of this report will be called 4G, for fourth-generation wireless system.

ABBREVIATIONS

3GGP : The Third Generation Partnership Project 3GGP2: The Third Generation Partnership Project2 EVDO: Evolution-Data Optimized HSPA : High-Speed Packet Access IMT: International Mobile Telecommunications ITU: International Telecommunication Union LTE : Long Term Evolution MIMO: Multiple Input Multiple Output OFDM: Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing SDR : Software Defined Radio UMB: Ultra Mobile Broad Band WiMAX: Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access

Table of Contents

Contents
Table of Contents .......................................................................................................................................... 6 1.0-Introduction: ........................................................................................................................................... 9 1.1 What are Generations? ......................................................................................................................... 10 1.1-A Small History Telephone & Mobile Networks: .................................................................................. 10 1.1.1-Pioneers of radio telephony: ......................................................................................................... 10 1.1.2-Early services: ................................................................................................................................ 10 1.1.2.1-MTS and IMTS: ............................................................................................................................ 10 1.1.2.2-Radio Common Carrier: .............................................................................................................. 11 1.1.2.3-Rural Radiotelephone Service: ................................................................................................... 12 1.1.2.4-Before cellular networks............................................................................................................. 12 1.1.3-Cellular concepts: .......................................................................................................................... 14 1.1.4-Emergence of automated mobile phone services: ........................................................................ 15 1.1.5-Handheld cell phone: ..................................................................................................................... 17 1.2- What is 4G? .......................................................................................................................................... 18 1.1.1-Key Features: ............................................................................................................................. 18 1.2- How does it work? ........................................................................................................................... 20 1.3-Requirements: ...................................................................................................................................... 23 1.4-SWOT ANALYSIS-4G: ................................................................................................... 25

2.0-History:.................................................................................................................................................. 26 2.0.1-Communication System: ................................................................................................................ 26 2.0.2-Telecommunication: ...................................................................................................................... 27 2.1-1G.......................................................................................................................................................... 27 2.1.1-Brief Description: ........................................................................................................................... 27 2.2-2G.......................................................................................................................................................... 29 2.2.1-Brief Description: ........................................................................................................................... 29 Capacity:.................................................................................................................................................. 29

Advantages:............................................................................................................................................. 30 Disadvantages: ........................................................................................................................................ 30 Evolution: .................................................................................................................................................... 31 2.2.2-2.5G (GPRS):....................................................................................................................................... 31 2.2.3-2.75G (EDGE): .................................................................................................................................... 32 2.3-3G:......................................................................................................................................................... 32 2.3.1-Brief Description: ........................................................................................................................... 33 Detailed breakdown of 3G systems .................................................................................................... 34 Features: ................................................................................................................................................. 35 • • Data rates .................................................................................................................................... 35 Security ....................................................................................................................................... 35

Applications of 3G: .................................................................................................................................. 35 2.4-4G:......................................................................................................................................................... 36 2.5-5G:......................................................................................................................................................... 36 3.0-Pictorial View of Mobile Evolution: ...................................................................................................... 37 4.0-Pictorial View of Generations: .............................................................................................................. 37 5.0-Satellite Mobile:.................................................................................................................................... 38 5.1-How does it work? ............................................................................................................................ 39 5.2-Features: ........................................................................................................................................... 40 5.2.1-Cost of a satellite phone: ........................................................................................................... 40 5.2.2-Virtual country codes:................................................................................................................ 41 5.2.3-Calling cost: ................................................................................................................................ 41 5.2.4-Use in disaster response: ........................................................................................................... 42 6.0-How to avoid falling in the mobile generation gap? ............................................................................ 42 7.0-Conclusion: ........................................................................................................................................... 45

Mobile Evolution 4G Technology

1.0-Introduction:
Now-a-days the goal of many customers is to have PC at one’s palm. To support such powerful systems we need long range, high speed wireless network called 4G. There is a great demand of user needs for accessing more interactive multimedia application like video on demand and seamless connection while moving from one network from other without any disturbance and maintaining the high data rate at lower cost. Current technologies are able to provide the services like multimedia applications but they failed to provide high data rate, transmission cost and seamless connectivity on user mobility from one network to another and at the same time maintaining its Quality of Service (QoS).

1.1 What are Generations?
You might have seen 3G/4G being advertised everywhere these days, billboards, television advertisements, you name it. But what is G or generation? How is it different from what we used previously? What were the previous standards? First of all, these standards are set by the International Telecommunication Union or ITU for short. It is a specialized agency of the United Nations, founded in 1865, which is responsible for information and communication technologies. The ITU co-ordinates the shared global use of the radio spectrum, works to improve telecommunication infrastructure and establishes related worldwide telecommunication standards.

1.1-A Small History of Telephone & Mobile Networks: 1.1.1-Pioneers of radio telephony:
By 1930, telephone customers in the United States could place a call to a passenger on a liner in the Atlantic Ocean. Air time charges were quite high, at $7(1930)/minute (about $92.50/minute in 2011 dollars). In areas with Marine VHF radio and a shore station, it is still possible to arrange a call from the public telephone network to a ship, still using manual call set-up and the services of a human marine radio operator. However it was the 1940s onwards that saw the seeds of technological development which would eventually produce the mobile phone that we know today. Motorola developed a backpacked two-way radio, the Walkie-Talkie and a large hand-held two-way radio for the US military. This battery powered "Handie-Talkie" (HT) was about the size of a man's forearm.

1.1.2-Early services: 1.1.2.1-MTS and IMTS:
In 1946 in St. Louis, the Mobile Telephone Service was introduced. Only three radio channels were available, and call set-up required manual operation by a mobile operator. Although very

popular and commercially successful, the service was limited by having only a few voice channels per district. In 1964 Improved Mobile Telephone Service was introduced with additional channels and more automatic handling of calls to the public switched telephone network. Even the addition of radio channels in three bands was insufficient to meet demand for vehicle-mounted mobile radio systems.

1.1.2.2-Radio Common Carrier:
Parallel to Improved Mobile Telephone Service (IMTS) in the US, a competing mobile telephone technology was called Radio Common Carrier or RCC. The service was provided from the 1960s until the 1980s when cellular AMPS systems made RCC equipment obsolete. These systems operated in a regulated environment in competition with YOLO the Bell System's MTS and IMTS. RCCs handled telephone calls and were operated by private companies and individuals. RCCs used paired UHF 454/459 MHz and VHF 152/158 MHz frequencies near those used by IMTS. Some systems were designed to allow customers of adjacent carriers to use their facilities, but equipment used by RCCs did not allow the equivalent of modern "roaming" because technical standards were not uniform. For example, the phone of an Omaha, Nebraska–based RCC service would not be likely to work in Phoenix, Arizona. Roaming was not encouraged, in part, because there was no centralized industry billing database for RCCs. Signaling formats were not standardized. For example, some systems used two-tone sequential paging to alert a mobile of an incoming call. Other systems used DTMF. Some used Secode 2805, which transmitted an interrupted 2805 Hz tone (similar to IMTS signaling) to alert mobiles of an offered call. Some radio equipment used with RCC systems was half-duplex, push-to-talk LOMO equipment such as Motorola hand-helds or RCA 700-series conventional two-way radios. Other vehicular equipment had telephone handsets, rotary or pushbutton dials, and operated full duplex like a conventional wired telephone. A few users had full-duplex briefcase telephones (radically advanced for their day).

At the end of RCC's existence, industry associations were working on a technical standard that would have allowed roaming, and some mobile users had multiple decoders to enable operation with more than one of the common signaling formats (600/1500, 2805, and Reach). Manual operation was often a fallback for RCC roamers.

1.1.2.3-Rural Radiotelephone Service:
Using the same channel frequencies as IMTS, the US Federal Communications Commission authorized Rural Radiotelephone Service for fixed stations. Because RF channels were shared with MILFS IMTS, the service was licensed only in areas that were remote from large Bureau of the Census Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs). Systems used UHF 454 MHz or 152 MHz radio channels to provide telephone service to extremely rural places where it would be too costly to extend cable plant. One such system was on a 454/459 MHz channel pair between the Death Valley telephone exchange and Stovepipe Wells, California. This specific system carried manual calls to the Traffic Service Position System (TSPS) center in Los Angeles. Stovepipe Wells callers went off-hook and were queried, "Number please," by a TSPS operator, who dialed the call. Dial service was introduced to Stovepipe Wells in the mid-1980s. The radio link has since been replaced by cable. The analog service has since been replaced by Basic Exchange Telephone Radio Service, a digital system using the same frequencies.

1.1.2.4-Before cellular networks:

A mobile radio telephone.

These mobile radio telephone services preceded modern cellular mobile telephony technology. Since they were the predecessors of the first generation of cellular telephones, these systems are sometimes retroactively referred to as pre cellular (or sometimes zero generation) systems. Technologies used in pre cellular systems included the Push to Talk (PTT or manual), Mobile Telephone System (MTS), Improved Mobile Telephone Service (IMTS), and Advanced Mobile Telephone System (AMTS) systems. These early mobile telephone systems can be distinguished from earlier closed radiotelephone systems in that they were available as a commercial service that was part of the public switched telephone network, with their own telephone numbers, rather than part of a closed network such as a police radio or taxi dispatch system. These mobile telephones were usually mounted in cars or trucks, though briefcase models were also made. Typically, the transceiver (transmitter-receiver) was mounted in the vehicle trunk and attached to the "head" (dial, display, and handset) mounted near the driver seat. They were sold through WCCs (Wire line Common Carriers, AKA telephone companies), RCCs (Radio Common Carriers), and two-way radio dealers. Early examples for this technology:
Motorola in conjunction with the Bell System operated the first commercial mobile telephone service Mobile Telephone System (MTS) in the US in 1946, as a service of the wire line telephone company. The A-Netz launched 1952 in West Germany as the country's first public commercial mobile phone network. First automatic system was the Bell System's IMTS which became available in 1962, offering automatic dialing to and from the mobile. The Televerket opened its first manual mobile telephone system in Norway in 1966. Norway was later the first country in Europe to get an automatic mobile telephone system. The Autoradiopuhelin (ARP) launched in 1971 in Finland as the country's first public commercial mobile phone network. The B-Netz launched 1972 in West Germany as the country's second public commercial mobile phone network (but the first one that did not require human operators to connect calls).

1.1.3-Cellular concepts:

Top of cellular telephone tower

In December 1947, Douglas H. Ring and W. Rae Young, Bell Labs engineers, proposed hexagonal cells for mobile phones in vehicles. Philip T. Porter, also of Bell Labs, proposed that the cell towers be at the corners of the hexagons rather than the centers and have directional antennas that would transmit/receive in three directions (see picture at right) into three adjacent hexagon cells on three different frequencies. At this stage, the technology to implement these ideas did not exist, nor had the frequencies been allocated. Several years would pass before Richard H. Frenkiel and Joel S. Engel of Bell Labs developed the electronics to achieve this in the 1960s. In all these early examples, a mobile phone had to stay within the coverage area serviced by one base station throughout the phone call, i.e. there was no continuity of service as the phones moved through several cell areas. The concepts of frequency reuse and handoff, as well as a number of other concepts that formed the basis of modern cell phone technology, were described in the 1970s. In 1970 Amos E. Joel, Jr., a Bell Labs engineer invented an automatic "call handoff" system to allow mobile phones to move through several cell areas during a single conversation without interruption. In 1969 Amtrak equipped commuter trains along the 225-mile New York-Washington route with special pay phones that allowed passengers to place telephone calls while the train was moving. The system re-used six frequencies in the 450 MHZ band in nine sites, a precursor of the concept later applied in cellular telephones.

In December 1971, AT&T submitted a proposal for cellular service to the Federal Communications Commission (FCC). In 1977 they built the first network in Chicago and had 1300 customers on the system by the end of 1978.fAfter years of hearings, the FCC approved the proposal in 1982 for Advanced Mobile Phone System (AMPS) and allocated frequencies in the 824–894 MHz band. Analog AMPS was eventually superseded by Digital AMPS in 1990. A cellular telephone switching plan was described by Fluhr and Nussbaum in 1973, and a cellular telephone data signaling system was described in 1977 by Hachenburg et al.

1.1.4-Emergence of automated mobile phone services:
The first fully automated mobile phone system for vehicles was launched in Sweden in 1960. Named MTA (Mobile Telephone system A), it allowed calls to be made and received in the car using a rotary dial. The car phone could also be paged. Calls from the car were direct dial, whereas incoming calls required an operator to determine which base station the phone was currently at. It was developed by Sture Laurén and other engineers at Televerket network operator. Ericsson provided the switchboard while Svenska Radioaktiebolaget (SRA) and Marconi provided the telephones and base station equipment. MTA phones consisted of vacuu tubes and relays, and weighed 40 kg. In 1962, an upgraded version called Mobile System B (MTB) was introduced. This was a push-button telephone, and used transistors and DTMF signaling to improve its operational reliability. In 1971 the MTD version was launched, opening for several different brands of equipment and gaining commercial success. The network remained open until 1983 and still had 600 customers when it closed. In 1958 development began on a similar system for motorists in the USSR. The "Altay" national civil mobile phone service was based on Soviet MRT-1327 standard. The main developers of the Altay system were the Voronezh Science Research Institute of Communications (VNIIS) and the State Specialized Project Institute (GSPI). In 1963 the service started in Moscow, and by 1970 was deployed in 30 cities across the USSR. Versions of the Altay system are still in use today as a trunking system in some parts of Russia.

In 1959 a private telephone company located in Brewster, Kansas, USA, the S&T Telephone Company, (still in business today) with the use of Motorola Radio Telephone equipment and a private tower facility, offered to the public mobile telephone services in that local area of NW Kansas. This system was a direct dial up service through their local switchboard, and was installed in many private vehicles including grain combines, trucks, and automobiles. For some as yet unknown reason, the system, after being placed online and operated for a very brief time period, was shut down. The management of the company was immediately changed, and the fully operable system and related equipment was immediately dismantled in early 1960, not to be seen again. In 1966, Bulgaria presented the pocket mobile automatic phone RAT-0, 5 combined with a base station RATZ-10 (RATC-10) on Interorgtechnika-66 international exhibition. One base station, connected to one telephone wire line, could serve up to six customers One of the first successful public commercial mobile phone networks was the ARP network in Finland, launched in 1971. Posthumously, ARP is sometimes viewed as a zero generation (0G) cellular network, being slightly above previous proprietary and limited coverage networks.]

1.1.5-Handheld cell phone:

Dr. Martin Cooper of Motorola, made the first US analog mobile phone call on a larger prototype model in 1973. This is a reenactment in 2007

. On 3 April 1973, Martin Cooper, a Motorola researcher and executive, made the first analog mobile phone call using a heavy prototype model. He called Dr. Joel S. Engel of Bell Labs. The phone was 2.5 pounds, and 9x5x1.75 inches in size. Cooper couldn't show off his new prototype for long because the talk time was only 30 minutes, and it took 10 hours to charge, but that was still amazing back then to the general public. There was a long race between Motorola and Bell Labs to produce the first portable mobile phone. Cooper is the first inventor named on "Radio telephone system" filed on 17 October 1973 with the US Patent Office and later issued as US Patent 3,906,166. John F. Mitchell, Motorola's chief of portable communication products (and Cooper's boss) was also named on the patent. He successfully pushed Motorola to develop wireless communication products that would be small enough to use anywhere and participated in the design of the cellular phone.

1.2- What is 4G?
4G refers to the fourth generation of cellular wireless and is a successor to 3G and 2G standards. Though 4G is a broader term and could include standards outside IMT-Advanced. A 4G system may upgrade existing communication networks and is expected to provide a comprehensive and secure IP based solution where facilities such as voice, data and streamed multimedia will be provided to users on an "Anytime, Anywhere" basis and at much higher data rates compared to previous generations.

1.1.1-Key Features:

4G mobile communications have transmission rates up to 20 Mbps— higher than of 3G. The technology is expected to be vailable by the year 2010. Presently, NTT DoCoMo and HewlettPackard are on their agenda to make it available by the year 2006. 4G is being developed with the following objectives: 1. Speeds up to 50 times higher than of 3G. However, the actual available bandwidth of 4G is expected to be about 10 Mbps. 2. Three-dimensional virtual reality—imagine personal video avatars and realistic holograms, and the ability to feel as if you are present at an event even if you are not. People, places, and products will be able to interact as the cyber and real worlds merge.

3. Increased interaction between corroborating technologies; the smart card in your phone will automatically pay for goods as you pass a linked payment kiosk, or will tell your car to warm up in the morning as your phone has noted you leaving the house.

Other 4G applications include high-performance streaming of multimedia content based on agent technology and scaleable media coding methods. 4G have solved problems like limited bandwidth in 3G when people are moving and uncertainty about the ailability of bandwidth for streaming to all users at all times. One of the key requirements is to realise a wireless 4G IPbased access system. The ultimate objective is to create a protocol suite and radio communication schemes to achieve broadband mobile communication in 4G wireless systems. A new protocol suite for 4G wireless systems supported by Department of Defense (DoD) contains: 1. Transport-layer protocols 2. Error-control protocols 3. Medium-access protocol 4. Mobility management 5. Simulation testbed 6. Physical testbed 7. Protocol suite in the mobile terminal 8. Protocol suite in the base station

1.2- How does it work?
Offering cell phone data speeds several times faster than you're used to, 4G is expected to start heating up the airwaves in the next year or so. As for what 4G is — basically, there's nothing simple about 4G expect for the name, which refers to fourth generation cell phones. Firstgeneration cell phones were basic analog units, based on a scheme that Alexander Graham Bell would recognize. Second-generation cell phones were digital units; third-generation (3G) were faster digital units; while fourth generation (4G) opens the door to broadband speeds. What that means: You could, in theory, watch the Superbowl in HD on a 4G phone while downloading email and talking to a like-minded fan on the phone. In theory. As for how 4G works, the simple answer is OFDM (orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing.) Translation: the signal is divided into parallel data streams carried over closely-spaced radio sub-channels, to be reassembled at the far end. The approach is already used in certain kinds of WiMAX and Wi-Fi systems, which

let you get on-line at Starbucks at a reasonable speed. How fast is 4G? The maximum speed is usually given as 100 megabits per second downstream (from the network to you) and 50 megabits per second upstream (back to the network). By comparison, an HDTV signal consumes about 25 megabits per second. But 100 megabits down and 50 megabits up are purely theoretical numbers, cautions Fred Campbell, president of the Wireless Communications Association International (WCAI) in Washington, DC. "In the real world you don’t reach maximum speeds, because in the real world you have trees and buildings and distance attenuation and moving receivers and bandwidth limitations," he told TechNewsDaily. Campbell pointed to a network test several months ago by a cell phone carrier whose technicians drove around in cars, averaging 35 mph, to see what data speeds they could get. Their 4G gear saw average download speeds of 6 megabits, while their 3G gear was averaging 1.5 megabits. However, steady enhancements can be expected to gradually drive real-world speeds towards the maximum, Campbell added.

As the need for communication rather fastest communication is the foremost priority of present era also the need of quick data transfer. Distant business correspondence by sharing data becomes very important. Ever growing technology is the example of one such step towards the fastest transmission of data. 4G stands for Fourth Generation is the latest technology with high speed transferability of data with security measurements. It is coming with wireless broadband for the instant download. Talking about the standard of 4G technology, still not defined as set standard, two technologies are supposed to be the based features of 4G.
• •

WiMAX LTE

ITU promotes the technologies against the defragmentation and incompatibilities in 4G technologies. WiMAX stands for Worldwide Interoperability of Microwave Access previously worked as fixed wireless facility under the 802.16e band. Now the modified standard 802.16m has been developed with the properties of speed, wide spectrum, and increase band.

1.3-Requirements:
In mid 1990s, the ITU-R organization specified the IMT-2000 specifications for what standards that should be considered 3G systems. However, the cell phone market brands only some of the IMT-2000 standards as 3G (e.g. WCDMA and CDMA2000), not all (3GPP EDGE, DECT and mobile-WiMAX all fulfil the IMT-2000 requirements and are formally accepted as 3G standards, but are typically not branded as 3G). In 2008, ITU-R specified the IMT-Advanced (International Mobile Telecommunications Advanced) requirements for 4G systems. This article uses 4G to refer to IMT-Advanced (International Mobile Telecommunications Advanced), as defined by ITU-R. An IMT-Advanced cellular system must fulfill the following requirements:
• •

Based on an all-IP packet switched network. Peak data rates of up to approximately 100 Mbit/s for high mobility such as mobile access and up to approximately 1 Gbit/s for low mobility such as nomadic/local wireless access, according to the ITU requirements.

Dynamically share and use the network resources to support more simultaneous users per cell.

• •

Scalable channel bandwidth 5–20 MHz, optionally up to 40 MHz. Peak link spectral efficiency of 15 bit/s/Hz in the downlink, and 6.75 bit/s/Hz in the uplink (meaning that 1 Gbit/s in the downlink should be possible over less than 67 MHz bandwidth).

System spectral efficiency of up to 3 bit/s/Hz/cell in the downlink and 2.25 bit/s/Hz/cell for indoor usage.

• •

Smooth handovers across heterogeneous networks. Ability to offer high quality of service for next generation multimedia support.

In September 2009, the technology proposals were submitted to the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) as 4G candidates. Basically all proposals are based on two technologies:
• •

LTE Advanced standardized by the 3GPP 802.16m standardized by the IEEE (i.e. WiMAX)

Present implementations of WiMAX and LTE are largely considered a stopgap solution that will offer a considerable boost while WiMAX 2 (based on the 802.16m spec) and LTE Advanced are finalized. Both technologies aim to reach the objectives traced by the ITU, but are still far from being implemented. The first set of 3GPP requirements on LTE Advanced was approved in June 2008. LTE Advanced will be standardized in 2010 as part of the Release 10 of the 3GPP specification. LTE Advanced will be fully built on the existing LTE specification Release 10 and not be defined as a new specification series. A summary of the technologies that have been studied as the basis for LTE Advanced is included in a technical report. Current LTE and WiMAX implementations are considered pre-4G, as they do not fully comply with the planned requirements of 1 Gbit/s for stationary reception and 100 Mbit/s for mobile. Confusion has been caused by some mobile carriers who have launched products advertised as 4G but which are actually current technologies, commonly referred to as '3.9G', which do not

follow the ITU-R defined principles for 4G standards. A common argument for branding 3.9G systems as new-generation is that they use different frequency bands to 3G technologies; that they are based on a new radio-interface paradigm; and that the standards are not backwards compatible with 3G, whilst some of the standards are expected to be forwards compatible with "real" 4G technologies. While the ITU has adopted recommendations for technologies that would be used for future global communications, they do not actually perform the standardization or development work themselves, instead relying on the work of other standards bodies such as IEEE, The WiMAX Forum and 3GPP. Recently, ITU-R Working Party 5D approved two industry-developed technologies (LTE Advanced and WirelessMAN-Advanced) for inclusion in the ITU’s International Mobile Telecommunications Advanced (IMT-Advanced program), which is focused on global communication systems that would be available several years from now.

1.4-SWOT ANALYSIS-4G:
SWOT analysis (alternately SLOT analysis) is a strategic planning method used to evaluate the Strengths, Weaknesses/Limitations, Opportunities, and Threats involved in a project or in a business venture. It involves specifying the objective of the business venture or project and identifying the internal and external factors that are favorable and unfavorable to achieve that objective. • STRENGTHS: Strong position of telecommunication vendors. -Faster data transmissions . -Higher bit-rate . -Larger bandwidth. -Personalized multimedia communication tools. • WEAKNESS: No large user community .

-Divergence between vendors and operators. -No full internet -- limited speed ,bandwidth -Highest cost to use and on infrastructure.

OPPORTUNITIES: Evolutionary approach. -Sophisticated commercialization would encourage e-commerce and m-commerce. -Expected that consumers will replace handsets with newer tech. -Desirable higher data capacity rates.

THREATS: Faster rate of growth and developments in other region. -Since 3G is still in market ,it squeezes the market competition in mobile industry.

2.0-History of Communication:
The brief history of communication sytem & different generations is given below;

2.0.1-Communication System:
Communication is the activity of conveying information. Communication has been derived from the Latin word "communis", meaning to share. Communication requires a sender, a message, and an intended recipient, although the receiver need not be present or aware of the sender's intent to communicate at the time of communication; thus communication can occur across vast distances in time and space. Communication requires that the communicating parties share an area of communicative commonality.

2.0.2-Telecommunication:
Telecommunication is the transmission of information over significant distances to communicate. In earlier times, telecommunications involved the use of visual signals, such as beacons, smoke signals, semaphore telegraphs, signal flags, and optical heliographs, or audio messages via coded drumbeats, lung-blown horns, or sent by loud whistles, for example. In the modern age of electricity and electronics, telecommunications now also includes the use of electrical devices such as the telegraph, telephone, and teleprinter, as well as the use of radio and microwave communications, as well as fiber optics and their associated electronics, plus the use of the orbiting satellites and the Internet.

The ITU has divided the development in the telecommunication system into different generations depending upon the enhancements in the previous systems. There are actually four generation of the mobile generations.

2.1-1G:
1G is short for first-generation wireless telephone technology. This generation of phones and networks is represented by the brick-sized analog phones introduced in the 1980’s. Subsequent numbers refer to newer and upcoming technology.

2.1.1-Brief Description:
1G (or 1-G) refers to the first-generation of wireless telephone technology, mobile telecommunications. These are the analog telecommunications standards that were introduced

in the 1980s and continued until being replaced by 2G digital telecommunications. The main difference between two succeeding mobile telephone systems, 1G and 2G, is that the radio signals that 1G networks use are analog, while 2G networks are digital. Although both systems use digital signaling to connect the radio towers (which listen to the handsets) to the rest of the telephone system, the voice itself during a call is encoded to digital signals in 2G whereas 1G is only modulated to higher frequency, typically 150 MHz and up. One such standard is NMT (Nordic Mobile Telephone), used in Nordic countries, Switzerland, Netherlands, Eastern Europe and Russia. Others include AMPS (Advanced Mobile Phone System) used in the North America and Australia,[1] TACS (Total Access Communications System) in the United Kingdom, C-450 in West Germany, Portugal and South Africa, Radiocom 2000[2] in France, and RTMI in Italy. In Japan there were multiple systems. Three standards, TZ-801, TZ-802, and TZ-803 were developed by NTT, while a competing system operated by DDI used the JTACS (Japan Total Access Communications System) standard. 1G speeds vary between that of a 28k modem(28kbit/s) and 56k modem(56kbit/s),[3] meaning actual download speeds of 2.9KBytes/s to 5.6KBytes/s.

2.2-2G:
2G phones use digital networks. Going all-digital allowed for the introduction of digital data services, such as SMS and email. 2G networks and their digital nature also made it more difficult to eavesdrop on mobile phone calls.

2.2.1-Brief Description:
2G (or 2-G) is short for second-generation wireless telephone technology. Second generation 2G cellular telecom networks were commercially launched on the GSM standard in Finland by Radiolinja (now part of Elisa Oyj) in 1991.[1] Three primary benefits of 2G networks over their predecessors were that phone conversations were digitally encrypted; 2G systems were significantly more efficient on the spectrum allowing for far greater mobile phone penetration levels; and 2G introduced data services for mobile, starting with SMS text messages. After 2G was launched, the previous mobile telephone systems were retrospectively dubbed 1G. While radio signals on 1G networks are analog, radio signals on 2G networks are digital. Both systems use digital signaling to connect the radio towers (which listen to the handsets) to the rest of the telephone system.

Capacity:
Using digital signals between the handsets and the towers increases system capacity in two key ways:

Digital voice data can be compressed and multiplexed much more effectively than analog voice encodings through the use of various codecs, allowing more calls to be packed into the same amount of radio bandwidth.

The digital systems were designed to emit less radio power from the handsets. This meant that cells had to be smaller, so more cells had to be placed in the same amount of space. This was made possible by cell towers and related equipment getting less expensive.

Advantages:
• •

The lower power emissions helped address health concerns. Going all-digital allowed for the introduction of digital data services, such as SMS and email.

Greatly reduced fraud. With analog systems it was possible to have two or more “cloned” handsets that had the same phone number.

Enhanced privacy. A key digital advantage not often mentioned is that digital cellular calls are much harder to eavesdrop on by use of radio scanners. While the security algorithms used have proved not to be as secure as initially advertised, 2G phones are immensely more private than 1G phones, which have no protection against eavesdropping.

Disadvantages:

In less populous areas, the weaker digital signal may not be sufficient to reach a cell tower. This tends to be a particular problem on 2G systems deployed on higher frequencies, but is mostly not a problem on 2G systems deployed on lower frequencies. National regulations differ greatly among countries which dictate where 2G can be deployed.

Analog has a smooth decay curve, digital a jagged steppy one. This can be both an advantage and a disadvantage. Under good conditions, digital will sound better. Under slightly worse conditions, analog will experience static, while digital has occasional dropouts. As conditions worsen, though, digital will start to completely fail, by dropping

calls or being unintelligible, while analog slowly gets worse, generally holding a call longer and allowing at least a few words to get through.

While digital calls tend to be free of static and background noise, the lossy compression used by the codecs takes a toll; the range of sound that they convey is reduced. You will hear less of the tonality of someone's voice talking on a digital cellphone, but you will hear it more clearly.

Evolution:
2G networks were built mainly for voice services and slow data transmission. Some protocols, such as EDGE for GSM and 1x-RTT for CDMA2000, are defined as "3G" services (because they are defined in IMT-2000 specification documents), but are considered by the general public to be 2.5G or 2.75G services because they are several times slower than presentday 3G service.

2.2.2-2.5G (GPRS):
2.5G ("second and a half generation") is used to describe 2G-systems that have implemented a packet-switched domain in addition to the circuit-switched domain. It does not necessarily provide faster services because bundling of timeslots is used for circuit-switched data services (HSCSD) as well. The first major step in the evolution of GSM networks to 3G occurred with the introduction of General Packet Radio Service (GPRS). CDMA2000 networks similarly evolved through the introduction of 1xRTT. The combination of these capabilities came to be known as 2.5G. GPRS could provide data rates from 56 kbit/s up to 115 kbit/s. It can be used for services such as Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) access, Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS), and for

Internet communication services such as email and World Wide Web access. GPRS data transfer is typically charged per megabyte of traffic transferred, while data communication via traditional circuit switching is billed per minute of connection time, independent of whether the user actually is utilizing the capacity or is in an idle state. 1xRTT supports bi-directional (up and downlink) peak data rates up to 153.6 kbit/s, delivering an average user data throughput of 80-100 kbit/s in commercial networks.[3] It can also be used for WAP, SMS & MMS services, as well as Internet access.

2.2.3-2.75G (EDGE):
GPRS1 networks evolved to EDGE networks with the introduction of 8PSK encoding. Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE), Enhanced GPRS (EGPRS), or IMT Single Carrier (IMT-SC) is a backward-compatible digital mobile phone technology that allows improved data transmission rates, as an extension on top of standard GSM. EDGE was deployed on GSM networks beginning in 2003—initially by Cingular (now AT&T) in the United States. EDGE is standardized by 3GPP as part of the GSM family and it is an upgrade that provides a potential three-fold increase in capacity of GSM/GPRS networks. The specification achieves higher data-rates (up to 236.8 kbit/s) by switching to more sophisticated methods of coding (8PSK), within existing GSM timeslots.

2.3-3G:
3G networks are an in between standard. 3G is seen more as pre4G instead of a standard of its own. The advantage 3G networks have over 2G networks is speed. 3G networks are built to handle the needs of today’s wireless users. This standard of wireless networks increases the speed of internet browsing, picture and video messaging, and handheld GPS use.

2.3.1-Brief Description:
3G or 3rd generation mobile telecommunications is a generation of standards for mobile phones and mobile telecommunication services fulfilling the International Mobile Telecommunications-2000 (IMT-2000) specifications by the International Telecommunication Union.[1] Application services include wide-area wireless voice telephone, mobile Internet access, video calls and mobile TV, all in a mobile environment. Several telecommunications companies market wireless mobile Internet services as 3G, indicating that the advertised service is provided over a 3G wireless network. Services advertised as 3G are required to meet IMT-2000 technical standards, including standards for reliability and speed (data transfer rates). To meet the IMT-2000 standards, a system is required to provide peak data rates of at least 200 kbit/s (about 0.2 Mbit/s). However, many services advertised as 3G provide higher speed than the minimum technical requirements for a 3G service. Recent 3G releases, often denoted 3.5G and 3.75G, also provide mobile broadband access of several Mbit/s to smartphones and mobile modems in laptop computers. The following standards are typically branded 3G: the UMTS system, first offered in 2001, standardized by 3GPP, used primarily in Europe, Japan, China (however with a different radio interface) and other regions predominated by GSM 2G system infrastructure. The cell phones are typically UMTS and GSM hybrids. Several radio interfaces are offered, sharing the same infrastructure:

The original and most widespread radio interface is called W-CDMA. The TD-SCDMA radio interface was commercialised in 2009 and is only offered in China. The latest UMTS release, HSPA+, can provide peak data rates up to 56 Mbit/s in the downlink in theory (28 Mbit/s in existing services) and 22 Mbit/s in the uplink. the CDMA2000 system, first offered in 2002, standardized by 3GPP2, used especially in North America and South Korea, sharing infrastructure with the IS-95 2G standard. The cell phones are typically CDMA2000 and IS-95 hybrids. The latest release EVDO Rev B offers peak rates of 14.7 Mbit/s downstream. The above systems and radio interfaces are based on kindred spread spectrum radio transmission technology. While the GSM EDGE standard ("2.9G"), DECT cordless phones and Mobile WiMAX standards formally also fulfill the IMT-2000 requirements and are approved as 3G standards by ITU, these are typically not branded 3G, and are based on completely different technologies.
Detailed breakdown of 3G systems

The 3G (UMTS and CDMA2000) research and development projects started in 1992. In 1999, ITU approved five radio interfaces for IMT-2000 as a part of the ITU-R M.1457 Recommendation; WiMAX was added in 2007.[3] There are evolutionary standards (EDGE and CDMA) that are backwards-compatible extensions to pre-existing 2G networks as well as revolutionary standards that require all-new network hardware and frequency allocations. The cell phones used utilise UMTS in combination with 2G GSM standards and bandwidths, but do not support EDGE. The latter group is the UMTS family, which consists of standards developed for IMT-2000, as well as the independently developed standards DECT and WiMAX, which were included because they fit the IMT-2000 definition.

Features:
• Data rates

ITU has not provided a clear definition of the data rate users can expect from 3G equipment or providers. Thus users sold 3G service may not be able to point to a standard and say that the rates it specifies are not being met. While stating in commentary that "it is expected that IMT2000 will provide higher transmission rates: a minimum data rate of 2 Mbit/s for stationary or walking users, and 384 kbit/s in a moving vehicle,"[22] the ITU does not actually clearly specify minimum or average rates or what modes of the interfaces qualify as 3G, so various rates are sold as 3G intended to meet customers expectations of broadband data. • Security

3G networks offer greater security than their 2G predecessors. By allowing the UE (User Equipment) to authenticate the network it is attaching to, the user can be sure the network is the intended one and not an impersonator. 3G networks use the KASUMI block cipher instead of the older A5/1 stream cipher. However, a number of serious weaknesses in the KASUMI cipher have been identified.[23] In addition to the 3G network infrastructure security, end-to-end security is offered when application frameworks such as IMS are accessed, although this is not strictly a 3G property.

Applications of 3G:
The bandwidth and location information available to 3G devices gives rise to applications not previously available to mobile phone users. Some of the applications are:
• • • • •

Mobile TV Video on demand Videoconferencing Telemedicine Location-based services

2.4-4G:
4G (AKA Beyond 3G) is like the other generations in that its advantage lies in promised increased speeds in data transmission. There is currently no formal definition for 4G, but there are objectives. One of these objectives is for 4G to become a fully IP-based system, much like modern computer networks. The supposed speeds for 4G will be between 100 Mbit/s and 1 Gbit/s.

2.5-5G:
5G (5th generation mobile networks or 5th generation wireless systems) is a name used in some research papers and projects to denote the next major phase of mobile telecommunications standards beyond the 4G/IMT-Advanced standards effective since 2011. At present, 5G is not a term officially used for any particular specification or in any official document yet made public by telecommunication companies or standardization bodies such as 3GPP, WiMAX Forum, or ITU-R. New standard releases beyond 4G are in progress by standardization bodies, but are at this time not considered as new mobile generations but under the 4G umbrella.

3.0-Pictorial View of Mobile Evolution:
The graph between the speed and the mobile generations is given in the form of picture;

4.0-Pictorial View of Generations:

5.0-Satellite Mobile:
Now days, Satellite phones are also used everywhere and they are also considered as the part of 4th generation. A satellite telephone, satellite phone, or satphone is a type of mobile phone that connects to orbiting satellites instead of terrestrial cell sites. They provide similar functionality to terrestrial mobile telephones; voice, short messaging service and lowbandwidth internet access are supported through most systems. Depending on the architecture of a particular system, coverage may include the entire Earth, or only specific regions.

A satellite phone

5.1-How does it work?
When an individual makes a call from a satellite phone the signal is sent to the satellites of that particular company. These satellites process the call and relay it back to Earth via a gateway. The gateway then routes the call to its destination using the regular landline and cellular networks. The Globalstar constellation is made up of 48 satellites and every call is relayed by up to 4 satellites down to Globalstar gateways on Earth. Clifton, Texas is home to one of the major Globalstar gateway that services the US. If an individual uses a satellite phone to call another satellite phone then the call is sent up to the satellite from the caller's phone. The satellite then routes the call back down to the receiver's phone without using any land infrastructure. Thus, satellite phones on the same network can be used to call each other without using any landline or cellular phone infrastructures. One important thing to keep in mind with satellite phones is that the phone or the phone's antenna must be located in the open to allow it to have an unobstructed view of the sky. Satellite phones require a clear line-of-sight view of the satellite to be able to send and receive signals from the satellite. While Iridium phones use a non-directional antenna, which means that the antenna need not point in any particular direction, Inmarsat uses geostationary satellites. In this case, the phone's antenna must point directly at the satellite with a clear, unobstructed view to get transmission.

5.2-Features:
5.2.1-Cost of a satellite phone:

Satphones on display

While it is possible to obtain used handsets for the Thuraya, Iridium, and Globalstar networks for approximately US$200, the newest handsets are quite expensive. The Iridium 9505A, released in 2001, sold in March 2010 for over $1,000 USD new. Since satellite phones are purpose-built for one particular network and cannot be switched to other networks, the price of handsets varies with network performance. If a satellite phone provider encounters trouble with its network, handset prices will fall, then increase once new satellites are launched. Similarly, handset prices will increase when calling rates are reduced.

Among the most expensive satellite phones are BGAN terminals, often costing several thousand US dollars. These phones provide broadband Internet and voice communications. Satellite phones are sometimes subsidized by the provider if one signs a post-paid contract but subsidies are usually only a few hundred US dollars or less. Since most satellite phones are built under license or the manufacturing of handsets is contracted out to OEMs, operators have a large influence over the selling price. Satellite networks operate under proprietary closed standards, making it difficult for manufacturers to independently make handsets. 5.2.2-Virtual country codes: Satellite phones are usually issued with numbers in a special country calling code. Inmarst satellite phones are issued with codes +870. In the past additional country codes have been allocated to different satellites but the codes +871 to +874 have been phased out at the end of 2008 leaving Inmarsat users with the same country code regardless of which satellite their terminal is registered with. Low earth orbit systems including some of the defunct ones have been allocated number ranges in the International Telecommunications Union's Global Mobile Satellite System virtual country code +881. Iridium satellite phones are issued with codes +881 6 and +881 7. Globalstar, although allocated +881 8 and +881 9 use U.S. telephone numbers except for service resellers located in Brazil which use the +881 range. Smaller regional satellite phone networks are allocated numbers in the +882 code designated for "international networks" which is not used exclusively for satellite phone networks. 5.2.3-Calling cost: The cost of making voice calls from a satellite phone varies from around $0.15 to $2 per minute, while calling them from landlines and regular mobile phones is more expensive. Costs for data transmissions (particularly broadband data) can be much higher. Rates from landlines and

mobile phones range from $3 to $14 per minute with Iridium, Thuraya and INMARSAT being some of the most expensive networks to call. The receiver of the call pays nothing, unless he is being called via a special reverse-charge service. Making calls between different satellite phone networks is often similarly expensive, with calling rates of up to $15 per minute. Calls from satellite phones to landlines are usually around $0.80 to $1.50 per minute unless special offers are used. Such promotions are usually bound to a particular geographic area where traffic is low. Most satellite phone networks have pre-paid plans, with vouchers ranging from $100 to $5,000. 5.2.4-Use in disaster response: Most mobile telephone networks operate close to capacity during normal times, and large spikes in call volumes caused by widespread emergencies often overload the systems when they are needed most. Examples reported in the media where this has occurred include the September 11 attacks, the 2006 Hawaii earthquake, the 2003 Northeast blackouts, Hurricane Katrina, the 2007 Minnesota bridge collapse, the 2010 Chile earthquake and the Dawson College shooting. Reporters and journalists have also been using satellite phones to communicate and report on events in war zones such as Iraq. Terrestrial cell antennas and networks can be damaged by natural disasters. Satellite telephony can avoid this problem and be useful during natural disasters. Satellite phone networks themselves are prone to congestion as satellites and spot beams cover a large area with relatively few voice channels.

6.0-How to avoid falling in the mobile generation gap?

Many media owners, online commerce companies, and brands have been frustrated by their inability to gain real traction on the mobile web. Well-crafted products languish in the lower depths of the app store. And the people who invested their time and budget in them search for explanations in frustration. The answer may lie in the emerging sociology of media consumers. Ask a group of people where to go for dinner and you will uncover more than who likes Chinese and who prefers French. Within the simple act of evaluating restaurants lie important clues about consumer behavior across media types. An older person might reference a restaurant recommended by a New York Times critic. Another, perhaps in their late 30s, might cite a high score on Zagat. The younger members in the group might mention a place that their friends rated highly on Yelp. Within this simple discussion is the foundation of a cross-generational media strategy. There are effectively three generations of media consumers in the market today: people over 55 years old; people 30-55 years old; and the millennial generation under 30 years old. While these generational boundaries are not absolute, this segmentation works well as an aid to thinking about serving the spectrum of consumers. I will acknowledge in advance that senior citizens are on Facebook and that people in their 30s are inhaling iPhones and iPods. These three generations differ not only by age but also by their preferred method of accessing media and their chosen source of authority.

The oldest generation may be online, but it remains the backbone of the offline media brands. It is overwhelmingly represented by the people sitting on the couch, watching the evening news, reading the morning paper, and subscribing to most magazines. These people look for a

voice of trusted authority. They respect media brands and identify experts that merit their trust. The middle generation is the web generation. Its members' devices of choice are laptops and desktop computers. They are the group that has made Google a powerhouse. When they have a question, they enter it into the search box on their browser and trust that Google will instantly present the most authoritative sources. Brand equity and trust have been transferred from media and retail to Google. The youngest generation is the virtuoso of the cell phone. These individuals treat their phones as the remote controls for their lives and expect that anything and everything should be accessible on the mobile web. This group places the highest value on the opinions of their friends and real people. They believe that Wikipedia is more trustworthy than the Encyclopedia Britannica because articles are accountable to the public rather than a nameless, faceless editor. At its extreme, this group believes that "the truth is what we agree it is." Understanding these three generations of media consumers is more than an exercise in pop ethnography. It should be one of the major drivers of your cross-platform development strategy. It's not enough to simply port your site to a new platform. To be successful, you need to re-imagine your service or website and adapt it for both the platform and the audience. Many brands are still stuck in the thinking that their real business is offline and that their websites are the "e" versions of that real business. Their mobile presences, if they have one, exist to drive consumers to their websites. Each step in the chain is weaker and dumber than the previous one. This is also why incumbents are typically blind-sided by upstarts and startups that create products and services on the new platform without having to worry about an installed base or a legacy business. Re-imagining your brand for a new platform and a new generation is the key to ensuring longterm brand success. Without a re-imagining, your audience will get a little bit older every year and die off a little bit every year.

7.0-Conclusion:
There is an old saying,

“Need is the mother of all inventions”.
After the implementation of 4G, the research work is going on 5G as well. We can hope that soon this technology would also be implemented with new and enhanced features, and it will also bring a revolution in the Telecommunication’s field.

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