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Omar Bin Al-Khattab Sec. School Dept.

of Biology

Transpiration is the loss of water vapor from the aerial parts of plants, especially leaves. Most of transpiration occurs through stomata, and can be thought of as a necessary "cost" associated with the opening of stomata to allow the diffusion of carbon dioxide gas from the air for photosynthesis. Transpiration enables the absorption of minerals and ions and allows water and minerals flow from roots to shoots. This flow is caused by the decrease in hydrostatic pressure in the upper parts of the plants due to the diffusion of water out of stomata into the atmosphere. Water is absorbed into the roots by osmosis, and any dissolved mineral nutrients travel with it through the xylem. Another benefit of transpiration is to cool plants. 1. Define transpiration. ______________________________________________________________. 2. Give three functions of transpiration. 1. ____________________________________________________________. 2. ____________________________________________________________. 3. ____________________________________________________________. 3. What is meant by " transpiration is a necessary "cost" for photosynthesis " ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ 4. How does the transpiration cause water & minerals to move up in the xylem? _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________


Stoma is a tiny opening or pore, found mostly on the underside of a plant leaf and used for gas exchange. The pore is surrounded by a pair of guard cells which are responsible for regulating its opening and closing . Air containing carbon dioxide enters the plant through these openings where it gets used in photosynthesis. Oxygen produced by photosynthesis exits through the same openings. Also, water vapor is released into the atmosphere through these pores. plants usually have more stomata on the lower epidermis than the upper epidermis. Stoma in Greek means "mouth".

1. What are the stomata? _____________________________________________________________ 2. On the following diagram of stoma label by means of arrows the direction of movement of each of the following through stomatal pore during day time. ( CO2 , H2O , O2 ) 3. What are guard cells? What is their function? ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ _____________________________________________

Opening and closing of stomata When conditions are conducive to stomatal opening (e.g., high light intensity and high humidity), a proton pump drives protons ( H+ ) from the guard cells. This means that the cells' electrical potential becomes increasingly negative, and so an uptake of potassium ions ( K+ ) occurs. This in turn increases the osmotic pressure inside the cell, drawing in water through osmosis. This increases the cell's volume and turgor pressure. Then, because of rings of cellulose microfibrils that prevent the width of the guard cells from swelling, and thus only allow the extra turgor pressure to elongate the guard cells, whose ends are held firmly in place by surrounding epidermal cells, the two guard cells lengthen by bending apart from one another, creating an open pore through which gas can move. When the roots begin to sense a water shortage in the soil, abscisic acid (ABA) is released . ABA binds to certain receptors in the guard cells' plasma membranes, which cause the loss of K+ from the guard cells. The loss of K+ causes a reduction in osmotic pressure, thus making the cell flaccid and so closing the stomatal pores. Interestingly, the guard cells do have chloroplasts whereas other epidermal cells do not.


1. Complete the following concept maps :
When conditions are favorable

H+ is pumped ___________________ guard cell Guard cells become ______________ charged

K+ ________________ guard cell

This ____________ _________ pressure of the guard cell

Water __________ the guard cells by _____________

Guard cells ______________ and _______________

Stomatal pore _______________

When roots sense a water shortage in soil

_________ is released and binds to receptors in guard cell

K+ ____________________ from guard cells

This ____________ ____________ pressure of the guard cell

Water ____________ the guard cells by _____________

Guard cells become ______________

Stomatal pore ______________


The rate of transpiration However, because water loss occurs by diffusion, the transpiration rate depends on two things: the gradient in humidity from the leaf's internal air spaces to the outside air, and the diffusion resistance provided by the stomatal pores. The humidity gradient is influenced by temperature, humidity, and wind speed. Where as the size of stomatal opening is determined mainly by factors such as the surrounding light intensity, soil water supply and soil temperature. A fully grown tree may lose several hundred gallons (a few cubic meters) of water through its leaves on a hot, dry day. About 90% of the water that enters a plant's roots is used for this process. Environmental factors that affect the rate of transpiration 1. Light : Plants transpire more rapidly in the light than in the dark. This is largely because light stimulates the opening of the stomata. 2. Temperature : Plants transpire more rapidly at higher temperatures because water evaporates more rapidly as the temperature rises. At 30°C, a leaf may transpire three times as fast as it does at 20°C. Also temperature cause air to expand, this cause air to hold much more water molecules and so increase the rate of transpiration. 3. Humidity : The rate of diffusion of any substance increases as the difference in concentration of the substances in the two regions increases. When the surrounding air is dry, diffusion of water out of the leaf goes on more rapidly. 4. Wind : When there is no breeze, the air surrounding a leaf becomes increasingly humid thus reducing the rate of transpiration. When a breeze is present, the humid air is carried away and replaced by drier air. Under windy conditions stomata are triggered to close to reduce water lose .


1. Complete the following concept map :
Rate of transpiration depends on

1. _____________________________

2. _______________________________

Which depends on : 1. _____________________ 2. _____________________ 3. _____________________ Measuring the rate of transpiration :

Which depends on : 1. _____________________ 2. _____________________ 3. _____________________

Transpiration rate of plants can be measured by a number of techniques, one is the potometer. potometer is a device used for measuring the rate of water uptake of a leafy shoot. The reasons for water uptake are for photosynthesis and transpiration. There are two main types of potometers used - the mass potometer and the bubble potometer. The mass potometer consists of a plant with its root submerged in a beaker. This beaker is then placed on a digital balance; readings can be made to determine the amount of water lost by the plant. It is important to note that the mass potometer measures the water lost through transpiration of the plant and not the water taken up by the plant. bubble potometer consists of a length of capillary tube. A bubble is introduced to the capillary; as water is taken up by the plant, the bubble moves. By marking regular graduations on the tube, it is possible to measure water uptake.
Air bubble Reservoir


1. A student carried an experiment to investigate the effect of light on the rate of transpiration. He set-up a photometer as shown below. The air bubble was adjusted to be at zero. He put the device100 cm away from a table lamp ( the only source of
Distance ( cm ) 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 Time needed for a bubble to travel 10 cm ( sec ) 335 330 320 290 250 210 170 130 100 85

light ). The time needed for a bubble to travel the length of 10 cm along the tube was estimated. The student reset the bubble to zero again and repeat the same procedure at distance 90 cm and so on. The following table shows his results.

1. interpret these results by using a suitable form of graph.

2. What could the student conclude from this experiment? ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________
3. How could the student reset the air bubble to zero every time he repeated the experiment?

4. The surface of the water should not be exposed to the air. Explain why.


Adaptations of xerophytes : Many types of habitats can be found in nature with respect to water supply. These can be divided into xeric, mesic, and hydric habitats. The plants that are adapted for living in these habitats are called xerophytes, mesophytes, and hydrophytes, respectively. • Xerophytes include plants that live in habitats where the supply of water is deficient. • Mesophytes include plants that live in regions of average water conditions. • Hydrophytes include plants that live on the surface of water or submerged at various depths. The following table shows some adaptations of xerophytes : Adaptation Small thick leaves or rolled leaves Leaves reduced to spines A thick cuticle Stomata concentrated on lower leaf surface Leaves shed in driest months Leaves covered in hairs Fleshy stems Stomata open at night and close during daytime Importance