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Introduction: Prepositions are the words that indicate location. Usually, prepositions show this location in the physical world. Examples:
The puppy is on the floor.
The puppy is in the trash can.
The puppy is beside the phone.
On, in, and beside are all prepositions. They are showing where the puppy is. Prepositions can also show location in time. Examples: At midnight, Jill craved mashed potatoes with grape jelly. In the spring, I always vow to plant tomatoes but end up buying them at the supermarket. During the marathon, Iggy's legs complained with sharp pains shooting up his thighs. At midnight, in the spring, and during the marathon all show location in time. Because there are so many possible locations, there are quite a few prepositions. Below is the complete list.
onto on top of
When it is used as a preposition. but means the same as except—Everyone ate frog legs but Jamie. . • Understand how to form a prepositional phrase. .according to across after against along along with among apart from around as as for at because of before behind below beneath beside between beyond but* by by means of down during except except for excepting for from in in addition to in back of in case of in front of in place of inside in spite of instead of into like near next of off on out out of outside over past regarding round since through throughout till to toward under underneath unlike until up upon up to with within without • But is very seldom a preposition. Prepositional phrases look like this: + OPTIONAL +NOUN. PREPOSITION MODIFIERS PRONOUN OR GERUND Here are some examples: At school At = preposition. Prepositions generally introduce prepositional phrases. But usually functions as acoordinating conjunction. school = noun.
By chewing By = preposition. kissed = verb. stove = noun. Before I eat these frog legs Before = subordinate conjunction. Esmerelda= subjects. A subordinate conjunction will have both a subject and a verb following it. These prepositions are after. Examples: After Sam and Esmerelda kissed goodnight After = subordinate conjunction. Some prepositions also function as subordinate conjunctions. Until your hiccups stop Until = subordinate conjunction. and until. Under the stove Under = preposition. I = subject. chewing = gerund. rumpled sheets In = preposition. Realize that some prepositions also function as subordinate conjunctions. Jerome = subject. sheets = noun. as. Since we have enjoyed the squid eyeball stew Since = subordinate conjunction. us = pronoun. forming a subordinate clause. As Jerome buckled on the parachute As = subordinate conjunction. before. Sam. the. rumpled = modifiers.have enjoyed = verb. crumb-filled. then all you have is a prepositional phrase. stop = verb. Look at these examples: . hiccups = subject.According to us According to = preposition. In the crumb-filled. If you find a noun [with or without modifiers] following one of these five prepositions. we = subject.since.buckled = verb. the = modifier. eat = verb.
In the following sentences.After the killer calculus test After = preposition. Before dinner Before = preposition. unlike most rules. If we want to follow a preposition by a verb. Rule A preposition is followed by a "noun". the. calculus = modifiers. this rule has no exceptions. the = modifier. By "noun" we include: • • • • • noun (dog. It is never followed by a verb. according to the above rule: • • I would like to go now. dinner = noun. And. test = noun. midnight = noun. Until midnight Until = preposition. why is "to" followed by a verb? That should be impossible. Mary) pronoun (you. good = modifiers. breakup = noun. we must use the "-ing" form which is really a gerund or verb in noun form. us) noun group (my first job) gerund (swimming) A preposition cannot be followed by a verb. love) proper noun (name) (Bangkok. As a good parent As = preposition. parent = noun. Here are some examples: . a. She used to smoke. Rules: There is one very simple rule about prepositions. Since the breakup Since = preposition. money. killer. him.
your blue book. working.Subject + verb The food is She lives Tara is looking The letter is Pascal is used She isn't used I ate preposition on in for under to to before "noun" the table. English people. Japan. Prepositions . to) that usually stand in front of nouns (sometimes also in front of gerund verbs). The only way to learn prepositions is looking them up in a dictionary. One preposition in your native language might have several translations depending on the situation. reading a lot in English (literature) and learning useful phrases off by heart (study tips). as a 1:1 translation is usually not possible. Even advanced learners of English find prepositions difficult.are short words (on. in. you. coming. There are hardly any rules as to when to use which preposition. The following table contains rules for some of the most frequently used prepositions in English: Prepositions – Time English • • Usage Example on in days of the week months / seasons time of day year after a certain period of time (when?) on Monday in August / in winter in the morning in 2006 in an hour • at for night for weekend a certain point of time (when?) at night at the weekend at half past nine .
at the station at the table at a concert. building. in London in the book in the car. country book. in the world at the door. I had read five pages. in a taxi in the picture. • by in the sense of at the latest up to a certain time I will be back by 6 o’clock. by an object for table for events place where you are to do something typical (watch a film. world in the kitchen. paper etc. at the party • at meaning next to. town. Prepositions – Place (Position and Direction) English • Usage Example in room.English • Usage Example since • from a certain point of time (past till now) since 1980 for 2 years 2 years ago before 2004 ten to six (5:50) ten past six (6:10) from Monday to/till Friday for ago before over a certain period of time (past till now) • • • • • a certain time in the past earlier than a certain point of time to past to / till / until till / until telling the time telling the time marking the beginning and end of a period of time in the sense of how long something is going to last • He is on holiday until Friday. work) . taxi picture. car. study. street. By 11 o'clock.
but not directly over it getting to the other side (also over) getting to the other side • • walk across the bridge swim across the lake drive through the tunnel through • something with limits on top. at work • on attached for a place with a river being on a surface for a certain side (left.English Usage Example at the cinema. at school. beside • left or right of somebody or something Jane is standing by / next to / beside the car. bottom and the sides to movement to person or building movement to a place or country for bed go to the cinema go to London / Ireland go to bed go into the kitchen / • into enter a room / a building . on a plane on TV. on the table on the left on the first floor on the bus. right) for a floor in a house for public transport for television. radio the picture on the wall London lies on the Thames. lower than (or covered by) something else lower than something else but above ground • • covered by something else meaning more than getting to the other side (also across) overcoming an obstacle • above across higher than something else. the bag is under the table the fish are below the surface put a jacket over your shirt over 16 years of age walk over the bridge climb over the wall a path above the lake under below over on the ground. next to. on the radio • by.
. months. hours. by bus she learned Russian at 45 we were talking about you • • at abo ut for age for topics. years). days.English Usage Example the house • towards • • movement in the direction of something (but not directly to it) movement to the top of something go 5 steps towards the house onto from jump onto the table a flower from the garden in the sense of where from Other important Prepositions English • Usage Example fro m of by on who gave it a present from Jane a page of the book the picture of a palace a book by Mark Twain on foot. on horseback get on the bus • who/what does it belong to what does it show • • who made it walking or riding on horseback entering a public transport vehicle • • • in off out of by entering a car / Taxi get in the car get off the train get out of the taxi leaving a public transport vehicle leaving a car / Taxi • rise or fall of something travelling (other than walking or horseriding) prices have risen by 10 percent by car. minutes. meaning what about Prepositions of Time: for and since We use for when we measure time (seconds. He held his breath for seven minutes.
they would have become one word. Adjectives.) This occurs in three categories: nouns. NOUNS and PREPOSITIONS approval of awareness of belief in concern for confusion about desire for fondness for grasp of hatred of hope for interest in love of need for participation in reason for respect for success in understanding of ADJECTIVES and PREPOSITIONS afraid of angry at aware of capable of careless about familiar with fond of happy about interested in jealous of made of married to proud of similar to sorry for sure of tired of worried about VERBS and PREPOSITIONS apologize for ask about ask for belong to bring up care for find out give up grow up look for look forward to look up make up pay for prepare for study for talk about think about trust in work for worry about A combination of verb and preposition is called a phrasal verb. Prepositions are sometimes so firmly wedded to other words that they have practically become one word. adjectives. and Verbs. The British and Irish have been quarreling for seven centuries. and verbs.She's lived there for seven years. (In fact. We use since with a specific date or time. Please refer to the brief section we have prepared on phrasal verbs for an explanation. The word that is joined to the verb is then called a particle. . in other languages. such as German. He's worked here since 1970. She's been sitting in the waiting room since two-thirty. Prepositions with Nouns.
with a person • live at an address. but we must be especially careful not to use them in formal. when the idiomatic use of phrases calls for different prepositions. [or use "in"] Where did they go to? Put the lamp in back of the couch. • • • • • • • She met up with the new coach in the hallway. in principle • argue about a matter. I found the picture in the paper. Prepositions at. He sits in the corner of the room. The children were interested in and disgusted by the movie. There are trouts in the river. I see a house in the picture. academic prose. with a person. in a house or city. However. He was fascinated by and enamored of this beguiling woman. The book fell off of the desk. The female was both attracted by and distracted by the male's dance. we must be careful not to omit one of them. with to show differences (sometimes similarities) • correspond to a thing. He lives in Paris. with other people Unnecessary Prepositions In everyday speech.Idiomatic Expressions with Prepositions • agree to a proposal. for or against a proposition • compare to to show likenesses. It was clear that this player could both contribute to and learn from every game he played. You can wear that outfit in summer and in winter. on a price. we fall into some bad habits. using prepositions where they are not necessary. in. [use "behind" instead] Where is your college at? Prepositions in Parallel Form When two words or phrases are used in parallel and require the same preposition to be idiomatically correct. She wouldn't let the cat inside of the house. . with a person. It would be a good idea to eliminate these words altogether. on a street. with a person • differ from an unlike thing. the preposition does not have to be used twice. He threw the book out of the window. on Preposition in Examples We sit in the room.
Can we meet at the corner of the street? I met John at a party. Look at the top of the page. He plays in the street. on The photo hangs on the wall. I have to stay in bed. You mustn't park your car in front of the school. The bus stops at Graz. Pat wasn't at home yesterday. The robber is in prison now. The childen are at gandmother's. He is in town. Dresden lies on the river Elbe.He sits in the back of the car. Men's clothes are on the second floor. My cousin lives in the country. He lives on a farm. He gets in the car. He always arrives late at school. The picture is on page 10. The map lies on the desk. She likes walking in the rain. Open your books at page 10. at The car stands at the end of the street. There are kites in the sky. (BE) She lives in a hotel. I study economics at university. We arrive in Madrid. I stand at the door. There is a big tree in the middle of the garden. . He's looking at the park. I stay at my grandmother's. The boys stand in a line. She sits at the desk.
They're walking along the beach. Prepositions of place and direction Preposition above across after against along among around behind below beside between by close to down from in front of inside into near next to off onto Use higher than sth. Do you come from Tokyo? Our house is in front of the supermarket. Our house is close to the supermarket. . moving to a place Examples The picture hangs above my bed. When she was a little girl people saw unrealistic cowboy films on television. He lives in the house by the river. Our house is next to the supermarket. Write this information on the front of the letter. The shop is on the left. He came down the hill. You mustn't go across this road here. from one point to another in a group in a circular way at the back of lower than sth. Our house is near the supermarket. You shouldn't go into the castle./sb. We're sitting around the campfire. The cat jumped off the roof. close to beside away from sth. The bird flew against the window. Our house is behind the supermarket. Our house is beside the supermarket. Our house is between the supermarket and the school. You shouldn't stay inside the castle. from one side to the other side one follows the other directed towards sth. I like being among people. The cat jumped onto the roof. The cat ran after the dog. in a line.He lives on Heligoland. My friend is on the way to Moscow. After you. is on each side near near from high to low the place where it starts the part that is in the direction it faces opposite of outside entering sth. There isn't a bridge across the river. Death Valley is 86 metres below sea level. next to sth.
This is a lamp This is a chair Where is the lamp? beside / next to The lamp is beside the chair. We're sitting round the campfire. Go past the post office. The cat jumped out of the window./sb./sb. Can you wait outside? The cat jumped over the wall. to towards under up Can you come to me? I've never been to Africa. opposite of inside above sth. in a circle going from one point to the other point towards sth. The cat is under the table./sb. You shouldn't walk through the forest. from low to high Our house is opposite the supermarket. or The lamp is next to the chair. Where is the chair? in front of The chair is in front of the lamp. below sth. I like going to Australia. Where is the lamp? behind . We ran towards the castle. going near sth.opposite out of outside over past round through on the other side leaving sth. He went up the hill. in the direction of sth.
Naturally Speaking . or The chair is beneath the lamp." "No. Where is the chair? under / beneath / underneath The chair is under the lamp." .English Dialogue Meet Frank and Nicole. "Nicole. You left them behind the basket. Frank is always forgetting things. He is forgetful.The lamp is behind the chair. or The lamp is on top of the chair. or The chair is underneath the lamp. Have you seen my keys? I thought I'd put them on top of my briefcase. Where is the lamp? on / on top of The lamp is on the chair.
" Why did I put them there? Good question! Preposition of movement: Prepositions can be used to show movement. in front of the window. For example:I moved to Germany in 1998. beside the bed?" "No! The dining room table. ."The basket above the coat rack?" "No. For example: to. The one under the table." "The table in the bedroom. He's gone to the shops. across We use to to show movement with the aim of a specific destination. through.
instead of to the batsman. When used after some verbs. Let's have dinner at my place. the tunnel. but it's used to show the purpose of the movement. (from one side of an open space to the other) the road. the track. More prepositions of movement She ran to through across along down over off round into the door. At and in can also be used as prepositions of movement.We use through to show movement from one side of an enclosed space to the other. (the length of the road) the road. For example: She swam across the river. (the length of the road) the bridge. Picture It Clip Art Preposition Example . (from one side of an open space to the other) the stage. the preposition at also shows the target of an action: The bowler was sent off for throwing the ball at the umpire. the room. For example: Throw the paper in the bin. We use across to show movement from one side of a surface or line to another. For example: The train went through the tunnel. (from one side of an enclosed space to the other) the road.
some might be new. Things and people move. Some of these might look familiar." down "He skied down the mountain." off "The man ran off the cliff." along "He walked along the road. but they all show movement or direction:- ." round "The arrow is movinground the ball." through across "He swam across the channel." into "The man poured the sand into the timer.to "He carried the rubbish to the bin." over "They walked overthe bridge." "The train camethrough the tunnel. so you need to know some more prepositions to show the movement or direction.
Oh no! The paint is falling off the table and onto the floor.Americans tend to say "around" instead of "round" The ball is rolling down the hill. Sam the dog and Spooky the cat.English Dialogue Do you remember Nicole and Frank? Nicole is telling Frank about their two naughty pets. “Why? What happened?” asked Frank. “You will not believe what a crazy day I had. Naturally Speaking . Sam is chasing Spooky round the bowl. Frank!” said Nicole.across | along down in / into off | onto | over past round through | to | towards !Note . The rabbit is popping out of the hat. .
" . to get her down!" "Hmm. I was sat on a chair in the lounge and Sam suddenly chased Spooky towards me. it fell off the table." said Frank. and into the garden. "Maybe Sam needs to go to training classes. and they both ran to the back door.“Well. Finally Sam chased Spooky along the garden path and up the tree.” "I had to call the firebrigade. past me andinto the dining room." "Then they ran through the door.onto the floor and broke into little pieces!" "Then Spooky jumped in the box that was under the table.” “Spooky was so frightened she jumped on the table in the dining room. but then Spooky jumped out of the box. ran across it and knocked the vase that was on the table over.” Sam ran under the box. and roundthe chair. I started shouting at him.
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