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Jeffrey C.

Magadan BSBA - FTM

WHY TRAIN

On the job training (OJT) is job training that occurs in the work place. The new employee learns the job while doing the job and while earning his or her pay check. On the job training is also called hands on training. On the job training has many advantages, but it can also have a few disadvantages if the OJT is not properly planned and executed.

One major drawback of on the job training can be finding the right time for it. The person responsible for giving and evaluating the training has to be sure that his or her other job responsibilities are being met. Another disadvantage of OJT is that it can be difficult to find the right person to conduct it. The person doing the training must have the knowledge and skills with the same equipment that the learner will be working with. Care must also be given not to pass on sloppy work habits or unintentionally teach irrelevant or inefficient work methods to the new worker/learner.

If these disadvantages are eliminated, however, on the job training can be beneficial for both the company and the new employee. OJT can be cost-effective for the business since a separate training program isn't required and the training is part of the actual work shifts. No extra equipment is needed as the new worker learns on the equipment needed for the job anyway. On the job training often works out really well for the new employee since traditional training periods tend to have a training allowance that may be lower than the regular pay scale for the job.

Also, there is no need for the new worker to have to travel to one place for the training and another for the job. Many times the person who will be doing the training and evaluation is the new worker's supervisor or manager so this also establishes job expectations right at the start. The feedback during on the job training is also immediate, so the new employee may experience faster growth in the job than he or she would in other types of training situations. WHY PEOPLE LEARN

The learner is self-directing. Learners want to take responsibility for their own lives, including planning, implementing and evaluating their learning activities. From the beginning the trainer needs to establish the training process as a collaborative effort and throughout the process both parties should be partners engaged in on-going two-way communication.

People build on prior experience. Each of us brings to a learning situation a wealth of experience that provides a base for a new learning and serves as a resource to share with others. Good or bad, the prior experience will affect the way an employee approaches a new task and the new information must be assimilated. The savvy trainer determines what the trainee already knows and builds on that experience instead of assuming he or she knows nothing and must be taught like a small child.

People are ready to learn when they see a need to know or do something in order to perform more effectively. The days of abstract theories and concepts are almost over for most of the people. They want the learning experience to be practical and realistic. The effective trainer helps the trainee understand how to master a particular skill or task will boost job success, that is, how the employee can do the job quicker, easier, or more efficiently. This is particularly important in a retraining situation where the employee may resist the change.

People want a real-world application now. They want the skill and knowledge to help them complete the tasks or solve problems they are currently confronting. People are motivated to learn when the topic is relevant to their lives and they want to apply the learning as quickly as possible. Therefore, effective trainers deliver just-in-time training and they emphasize how the new skill will make work easier.

People are motivated to learn by internal factors. Internal motivators such as self-esteem, recognition natural curiosity, innate love of learning, better quality of life, enhanced self-confidence, or the opportunity to self-actualize drive the people to learn. Just as people work for different reason, they want to learn for different reasons. The effective trainer indentifies the trainees Whats In It For Me (WIIFM) and clearly links to the training.

HOW PEOPLE LEARN

Concrete Experience. People who favor this mode learn through feeling rather than thinking. They like to be involved with people, and they prefer less structure in the learning environment. They approach learning with an open-mind.

Reflective Observation. This mode focuses on learning by watching or observing. These learners try to understand the meaning of ideas and situations by observing them and objectively describing what they see.

Abstract Conceptualization. Those who learn by this method prefer thinking over feeling. They take scientific, systematic approach of learning.

Active Experimentation. With the emphasis on practical application, learners who prefer this mode are action-oriented and want to get things done. They take risks.

ON-THE-JOB TRAINING OR CLASSROOM TRAINING

The results showed that the trainees with the structured on-the-job training approach had higher levels of self-efficacy to achieve the training outcomes than those with the classroom training approach. In addition, the results showed that, for the trainees with high general self-efficacy, structured on-the-job training and classroom training had equal influence on the trainees self-efficacy to achieve the training outcomes. However, for trainees with low general self-efficacy, those who received structured on-the-job training had higher self-efficacy to achieve the training outcomes than those who received the classroom training. Furthermore, the results showed that there was a moderate relationship between the trainees general self-efficacy and their self-efficacy to achieve training outcomes for the total sample and for the classroom training group. However, the correlation between general self-efficacy and self-efficacy to achieve training outcomes for the S-OJT group showed a low or weak relationship. The results of this study have several useful implications for future research in the HRD area as well as for practitioners in business, adult education, and human resource management.

PREPARING TO TRAIN

Seven Steps of Preparation before the Actual Performance of the Assigned Task

1. Demonstrate how to complete a task. 2. Review important points. 3. Demonstrate task again. 4. Let workers perform easier parts of the task. 5. Help workers perform the entire task. 6. Allow workers to perform the entire task, while being monitored. 7. Allow workers to perform the task on their own.

HOW TO DO ON-THE-JOB TRAINING

Charles "Skipper" R. Allen, who based the program on the ideas of the psychologist Johann Friedrich Herbart. Allen sought to make training more efficient by having trainees undergo four steps: 1. Preparation: show workers what they are required to do. 2. Presentation: tell workers what they are required to do and why they are required to do it. 3. Application: let workers perform the required tasks. 4. Inspection: provide feedback, informing workers of what they have done right and what they have done wrong.

WHAT TO DO WHEN THE TRAINING IS OVER

Job Performance Measure What about testing? This is accomplished by the Job Performance Measure (JPM). The JPM is the practical test portion of the OJT lesson and provides a checklist of the tasks that must be performed and the standards to which they must be performed. During performance of the JPM, the trainee performs the designated tasks under observation of but without the assistance of the trainer. Upon successful completion of the JPM, both trainer and trainee sign and initial for each task. The completed JPM document may serve as an official record of training.

Supporting Documentation As mentioned above, the lesson guide lists supporting documentation required for the lesson. A key part of the OJT development process involves identifying which documents should be used to support the OJT lesson. Where possible, existing documents should be used, and may consist of:

Existing work instructions Safety instructions Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) Preventive maintenance (PM) procedures Checklists and job aids Piping and Instrumentation Diagrams (P&IDs) Federal, state, or local regulations and manuals Equipment technical manuals Training manuals Vendor documents Safety instructions

In some cases, new supporting documents may need to be developed that will provide the baseline information needed to conduct effective OJT.