Health, Education, Social Protection News & Notes 10/2012

A bi-weekly newsletter supported by GIZ (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit)
06 May 2012
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Table of Contents: BOOKS ................................................................................ 4
Improving Equity in Health by Addressing Social Determinants ............................................. 4 Tinderbox: How the West Sparked the AIDS Epidemic and How the World Can Finally Overcome It ............................................................................................................................. 4

ONLINE PUBLICATIONS .................................................... 4
Global Health.............................................................................................................. 4
WHO reform: Consolidated report by the Director-General .................................................... 4 USAID’s Global Health Strategic Framework: Better Health for Development....................... 5 Global Fund Monitoring & Evaluation Toolkit: HIV, Tuberculosis, Malaria and Health and Community Systems Strengthening........................................................................................ 5 The New Global Health Agenda: Universal Health Coverage ................................................ 5 Saving lives and creating impact: Why investing in global health research works ................. 6

HIV - AIDS - STI ......................................................................................................... 6
United to end AIDS: achieving the targets of the 2011 Political Declaration .......................... 6 Separating Fact from Fiction - Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision: An evidence-based, proven HIV prevention strategy............................................................................................... 6 HIV Infection and the Incidence of Malaria Among HIV-Exposed Children from Tanzania.... 7 Are Expert Patients an Untapped Resource for ART Provision in Sub-Saharan Africa? ....... 7 Maternal and infant antiretroviral regimens to prevent postnatal HIV-1 transmission: 48week follow-up of the BAN randomised controlled trial........................................................... 7 Mapping the Legal Framework to Prevent Sexual Violence & HIV in South Africa’s Correctional Facilities .............................................................................................................. 7 Engaging Traditional Leaders in the Prevention of HIV and Gender-Based Violence............ 8 The Crane Survey Report 2010 .............................................................................................. 8

Sexual & Reproductive Health .................................................................................... 8
Collateral Damage: The Social Impact of Laws affecting LGBT in Guyana ........................... 8

Maternal & Child Health.............................................................................................. 9
Reducing maternal mortality: better monitoring, indicators and benchmarks needed to improve emergency obstetric care .......................................................................................... 9 Potential Intussusception Risk Versus Health Benefits From Rotavirus Vaccination in Latin America ................................................................................................................................... 9 Progress for Children: A report card on adolescents ............................................................ 10 Adolescent Health ................................................................................................................. 10 Born Too Soon: The Global Action Report on Preterm Birth ................................................ 10

Malaria ..................................................................................................................... 10
Test. Treat. Track. Scaling up diagnostic testing, treatment and surveillance for malaria.... 10 Financial Times Health: Combating Malaria ......................................................................... 11 Global Warming and Health: The Issue of Malaria in Eastern Africa’s Highlands ................ 11 Malaria resurgence: a systematic review and assessment of its causes ............................. 11

HESP-News & Notes - 10/2012 - page 1

Adverse effects of falciparum and vivax malaria and the safety of antimalarial treatment in early pregnancy: a population-based study .......................................................................... 12 Disease Surveillance for Malaria Control: An Operational Manual ....................................... 12 Disease Surveillance for Malaria Elimination: An Operational Manual ................................. 12

Tuberculosis ............................................................................................................. 13
Improving early detection of tuberculosis among most-at-risk populations through verbal screening ............................................................................................................................... 13 Viewpoint: Challenges and Opportunities in Tuberculosis Research ................................... 13 Facing the Reality of Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis: Challenges and Potential Solutions in India....................................................................................................................................... 13

Other Infectious Diseases......................................................................................... 14
Challenge Paper: Infectious Disease .................................................................................... 14 PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases: A Research Agenda for the Control and Elimination of Human Helminthiases ........................................................................................................... 14 Infestation of the jigger flea in resource-poor communities in Africa .................................... 14 Ten months and counting: Report of the Independent Monitoring Board of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative .............................................................................................................. 15

Essential Medicines .................................................................................................. 15
Ethical and Scientific Issues in Studying the Safety of Approved Drugs .............................. 15

Social Protection....................................................................................................... 15
Bolsa Família, its Design, its Impacts and Possibilities for the Future.................................. 15 The Impact of Colombia’s Pension and Health Insurance Systems on Informality .............. 16 Poverty, Inequality and Social Policies in Brazil, 1995-2009 ................................................ 16 Good practice in the development of management information systems for social protection ............................................................................................................................................... 16 The price of income security in older age: Cost of a universal pension in 50 low- and middle income countries ................................................................................................................... 17

Water, Sanitation & Hygiene..................................................................................... 17
Shutting the Spigot on Private Water: The case for the World Bank to divest...................... 17 On the right track: Good Practices in realising the rights to water and sanitation ................ 17

Human Resources.................................................................................................... 18
Non-physician providers of obstetric care in Mexico: Perspectives of physicians, obstetric nurses and professional midwives ........................................................................................ 18 Programme level implementation of malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) use: outcomes and cost of training health workers at lower level health care facilities in Uganda ............... 18 The Midwives Service Scheme in Nigeria............................................................................. 18 Information systems on human resources for health: A global review.................................. 19

Health Systems & Research ..................................................................................... 19
Introduction to Qualitative Research Methodology ............................................................... 19 Where There Is No Health Research: What Can Be Done to Fill the Global Gaps in Health Research? ............................................................................................................................. 19 Neglected tropical disease (NTD) control in health systems: The interface between programmes and general health services ............................................................................. 19 Translating evidence into practice: the role of health research funders ............................... 20 A Controlled Study of Funding for Human Immunodeficiency Virus / Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome as Resource Capacity Building in the Health System in Rwanda ................................................................................................................................. 20 Is operational research delivering the goods? The journey to success in low-income countries ................................................................................................................................ 21 The Danish health care system: An analysis of strengths, weakness, opportunities and threats.................................................................................................................................... 21

Information & Communication Technology ............................................................... 21
Digital Dividend for Mobile: Bringing Broadband to All ......................................................... 21 Youth and ICTs ..................................................................................................................... 22

Education ................................................................................................................. 22
Turning on Mobile Learning in Latin America........................................................................ 22 Rights from the Start: Early childhood care and education................................................... 22 Is Preschool Good for Kids?.................................................................................................. 23 Fighting Corruption in the Education Sector: Methods, Tools and Good Practices.............. 23

Harm Reduction and Drug Use................................................................................. 23
Tobacco Watch 2012: Monitoring Countries’ Performance on the Global Treaty................. 23

HESP-News & Notes - 10/2012 - page 2

Deadly alliance: How Big Tobacco and Convenience Stores Partner to Market Tobacco Products and Fight Life-Saving Policies................................................................................ 24 Women who inject drugs: A review of their risks, experiences and needs ........................... 24 New heroin-assisted treatment.............................................................................................. 24

Millennium Development Goals ................................................................................ 25
Global Monitoring Report 2012: Food Prices, Nutrition, and the Millennium Development Goals ..................................................................................................................................... 25 Beyond the Millennium Development Goals: Agreeing to a Post-2015 Development Framework ............................................................................................................................ 25 Note for the High Level Panel Discussion on “Articulating a Post-2015 MDG Agenda” ....... 25

Development Assistance .......................................................................................... 26
Implications of rigorous impact evaluations for development agencies ................................ 26 Aid Tying and Donor Fragmentation ..................................................................................... 26 Trade and Development Report, 1981-2011: Three decades of thinking development ....... 26 Aid for Nutrition: Can investments to scale up nutrition actions be accurately tracked? ...... 27 European Union - Development Assistance Committee (DAC) Peer Review 2012 ............. 27 The BRIC Countries .............................................................................................................. 27 On Niebel’s Autobahn to Africa, potholes ............................................................................. 28

Others ...................................................................................................................... 28
Protecting Health from Climate Change................................................................................ 28 People and the Planet ........................................................................................................... 28 Patients Without Borders: Medical Tourism and Medical Migration in Southern Africa........ 29

ELECTRONIC RESOURCES ............................................ 29
Medical Wiki Ganfyd.............................................................................................................. 29 Social Medicine, Vol. 6, No. 3 (2012) .................................................................................... 29 e-WABA Link Issue 1/2012, January-April 2012 ................................................................... 29 Eurohealth Volume 18, Number 1, 2012............................................................................... 30 Bulletin of the World Health Organization - Vol. 90, Nr. 5, May 2012 ................................... 30

INTERESTING WEB SITES .............................................. 30
Social Protection Floor (SPF)................................................................................................ 30 Action for Global Health (AFGH) ........................................................................................... 31 Asia Pacific HealthGAEN ...................................................................................................... 31 Evidence-informed policy-making ......................................................................................... 31 Politics of Medicines’ Encyclopaedia .................................................................................... 31

TRAINING OPPORTUNITIES............................................ 31
Modelling Approaches for HTA: a Practical Hands-on Workshop ........................................ 31 MSc in Tropical Medicine ...................................................................................................... 32

CONFERENCES................................................................ 32
Appropriate Healthcare Technologies for Developing Countries - AHT2012 ....................... 32 ACT now: Accuracy, Completeness, and Transparency in health research reporting ......... 32

CARTOON ......................................................................... 33 TIPS & TRICKS ................................................................. 33
Quick iPad Period Placement................................................................................................ 33 Take an iPad Screenshot ...................................................................................................... 33 Go For A (Google) Drive ....................................................................................................... 33

HESP-News & Notes - 10/2012 - page 3

BOOKS
Improving Equity in Health by Addressing Social Determinants
Edited by Jennifer H Lee and Ritu Sadana The Commission on Social Determinants of Health Knowledge Networks, World Health Organization, 2011 319 pp. 1.5 MB: http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2011/9789241503037_eng.pdf The report by the Commission on Social Determinants of Health represents a watershed moment in public health. It marks the first systematic and truly comprehensive attempt to draw together data and evidence on social determinants that is pluralistic and diverse methodologically, empirically and theoretically. It is a cry for political action in support of the action against those elements which do so much damage to human health, and it is an important signpost for action - political and scientific. ***

Tinderbox: How the West Sparked the AIDS Epidemic and How the World Can Finally Overcome It
by Craig Timberg and Daniel Halperin The Penguin Press, 2012; 432 pp. ISBN 159420327X; Price US$ 19.95 To order online go to: http://www.amazon.com/gp/search?ie=UTF8&tag=foreaffamaga20&index=books&keywords=159420327X We have all heard the myths and hypotheses about the origins of the epidemic caused by the HI virus, but this new book sheds more light on where it all began. It is a fascinating account of the medical detective work that traced the disease to Cameroon a century ago. One goal of “Tinderbox” is to change public perceptions about AIDS. No longer a great mystery, HIV has been identified as a mutable virus with a documented history. The second popular perception the book addresses is that AIDS prevention and treatment can be “one size fits all”.

ONLINE PUBLICATIONS
Global Health WHO reform: Consolidated report by the Director-General
World Health Organization, 25 April 2012 28 pp. 163 kB: http://apps.who.int/gb/ebwha/pdf_files/WHA65/A65_5-en.pdf The consolidated reform document is the result of a one year long Member State driven process that started after a decision at the Executive Board last May. This report, which forms part of a package of documentation on reform, presents Member States with a comprehensive overview of the reform programme. It is organized in three sections, HESP-News & Notes - 10/2012 - page 4

which address the three substantive areas of WHO reform: programmes and priority setting, governance and management. ***

USAID’s Global Health Strategic Framework: Better Health for Development
U.S.Agency for International Development’s (USAID), 2012 56 pp. 1.4 MB: http://www.usaid.gov/our_work/global_health/home/Publications/do cs/gh_framework2012.pdf This document sets out a strategic framework for the U.S. Agency for International Development’s (USAID’s) global health sector for FY 2012-2016. USAID has a new vision for global health: A world where people lead healthy, productive lives, and mother and children thrive. And in order to fulfil this vision, the agency has developed a set of 7 approaches. ***

Global Fund Monitoring & Evaluation Toolkit: HIV, Tuberculosis, Malaria and Health and Community Systems Strengthening
The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria November 2011 Download Part 1-5 at: http://www.theglobalfund.org/en/me/documents/toolkit/ The 4rd edition of the M&E Toolkit has been developed in consultation with partners in order to support a harmonized approach to setting M&E frameworks. The purpose of the toolkit is to provide:  An overview of Global Fund M&E requirements;  Guidance on performance-based funding;  Information on building strong M&E systems;  Guidelines for selecting, measuring and reporting standard indicators. ***

The New Global Health Agenda: Universal Health Coverage
by Oren Ahoobim, Daniel Altman, Laurie Garrett et al. The Council on Foreign Relations (CFR), April 2012 39 pp. 802 kB:
http://i.cfr.org/content/publications/attachments/Universal_Health_Coverage_report.pdf

Universal Health Coverage (UHC) schemes, whether provided entirely by government or in combination with private sector insurance, aim to ensure that all citizens have access to payment plans that cover some, or all, of their health-care costs. It is possible for UHC to exist in a society, yet leave the citizens without quality health care due to lack of a health systems infrastructure, or to the absence of adequate numbers of skilled personnel. ***

HESP-News & Notes - 10/2012 - page 5

Saving lives and creating impact: Why investing in global health research works
by Robert Eiss Global Health Technologies Coalition, 2012 96 pp. 3.0 MB: http://www.ghtcoalition.org/files/Savinglivesandcreatingimpact.pdf With increasing political pressure to scale back US Government investment in global health research and development (R&D) and focus instead on programs that further n ational security and demonstrate quick impacts, a review of evidence on the benefits of global health R&D investments and the cost-effectiveness of US Government funding is critical. This report aims to assess the impact of past US Government investments in global health R&D and to review the role of ongoing US Government investments in global health R&D.

HIV - AIDS - STI United to end AIDS: achieving the targets of the 2011 Political Declaration
Report of the Secretary-General United Nations General Assembly, 2 April 2012 25 pp. 853 kB: http://daccess-ddsny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N12/281/43/PDF/N1228143.pdf?OpenElement This is the first report to the General Assembly since the High-level Meeting on HIV/AIDS, held in June 2011. At that meeting, which reviewed progress made during the previous decade, Member States embraced the vision of a world with zero new HIV infections, zero discrimination and zero AIDS-related deaths. The report summarizes results against the targets in the 2011 Political Declaration on HIV and AIDS. Although striking progress has been achieved, the world is not on track to meet the 2015 targets, underscoring the urgent need for all stakeholders to redouble their efforts to strengthen the HIV response. ***

Separating Fact from Fiction - Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision: An evidence-based, proven HIV prevention strategy
AVAC - Global Advocacy for HIV Prevention, 8 March 2012 5 pp. 345 kB: http://www.avac.org/ht/a/GetDocumentAction/i/42517 Few public-health interventions show evidence as strong and consistent as that for the effectiveness of voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) in preventing female-tomale transmission of HIV. There is cumulative evidence from observing VMMC’s effect over many years, and from the three landmark clinical trials in Africa - Kenya, South Africa and Uganda. New data from real-world VMMC programs continue to strengthen these findings. ***

HESP-News & Notes - 10/2012 - page 6

HIV Infection and the Incidence of Malaria Among HIV-Exposed Children from Tanzania
by Amara E. Ezeamama, Donna Spiegelman, Ellen Hertzmark et al. J Infect Dis. (2012) 205 (10): 1486-1494 - First published online: March 28, 2012 9 pp. 209 kB: http://jid.oxfordjournals.org/content/205/10/1486.full.pdf+html From this study the authors conclude that HIV infection is a risk factor for the development of malaria. Proactive malaria disease prevention and treatment is warranted for all children, particularly those with HIV infection in settings of co-endemicity. ***

Are Expert Patients an Untapped Resource for ART Provision in SubSaharan Africa?
by Tom Decroo, WimVan Damme, Guy Kegels et al. AIDS Research and Treatment, Vol. 2012 (24 January 2012) 8 pp. 858 kB: http://downloads.hindawi.com/journals/art/2012/749718.pdf The authors developed a conceptual framework to analyse how People living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) can become expert patients and performed a literature review on involvement of PLWHA as expert patients in ART provision in Sub-Saharan Africa. This paper revealed two published examples: one on trained PLWHA in Kenya and another on self-formed peer groups in Mozambique. ***

Maternal and infant antiretroviral regimens to prevent postnatal HIV-1 transmission: 48-week follow-up of the BAN randomised controlled trial
by Denise J Jamieson, Charles S Chasela, Michael G Hudgens et al. The Lancet, Early Online Publication, 26 April 2012 10 pp. 235 kB: http://download.thelancet.com/pdfs/journals/lancet/PIIS0140673612603213.pdf In resource-limited settings where no safe alternative to breastfeeding exists, WHO recommends that antiretroviral prophylaxis be given to either HIV-infected mothers or infants throughout breastfeeding. The authors assessed the effect of 28 weeks of maternal or infant antiretroviral prophylaxis on postnatal HIV infection at 48 weeks. They conclude that antiretroviral prophylaxis given to mothers or infants might decrease HIV transmission. Weaning at 6 months might increase infant morbidity. ***

Mapping the Legal Framework to Prevent Sexual Violence & HIV in South Africa’s Correctional Facilities
by Scott Spiegler MAC AIDS Fund and the Open Society Foundation for South Africa, March 2012 HESP-News & Notes - 10/2012 - page 7

26 pp. 1.2 MB: http://www.genderjustice.org.za/resources/doc_download/101034prisonssvhivframework The paper examines the history of correctional policies on HIV and sexual violence prevention, outlines the current framework, assessing it in comparison to international standards, and highlights policy gaps. It also outlines various mechanisms that contribute to the marginalization of inmates and their heightened vulnerability to HIV and sexual abuse. The issues of prison rape and the spread of HIV must be tackled with the urgency they are due. ***

Engaging Traditional Leaders in the Prevention of HIV and Gender-Based Violence
Developed in partnership with SAfAIDS and K4Health, 2012 http://archive.k4health.org/toolkits/hiv-and-traditionalleadership Considerable evidence highlights the link between HIV and gender-based violence (GBV), and the role of harmful cultural practices in fuelling the spread of HIV and the proliferation of GBV. Increasingly, a number of traditional leaders are taking a stand in addressing GBV, harmful cultural practices, and HIV at community and national levels. This toolkit presents a carefully selected collection of resources on the role of traditional leaders and culture in preventing HIV and GBV. ***

The Crane Survey Report 2010
by John Ssenkusu, Fitti Weissglass, Simon Kyazze et al. Ministry of Health, the US Centres for Disease Control and Prevention, and Makerere University's School of Public Health, 2011 63 pp. 1.9 MB:
http://www.uhspa.org/wp-content/uploads/downloads/2011/06/CraneSurvey-Report-Round-1-Dec10.pdf

This epidemiologic survey took place in Kampala from May 2008 through April 2009. Participants were interviewed about HIV related risk behaviours and characteristics, and were tested for HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). The findings suggest that sex workers, sex partners of sex workers and men having sex with men are at substantially higher risk for HIV infection than the general population in Kampala. The survey also uncovered that high risk behaviours occur across all groups surveyed, i.e., many persons at high risk engage in more than one risk behavior. These findings will help inform HIV/AIDS control measures in Uganda.

Sexual & Reproductive Health Collateral Damage: The Social Impact of Laws affecting LGBT in Guyana
by Christopher Carrico Faculty of Law, University of the West Indies, March 2012 HESP-News & Notes - 10/2012 - page 8

38 pp. 2.9 MB: http://zunia.org/uploads/media/knowledge/CollateralDamageTheSocialImpactofLawsAffectingLGBTPersonsinGuyana1335824844.pdf This study focused on the social effects of laws that criminalise lesbian, gay and bisexual orientations and transgender identities in Guyana. It was designed to assess the effects of the enforcement, or the implicit or explicit threat of enforcement of laws against sodomy, same sex sexual activity, crossdressing, loitering and vagrancy. While most of the world has been moving towards the decriminalisation of homosexual acts, sodomy and same sex sexual activity remain illegal in Guyana and in ten other countries in the Caribbean, all of which were formerly British colonies.

Maternal & Child Health Reducing maternal mortality: better monitoring, indicators and benchmarks needed to improve emergency obstetric care
Research summary for policymakers by Guy Collender, Sabine Gabrysch and Oona M. R. Campbell Tropical Medicine and International Health; Article first published online: 19 April 2012 3 pp. 39 kB: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-3156.2012.02983.x/pdf Several limitations of emergency obstetric care (EmOC) indicators and benchmarks are analysed in this short paper, which synthesises recent research on this topic. A comparison between Sri Lanka and Zambia is used to highlight the inconsistencies and shortcomings in current methods of monitoring EmOC. Recommendations are made to improve the usefulness and accuracy of EmOC indicators and benchmarks in the future. ***

Potential Intussusception Risk Versus Health Benefits From Rotavirus Vaccination in Latin America
by Rishi Desai, Umesh D. Parashar, Benjamin Lopman et al. Clin Infect Dis. (2012) 54 (10): 1397-1405 - First published online: March 19, 2012 9 pp. 753 kB: http://cid.oxfordjournals.org/content/54/10/1397.full.pdf+html Based on a recently identified rotavirus-associated intussusception risk, the authors performed a benefit-risk analysis among 14 Latin American countries and found that rotavirus vaccine would annually prevent approximately 145,000 hospitalizations and approximately 4,100 deaths but cause 172 hospitalizations and 10 deaths from intussu sception. ***

HESP-News & Notes - 10/2012 - page 9

Progress for Children: A report card on adolescents
Number 10, April 2012 United Nations Children's Fund, UNICEF 56 pp. 2.3 MB: http://www.unicef.org/publications/files/Progress_for_Children__No._10_EN_04232012.pdf Adolescence is a formative period during which children grow into their rightful place as full citizens and agents of change in their own lives and the lives of their societies. The publication provides an overview of the situation of adolescents, including of their vulnerabilities in critical areas. It makes a compelling case for increased efforts in advocacy, programming and policy, and for investment, to ensure the rights of adolescents and to achieve the Millennium Development Goals. ***

Adolescent Health
The Lancet, Published April 25, 2012 http://www.lancet.com/series/adolescent-health-2012 The Lancet’s second Series on Adolescent Health, launched to coincide with the 45th Session of the United Nations Commission on Population and Development, argues that it is now time to put the young person, not the specific issue, centre stage. Four papers analyse the role of adolescence as a foundation for future health, the social determ inants of adolescent health, the potential of the worldwide application of prevention science, and the current availability of data on 25 suggested core indicators in all countries. ***

Born Too Soon: The Global Action Report on Preterm Birth
Eds. CP Howson, MV Kinney, JE Lawn World Health Organization, 2012 126 pp. 5.9 MB: http://www.who.int/entity/pmnch/media/news/2012/201204_bornto osoon-report.pdf The report provides the first-ever national, regional and global estimates of preterm birth. It shows the extent to which preterm birth is on the rise in most countries, and is now the second leading cause of death globally for children under five, after pneumonia. Addressing preterm birth is now an urgent priority for reaching Millennium Development Goal 4, which calls for the reduction of child deaths by two-thirds by 2015.

Malaria Test. Treat. Track. Scaling up diagnostic testing, treatment and surveillance for malaria
Global Malaria Programme, World Health Organization, April 2012

HESP-News & Notes - 10/2012 - page 10

12 pp. 283 kB:
http://www.who.int/malaria/publications/atoz/test_treat_track_brochure.pdf

The WHO Global Malaria Programme’s new initiative - T3: Test. Treat. Track. - will support malaria-endemic countries in their efforts to achieve universal coverage with diagnostic testing and antimalarial treatment, as well as in strengthening their malaria surveillance systems. The initiative seeks to focus the attention of policy-makers and donors on the importance of adopting WHO’s latest evidence-based recommendations on diagnostic testing, treatment and surveillance, and updating existing malaria control and elimination strategies, as well as country-specific operational plans. ***

Financial Times Health: Combating Malaria
Financial Times Special Report, Wednesday April 25, 2012 8 pp. 4.8 MB: http://www.ft.com/intl/cms/63090ee2-8c4c-11e1b030-00144feab49a.pdf A new spirit of cautious optimism is taking hold across Africa as a decade of investment in tackling malaria begins to pay off. New funding, political commitment and enhanced tools to treat and prevent the disease have emerged. But these are offset by worries about donor support and the looming threat of resistance to drugs and insecticides, serving as reminders that advances could swiftly be reversed without sustained investment. ***

Global Warming and Health: The Issue of Malaria in Eastern Africa’s Highlands
by Moses Tesi Africa Initiative and The Centre for International Governance Innovation (CIGI), August 2011 20 pp. 642 kB: http://www.cigionline.org/sites/default/files/no2%20rebrand_0.pdf This paper synthesizes the discussion that deals with the nature of and relationship between global warming and malaria. It draws on empirical materials in the East Africa Highlands to clarify the nexus between global warming and malaria epidemics in East Africa, highlight the main points of contention in that discussion, examine the financial limitations that constrain the ability of African governments to effectively deal with global warming-malaria issues, and outline the policy tools available to governments in the East Africa Highlands to address the impact of global warming on malaria. ***

Malaria resurgence: a systematic review and assessment of its causes
by Justin M Cohen, David L Smith, Chris Cotter et al. Malaria Journal 2012, 11:122 (24 April 2012) 32 pp. 1.7 MB: http://www.malariajournal.com/content/pdf/1475-2875-11-122.pdf HESP-News & Notes - 10/2012 - page 11

Progress in malaria control over the past decade has been striking, with malaria morta lity rates falling by approximately one quarter globally and more than a third in the World Health Organization African Region. Understanding where and why malaria resurgence has occurred historically can help current and future malaria control programmes avoid the mistakes of the past. Given that most malaria resurgences have been linked to weakening of control programmes, there is an urgent need to develop practical solutions to the financial and operational threats to effectively sustaining today’s successful m alaria control programmes. ***

Adverse effects of falciparum and vivax malaria and the safety of antimalarial treatment in early pregnancy: a population-based study
by R McGready, SJ Lee, J Wiladphaingern et al. The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Vol. 12, Issue 5, pp. 388-396, May 2012 9 pp. 158 kB:
http://download.thelancet.com/pdfs/journals/laninf/PIIS1473309911703395.pdf

The effects of malaria and its treatment in the first trimester of pregnancy remain an area of concern. A single episode of falciparum or vivax malaria in the first trimester of pregnancy can cause miscarriage. No additional toxic effects associated with artesunate treatment occurred in early pregnancy. Prospective studies should now be done to assess the safety and efficacy of artemisinin combination treatments in early pregnancy. ***

Disease Surveillance for Malaria Control: An Operational Manual
by Maru Aregawi, Richard Cibulskis, Charles Delacolette et al. World Health Organization, April 2012 84 pp. 3.0 MB: http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2012/9789241503341_eng.pdf

***

Disease Surveillance for Malaria Elimination: An Operational Manual
by Maru Aregawi, Richard Cibulskis, Charles Delacolette et al. World Health Organization, April 2012 64 pp. 1.8 MB: http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2012/9789241503334_eng.pdf Information on the number and distribution of malaria cases and deaths is critical for the design and implementation of malaria control programmes. The aim of this manual is to provide guidance to malaria-endemic countries in designing and managing surveillance systems for malaria control and elimination, so that malaria programmes can obtain more complete, and more accurate information on malaria incidence, which can be used to help plan and monitor the programme. ***

HESP-News & Notes - 10/2012 - page 12

Tuberculosis Improving early detection of tuberculosis among most-at-risk populations through verbal screening
A case study from the Avahan India AIDS Initiative by Saroj Tucker, Gitau Mburu, Ravi Kanth Mallipeddi et al. International HIV/AIDS Alliance, 2012 22 pp. 662 kB: http://www.aidsalliance.org/includes/Publication/TB-case-study.pdf This case study provides an example from the field of how intensified TB case finding through verbal screening can be implemented within HIV prevention programmes for key populations in concentrated epidemics. It is intended to promote knowledgesharing; disseminate lessons learnt in TB/HIV integration; and improve the quality and continuum of care. ***

Viewpoint: Challenges and Opportunities in Tuberculosis Research
by Peter S. Kim, Mamodikoe Makhene, Christine Sizemore et al. J Infect Dis. (2012) 205 (suppl 2): S347-S352 - First published online: March 22, 2012 6 pp. 100 kB: http://jid.oxfordjournals.org/content/205/suppl_2/S347.full.pdf+html Many questions remain in all aspects of tuberculosis research, ranging from fundamental pathogenesis to programmatic implementation, and they are complicated by the complexity of the disease and its chronic nature. An understanding of the differences and commonalities of tuberculosis among high-burden countries is critical for a better understanding of the global tuberculosis epidemic, the natural history of the disease, and, ultimately, the development of appropriate scientific approaches for discovery and development of drugs, vaccines, and diagnostics applicable in these settings. ***

Facing the Reality of Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis: Challenges and Potential Solutions in India
by Steve Olson, Rebecca A. English, Rita S. Guenther et al. Summary of a Joint Workshop by the Institute of Medicine, the Indian National Science Academy & the Indian Council of Medical Research, 2012 147 pp. 1.9 MB:
http://download.nap.edu/cart/download.cgi?&record_id=13243&free=1

An estimated 8.8 million people fell ill with tuberculosis (TB) in 2010 and 1.4 million died from the disease. Although antibiotics to treat TB were developed in the 1950s and are effective against a majority of TB cases, resistance to these antibiotics has emerged over the years, resulting in the growing spread of multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB. Due to challenges in timely and accurate diagnosis of drug-resistant TB, length and tolerability of treatment regimens, and expense of second-line anti-TB drugs, effectively controlling the disease requires complex public health interventions.

HESP-News & Notes - 10/2012 - page 13

Other Infectious Diseases Challenge Paper: Infectious Disease
by Dean Jamison, Prabhat Jha, Ramanan Laxminarayan and Toby Ord Copenhagen Consensus Center, 15 April 2012 94 pp. 862 kB: http://www.copenhagenconsensus.com/Admin/Public/Download.as px?file=Files%2fFiler%2fCC12+papers%2fInfectious+Disease.pdf The authors point out that improved immunization saves more lives per year than would be saved by global peace. The same is true for smallpox eradication, diarrhea trea tment, and malaria treatment. Nonetheless major problems remain, and they explore the ways to step up our battle against the biggest killer diseases, and identify five top prior ities in the fight against infectious diseases: Malaria treatment, control of tuberculosis, adding several new antigens to routine vaccinations, de-worming and a HIV vaccine. ***

PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases: A Research Agenda for the Control and Elimination of Human Helminthiases
http://www.ploscollections.org/helminths In this issue of “PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases”, the Disease Reference Group on Helminth Infections (DRG4) has put forward a collection of eight reviews that, taken t ogether, outline a compelling research and development agenda for the control and elimination of helminth diseases of humans. Emphasis is placed on six major helminth diseases: soil-transmitted helminthiasis; schistosomiasis; lymphatic filariasis; onchocerciasis; food-borne trematodiasis; and cysticercosis/taeniasis. Additionally, an Editorial provides an overview to all eight reviews and emphasizes the importance of continued research on these six diseases, which together have an enormous global health impact. ***

Infestation of the jigger flea in resource-poor communities in Africa
by Anne Wachira Consultancy Africa Intelligence, 02 May 2012 Read online at: http://www.consultancyafrica.com/index.php?option=com_acymailing&ctrl=url&urlid=409 &mailid=37&subid=1791 This paper provides an overview of the neglected disease, Tungiasis - a tropical parasitic disease that has remained an important public health problem for the very poor. While the last two decades have seen more research in the plight of Tungiasis, the current epidemiological situation in Africa is unclear. This article will then explore the impact of Tungiasis infestation among African communities and discuss the methods and challenges of intervention and prevention. ***

HESP-News & Notes - 10/2012 - page 14

Ten months and counting: Report of the Independent Monitoring Board of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative
by Liam Donaldson, Michael Toole, Nasr El Sayed et al. Independent Monitoring Board of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative, February 2012 52 pp. 1.0 MB: http://www.polioeradication.org/Portals/0/Document/Aboutus/Governance/IMB/5I MBMeeting/IMBReport_January2012.pdf Stopping polio is not simply a matter of time and investment. It is a matter of unrelenting focus and rigour to drive the global and country programmes up to a level of performance that is fit for the task that confronts them. The Global Polio Eradication Initiative has just two possible outcomes. Polio will be eradicated from the world, or it will not.

Essential Medicines Ethical and Scientific Issues in Studying the Safety of Approved Drugs
Committee on Ethical and Scientific Issues in Studying the Safety of Approved Drugs; Board on Population Health and Public Health Practice; Institute of Medicine, 2012 252 pp. 1.8 MB: http://download.nap.edu/cart/download.cgi?&record_id=13219&free=1 Drugs provide great benefits to society by saving or improving lives. Many drugs are also associated with side effects or adverse events, some serious and some discovered only after the drug is on the market. The discovery of new adverse events in the postmarketing setting is part of the normal natural history of approved drugs, and timely identification and warning about drug risks are central to the mission of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). This publication discusses ethical and informed consent issues in conducting studies in the post-marketing setting.

Social Protection Bolsa Família, its Design, its Impacts and Possibilities for the Future
by Sergei Soares International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growth (IPC-IG), February 2012 40 pp. 503 kB: http://www.ipc-undp.org/pub/IPCWorkingPaper89.pdf Conditional Cash Transfer (CCT) programmes, including the Bolsa Família programme, have been extensively studied over recent years. This text has been divided into three parts. The first part is purely descriptive, telling the story of Bolsa Família’s origin and going into the details of how it works. The second part tries to put the extensive literature on the programme’s impacts into as few pages as possible. Finally, the author argues that, in spite of its success, Bolsa Família must change, and he discusses possibilities for the future. *** HESP-News & Notes - 10/2012 - page 15

The Impact of Colombia’s Pension and Health Insurance Systems on Informality
by Valentina Calderón-Mejía and Ioana Marinescu Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit (IZA) - Institute for the Study of Labor, March 2012 43 pp. 349 kB: http://ftp.iza.org/dp6439.pdf Social protection systems in developing countries are typically composed of a bundle of benefits, the major ones being health insurance and pensions. Benefit bundling may increase informality and decrease welfare. Indeed, if some of the benefits are valued at substantially less than their cost, workers may choose to forego all benefits, even though some other benefits are valued at or above their cost. The authors examine the impact of benefit bundling using a series of Colombian reforms. The key reform is the unification of the payment systems for health and pension, which made it more difficult to contribute differently to the one plan versus the other. ***

Poverty, Inequality and Social Policies in Brazil, 1995-2009
by Pedro H. G. Ferreira de Souza International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growth (IPC-IG), February 2012 28 pp. 502 kB: http://www.ipc-undp.org/pub/IPCWorkingPaper87.pdf The report discusses the strides Brazil has made in dramatically improving its poverty in inequality indicators over the last few decades. It underscores the role of Brazil’s improved and increasingly effective social protection network in contributing to these advances. The author discusses four government interventions: in public education, the minimum wage law, Social Security pensions and Social Assistance transfers, that have played an important role in reducing poverty and inequality in the country. ***

Good practice in the development of management information systems for social protection
by Richard Chirchir and Stephen Kidd HelpAge International, 2011 15 pp. 546 kB: http://www.helpage.org/download/4dd67c00ad279/ Management information systems (MISs) are core to the design of social protection schemes. This working paper examines good practice in the design of MISs for social protection. It argues that discussions on the design and implementation of social protection MISs should move away from the narrow view that they consist only of software and hardware. The author believes that much can be done to improve social protection MISs in developing countries. ***

HESP-News & Notes - 10/2012 - page 16

The price of income security in older age: Cost of a universal pension in 50 low- and middle income countries
by Charles Knox-Vydmanov HelpAge International, March 2011 8 pp. 1.2 MB: http://www.helpage.org/download/4dc13c1b7bdc5/ Social pensions are a vehicle for reducing the poverty of the population as a whole. This paper reviews the cost of universal pensions, suggesting that the cost of universal pensions in developing countries today is affordable. The document reveals that all countries could afford a universal pension for over 65s for less than 1.8% of GDP. This would make up only a modest amount of government expenditure, and would emerge as a relatively small addition to existing spending on health and education.

Water, Sanitation & Hygiene Shutting the Spigot on Private Water: The case for the World Bank to divest
by Corporate Accountability International, April 2012 64 pp. 6.2 MB:
http://www.stopcorporateabuse.org/sites/default/files/Case-to-Divest.pdf

Water privatisation has been proven not to help the poor, yet a quarter of all World Bank funding goes directly to corporations and the private sector, bypassing both governments and its own standards and transparency requirements in order to do so, says this new report. Corporate Accountability International, the US-based non-governmental organisation that published the report, has called on the World Bank to stop funding the private water sector and start redirecting its money to public and democratically accountable institutions. ***

On the right track: Good Practices in realising the rights to water and sanitation
Catarina de Albuquerque, United Nations Special Rapporteur on the human right to safe drinking water and sanitation with Virginia Roaf, 2012 224 pp. 3.3 MB: http://www.worldwatercouncil.org/fileadmin/wwc/Library/Publications_and_reports /OnTheRightTrackBook.pdf We are living in a world where close proved water sources, and 2.6 billion This book offers solutions, ideas and grammes, advocacy approaches and the rights to water and sanitation are the voiceless. to one billion people do not have access to impeople do not use improved sanitation facilities. pragmatic examples of legislation, policies, pr oaccountability mechanisms to demonstrate how becoming reality for the excluded, forgotten and ***

HESP-News & Notes - 10/2012 - page 17

Human Resources Non-physician providers of obstetric care in Mexico: Perspectives of physicians, obstetric nurses and professional midwives
by Lisa M DeMaria, Lourdes Campero, Marianne Vidler et al. Human Resources for Health 2012, 10:6 (25 April 2012) 16 pp. 147 kB: http://www.human-resources-health.com/content/pdf/1478-4491-10-6.pdf Hospitals in the Mexican public health sector have a heavy obstetric workload; physicians carry the additional burden of non-obstetric cases. The incorporation of a nonphysician model at the primary health center level to attend low-risk, normal deliveries would contribute to the reduction of non-necessary referrals. There is also a role for these providers at the hospital level. ***

Programme level implementation of malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) use: outcomes and cost of training health workers at lower level health care facilities in Uganda
by Daniel J Kyabayinze, Carol Asiimwe, Damalie Nakanjako et al. BMC Public Health 2012, 12:291 (20 April 2012) 16 pp. 451 kB: http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/1471-2458-12-291.pdf One-day training on the use of malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) successfully provided adequate skill and competency among health workers to perform RDTs in fever case management at lower level health care facilities in a Uganda setting. The cost averaged at US$ 101 per health worker trained, with the main cost drivers being trainee travel and per diems. Given the good peer training noted in this study, there is need to explore the cost-effectiveness of a cascade training model for large scale implementation of RDTs. ***

The Midwives Service Scheme in Nigeria
by Seye Abimbola, Ugo Okoli, Olalekan Olubajo et al. PLoS Med 9(5): e1001211 (1 May 2012) 5 pp. 257 kB:
http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/fetchObjectAttachment.action;jsessionid=D037E584BA1975BD E3631E4B9A3A994A?uri=info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pmed.1001211&representation=PDF

Maternal, newborn, and child health indices in Nigeria vary widely across geopolitical zones and between urban and rural areas, mostly due to variations in the availability of skilled attendance at birth. To improve these indices, the Midwives Service Scheme (MSS) in Nigeria engaged newly graduated, unemployed, and retired midwives to work temporarily in rural areas. Major challenges include retention, availability and training of midwives, and varying levels of commitment from state and local governments across the country, and despite the availability of skilled birth attendants at MSS facilities, women still deliver at home in some parts of the country.

HESP-News & Notes - 10/2012 - page 18

Information systems on human resources for health: A global review
by Patricia L Riley, Alexandra Zuber, Stephen M Vindigni et al. Human Resources for Health 2012, 10:7(30 April 2012) 22 pp. 1.4 MB: http://www.human-resources-health.com/content/pdf/1478-4491-10-7.pdf Although human resources information systems (HRIS) are critical for evidence-based human resource policy and practice, there is a dearth of information about these systems, including their current capabilities. The absence of standardized HRIS profiles (including documented processes for data collection, management, and use) limits understanding of the availability and quality of information that can be used to support effective and efficient human resources for health strategies and investments at the national, regional, and global levels.

Health Systems & Research Introduction to Qualitative Research Methodology
by Karina Kielmann, Fabian Cataldo, Janet Seeley Evidence for Action, December 2011 84 pp. 1.7 MB: http://www.dfid.gov.uk/R4D/PDF/Outputs/HIV_AIDS/qualitativeresearchmethodol ogymanual.pdf The manual to support self-training and teaching of qualitative research methods is aimed primarily at non-social scientists working in low- and middle-income settings. It introduces qualitative methods in an interesting and hands-on way to provide you with an understanding of key concepts and methods in qualitative research as applied to the field of health. ***

Where There Is No Health Research: What Can Be Done to Fill the Global Gaps in Health Research?
by Martin McKee, David Stuckler, Sanjay Basu PLoS Med 9(4): e1001209 (24 April 2012) 7 pp. 181 kB:
http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/fetchObjectAttachment.action;jsessionid=D31B11A14F6A6927 DB2EA50C3C9A74A7?uri=info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pmed.1001209&representation=PDF

As part of a cluster of articles leading up to the 2012 World Health Report and critically reflecting on the theme of “no health without research”, the authors examine the question of what to do to build capacity in the many countries around the world where health research is virtually non-existent. ***

Neglected tropical disease (NTD) control in health systems: The interface between programmes and general health services
by Bruno Marchal, Monique Van Dormael, Marjan Pirard et al. HESP-News & Notes - 10/2012 - page 19

Acta Tropica, Vol. 120, Suppl. 1, September 2011, pp. S177-S185 9 pp. 462 kB:
http://ac.els-cdn.com/S0001706X11000428/1-s2.0-S0001706X11000428main.pdf?_tid=df14545c045093ed3248f996e14de3c7&acdnat=1335813096_3e90bc664 c56f0efc310c2170463e4e5

Disease control programmes are an intrinsic part of health systems. Neglected tropical disease (NTD) control is a clear case in point. While there is a growing consensus that NTD control and health services are linked, with important mutual impacts, little is known of what actually happens at the interface between the two entities. The authors discuss the interactions and interface between disease control and health systems, and present possible scenarios for health system strengthening by NTD- and other disease-specific programmes. ***

Translating evidence into practice: the role of health research funders
by Bev Holmes, Gayle Scarrow and Megan Schellenberg Implementation Science 2012, 7:39 (24 April 2012) 18 pp. 238 kB: http://www.implementationscience.com/content/pdf/1748-5908-7-39.pdf A growing body of work on knowledge translation (KT) reveals significant gaps between what is known to improve health, and what is done to improve health. The literature and practice also suggest that KT has the potential to narrow those gaps, leading to more evidence-informed healthcare. In response, Canadian health research funders and agencies have made KT a priority. This article describes how one funding agency determined its KT role and in the process developed a model that other agencies could use when considering KT programs. ***

A Controlled Study of Funding for Human Immunodeficiency Virus / Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome as Resource Capacity Building in the Health System in Rwanda
by Donald S. Shepard, Wu Zeng, Peter Amico et al. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2012, Vol. 86 No. 5, 902-907 6 pp. 570 kB: http://www.ajtmh.org/content/86/5/902.full.pdf+html Because human inmmunodeficiency virus / acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV / AIDS) receives more donor funding globally than that for all other diseases combined, some critics allege this support undermines general health care. This empirical study evaluates the impact of HIV/AIDS funding on the primary health care system in Rwanda. The authors conclude that this six-year controlled study found no adverse effects of the expansion of HIV/AIDS services on non-HIV services among rural health centers in Rwanda. This is very much in line with the conceptual model on the contribution of disease control programmes to the strengthening of health systems. ***

HESP-News & Notes - 10/2012 - page 20

Is operational research delivering the goods? The journey to success in low-income countries
by Rony Zachariah, Nathan Ford, Dermot Maher et al. The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Vol. 12, Issue 5, pp. 415-421, May 2012 7 pp. 134 kB: http://download.thelancet.com/pdfs/journals/laninf/PIIS1473309911703097.pdf Operational research in low-income countries has a key role in filling the gap between what we know from research and what we do with that knowledge - the so-called knowdo gap, or implementation gap. The authors propose measures of success for operational research. Adoption and use of these measures could help to ensure that operational research better changes policy and practice and improves health-care delivery and disease programmes. ***

The Danish health care system: An analysis of strengths, weakness, opportunities and threats
by Kjeld Møller Pedersen, Mickael Bech, Karsten Vrangbæk Copenhagen Consensus Center, 2012 100 pp. 2.4 MB:
http://www.copenhagenconsensus.com/Admin/Public/Download.aspx?file =Files%2fFiler%2fArticles+2011%2fConsensusReportDanishHealth_final.pdf

The whole point of the so-called SWOT analysis is to identify areas worthy of attack because they threaten the sustainability of the health system as we know it, run counter to the objectives of the system, e.g. equity, or are glaring weaknesses. Rational decisions about improvements must be based not only on a helicopter view of the health care system via the SWOT analysis, but improvements must be selected so that they have the biggest impact per monetary unit expended.

Information & Communication Technology Digital Dividend for Mobile: Bringing Broadband to All
by Groupe Spéciale Mobile (GSM) Association, 2012 16 pp. 1.0 MB:
http://www.gsma.com/go/download/?file=gsmadigitaldividendformobile.pdf

In emerging markets, policy makers have identified widespread Internet access as critical to the achievement of the 2015 UN Millennium Development Goals for health, education, employment and poverty reduction. The World Information Society Report 2007 found that the digital divide (the gap between those with access to digital and inform ation technology and those without) is shrinking, particularly thanks to mobile telephony. However, the cost and availability of broadband access remains a concern. ***

HESP-News & Notes - 10/2012 - page 21

Youth and ICTs
ICT Update, Issue 65, April 2012 CTA Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation (ACP-EU) 16 pp. 1.3 MB: http://ictupdate.cta.int/en/content/download/29814/207168/file/ICTU 65_Youth_ENG_LR.pdf    A portable computer kit delivers agricultural training to Ugandan nomadic pastoralists Audio conferencing helps to make farming a viable prospect for young Ghanaians Map Kibera uses GIS, SMS, video and the web to gather community data

Education Turning on Mobile Learning in Latin America
Illustrative Initiatives and Policy Implications María Teresa Lugo, Sebastián Schurmann, Valeria Kelly et al. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Working Paper Series on Mobile Learning, 2012 69 pp. 869 kB: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0021/002160/216080E.pdf This paper is part of the UNESCO Working Paper Series on Mobile Learning. The Series seeks to better understand how mobile technologies can be used to improve educational access, equity and quality around the world. It comprises fourteen individual papers that will be published throughout 2012. The Series is divided into two broad subsets: six papers examine mobile learning initiatives and their policy implications, and six papers examine how mobile technologies can support teachers and improve their practice. For more information see: http://www.unesco.org/new/en/unesco/themes/icts/m4ed/mobile-learningresources/unescomobilelearningseries/ ***

Rights from the Start: Early childhood care and education
by Vernor Muñoz Global Campaign for Education 2012 40 pp. 1.5 MB: http://www.crin.org/docs/GAW_RFTS_FINAL_ENG.pdf Rights from the Start is intended to highlight a truth that should be uncontroversial: that every person is entitled to the right to care and education from birth. However, the shocking fact remains that 200 million children do not receive these rights at all: the report examines government planning and budgets (including donor assistance) to show that many do not prioritise or even include early childhood in the education or national strategies. ***

HESP-News & Notes - 10/2012 - page 22

Is Preschool Good for Kids?
by Aliza Marcus The World Bank, Human Development Network, March 2012 4 pp. 780 kB: http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTHDOFFICE/Resources/Moz ambiqueE2P-final.pdf This study, the first randomized evaluation of a preschool program in a rural African setting, shows that preschool education can be an inexpensive and highly effective means for helping children overcome the developmental blocks that come from poverty. Based on the results, Mozambique’s Ministry of Education has begun work to expand the community-based preschool model to 600 communities in the 2013-2015 period. ***

Fighting Corruption in the Education Sector: Methods, Tools and Good Practices
by John Wood, Laetitia Antonowicz, Allen Asiimwe et al. United Nations Development Programme, Bureau for Development Policy, October 2011 96 pp. 2.1 MB:
http://www.undp.org/content/dam/undp/library/Democratic%20Governance/IP/Anticorruption%20Methods%20and%20Tools%20in%20Education%20 Lo%20Res.pdf

This study presents methods, tools and good practices to map corruption risks, develop strategies and sustain partnerships to address challenges and tackle corruption in the education sector.

Harm Reduction and Drug Use Tobacco Watch 2012: Monitoring Countries’ Performance on the Global Treaty
Chris Bostic (Ed.) Framework Convention Alliance, Geneva, 2012 31 pp. 2.0 MB: http://www.fctc.org/images/stories/Tobacco_Watch_2012_ENG.pdf According to the report, major cigarette firms continue to run circles around key provisions of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), a global tobacco treaty backed by the United Nations. Tobacco industry interference in public health policy poses the single greatest threat to the global community realising the full potential of the FCTC's life-saving measures. ***

HESP-News & Notes - 10/2012 - page 23

Deadly alliance: How Big Tobacco and Convenience Stores Partner to Market Tobacco Products and Fight Life-Saving Policies
American Heart Association and Counter Tobacco, March 2012 51 pp. 1.6 MB: http://www.tobaccofreekids.org/content/what_we_do/industry_watc h/store_report/deadlyalliance_full_report.pdf As other forms of tobacco marketing have been restricted, tobacco companies increasingly have focused their marketing of cigarettes and other tobacco products at the point of sale – in convenience stores, gas stations and other retail outlets. The massive amount of tobacco advertising and promotion at the point of sale hits its mark. Studies show the more cigarette marketing teens are exposed to in retail stores, the more likely they are to smoke. Price discounts are especially effective at influencing kids, leading to increases in initiation, experimentation and regular smoking. ***

Women who inject drugs: A review of their risks, experiences and needs
by Anna Roberts and Bradley Mathers The Independent Reference Group to the United Nations on HIV and Injecting Drug Use, 2010 132 pp. 547 kB: http://www.unodc.org/documents/hivaids/Women_who_inject_drugs.pdf Women who inject drugs have substantially different needs and face higher risks of disease and violence than do men who inject drugs. A focus on injecting women is impo rtant for many reasons including their significantly higher mortality rates, increased likelihood of facing injection-related problems, faster progression from first use to dependence, higher rates of immuno-deficiency virus (HIV) and increased risky injection and/or sexual risk behaviours. ***

New heroin-assisted treatment
Recent evidence and current practices of supervised injectable heroin treatment in Europe and beyond by John Strang, Teodora Groshkova and Nicola Metrebian European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA), 2012 176 pp. 1.3 MB:
http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/attachements.cfm/att_154996_EN_Heroin%20Insight.pdf

The prescription of substitution drugs, such as methadone and buprenorphine, has become a mainstream, first-line treatment for opioid dependence, with around 700 000 of Europe’s 1.3 million problem opioid users receiving substitution treatment today. But a small minority of entrenched opioid users repeatedly fails to respond to interventions of this kind. Findings from international trials now suggest that the supervised use of medicinal heroin can be an effective second-line treatment for this small, and previously unresponsive, group.

HESP-News & Notes - 10/2012 - page 24

Millennium Development Goals Global Monitoring Report 2012: Food Prices, Nutrition, and the Millennium Development Goals
by Jos Verbeek, Lynge Nielsen, Mohini Datt et al. The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank, 2012 188 pp. 16.5 MB(!): http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTPROSPECTS/Resources/3349341327948020811/8401693-1327957211156/8402494-1334239337250/Full_Report.pdf The developing world’s progress is seriously lagging on global targets related to food and nutrition, with rates of child and maternal mortality still unacceptably high, says the report. It summarizes the impact of food prices on several MDGs; reviews policy responses; and outlines future prospects. The authors highlight some of the key issues (such as the fact that resources coming from the multilaterals for basic nutrition interventions have been low). ***

Beyond the Millennium Development Goals: Agreeing to a Post-2015 Development Framework
by Alex Evans and David Steven A Managing Global Order (MGO) Working Paper, 24 April 2012 22 pp. 193 kB: http://www.cic.nyu.edu/scarcity/docs/evans_steven_millennium_2015.pdf This paper provides an overview of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and their expected status in 2012; describes the background to, and options for, a post-2015 framework; and discusses how governments can best navigate the political challenges of agreeing to a new set of development goals. ***

Note for the High Level Panel Discussion on “Articulating a Post-2015 MDG Agenda”
5th Joint Annual Meetings of the AU Conference of Ministers of Economy and Finance and ECA Conference of African Ministers of Finance, Planning and Economic Development, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 26-27 March 2012 17 pp. 286 kB: http://www.beyond2015.org/sites/default/files/COM12Note-fortheHighLevelPanelDiscussion-onArticulating-aPost-2015MDG-Agenda.pdf In order to articulate Africa’s position on the post-2015 agenda, Economic Commission for Africa (ECA) commissioned papers on three alternatives as well as a paper on the likely implications of the post 2015 agenda for NEPAD. The present paper provides: (a) an assessment of the MDGs to date by reviewing their positive contributions and cha llenges; (b) alternative proposals for improvement; and (c) suggestions for the post-2015 agenda. The paper concludes by identifying the emerging African position. HESP-News & Notes - 10/2012 - page 25

Development Assistance Implications of rigorous impact evaluations for development agencies
by Eric Roetman The International Initiative for Impact Evaluation (3ie), March 2011 17 pp. 1.0 MB: http://www.3ieimpact.org/admin/pdfs_papers/Working_Paper_11.pdf Development agencies are under great pressure to show results and evaluate the impact of projects and programmes. This paper highlights the practical and ethical dilemmas of conducting impact evaluations for Non Governmental Organizations. Impact evaluations not only require additional resources but also present organizations with a dilemma if they are willing to change their approach and programmes. ***

Aid Tying and Donor Fragmentation
by Stephen Knack and Lodewijk Smets The World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 5934, January 2012 29 pp. 813 kB: http://wwwwds.worldbank.org/servlet/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2012/01/05/000158349_20120 105100233/Rendered/PDF/WPS5934.pdf In this paper the authors examine whether untying aid and defragmenting aid are conflicting or complementary objectives. They find no empirical support for the claim that higher concentrations of aid allow donors to exploit their influence by tying more of their aid. Instead, they find that as donor fragmentation declines, individual donors are less likely to tie their aid. These results suggest that efforts to untie aid will not conflict with efforts to encourage donors to establish a clear division of labour. ***

Trade and Development Report, 1981-2011: Three decades of thinking development
by Alfredo Calcagno, Pilar Fajarnes, Heiner Flassbeck et al. Secretariat of the United Nations Conference on Trade And Development (UNCTAD), April 2012 138 pp. 1.7 MB: http://www.unctad.org/en/PublicationsLibrary/gds2012d1_en.pdf This review traces the key issues relating to the global economy and development strategies that have been addressed in UNCTAD’s Trade and Development Reports (TDRs) over the past three decades. It also intends to show how ideas, opinions and proposals expressed in the TDR, and the analytical approaches used, differed from those of proponents of “the mainstream” and how they evolved in response to new challenges arising from developments in the world economy. *** HESP-News & Notes - 10/2012 - page 26

Aid for Nutrition: Can investments to scale up nutrition actions be accurately tracked?
by Sandra Mutuma, Elodie Fremont, Adebukola Adebayo et al. Action Against Hunger - ACF International, 2012 74 pp. 1.2 MB:
http://www.actionagainsthunger.org.uk/fileadmin/contribution/0_accueil/pdf/Aid%2 0for%20Nutrition%20low%20res%20final.pdf?mkt_tok=3RkMMJWWfF9wsRolva%2FAZK XonjHpfsXw6%2B4kWKOg38431UFwdcjKPmjr1YIHRcF0dvycMRAVFZl5nQhdDOWN

The aim of this paper is to provide donors, aid recipients and other stakeholders with a detailed analysis of current spending on nutrition and of the adequacy of current aid r eporting systems. Monitoring and evaluation of progress is dependent on a solid evidence base of the scale of the problem, the extent of efforts to address it and the (cost) effectiveness of these efforts. The paper analyses the transparency, quantity (ad equacy) and quality (effectiveness) of aid for nutrition. ***

European Union - Development Assistance Committee (DAC) Peer Review 2012
Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD), 2012 145 pp. 2.6 MB: http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/61/46/50155818.pdf The size, geographical reach and partnership dimension of the European Union’s (EU) aid programme makes it a formidable player in global development. The EU institutions are unique in that they provide direct support to developing countries and play a “federating role” vis-à-vis the 27 Member States – co-ordinating them for better development impact, and preparing common positions to strengthen the EU voice in global debates. However, the EU institutions need to make more progress in a number of areas. ***

The BRIC Countries
by Carl Haub Population Reference Bureau, April 2012 Read online at: http://www.prb.org/Articles/2012/brazil-russia-india-china.aspx For some time now, Brazil, Russia, India, and China have been grouped together under the acronym BRIC. The BRICs are described as countries at the same stage of ec onomic development, but not yet at the point where they would be considered m ore developed countries. The population pyramids (age and sex structure) of all four BRIC countries are quite different, primarily a result of their different birth histories. Brazil and China are somewhat similar, reflecting their transition to low birth rates. Brazil’s total fertility rate (TFR) is now at a low, industrialized-country level of 1.9 children per woman. India has also made considerable progress in its fertility transition, but its TFR is still about 2.6. ***

HESP-News & Notes - 10/2012 - page 27

On Niebel’s Autobahn to Africa, potholes
by Paul Hockenos Devex, 30 April 2012 Read online at: http://www.devex.com/en/news/on-niebel-s-autobahn-to-africapotholes?source= Germany is Europe’s biggest aid donor if you count debt relief, second worldwide only to the United States. This is a case study in how times of fiscal austerity have led one aid agency to embrace more business-oriented, “sustainable” delivery models like PPPs – but the question remains: Is this reform more a sign of the political times than a fundamental shift in development thinking? In a world where public-private partnerships are on the rise, the case of Germany could be a cautionary tale: PPPs are no silver bullet, and traditional aid will likely remain the norm.

Others Protecting Health from Climate Change
Vulnerability and Adaptation Assessment by Kristie Ebi, Peter Berry, Diarmid Campbell-Lendrum et al. Pan American Health Organization and WHO, 2012 72 pp. 1.8 MB: http://new.paho.org/hq/index.php?option=com_docman&task=doc_ download&gid=17441&Itemid= There is now strong evidence that the earth’s climate is changing rapidly, due mainly to human activities. Increasing temperatures, sea-level rises, changes in precipitation patterns and extreme events are expected to increase a range of health risks, from the d irect effects of heat waves, floods and storms, to more suitable conditions for the transmission of important infectious diseases. Much of the potential health impact of climate change can, however, be avoided through a combination of strengthening key health system functions and improved management of the risks presented by a changing climate. ***

People and the Planet
The Royal Society Science Policy Centre Report 01/12, April 2012 134 pp. 5.7 MB: http://royalsociety.org/uploadedFiles/Royal_Society_Content/policy/ projects/people-planet/2012-04-25-PeoplePlanet.pdf The 21st century is a critical period for people and the planet. The global population reached 7 billion during 2011 and the United Nations projections indicate that it will reach between 8 and 11 billion by 2050. Recommendations made in the report focus on:  the potential for urbanisation to reduce material consumption;  removing barriers to achieve high-quality primary and secondary education for all;  undertaking more research into the interactions between consumption, demographic HESP-News & Notes - 10/2012 - page 28

 

change and environmental impact; implementing comprehensive wealth measures; developing new socio-economic systems. ***

Patients Without Borders: Medical Tourism and Medical Migration in Southern Africa
by Jonathan Crush, Abel Chikanda and Belinda Maswikwa The Southern African Migration Programme (SAMP), 2012 57 pp. 2.1 MB: http://www.queensu.ca/samp/sampresources/samppublications/poli cyseries/Acrobat57.pdf In the industrialised North, South Africa is seen as an archetypal medical tourism destination, combining a medical (elective) procedure with related travel and tourism activity. Yet this paper shows that the industry is premised on a highly romanticised and stylised image of South Africa, and most medical tourism to South Africa is not from the North: the Global North generated a total of 281,000 medical travellers between 2009 and 2010, while the Global South was the source of over two million.

ELECTRONIC RESOURCES
Medical Wiki Ganfyd
http://www.ganfyd.org/index.php?title=Main_Page Ganfyd is a free medical knowledge base that anyone can read and any registered medical practitioner may edit. Ganfyd is a collaborative medical reference by medical professionals and invited non-medical experts. The site is based around the wiki format, enabling true sharing of knowledge. ***

Social Medicine, Vol. 6, No. 3 (2012)
http://socialmedicine.info/index.php/socialmedicine/issue/view/56/showToc

Social Medicine has just published its latest issue. You are invited you to review the Table of Contents and then visit their web site to read/review articles and items of interest. ***

e-WABA Link Issue 1/2012, January-April 2012
World Alliance for Breastfeeding Action (WABA) 10 pp. 786 kB: http://www.waba.org.my/resources/wabalink/pdf/ewaba_link_1204.pdf WABA is a global network of individuals and organisations concerned with the protection, promotion and support of breastfeeding worldwide based on the InnoHESP-News & Notes - 10/2012 - page 29

centi Declarations, the Ten Links for Nurturing the Future and the WHO/UNICEF Global Strategy for Infant and Young Child Feeding. e-WABALink is a current awareness service with the mission of sharing news and useful key documents with its global network of supporters. ***

Eurohealth Volume 18, Number 1, 2012
Quarterly of the European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies 44 pp. 3.2 MB: http://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0005/162959/Euroh ealth_Vol-18_No-1_web.pdf This issue of Eurohealth provides in an overview article case studies on health system responses to the financial crisis from the Czech Republic, Estonia, Greece and Ireland. Other articles include: the patient perspective on the Professional Qualifications Directive; the evolution of obesity in Spain; the performance of chronic care system in Denmark; competition in the Dutch health insurance system; pharmaceutical market reforms in Portugal; and Eurohealth Monitor. ***

Bulletin of the World Health Organization - Vol. 90, Nr. 5, May 2012
Special theme: e-health http://www.who.int/bulletin/volumes/90/5/en/index.html Highlights from the May 2012 issue:  Big possibilities for the future of health  How to measure impact  Experts discuss the big issues  Keeping track of influenza in Madagascar  Using mobile phones for HIV diagnosis in Zambia  Changing behavior through m-health  Improving patient care in Brazil

INTERESTING WEB SITES
Social Protection Floor (SPF)
http://www.socialprotectionfloor-gateway.org/ The Social Protection Floor (SFP) is a global social policy approach promoting integrated strategies for ensuring access to essential social services and income security for all. SPF is a first step toward the implementation of comprehensive social protection systems worldwide. By establishing a nationally defined and context-specific Social Protection Floor, countries help realize the universal right to basic social security and essential social services while enabling and promoting future socio-economic development. ***

HESP-News & Notes - 10/2012 - page 30

Action for Global Health (AFGH)
http://www.actionforglobalhealth.eu/blog/ AFGH is a broad European network of NGOs advocating for Europe to play a more proactive role in enabling developing countries to meet the Health Millennium Development Goals by 2015. ***

Asia Pacific HealthGAEN
http://www.aphealthgaen.org/ The Asia Pacific network of HealthGAEN has just launched its new website. It is intended to function as a tool for information sharing and helping to keep people connected around issues affecting health inequities, particularly in the Asia Pacific region. ***

Evidence-informed policy-making
http://www.who.int/evidence/en/ Evidence-informed health policy-making is an approach to policy decisions that aims to ensure that decision making is well-informed by the best available research evidence. It is characterised by the systematic and transparent access to, and appraisal of, evidence as an input into the policy-making process. ***

Politics of Medicines’ Encyclopaedia
http://www.politicsofmedicines.org/ Health Action International (HAI) presents a first-of-its-kind free online encyclopaedia of the politics of medicines in the form of a Politics of Medicines’ website which holds essays on different issues concerning medicines, written by experts in their field.

TRAINING OPPORTUNITIES
Modelling Approaches for HTA: a Practical Hands-on Workshop
Continuing Education Program on Health Technology Assessment & Decision Sciences (HTADS) 7-9 June 2012, Oslo, Norway This 3-day Practical Hands-on Modelling Workshop was developed and will be held in collaboration between the PATH Research Institute at McMaster University, Canada and the Department of Public Health and Health Technology Assessment, Hall i.T., Austria. The workshop combines theoretical concepts with practical hands-on exercises comprising five different modelling techniques applied in Public Health and HTA. Realworld case examples from different acute and chronic diseases will be discussed. For more information and a course brochure see: http://www.umit.at/htads HESP-News & Notes - 10/2012 - page 31

MSc in Tropical Medicine
Start: June every year Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand Course Content: Clinical tropical medicine, clinical pharmacology, epidemiology, microbiology, immunology, nutritional epidemiology, biochemical nutrition, nutritional toxicology, tropical pathology, radiological science, social medicine, environmental health (selection). Language: English; Fees: US$ 7,000/year Entry Requirements: BSc, MSc, MD, DVM, DDS, MBBS, English language proficiency. For more information contact: Tel.: +66-2354-9149 Fax: +66-2354-9150 mailto: tmedu@diamond.mahidol.ac.th or see: http://www.tm.mahidol.ac.th/en/academic/msc/msc_course_name.htm For more courses and conferences see also: www.goinginternational.eu/en/online-datenbank/

CONFERENCES
Appropriate Healthcare Technologies for Developing Countries - AHT2012
The 7th International Conference - World Health and Wellbeing 18 - 19 September 2012 Dexter House, London, UK This event brings together healthcare technologists, clinicians, researchers and public bodies from around the world to explore effective engineering solutions to meet the healthcare problems of developing countries. For more information see: http://conferences.theiet.org/aht/ ***

ACT now: Accuracy, Completeness, and Transparency in health research reporting
11 - 12 October 2012, Freiburg, Germany Organised by the EQUATOR Network and the German Cochrane Centre The symposium will be of great interest to health research scientists and clinicians, journal editors and peer reviewers, reporting guideline developers, publishers, research funders and other professionals involved in research education, research governance and the publication of medical research. You are invited you to present research, debate current practice with many international experts, and discuss steps needed for more efficient publication of health research studies. For more information see: http://www.equator-network.org/courses-events/equator-scientific-symposium-2012/ HESP-News & Notes - 10/2012 - page 32

CARTOON

TIPS & TRICKS
Quick iPad Period Placement
The iPad touchscreen keyboard responds well to frantic tappings – far better than you ever expected a touch-screen keyboard to react. But when you are chugging along at 170 words per minute, and want to eek out a little more speed, every shortcut helps. So when you are typing away at your iPad, and you want to add a period at the end of a sentence, don’t waste time with extra keypresses – just double-tap the spacebar.

Voila! Instant period punctuation! ***

Take an iPad Screenshot
Did you know that you can take a screenshot from your iPad so you can post it and email it to everyone? Here is how: First, make sure your iPad is on the screen you want to capture. Now press and release the Home button and the top button (sleep/wake) on your iPad at the same time. You have to be pretty nimble, otherwise you might get sent back to the home screen or put your iPad to sleep. If done correctly, however, you will hear a camera noise and the screen will flash. Now simply go into your Photos. You should see your screenshot, and from there you can share or e-mail it. ***

Go For A (Google) Drive
Google announced recently it would be joining the expanding world of cloud computing HESP-News & Notes - 10/2012 - page 33

with “Google Drive”. The new service will provide its users with 5GB of free cloud storage with the option of purchasing more at a monthly fee. This will also expand on the already existing Google Cloud, which lets users store documents and e-mail. The purpose, like most cloud drives, is to allow users to store, share, and easily transfer larger files. To make use of the “drive” you have to have a free Google account. According to Google, users can pay US$ 2.50 a month of a 25GB storage upgrade. The service will also be accessible through both PC’s and Macs as well as an Android app. An app for iOS devices is promised for the near future. Google is also getting a bit of criticism for joining the cloud drive game so late. Apple has had iCloud available since last June while Microsoft, Dropbox, and Amazon have had a strong presence as well. Best regards, Dieter Neuvians MD

---------------------------Fair Use: This Newsletter is produced under the principles of 'fair use'. We source relevant news articles, resources and research documents and strive to attribute sources by providing reference and/or direct links to authors and websites. Disclaimer: The views expressed in this newsletter, do not necessarily represent those of GIZ or the editor of HESP-News & Notes. While we make every effort to ensure that all facts and figures quoted by authors are accurate, GIZ and the editor of the Newsletter cannot be held responsible for any inaccuracies contained in any articles. Please contact dneuvians@gmx.de if you believe that errors are contained in any article and we will investigate and provide feedback.

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