INTRODUCTION

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The set of people working together in a coordinated and structured approach to achieve one or more objectives is the Organisation.(Barney and Griffin 1992) This analysis is about the leadership and the management of a medium sized hospital in the UK Rossette NHS Trust hospital, its income is £70 million a year. It comprises over 2800 personnel; the total headcount of which is 250 people and over 80 percent of all staff are female. The organisation provides acute and midwifery services to million people. Anita Patel who is the Director wanted to introduce a new change in the organisation which is Generic worker concept (GWC) a change to improve the services provided by the organization. The present system is pilot scheme in which there is uncertainty of jobs, confusion in work rotas, discrimination issues and lack of team works so this was rejected by the majority of the staff. This analysis critically overview the different theories regarding management roles, leadership style, approaches and motivation factors which helps to achieve the goals of any organisation. In order to perform better, organisations always depends on the human resources. This fact is researched by many researchers and according to (Rayner and Smith 2009) any organisation has a strategic advantage which is its employees as they cannot be imitated by its competitors. The management wanted to introduce a rational change in the organisation which represents a strategic transformation highly focused on issue of human resources. This paper includes the Maslow hierarchy, Herzberg factor model, Adair, Hersey and Blanchard Theory, Fiedler, Goleman, Adam’s theory of equity, conclusion and recommendations which could be adopted for the efficient
management system in NHS Trust Hospital. LEADERSHIP AND LEADERSHIP THEORIES: TRAIT THEORIES: According to Stogdil, 1974, the value of the different combination of traits

relies on the specific situation of the leader and the need of steadiness between the traits. These traits and skills distinguish him from the others. However, it is not essential that a person will be a leader only after having these traits. The finance director Selwyn fisher emphasised on implementation of the new concept and said that this would provide good value for money and make cost savings.

CONTINGENCY THEORIES: The nature of assistant staff is the major variable which determines the style of leadership. Hersey and Blanchard theory is based on this view. The appropriate style of leadership is a combination of relationship behaviour and task behaviour.

set goals and defines their objectives and how to commence them. the managers have a mission and vision for the betterment of the organisation. managers wanted to bring change which is generic concept which favours the combination of task behaviour and relationship behaviour. she is a good initiator or as she proposed a new method of introducing teams of generic hotel services assistants at ward level by combining the jobs of domestics. porters and catering staff to improve the flexibility and to satisfy the needs of the patients. Intellectual stimulation: The leadership planned a rational change GWC to solve the current problems in the current system. Selling: Emphasises both task and relationship behaviour. Individual consideration: currently they arranged awareness sessions but no one come in those and in future they planned to train employees for different tasks. Porters would be under the formalise control. there would be no status difference so gains respect from everyone. It also even out the work pressure for porters and the Director also emphasised on the encouragement and the motivation of the porters by rewards and consideration of their needs and recognition. TRANSACTIONAL/TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP: The leader having the skills and abilities to recognise the need for change and be able to identify the action to bring the change.     Telling: Emphasises more task behaviour than the relationship behaviour. The generic concept was one of the seven key changes in the Trust’s plan. (Kuhnert and Lewis 1987). motivates them through support and encouragement and listen to them Within the case. Bernard bass and Bruce Avolio gave a model of 4 Is.  Task behaviour: Leader provides instruction to the followers for the performance. Four styles of leadership then derived from this combination. In this case. Delegating: Emphasises less support with low levels of both relationship and task behaviour. According to this theory within the case the style is selling in proposed generic concept. Relationship behaviour: Leader follows two way communication with followers. After the implementation of the GWC the leadership is observed to be transactional as it favours the . leaders decided to motivate the employees by the different kinds of rewards. Participating: Emphasises high amount of relationship behaviour and two way communications. Idealised influence: According to GWC. Inspirational motivation: In the case. There would be single grade and pay spine which decrease the status differential and simplify the bonus schemes. Anita Patel is transformational leader.

In current system the managers arranged awareness sessions and they organised many meetings to update the staff. operational planning will be better. Settlement of the conflicts between groups needs and needs of the member. The most effective leadership is the one which is able to meet all these three needs within the team and organisation. Task functions: Within the case. the actual content of the discussion. Team maintenance: Maintenance of the morale and team spirit: the management wanted to maintain the team spirit and morale in the case. The need of the maintenance of the group. Planning the work. quality control: The goal of this change is to improve the quality of the service of the organisation. These needs are connected to one another and a leader needs to focus and meet these needs in every situation. The cohesiveness of the the group as a working team. the management was planning for the implementation of the change. Awareness: The members of the group know the group process. Defining the task. the leader defined that there is no ownership of task. They all have understanding of the change going to take place and they also gave their response in resistance to that change. plan for night outs as rewards. the leadership style is in the start autocratic where the power is with the management when porters and other staff are not listened by the mangers and their opinions are not considered as porters and domestics were transferred from central pool to ward level. achievement of the goals of the group which are flexibility. efficient service to the patients. everyone has to do each and every job. behaviour and everything which is happening within the group. According to the given case study shows. Review the performance. These are not required in all times. The individual needs of members of the group. According to (Tannanbaum and Schmidt 1968) . giving rewards and praises. Organisation of the duties: the change reallocates the duties of porters. Specific leadership functions should be performed in order to meet these three areas of needs.    The need to achieve the common job. training the group: They planned to train the domestics for the extension of their jobs. Understanding: Awareness of the specific task and then the ability to do it efficiently which can be judged by response of the group or changes. Meetings of the sub leaders were organised. the management decided to give chocolates. domestics and other staff. Individual functions: Fulfilling the needs of the members.STYLE APPROACHES: According to (Adair) the effective leadership is dependent upon three areas of needs within the group.

The formal status and pay differentials between members of Hotel services would be removed. the HRM Director. At the ward base the managers have not much control on the domestics.(Froster 2005) CONTENT THEORIES :( Maslow 1943) presented hierarchy model in which he highlighted human needs. company policy. they would feel pride in the work so it satisfies the social needs of the porters.it is boss centred continuum. security. work environment. administration. felt that if porters would feel part of a team. who sells their ideas to its employees. As everyone has to do each task so the job satisfaction of the nurses and . job context. caring atmosphere. give them a good job to do job. there are different motivators (Maslow). MOTIVATION THEORIES: There are two kinds of theories on motivation. Porters are also fire fighters which were also not in control of the management. but their self esteem is reduced as the change omits the status differential and one porter commented that they are understaffed and suffering from low self morale with a poor sickness record . Patrick Davenport. domestic pay would be raised up to 8 percent and porters pay would be by 2 per cent. All the staff would be upgraded.On the other hand domestics self esteem and job satisfaction has been raised by the change At different life stages.MOTIVATION: “if you want people to be motivated to do a good job.1968). status and security. According to Herzberg two factor model the managers have to deal with hygiene factors which are pay. the implementation of the generic worker concept would make it clear to the employees that there is no ownership of the duties which would increase the job satisfaction but at present they don’t have it there. responsibility and growth. promotion. The various needs at work can be categorised in various ways (Mullins 2006)   Extrinsic motivation: tangible benefits such as salary. In Trust hospital.(Herzberg. recognition. Second factor is Motivators which are achievement. In the Trust Hospital the leadership was not as much effective to motivate the employee that’s why the hospital could not provide best services. These needs are also emphasised by Alderfer (1972) in his ERG Theory called existence needs. . In this case. Before the implementation of the change the style is democratic (Hersey and Blanchard). fringe benefits. In this case administration is not so good. Effective leadership enhances the motivation to the employees. Comprises psychological rewards such as appreciation.Motivation is a driving force which stimulates the certain behaviour to attain the desired goals to fulfil the needs. Intrinsic motivation. as Thomas Alban (DGM) said that the goalposts have been continuously moving and it changes with the wind and the job rotas are fixed only for specific people. Maslow said that the unsatisfied need is the motivator which motivates the specific behaviour to satisfy that need.

Informal group is created by the members to seek union representation to protest for their rights. A team is a formal group which is created by the management to direct members towards some specific goals. Whether the rewards to motivate them are same or not. professionals allied to medicine but it was hard to make them works in teams. doctors. In this case. The main focus of this theory is on the feelings of the employees that how fairly managers treat them in comparison to others. The hospital has groups of nurses. communicating. formal and informal group. this would motivate the employees. Many variables influence the motivation.there are five stages of the group development and relationships (Tuckman 1977) Forming: Storming: Norming: According to Riches there is one way to make the team effective is to establish the agreed values or norms within the team and then consistently stick to them. The ward managers have little control over the domestics. Such companies utilise the formula of Caring. the staff would take wider array of tasks and team work is required. Rewards motivates the employees such as manager proposed that if the chocolates are give out and nights out are organised.R Robinson1999) There are two types of groups. deputy and the mangers of domestic and potering staff. PROCESS THEORIES: Stalker suggests that the success of the company is in the balance between the unwritten needs of the employees and the needs of the company. Equity theory proposed the main variable. (S. values of the organisation. Therefore for porters it was unfair system for the porters. physiotherapists. In the given case the domestics are alienated into teams which were under the charge of supervisor. and knowing. (Adam 1965).After the change porters salary was increased by 2% though they have to perform cleaning and other duties but domestics pay was increased by 8 % and their status was actually upgraded. rewarding. a small domestic team was introduced which includes Director of Site Services. perceived reward of equity.(1997)argues that if the employee is valued. Employees normally evaluate how they are treated fairly by others in the same circumstances. This . this would result in increase in the productivity and their efficiency raises which results in the achievement of goals. GROUPS AND TEAM LEADERSHIP: A group of people who decisively interacts towards achievement of the objectives is a team. Performing: Adjourning: They planned that by introducing the generic worker concept. listening.porters reduced but domestics were satisfied as they were given training and also due to the change in their job description. The staff comes under the authority of the managers in the unit which was the reason of frustration sometimes.

As female leaders are more capable to remove the hindrances and helpful for the followers to perform well and fulfil their potential but they were unsuccessful. REFERENCES: . gender discrimination problem. There was the absence of the leader so there was no clear direction to the followers and the female management was a big failure.status issue. Female leaders are supposed to identify the problems as the tools of learning but the result was opposite.was devoted and energetic about their job.there should be As McGregor states that every managerial role is based on assumptions. Cloke and Goldsmith also suggests that (Taylor. (Applebaum et al 2003). The assumptions were the benefits of the employees from the job enrichment and the increase of the cost savings. But in the given case due to the multilayered management frustration was found regarding their jobs. A team role is. generalisations and hypothesis. But the main cause of the failure is the inefficient leader who failed to motivate the team through communication and motivation to the staff. The original goal of the scheme was to employ the team leader who would allot the duties. autocratic style did not work well to fulfil the goals of the organisation as employees did not have job satisfaction .As many issues are raised in the pilot scheme so it is rejected by the majority of the employees. confusion of work rotas but they were not listened and properly communicated by the management. Here the whole management also had a hypothesis of generic concept. as the management failed to achieve its goals and it could not motivate the followers to work in co operation with them as well as a strong team. In response to that employees could not fulfil the tasks of the organisation. Other reasons are there is deficiency in the cohesiveness of the staff. Their relationship influences the framing of the expectations of the employees.Belbin CONCLUSION: Emmot points out that managers at all levels influences the perceptions of employees of their psychological contract. They are committed with conviction to achieve the benefits of the pilot scheme. contribute and interrelate with one another. 1912) gave the concept of multilayered management control to supervise the teams to attain maximum efficiency. there is a specific way to behave. In the hospital there was no relationship between the management and the followers. One manager commented that the main hindrance to the attainment of the aims of the Hospital is the boundaries between the employees and the lack of teamwork. At present the managers do not have all power over domestics that mean they are having team leadership. employees were unable to solve the problems and disputes between them and gender discrimination.