From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Routing paths through a portion of the Internet as visualized by the Opte Project
Access · Censorship
Digital divide · Digital rights
Freedom of information · History
Usage · Democracy
Internet phenomenon · Privacy
Net neutrality · Sociology
Internet Corporation for Assigned
Names and Numbers (ICANN)
Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)
Internet Governance Forum (IGF)
Internet Society (ISOC)
Protocols and infrastructure
Domain Name System (DNS)
Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)
IP address · Internet exchange point
Internet Protocol (IP)
Internet Protocol Suite (TCP/IP)
Internet service provider (ISP)
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)
Blogs · Microblogs · E-mail
Fax · File sharing · File transfer
Instant messaging · Gaming
TV · Podcast · Search
Voice over IP (VoIP)
World Wide Web
Outline · Topics
Computer network types by geographical scope
Near field (NFC) Body (BAN) Personal (PAN) Near-me (NAN) Local (LAN)
Home (HAN) Storage (SAN)
Campus (CAN) Backbone Metropolitan (MAN) Wide (WAN) Internet Interplanetary Internet
The Internet has enabled or accelerated new forms of human interactions through instant messaging. academic. For other uses. fault-tolerant. Newspaper. more than 2. The commercialization of what was by the 1990s an international network resulted in its popularization and incorporation into virtually every aspect of modern human life. Only the overreaching definitions of the two principal name spaces in the Internet. and social networking. commissioned by the United States government in collaboration with private commercial interests to build robust. film. It is a network of networks that consists of millions of private. Business-to-business and financial services on the Internet affect supply chains across entire industries. and distributed computer networks.This box:
This article is about the public worldwide computer network system. The Internet has no centralized governance in either technological implementation or policies for access and usage. Most traditional communications media including telephone. although not all applications use TCP) to serve billions of users worldwide.2 billion people — nearly a third of Earth's population — use the services of the Internet. led to worldwide participation in the development of new networking technologies. Online shopping has boomed both for major retail outlets and small artisans and traders. backbone by the National Science Foundation in the 1980s. music. and the merger of many networks.S. book and other print publishing are adapting to Web site technology. The Internet carries an extensive range of information resources and services. see Internet (disambiguation). public. Internet forums. as well as private funding for other commercial backbones. of local to global scope. wireless and optical networking technologies. The funding of a new U. that are linked by a broad array of electronic. The Internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks that use the standard Internet protocol suite (often called TCP/IP. The origins of the Internet reach back to research of the 1960s. each constituent network sets its own standards. giving birth to new services such as Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) and Internet Protocol Television (IPTV). As of 2011. and government networks. the Internet Protocol address space and
. business. or are reshaped into blogging and web feeds. and television are reshaped or redefined by the Internet. such as the inter-linked hypertext documents of the World Wide Web (WWW) and the infrastructure to support email.
3 Philanthropy 9.1 Protocols 3.3 General structure
4 Governance 5 Modern uses 6 Services
o o o
6.1 Information 6. books. the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN).3 Data transfer
7 Access 8 Users 9 Social impact
o o o o
9. The technical underpinning and standardization of the core protocols (IPv4 and IPv6) is an activity of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). are directed by a maintainer organization. and journals
. a non-profit organization of loosely affiliated international participants that anyone may associate with by contributing technical expertise.4 Censorship
10 See also 11 References 12 External links
12.2 Politics and political revolutions 9.
1 Terminology 2 History 3 Technology
o o o
3.2 Routing 3.1 Organizations 12.the Domain Name System.2 Communication 6.2 Articles.1 Social networking and entertainment 9.
 CYCLADES. the Internet and the World Wide Web are not one and the same. has been treated as a proper noun and written with an initial capital letter. It is a collection of interconnected documents and other resources. Some guides specify that the word should be capitalized as a noun but not capitalized as an adjective. the result of interconnecting computer networks with special gateways or routers. a trend has also developed to regard it as a generic term or common noun and thus write it as "the internet". However. without capitalization.See also: Internet capitalization conventions Internet is a short form of the technical term internetwork. and Telenet. Merit Network. In contrast. The ARPANET in particular led to the development of protocols for internetworking. The term the Internet. The Internet is also often referred to as the Net. Tymnet. the Web is one of the services communicated via the Internet. where multiple separate networks could be joined together into a network of networks. The Internet establishes a global data communications system between computers. when referring to the entire global system of IP networks. linked by hyperlinks and URLs.
. Mark I at NPL in the UK. were developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s using a variety of protocols. The terms Internet and World Wide Web are often used in everyday speech without much distinction.
Professor Leonard Kleinrockwith the first ARPANET Interface Message Processors at UCLA
Main articles: History of the Internet and History of the World Wide Web Research into packet switching started in the early 1960s and packet switched networks such as ARPANET. In the media and popular culture.
5 Mbit/s and 45 Mbit/s.Notable exceptions were the Norwegian Seismic Array (NORSAR) in 1972. as a shorthand for internetworking. The Internet was commercialized in 1995 when NSFNET was decommissioned. London University and later at University College London. RFC 675 – Specification of Internet Transmission Control Program. followed in 1973 by Sweden with satellite links to the Tanum Earth Station and Peter T. used the term internet. the Internet Protocol Suite (TCP/IP) was standardized and the concept of a world-wide network of fully interconnected TCP/IP networks called the Internet was introduced. California. there were already fifteen sites connected to the young ARPANET by the end of 1971. on 29 October 1969. The ARPANET was decommissioned in 1990. Yogen Dalal. Kirstein's research group in the UK. The Internet started a rapid expansion to Europe and Australia in the mid to late 1980s and to Asia in the late 1980s and early 1990s. These early years were documented in the 1972 film Computer Networks: The Heralds of Resource Sharing. The third site on the ARPANET was the Culler-Fried Interactive Mathematics center at the University of California at Santa Barbara. In an early sign of future growth. European developers were concerned with developing the X. removing the last restrictions on the use of the Internet to carry commercial traffic. Early international collaborations on ARPANET were sparse. and the fourth was the University of Utah Graphics Department. initially at the Institute of Computer Science.
. first at 56 kbit/s and later at 1. Access to the ARPANET was expanded in 1981 when the National Science Foundation (NSF) developed the Computer Science Network (CSNET).
T3 NSFNET Backbone. TCP/IP network access expanded again in 1986 when NSFNET provided access to supercomputer sites in the United States from research and education organizations. later RFCs repeat this use.25 networks.The first two nodes of what would become the ARPANET were interconnected between Leonard Kleinrock's Network Measurement Center at the UCLA's School of Engineering and Applied Science and Douglas Engelbart's NLS system at SRI International (SRI) in Menlo Park. and Carl Sunshine. by Vinton Cerf. For various political reasons. In December 1974. so the word started out as an adjective rather than the noun it is today. 1992
In 1982. Commercial internet service providers (ISPs) began to emerge in the late 1980s and 1990s. c.
Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) "phone calls". commerce. Increasing amounts of data are transmitted at higher and higher speeds over fiber optic networks operating at 1-Gbit/s. and online shopping sites.095 billion (30. as well as the non-proprietary open nature of the Internet protocols. During the late 1990s. driven by ever greater amounts of online information and knowledge.This NeXT Computer was used by Sir Tim Berners-Lee at CERN and became the world's first Web server. while the mean annual growth in the number of Internet users was thought to be between 20% and 50%. instant messaging. by 2000 this figure had grown to 51%.social networking.
Since the mid-1990s the Internet has had a tremendous impact on culture and commerce. which allows organic growth of the network. which encourages vendor interoperability and prevents any one company from exerting too much control over the network.
Main article: Internet protocol suite
. and by 2007 more than 97% of all telecommunicated information was carried over the Internet. the estimated total number of Internet users was 2.2% of world population). and the World Wide Web with its discussion forums. The Internet continues to grow. including the rise of near instant communication by email. As of 31 March 2011. it was estimated that traffic on the public Internet grew by 100 percent per year. or more. blogs. 10Gbit/s. entertainment andsocial networking. This growth is often attributed to the lack of central administration. two-way interactive video calls. It is estimated that in 1993 the Internet carried only 1% of the information flowing through two-way telecommunication.
Intermediate relays remove and add a new link encapsulation for retransmission. left to right.As the user data is processed down through the protocol stack. each layer adds an encapsulation at the sending host. Data is transmitted "over the wire" at the link level. The encapsulation stack procedure is reversed by the receiving host. and inspect the IP layer for routing purposes.
Internet protocol suite
(more) Link layer
While the hardware can often be used to support other software systems. Resulting discussions and final standards are published in a series of publications. each called a Request for Comments (RFC). The IETF conducts standardsetting work groups. freely available on the IETF web site.
Media access control
The communications infrastructure of the Internet consists of its hardware components and a system of software layers that control various aspects of the architecture. about the various aspects of Internet architecture. The responsibility for the architectural design of the Internet software systems has been delegated to the Internet Engineering Task Force(IETF). The principal methods of networking that enable the Internet are contained in specially designated RFCs that constitute
. it is the design and the rigorous standardization process of the software architecture that characterizes the Internet and provides the foundation for its scalability and success. open to any individual.
since Internet address registries (RIRs) began to urge all resource managers to plan rapid adoption and conversion. which provides addressing systems (IP addresses) for computers on the Internet. is designed to be independent of the underlying hardware. The internet layerenables computers to identify and locate each other via Internet Protocol (IP) addresses. or document the best current practices (BCP) when implementing Internet technologies. Below this top layer. IPv6 is not interoperable with IPv4. that provides connectivity between hosts on the same local network link. IPv6. it establishes a parallel version of the Internet not directly accessible with IPv4 software. the space for the application-specific networking methods used in software applications.g. is a software layer. The layers correspond to the environment or scope in which their services operate. which the model therefore does not concern itself with in any detail. It was designed to address up to ~4. peering agreements). The Internet standards describe a framework known as the Internet protocol suite. the transport layer connects applications on different hosts via the network (e. such as the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model. RFC 1123). a web browser program. consisting of two layers. experimental. The model. Aside from the complex array of physical connections that make up its infrastructure. and allows them to connect to one-another via intermediate (transit) networks. This means software upgrades or translator facilities are necessary for networking devices that need to communicate on both networks. the Internet is facilitated by bi. IP enables internetworking and in essence establishes the Internet itself. client–server model) with appropriate data exchange methods.theInternet Standards. This is a model architecture that divides methods into a layered system of protocols (RFC 1122. many similarities exist and the TCP/IP protocols are usually included in the discussion of OSI networking. Underlying these layers are the core networking technologies. or historical. the explosive growth of the Internet has led to IPv4 address exhaustion.or multi-lateral commercial contracts (e. A new protocol version. Network infrastructures. which provides vastly larger addressing capabilities and more efficient routing of Internet traffic. Most modern computer operating systems already support both versions of the Internet Protocol. such as a local area network (LAN) or a dial-up connection. Other models have been developed. IP Version 4 (IPv4) is the initial version used on the first generation of today's Internet and is still in dominant use. Other less rigorous documents are simply informative. Last. however. However.g..g. The most prominent component of the Internet model is the Internet Protocol (IP). at the bottom of the architecture..3 billion (109) Internet hosts. which entered its final stage in 2011. and by technical specifications or protocols that
. also known as TCP/IP. In essence.. was developed in the mid-1990s. the link layer. are still lagging in this development. but they are not compatible in the details of description or implementation. e. when the global address allocation pool was exhausted. At the top is the application layer. IPv6 is currently in growing deployment around the world.
large telecommunication companies which exchange traffic directly "across" to all other Tier 1 networks via unpaidpeering agreements. In single-homed situations. large companies. ISPs can use a single "upstream" provider for connectivity. engaging in peering and purchasing transit on behalf of their internal networks of
. the Internet is defined by its interconnections and routing policies. Higher-level ISPs use the Border Gateway Protocol to sort out paths to any given range of IP addresses across the complex connections of the global Internet. governments. Indeed. often hosted in buildings owned by independent third parties. a default route usually points "up" toward an ISP providing transit. Academic institutions. and other organizations can perform the same role as ISPs. though they may also engage in unpaid peering (especially for local partners of a similar size). Tier 2 networks buy Internet transit from other ISP to reach at least some parties on the global Internet.
Internet packet routing is accomplished among various tiers of Internet Service Providers.
Internet Service Providers connect customers (thought of at the "bottom" of the routing hierarchy) to customers of other ISPs.describe how to exchange data over the network. Tables can be constructed manually or automatically via DHCP for an individual computer or a routing protocol for routers themselves. Computers and routers use routing tables to direct IP packets among locally connected machines. Internet exchange points create physical connections between multiple ISPs. or use multihoming to provide protection from problems with individual links. At the "top" of the routing hierarchy are ten or so Tier 1 networks.
 The Internet is heterogeneous. for instance. It operates without a central governing body. yet highly complex system". For example. and the UK's national research and education network. Research networks tend to interconnect into large subnetworks such as GEANT. The principles of the routing and addressing methods for traffic in the Internet reach back to their origins in the 1960s when the eventual scale and popularity of the network could not be anticipated. data transfer rates exhibit temporal self-similarity. Not all computer networks are connected to the Internet.
The Internet structure and its usage characteristics have been studied extensively. California. Thus. These in turn are built around smaller networks (see the list of academic computer network organizations). However. For example. JANET. United States
The Internet is a globally distributed network comprising many voluntarily interconnected autonomous networks. to maintain interoperability.individual computers.
Main article: Internet governance
ICANN headquarters in Marina Del Rey. Internet2. all technical and policy aspects of the underlying core infrastructure and the
. The Internet structure was found to be highly robust to random failures and very vulnerable to high degree attacks. highly engineered. GLORIAD. the possibility of developing alternative structures is investigated. Many computer scientists describe the Internet as a "prime example of a large-scale. data transfer ratesand physical characteristics of connections vary widely. some classified United States websites are only accessible from separate secure networks. It has been determined that both the Internet IP routing structure and hypertext links of the World Wide Web are examples of scale-free networks. The Internet exhibits "emergent phenomena" that depend on its large-scale organization.
it has never been easier for people to access educational information at any level from anywhere. especially with the spread of unmetered high-speed connections. and other non-commercial communities. handheld game consoles and cellular routers allow users to connect to the Internet wirelessly. ICANN is governed by an international board of directors drawn from across the Internet technical. including email and the web. including domain names. which has produced. academic. For distance education. ICANN's role in coordinating the assignment of unique identifiers distinguishes it as perhaps the only central coordinating body on the global Internet. Educational material at all levels from pre-school to post-doctoral is available from websites. knowledge. Internet Protocol (IP) addresses. whether in the form of an IRC chat room or channel. ICANN is the authority that coordinates the assignment of unique identifiers for use on the Internet. and OpenOffice. The government of the United States continues to have the primary role in approving changes to the DNS root zone that lies at the heart of the domain name system.
. via an instant messaging system. whiling away spare time. California. headquartered in Marina del Rey. the services of the Internet. to access to top-end scholarly literature through the likes of Google Scholar. are essential for the global reach of the Internet. or a social networking website. The low cost and nearly instantaneous sharing of ideas. Mobile phones. and skills has made collaborative work dramatically easier. including through mobile Internet devices. in which names and numbers are uniquely assigned. with the help of collaborative software. among other things. may be available. established the Internet Governance Forum (IGF) to discuss Internet-related issues. business. On 16 November 2005. datacards. Not only can a group cheaply communicate and share ideas but the wide reach of the Internet allows such groups more easily to form.principal name spaces are administered by the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN). through school and high-school revision guides. and many other parameters. Internet chat. the World Summit on the Information Society.Linux. Globally unified name spaces. application port numbers in the transport protocols. or just looking up more detail on an interesting fact. Mozilla Firefox.
The Internet allows greater flexibility in working hours and location. self-guided learning.org. help with homework and other assignments. The Internet in general and the World Wide Web in particular are important enablers of both formal and informal education. An example of this is the free software movement. Examples range from CBeebies. Within the limitations imposed by small screens and other limited facilities of such pocket-sized devices. virtual universities. Service providers may restrict the services offered and mobile data charges may be significantly higher than other access methods. held in Tunis. The Internet can be accessed almost anywhere by numerous means.
can access their emails. but the two terms are not synonymous.allows colleagues to stay in touch in a very convenient way when working at their computers during the day. Messages can be exchanged even more quickly and conveniently than via email. These accounts could have been created by home-working bookkeepers. i. because it extends the secure perimeter of a corporate network into remote locations and its employees' homes. but the cost of private leased lines would have made many of them infeasible in practice. Some of these things were possible before the widespread use of the Internet. An accountant sitting at home can audit the books of a company based in another country. perhaps on the other side of the world on a business trip or a holiday.
Many people use the terms Internet and World Wide Web. images and other resources. These systems may allow files to be exchanged. political activism and creative writing. interchangeably. or open a remote desktop session into their office PC using a secure Virtual Private Network (VPN) connection on the Internet. or just the Web. This can give the worker complete access to all of their normal files and data. authentication and encryption technologies. The Internet allows computer users to remotely access other computers and information stores easily. They may do this with or without computer security. based on information emailed to them from offices all over the world. servers. but it is only one of the hundreds of communication
. collaboration and information sharing in many industries. drawings and images to be shared. Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is the main access protocol of the World Wide Web. and other databases. and the documents and resources that they can provide. depending on the requirements. Business and project teams can share calendars as well as documents and other information. Such collaboration occurs in a wide variety of areas including scientific research. including email and other applications. An office worker away from their desk. Social and political collaboration is also becoming more widespread as both Internet access and computer literacy spread. Content management systems allow collaborating teams to work on shared sets of documents simultaneously without accidentally destroying each other's work. This is encouraging new ways of working from home. software development. logically interrelated by hyperlinks and referenced with Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs). URIs symbolically identify services. on a server situated in a third country that is remotely maintained by IT specialists in a fourth. or voice and video contact between team members. This concept has been referred to amongsystem administrators as the Virtual Private Nightmare. access their data using cloud computing. conference planning. The World Wide Web is a global set of documents. while away from the office.e. wherever they may be. in other remote locations.
and be attracted to the corporation as a result. or building a website involves little initial cost and many cost-free services are available. Collections of personal web pages published by large service providers remain popular. a blog. Compared to printed media. video. multimedia and interactive content that runs while the user is interacting with the page. however. games. Many individuals and some companies and groups use web logs or blogs. One example of this practice is Microsoft. World Wide Web browser software. who may be paid staff. Websites are often created using content management or wiki software with. These documents may also contain any combination of computer data. Some commercial organizations encourage staff to communicate advice in their areas of specialization in the hope that visitors will be impressed by the expert knowledge and free information. Publishing a web page. Advertising on popular web pages can be lucrative. When the Web began in the 1990s. Whereas operations such as Angelfire and GeoCities have existed since the early days of the Web. users worldwide have easy. Web services also use HTTP to allow software systems to communicate in order to share and exchange business logic and data. lets users navigate from one web page to another via hyperlinks embedded in the documents. The Web has also enabled individuals and organizations to publish ideas and information to a potentially large audience online at greatly reduced expense and time delay. Client-side software can include animations. Publishing and maintaining large. for example.protocols used on the Internet. Through keyworddriven Internet research using search engines likeYahoo! and Google. formatted in HTML. members of a club or other
. whose product developers publish their personal blogs in order to pique the public's interest in their work. such as Microsoft's Internet Explorer. office applications and scientific demonstrations. including graphics. Facebook and Twitter currently have large followings. and e-commerce or the sale of products and services directly via the Web continues to grow. very little content. a typical web page was stored in completed form on a web server. Opera. and Google Chrome. These operations often brand themselves as social network services rather than simply as web page hosts. Apple's Safari. which are largely used as easily updatable online diaries. newer offerings from. professional web sites with attractive. diverse and up-to-date information is still a difficult and expensive proposition. and have become increasingly sophisticated. the World Wide Web has enabled the decentralization of information on a large scale. sounds. encyclopedias and traditional libraries. ready to be sent to a user's browser in response to a request. Over time. instant access to a vast and diverse amount of online information. initially. Contributors to these systems. Mozilla Firefox. text. books. the process of creating and serving web pages has become more automated and more dynamic.
VoIP can be free or cost much less than a traditional telephone call. colleagues and friends as an attachment. a few VoIP providers provide an emergency service. as a form of communication between players. The load of bulk downloads to many users can be eased by the use of "mirror" servers or peer-to-peer networks. Popular VoIP clients for gaming include Ventrilo and Teamspeak. Pictures. The concept of sending electronic text messages between parties in a way analogous to mailing letters or memos predates the creation of the Internet. VoIP does not do so without abackup power source for the phone equipment and the Internet access devices. documents and other files are sent as email attachments. VoIP is maturing into a competitive alternative to traditional telephone service. especially over long distances and especially for those with always-on Internet connections such as cable or ADSL. Simple. Traditional phones are line-powered and operate during a power failure. approval and security systems built into the process of taking newly entered content and making it available to the target visitors.
File sharing is an example of transferring large amounts of data across the Internet. In any of these cases. but it is not universally available. as the Internet carries the voice traffic. Interoperability between different providers has improved and the ability to call or receive a call from a traditional telephone is available. There may or may not be editorial. fill underlying databases with content using editing pages designed for that purpose. A computer file can be emailed to customers. and Xbox 360 also offer VoIP chat features. PlayStation 3. VoIP has also become increasingly popular for gaming applications. Remaining problems for VoIP include emergency telephone number dialing and reliability.
Email is an important communications service available on the Internet. Voice quality can still vary from call to call. In recent years many VoIP systems have become as easy to use and as convenient as a normal telephone. It can be put into a "shared location" or onto a file server for instant use by colleagues. Internet telephony is another common communications service made possible by the creation of the Internet.organization or members of the public. access to the file may
. Emails can be cc-ed to multiple email addresses. but is often equal to and can even exceed that of traditional calls. VoIP stands for Voice-over-Internet Protocol. The idea began in the early 1990s with walkie-talkie-like voice applications for personal computers. Wii. while casual visitors view and read this content in its final HTML form. inexpensive VoIP network adapters are available that eliminate the need for a personal computer. referring to the protocol that underlies all Internet communication. It can be uploaded to a website or FTP server for easy download by others. Currently. The benefit is that.
sale. video. The price can be paid by the remote charging of funds from. the picture either is usually small or updates slowly. This means that an Internet-connected device. a credit card whose details are also passed – usually fully encrypted – across the Internet. and distribution of anything that can be reduced to a computer file for transmission. HD 720p quality requires 2. live and in real time. can be used to access on-line media in much the same way as was previously possible only with a television or radio receiver. traffic at a local roundabout or monitor their own premises. the transit of the file over the Internet may be obscured byencryption. Digital media streaming increases the demand for network bandwidth. YouTube was founded on 15 February 2005 and is now the leading website for free streaming video with a vast number of users. ships in the Panama Canal. graphics and the other arts. Podcasting is a variation on this theme. film. These simple features of the Internet. These techniques using simple equipment allow anybody. to broadcast audio-visual material worldwide. such as a computer or something more specific. music. The origin and authenticity of the file received may be checked by digital signatures or by MD5 or other message digests. for example. Classic Clips and Listen Again features.be controlled by user authentication. It uses a flash-based web player to stream and show video files. with and without two-way sound. software products. Webcams are a low-cost extension of this phenomenon. Streaming media is the real-time delivery of digital media for the immediate consumption or enjoyment by end users. Internet users can watch animals around an African waterhole. These providers have been joined by a range of pure Internet "broadcasters" who never had on-air licenses. Many radio and television broadcasters provide Internet feeds of their live audio and video productions.5 Mbit/s. photography. news. They may also allow time-shift viewing or listening such as Preview. This in turn has caused seismic shifts in each of the existing industries that previously controlled the production and distribution of these products.
. This includes all manner of print publications. and upload hundreds of thousands of videos daily. and the top-ofthe-line HDX quality needs 4. For example. Registered users may upload an unlimited amount of video and build their own personal profile. standard image quality needs 1 Mbit/s link speed for SD 480p. over a worldwide basis. from specialized technical webcasts to on-demand popular multimedia services. are changing the production. and money may change hands for access to the file. YouTube claims that its users watch hundreds of millions. with little censorship or licensing control. Video chat rooms and video conferencing are also popular with many uses being found for personal webcams. The range of available types of content is much wider. where – usually audio – material is downloaded and played back on a computer or shifted to a portable media player to be listened to on the move.5 Mbit/s for 1080p. While some webcams can give full-framerate video.
Chicago andPittsburgh. Wi-Fi. Toronto. free to customers only. These terminals are widely accessed for various usage like ticket booking. and therefore can do so to the Internet itself. such as "public Internet kiosk". Land cables are also vulnerable. various high-speed data services over cellular phone networks. Wi-Fi provides wireless access to computer networks. bank deposit. There are also Internet access points in many public places such as airport halls and coffee shops. Philadelphia. such as in the 2008 submarine cable disruption.Access
Main article: Internet access Common methods of Internet access in homes include dial-up. Web browsers such as Opera are available on these advanced handsets. A hotspot need not be limited to a confined location. or even an entire city can be enabled. in some cases just for brief use while standing. whereby approximately 93% of networks were without access in 2011 in an attempt to stop mobilization for anti-government protests. "public access terminal". Internet blackouts affecting almost entire countries can be achieved by governments as a form of Internet censorship. Hotspots providing such access include Wi-Fi cafes. online payment etc. where would-be users need to bring their own wireless-enabled devices such as a laptop orPDA. Public places to use the Internet include libraries and Internet cafes. Various terms are used. Vienna. An Internet access provider and protocol matrix differentiates the methods used to get online. though these are usually fee-based. An Internet blackout or outage can be caused by local signaling interruptions. and fixed wireless services. These services may be free to all. High-end mobile phones such as smartphones in general come with Internet access through the phone network. which can also run a wide variety of other Internet software. there have been experiments with proprietary mobile wireless networks like Ricochet. fiber optic or copper wires). Many hotels now also have public terminals. as in the blockage of the Internet in Egypt. satellite and 3G/4G technology cell phones. as in 2011 when a woman digging for scrap metal severed most connectivity for the nation of Armenia. More mobile phones have Internet access than PCs. Commercial Wi-Fi services covering large city areas are in place in London. Less-developed countries are more vulnerable due to a small number of high-capacity links. San Francisco. where computers with Internet connections are available. The Internet can then be accessed from such places as a park bench. and "Web payphone". though this is not as widely used. Grassroots efforts have led to wireless community networks. or fee-based. landline broadband (over coaxial cable. Apart from Wi-Fi. Disruptions of submarine communications cables may cause blackouts or slowdowns to large areas.
. A whole campus or park.
Internet users per 100 inhabitants
Internet users by language
Arabic. and 2 billion videos viewed daily on YouTube. as well as the language's role as a lingua franca. Japanese (5%). 42% of the world's Internet users are based in Asia. the number of Internet users globally rose from 394 million to 1. 24% in Europe. 10% in Latin America and the Caribbeantaken together. 14% in North America. By 2010. a subset of the Latin alphabet. 300 million Internet users reading blogs. However. English on the Internet.858 billion. The prevalent language for communication on the Internet has been English. 3% in the Middle East and 1% in Australia/Oceania. French and Russian (3% each). By region. especially in the use of Unicode. Early computer systems were limited to the characters in the American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII). and Korean (2%). and Unicode Overall Internet usage has seen tremendous growth. The Internet's technologies have developed enough in recent years.
. From 2000 to 2009. the most requested languages on the World Wide Web are Chinese (23%). Spanish (8%). This may be a result of the origin of the Internet.Website content languages
See also: Global Internet usage. After English (27%). Portuguese and German (4% each). 22 percent of the world's population had access to computers with 1 billion Googlesearches every day. 6% in Africa. that good facilities are available for development and communication in the world's widely used languages. some glitches such as mojibake (incorrect display of some languages' characters) still remain.
YouTube and Flickr specialize in users' videos and photographs. Social networking websites such as Facebook. The Internet has been a major outlet for leisure activity since its inception. whereas women tended to make more use of opportunities to communicate (such as email). People use chat. In addition. whereas men downloaded more.In an American study in 2005. and were more likely to be broadband users. thanks to its basic features such as widespread usability and access. messaging and email to make and stay in touch with friends worldwide. such as Facebook and Myspace. men were more likely to have a professional blog. although this difference reversed in those under 30. and distribution of copyrighted materials. and organizing. to plan and book vacations and to find out more about their interests. participate in auctions.
Main article: Sociology of the Internet The Internet has enabled entirely new forms of social interaction. and for recreation such as downloading music and videos. women significantly outnumbered men on most social networking sites. to pursue common interests. the percentage of men using the Internet was very slightly ahead of the percentage of women. Twitter. although the ratios varied with age. Men logged on more often. Users of these sites are able to add a wide variety of information to pages. the first generation is raised with widespread availability of Internet connectivity. whereas women were more likely to have a personal blog. among those who blog.
Social networking and entertainment
Many people use the World Wide Web to access news. spent more time online. More recent studies indicate that in 2008. men were more likely to blog in the first place. and to connect with others. Men and women were equally likely to use the Internet for shopping and banking. sometimes in the same way as some previously had pen pals. These "digital natives" face a variety of challenges that were not present for prior generations. and humor-
. activities. The Internet has seen a growing number of Web desktops. and MySpace have created new ways to socialize and interact. bringing consequences and concerns in areas such as personal privacy and identity. It is also possible to find existing acquaintances. women watched more streaming content. In the first decade of the 21st century. where users can access their files and settings via the Internet. weather and sports reports. to allow communication among existing groups of people. Sites like LinkedInfoster commercial and business connections. In terms of blogs. Men were more likely to use the Internet to pay bills. with entertaining social experiments such as MUDsand MOOs being conducted on university servers.
manyInternet forums have sections devoted to games and funny videos. domestic practitioners distribute tracts. the average UK employee spent 57 minutes a day surfing the Web while at work. in general this has failed to stop their widespread popularity. Internet usage has been correlated to users' loneliness. members and practitioners of such sects construct viable virtual communities of faith. short cartoons in the form of Flash movies are also popular. and often provide a significant source of advertising revenue for other websites. where people of all ages and origins enjoy the fast-paced world of multiplayer games. Free and feebased services exist for all of these activities. such as in the "I am lonely will anyone speak to me" thread. participate in acts of resistance. according to a 2003 study by Peninsula Business Services. Some of these sources exercise more care with respect to the original artists' copyrights than others. while still linked remotely to a larger network of believers who share a set of practices and texts. Internet addiction disorder is excessive computer use that interferes with daily life. Collectively. modern modes of online gaming began with subscription services such as GameSpy and MPlayer. Many people use the Internet to access and download music. Overseas supporters provide funding and support. using centralized servers and distributed peer-to-peer technologies. These range from MMORPG to first-person shooters. Today. The pornography and gambling industries have taken advantage of the World Wide Web. Non-subscribers were limited to certain types of game play or certain games. This form of recreation creates communities. and often a common devotion to a particular leader. Lonely people tend to use the Internet as an outlet for their feelings and to share their stories with others. While online gaming has been around since the 1970s. from role-playing video games to online gambling. Over 6 million people use blogs or message boards as a means of communication and for the sharing of ideas. for instance improving skills of scan-reading and interfering with the deep thinking that leads to true creativity. exchanging personal testimonies and engaging in collective study via email. on-line chat rooms and web-based message boards. and share information on the internal situation with outsiders. Although many governments have attempted to restrict both industries' use of the Internet. Psychologist Nicolas Carr believe that Internet use has other effects on individuals.
." Cyberslacking can become a drain on corporate resources.related Usenet groups receiving much traffic. movies and other works for their enjoyment and relaxation. Cybersectarianism is a new organizational form which involves: "highly dispersed small groups of practitioners that may remain largely anonymous within the larger social context and operate in relative secrecy. Another area of leisure activity on the Internet is multiplayer gaming.
Berdal also notes how "self-protective measures" are put in place by those threatened by it:
If we consider China’s attempts to filter "unsuitable material" from the Internet..
The spread of low-cost internet access in developing countries has opened up new possibilities for peer-to-peer charities. Nevertheless.
. changes the topology of the "centre-periphery" model.. Berdal in his thesis of 2004:
As the globally evolving Internet provides ever new access points to virtual discourse forums. and disseminate information. therefore. the government may find it wise to install "upstream measures"). which enclose and "besiege" several centres at once. The New York Times suggested that social media websites such as Facebook and Twitter helped people organize the political revolutions in Egypt where it helped certain classes of protesters organize protests. traditionally . international peripheries. Websites such as DonorsChoose and GlobalGiving allow small-scale donors to direct funds to individual projects of their choice. by stimulating conventional peripheries to interlink into "super-periphery" structures. national-embedded peripheries get entangled into greater. extends the Habermasian notion of the Public sphere to the Internet.. Even though limited. both types represent limitations to "peripheral capacities". To limit the growing civic potential of the Internet.. Many political groups use the Internet to achieve a new method of organizing in order to carry out their mission.Politics and political revolutions
The Internet has achieved new relevance as a political tool. most notably practiced by rebels in the Arab Spring. 
Berdal. with stronger combined powers.. it also promotes new civic relations and associations within which communicative power may flow and accumulate. most of us would agree that this resembles a self-protective measure by the system against the growing civic potentials of the Internet. which allow individuals to contribute small amounts to charitable projects for other individuals. having given rise to Internet activism. the Chinese government tries to prevent communicative power to build up and unleash (as the 1989 Tiananmen Square uprising suggests. Thus. The potential of the Internet as a civic tool of communicative power was thoroughly explored by Simon R.. The Internet. Thus. and underlines the inherent global and civic nature that intervowen Internet technologies provide. The presidential campaign of Howard Dean in 2004 in the United States was notable for its success in soliciting donation via the Internet. the Internet is proving to be an empowering tool also to the Chinese periphery: Analysts believe that Internet petitions have influenced policy implementation in favour of the public’s online-articulated will . as a consequence. B. communicate grievances.
and Sweden. In Norway. then create their own profile pages through which they share photos and information about themselves and their businesses.Zidisha members can fund loans for as little as a dollar. Kiva pioneered this concept in 2005. This direct web-based connection allows Zidisha members themselves to take on many of the communication and recording tasks traditionally performed by local organizations. However. and even smart phones. offering the first web-based service to publish individual loan profiles for funding. such as child
. Inspired by interactive websites such asFacebook and eBay. Burma. and Saudi Arabia. major Internet service providers have voluntarily. the content of the list is secret. and receive their money back as borrowers repay. Lenders can contribute as little as $25 to loans of their choice. This is accomplished through software that filters domains and content so that they may not be easily accessed or obtained without elaborate circumvention. the recent spread of cheap internet access in developing countries has made genuine international person-to-person philanthropy increasingly feasible. In 2009 the US-based nonprofit Zidishatapped into this trend to offer the first person-to-person microfinance platform to link lenders and borrowers across international borders without intermediaries. low-income entrepreneurs in developing countries. such as those of Iran. Zidisha facilitates direct dialogue and microlending transactions between individual web users worldwide and computer-literate. restrict what people in their countries can access on the Internet.A popular twist on internet-based philanthropy is the use of peer-to-peer lending for charitable purposes. Zidisha borrowers access the internet via public cybercafes. Finland. which the borrowers then use to develop business activities that improve their families' incomes while repaying loans to the members with interest. Kiva raises funds for local intermediary microfinance organizations which post stories and updates on behalf of the borrowers. in that loans are disbursed before being funded by lenders and borrowers do not communicate with lenders themselves. including the United States. Denmark. the People's Republic of China. While this list of forbidden URLs is supposed to contain addresses of only known child pornography sites. bypassing geographic barriers and dramatically reducing the cost of microfinance services to the entrepreneurs. have enacted laws against the possession or distribution of certain material.
Main articles: Internet censorship and Internet freedom Some governments. possibly to avoid such an arrangement being turned into law. Kiva falls short of being a pure peer-to-peer charity. As they repay their loans. agreed to restrict access to sites listed by authorities. Many countries. North Korea. especially political and religious content. borrowers continue to share updates and dialogue with lenders via their profile pages. donated laptops in village schools.
Word Reference Forum. or Web link) [is] the basic hypertext construct. ^ A Chronicle of Merit's Early History. Oxford English Dictionary (Draft ed. John Mulcahy... "[T]he link (or hyperlink. with which a user can choose to block offensive websites on individual computers or networks.01 Specification. ^ "Links".pornography. Chicago Manual of Style. Technical Histories of the Internet & other Network Protocols.
Outline of the Internet Index of Internet-related articles
1.". ^ Celebrating 40 years of the net. Computer Science Department. updated 31 March 2011. perhaps influenced by similar words in -net" 3. in order to limit a child's access to pornographic materials or depiction of violence.). pp. via the Internet. ^ "internet or Internet". Although a simple concept. Proc. Ann Arbor. the link has been one of the primary forces driving the success of the Web. HTML 4. University of Texas Austin 8. Retrieved 2008-08-13. World Wide Web Consortium. A link is a connection from one Web resource to another. Toronto. called content-control software. Retrieved 2011-11-08. IFIP'77 Congress. 2. 6 October 2005 ^ "7. ^ Internet World Stats.76 Terms like 'web' and 'Internet'". n. ^ "A Technical History of CYCLADES". but do not mandate filtering software. Retrieved 2010-10-26. March 2009." 6. There are many free and commercially available software programs. ^ "The Cyclades Experience: Results and Impacts". 1989. 16th edition 5.01 Specification. BBC News. by Mark Ward. 4. 1995
. ^ "Roads and Crossroads of Internet History" by Gregory Gromov. Technology correspondent. 465–469 9. August 1977. Michigan 10. University of Chicago. October 29. H. ^ "Internet. 2009 7. "Shortened < INTERNETWORK n. Zimmermann. Merit Network. HTML 4.
2009. Prentice Hall. G. Robert E. M. Clickz. AT&T Labs. Inc. ^ NSFNET: A Partnership for High-Speed Networking. 16th APAN Meetings/Advanced Network Conference in Busan. 4. 14. Cerf. 332(6025). Odlyzko. Final Report 1987-1995. 25. Retrieved 24 January 2011 22. No. Clark. 19. Martin Hilbert and Priscila López (April 2011). 23. 12. ^ Réseaux IP Européens (RIPE) 20. ^ Ben Segal (1995). 64. ^ Hafner. ISBN 0132335530. A Short History of Internet Protocols at CERN. Karen D. Archived from the original on April 5. and Compute Information".com. Retrieved 2011-06-23. Science. Russia. Retrieved June 5. Merit Network. ^ Barry M. 2003. ISBN 0-68-483267-4. 10. ^ Comer.. 21. Technology Correspondent. Kahn. Retrieved May 28. (1998-10-02) (PDF). Harris and Elise Gerich. 13. Mark Ward. Retrieved May 28. NORSAR. Where Wizards Stay Up Late: The Origins Of The Internet. 60-65. Retrieved May 28. April 1996 18. ^ Ronda Hauben (2001). 24. Vinton G. Events in British TelecommsHistory. Lynch. Internet World Stats. Daniel C. 26. ConneXions. 2009. The Internet book. ^ "Events in British Telecomms History". Communicate. ^ "The World’s Technological Capacity to Store. ^ Coffman. Leiner. David D. 2009.11. 2005. Katie (1998). ^ How the web went world wide. Retrieved December 25. A. Susan R. Stephen Wolff (2003). 2009. Retrieved November 25. 2005. Retrieved 2007-05-21. Larry G. ^ "World Internet Users and Population Stats". p. ^ "NORSAR and the Internet". A Brief History of Internet. From the ARPANET to the Internet. Jon Postel. 2011-06-22. 1995 17. Roberts. Vol. K. The size and growth rate of the Internet. 15. Miniwatts Marketing Group. Simon & Schuster. BBC News. ^ "Retiring the NSFNET Backbone Service: Chronicling the End of an Era". Frazer.
. ^ "Brazil. Douglas (2006). India and China to Lead Internet Growth Through 2011". Leonard Kleinrock. 16. ^ "Internet History in Asia".
^ R. Kieren McCarthy. ^ Walter Willinger. PMID 11328053. ^ Morrison.86. according a forecast in "Gartner Highlights Key Predictions for IT Organizations and Users in 2010 and Beyond". "What to know before buying a 'connected' TV .org. Havlin (2000). D. YouTube. Ietf. The Register.27. Lett 85: 4625. Retrieved 2011-08-08. ben-Avraham.74. 1 July 2005 36.Scaling phenomena in the Internet. 38. Erez. 39. 1. "Statistical mechanics of complex networks". ^ "The Virtual Private Nightmare: VPN". K. Bloomberg. Barab´asi. Erez. Retrieved 2009-01-20. ^ Pasternak. Sean B. Gartner. ^ R. Rev. Retrieved 2009-06-20.3682. ^ "By 2013. "IPv4 Address Report. D. Retrieved 2011-08-08. 31. L. Anick (16 April 2007). Retrieved 200905-20. R. daily generated". Albert..doi:10. Inc. Havlin. ben-Avraham. Rev. Cohen. ^ "IETF Home Page". 29. ^ Huston.com. 30. and Scott Shenker (2002). Mod. Ramesh Govindan. K. 2573–2580 32."Breakdown of the Internet under intentional attack". ^ "Bush administration annexes internet".Tech Holiday Guide . Retrieved 2010-07-21. 37. in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. LLC. doi:10.47. Albert-László (2002). ^ "YouTube Fact Sheet". 34. S (2001).com. 2004-08-04. Geoff (2010-11-18). D. Retrieved 2009-08-07. Cohen. ^ Jesdanun. Havlin. S.Technology & science . 35. Seattletimes. Archived from the original on 2010-07-04. Lett 86 (16): 3682– 5. Geoff. 40. Sugih Jamin.com". 99. Rev.1103/RevModPhys. Phys. ^ "Notice of Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) Address Depletion" (PDF). "Internet Makeover? Some argue it's time". 28.msnbc. Barabási. mobile phones will overtake PCs as the most common Web access device worldwide".Tech and gadgets . Ben-Avraham. "Resilience of the Internet to random breakdowns".nwsource. "Toronto Hydro to Install Wireless Network in Downtown Toronto". Phys. Librenix. Retrieved 2011-08-08. ^ A. suppl. 13 January 2010
. K. S. 33. Erez. Vern Paxson. Phys 74: 47– 94. MSNBC.1103/PhysRevLett. (2006-03-07).
^ Cowie. 51. ^ Internet users graphs. ^ "Number of Internet Users by Language". ^ "Top Online Game Trends of the Decade". And Social Media. Geneva. 42. Top Ten Reviews. updated for 30 June 2010. 22 January 2008 57.[dead link] 53. Dave Spohn. 2006 56. ^ "Do It Yourself! Amateur Porn Stars Make Bank".41. Russell Goldman. ^ "Internet users per 100 inhabitants 2001-2011". Renesys. ^ World Internet Usage Statistics News and Population Stats updated for 30 June 2010. "Egypt Leaves the Internet". International Telecommunications Union 48. About. Retrieved 2011-08-08. 47. ^ "Technorati's State of the Blogosphere". Internet World Stats. Retrieved 2012-04-11. ABC News. 2011-01-28. 2008-05-01. 44. Jerry Ropelato. Retrieved 20 Feb 2011. accessed 22 April 2012 46. The Guardian. Entrepreneur. ^ "Georgian woman cuts off web access to whole of Armenia". ^ "Usage of content languages for websites". Dvr. 50. 43. Technorati. 54. BBC News. Retrieved 2011-01-28.com. 31 May 2011. Miniwatts Marketing Group. 15 December 2009
.com/en/news/71940/google-earthdemonstrates-how-technology-benefits-ris-civil-society-govt 49. Market Information and Statistics. Retrieved 20 Feb 2011.antaranews. ^ "Rapleaf Study on Social Network Users". 2011-04-06. 2005 52. International Telecommunications Union. accessed 4 April 2012 45.". Retrieved 201108-08. Archived from the original on 2011-01-28. ^ Internet World Stats. Retrieved 30 December 2011. 55. Games.com.com. ^ "Internet Pornography Statistics". W3Techs. ^ http://www. ^ "Egypt severs internet connection amid growing unrest". ^ How men and women use the Internet Pew Research Center December 28. ^ "Women Ahead Of Men In Online Tv. James.
2004". eds. Thornton. pp. and Jonathan Zittrain (eds). John G. Nicholas Carr. Conflict and Resistance (second edition) (London and New York: Routledge. 64.. "The Relationship Between Internet Use and Loneliness Among College Students".com. 2 & 16.[dead link] 62. and Rule in Cyberspace. ISBN 978-0-262-51435-4 70. ^ a b Berdal. ISBN 0393072223. 2003). The Register. Deibert.. in The New York Times. ^ "Internet Game Timeline: 1963 . Boston College. Rights.
Find more about Internet on Wikipedia's sister
. Miller-mccune. ^ "Net abuse hits small city firms". ^ The Shallows: What the Internet Is Doing to Our Brains.58. (2011-02-09). Microfinance Focus. 61. as accessed Jan. Retrieved 2009-08-07. W. 2009. David D. Chinese Society: Change. Nov. 7 June 2010. 276 pp. as accessed Jan. Oct. 23 February 2011. MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-514354. Ronald J. About. ^ Kirkpatrick. 8. ^ Access Controlled: The Shaping of Power. Public deliberation on the Web: A Habermasian inquiry into online discourse. ^ "Zidisha Set to "Expand" in Peer-to-Peer Microfinance". ^ "Finland censors anti-censorship site". Rafal Rohozinski.com. ^ Carole Hughes. Center for Global Development. ^ Kiva Is Not Quite What It Seems. 2. ^ "The Arab Uprising's Cascading Effects". 2010 67. 60. Edinburgh: News. (2004) (PDF).com. Young Egyptians Guide Revolt". ISBN 9780393072228 63. Norton. "The New Cybersects: Resistance and Repression in the Reform era. ^ Patricia M. Retrieved 27 February 2011. W. 11 September 2003. 149-50.R. 2 & 16. 2010 68. Dave Spohn. by Stephanie Strom. Retrieved 2008-02-19. Boston College. Palfrey. ^ Confusion on Where Money Lent via Kiva Goes. Retrieved 2011-08-11. Oslo: University of Oslo 66. The New York Times. by David Roodman. ― In Elizabeth Perry and Mark Selden. S. 2 June 2011 59. 2008-02-18. Feb 2010 69.B. "Wired and Shrewd. 2009.scotsman. April 2010. 65.
Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 978-1-4051-9686-4
"The Internet: Changing the Way We Communicate" in America's Investment in the Future.
The Internet Society Berkman Center for Internet and Society European Commission Information Society Living Internet. National Science Foundation. Manual Castells. 2001. Ch. and journals
First Monday. in The Internet Galaxy. Manuel Castells. pp 9–35. a peer-reviewed journal on the Internet established in 1996 as a Great Cities Initiative of the University Library of the University of Illinois at Chicago. Arlington. 1. Internet history and related information. Oxford University Press. including information from many creators of the Internet
Articles. books. Va. 1996 (1st ed) and 2009 (2nd ed). ISBN13: 978-0-19-925577-1 ISBN10: 0-19-925577-6
.projects: Definitions and translations from Wiktionary Images and media from Commons Learning resources from Wikiversity News stories from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Source texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks
Wikipedia books are collections of articles that can be downloaded or ordered in print. ISSN: 1396-0466
Rise of the Network Society. USA. 2000
―Lessons from the History of the Internet‖.
Lorenzo Cantoni & Stefano Tardini.
"Media Freedom Internet Cookbook" by the OSCE Representative on Freedom of the Media Vienna. 2007
"Mapping a medusa: The Internet spreads its tentacles". ISBN 978-0-203-69888-4
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Internet. pp. Science News. Discover. 2006. Vol. Routledge. Julie Rehmeyer. No. 2004
"How Much Does The Internet Weigh?". by Stephen Cass. 171. 387–388. 25.
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