English for Philology(NguyenThiBichThuy) | Linguistics | Morphology (Linguistics)

HO CHI MINH CITY UNIVERSITY OF PEDAGOGY FOREIGN LANGUAGE SECTION

ENGLISH
For PHILOLOGY

Compiled by:

NGUYEN THI BICH THUY - MA.

HoChiMinh City, 2003.

PREFACE
The aim of this book is to help both the students of Philology faculty and those who are interested in linguistics literature. We would like to thank all those whose sources have been used in this book. We are grateful too, to teachers, colleagues and students for their guidance in the preparation of this book. There are certainly short comings in the book we are ourselves responsible for. We hope we will get more valuable comments and suggestions from the concerned in order to improve the quality of the book.

Ho Chi Minh City, July 2003
Nguyen Thi Bich Thuy

TALKING ABOUT ABILITY
PRESENTATION Read the passage below. At the age of sixty-five, Laura Ingalls Wibder could write a series of novels for young people based on her early experiences on the American frontier. Born in the state of Wisconsin in 1867, she and her family were rugged pioneers seeking better farm land, they could go by covered wagon to Missouri in 1869, then on to Kansas the next year. They returned to Winconsin in 1871 and traveled on to Minnesota and Iowa before they were able to settle permanently in South Dakota in 1879. Due to this constant moving Wilder’s early education could take place in a succession of one-room schools. From age thirteen to sixteen, she could attend school more regularly although she never graduated. Although her novels were written many years ago, young generation loves them very much. They can understand her life and her ideas through her stories. Grammar questions 1. Look at these sentences and find out what verbs are used in the underlined words. They can understand her life and her ideas through her stories. - “At the age of 65, Laura Ingalls Wilder could write a series of novels for young people”. - “They traveled on to Minnesota and Iowa before they were able to settle permanently in South Dakota in 1879”. - “From age thirteen to sixteen she could attend school more regularly, although she never graduated. 2. Rule: We use _____________ + __________ to talk about present ability to do something. We use _____________ + __________ to talk about past ability to do something. PRACTICE A. Work in pairs. Ask and answer the following questions: 1. How many languages can you speak? 2. Could you speak English when you were 6? 3. Can you compose a poem? 4. Can you read a novel all day? 5. How do people communicate? 6. Can you record what you say and think? 7. Can you communicate through time? Why or why not? - Think of a many questions as you can about communication.

B. Complete these sentences using can, can’t, could or couldn’t and the verb in brackets. 1. I am a student of Philology faculty. I ________ (compose) a poem. 2. When I was ten years old. I ________ (read) a short story in English. I learned English when I was seven years old. 3. I don’t want to read this book. I _________(study) Chinese) 4. She ________ (drive) until she went for lessons last year. 5. My grandmother was Chinese, so she _______ (use) chopsticks. 6. My sister _______ (speak) German and French. 7. My brother ______ (talk) to foreigners when he was only six years old. 8. My father is slightly deaf. He ________ (hear) very well. C. Jane and Joan are friends but each one always wants to be better than the other at everything. Complete their conversation using can, could or be able to. Follow the example. 1. Jane : I could read when I was only four years old. Joan : Well, I could read when I was three! 2. Jane : I _____________ speak three languages. Joan : That’s nothing! I ____________speak five languages. 3. Jane : Last week, with my savings, I ____________ buy myself a pony. Joan : Really? Well, last week I _______________ buy a racing horse. 4. Jane : The garden of my house is so big that I _____________ walk to the end of it. Joan : That sounds rather small. The garden of my house is so big that I ___________ drive to the end of it in a car. 5. Jane : I _________ play the piano and the violin. Joan : Is that all? I ____________ play the piano, the violin, the flute and the trumpet. 6. Jane : When I was at school I ___________ read a whole book in a day. Joan : How slow. When I was at school I _________ write a whole book in a day. 7. Jane : Last year, I got so many presents on my birthday that I ____________ fit them all in one room. Joan : What a shame. Last year, I got so many presents on my birthday that I __________ fit them all in my house – I had to rent the house next door too! 8. Jane : I’m very fit. I_________ run a mile in less than four minutes. Joan : Well, I ___________run a mile in less than four minutes – backwards ! Language review 1. Can is used to talk about the ability to do something. As with most modal verbs, we use can with the infinitive without to of the verb: I can speak two languages. The negative is cannot or can’t:

Where’s the foreign language centre of HCM city university of Pedagogy? I can’t find it. In questions using can, we do not use do, but we reverse the order of can and the subject. Can you speak Japanese? 2. The past form of can is could. The negative of could is could not (couldn’t): When I was young, I could speak English quite well. Before this year, I couldn’t compose any poems. We use could to say that someone had a general ability in the past. Could you read a novel all day? We do not use could to talk about individual situations. For individual situations we have to use was/were able to: He could speak French. When we got lost in Paris he was able to ask for directions. However, we can use the negative form of could in both general and individual situations. He couldn’t translate the story into English because he lost the dictionary. 3. Can and could do not have other form such as infinitives or participles. If we need to use these forms, we must use be able to am/are able to, was/were able to, etc) instead of can and could: I might be able to tell you about the main branches of linguistics. They have been able to tell about problems of syllables and morphemes in Vietnamese. VOCABULARY A. Match a term in A with a phrase in B : A descriptive grammar computational linguistics B 1. the branch of linguistics that deals with how languages change, what kinds of changes occur, and why they occur. 2. a linguist’s description or model of the mental grammar, the units, structures and rules of speakers of a particular language. The attempt to state what speakers unconsciously know about their language. 3. the system of language, including its phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, and lexicon. The linguistic knowledge of a speaker of a language. 4. a subfield of linguistics and computer science that is concerned with computer processing of human language. 5. linguistic units composed of several sentences. 6. the branch of linguistics concerned with linguistic performance, language acquisition, and speech production and comprehension. 7. the branch of linguistics that deals with language change by comparing related languages.

a. b.

c.

grammar

d.

comparative linguistics e. psycholinguistics f. historical linguistics g. discourse

B. Crosswords Here are some very small crosswords. Can you complete them? You might need to check one or two answers in your dictionary. Crossword 1 1 4 5 Across Down 1. The ……. of the pudding is in the 1. Please…….. in block capitals. eating. (Proverb) 4. He’s perfect. He’s the …….. man for 2. Where one door shuts, another …….. the job. (Proverb) 5. I don’t like this cheese. It’s got a very 3. Untrue. strange…….. 2 3

Crossword 2 1 4 5 Across 1. ………… not, want not. (Proverb) Down 1. ……………. there’s a will, there’s a way. (Proverb) 2 3

4. If you don’t pay your rent, your 2. Everything he said was nice, but of course landlord will ……… you. there was a ………. in the tail. 5. Keen and enthusiastic. 3. Come on, you’ve got to ………… into the spirit of the occasion.

C. Word Games 1. Complete the spelling of the words below using the clues to help you.

not day 8 noun of “see” heaviness 80 noun of “high” may not dark not wrong SKILLS DEVELOPMENT

| | | | | | | | |

G H T G H T G H T G H T G H T G H T G H T G H T G H T

Reading and speaking Pre-reading task Answer the following question. What branches does linguistics consist of? Reading LINGUISTICS: THE MAIN BRANCHES Phonetics/phonology, syntax and semantics/pragmatics constitute the principal levels of linguistics. Whatever branch of the subject we look at we shall inevitably find ourselves talking about them. We use the metaphor of a tree here because this seems the best way to capture the relationship between these core areas, collectively the “trunk”; and the individual disciplines, or “branches”, which sprout from them. Changing the metaphor, we could think of the core as the hub of a wheel with the various branches as the individual spokes radiating out. There are the main ones, followed by a brief definition of each: sociolinguistics - the study of language and society. stylistics - the study of language and literature. psycholinguistics – the study of language and mind. computational linguistics – the simulation of language by the use of computers.

comparative linguistics – the study of different languages and their respective linguistic systems. historical linguistics - the study of language change over time. applied linguistics – the study of language teaching. (You will sometimes find that stylistics and comparative linguistics are treated as subbranches of applied linguistics). The branches have become more numerous over the years as the subject has grown but, arguably, the principal developments in linguistics in recent years have been in stylistics, sociolinguistics, and psycholinguistics. As a consequence, a majority of the terms discussed in this chapter are from these branches. The chapter begins with a short introduction to each branch, followed by detailed entries, alphabetically arranged as usual, on key items.

Comprehension check A. True / False exercise: Circle T (for true) or F (for false) for each statement below. 1. When we study syntax, it means we’re studying one of the principal levels of linguistics. TF 2. We won’t have to talk about linguistics if we choose phonology as our major. T F 3. The branches of linguistics can be described like the metaphor of a tree. T F 4. Another description of linguistics branches can be the hub of a wheel with the individual spokes radiating out T-F 5. The number of branches of linguistics hasn’t increased in recent years. T - F B. Matching exercise Match the definition of column A with the subject of linguistics. A 1. The study of language change over time. 2. The study of language and mind 3. The study of language teaching B a. applied linguistics b. psycholinguistics c. sociolinguistics

4. The simulation of language by the use of d. comparative linguistics computer 5. The study of language and literature e. historical linguistics

6. The study of language and society

f. stylistics

7. The study of different languages and their g. computational linguistics respective linguistic system What do you think? Work in groups. The languages that a person uses can tell us what group of society that person belongs to. Do you agree with the idea? Support your opinion?

Listening Listen to the following test and fill in the blanks with the missing words. Idiom is language where the words are not used with their _____ basic meanings. If you go to the ____________ once in a blue moon, you go very rarely. If you haven’t seen someone for donkey’s years, you haven’t ____________ him for a very long time. A _________part of language is idiomatic. Here are some _____________examples. She’s under the I got cold feet. ____________

Translation LINGUISTICS: A BRIEF SURVEY Linguistics is the systematic study of language. Some people refer to it as the “science of language” but I have avoided this description because it can be misleading. The popular view of language is that it is regulated by precise laws which prescribe the “correct” use of words, a little in the manner that Newtonian physics does the operation of the solar system. But the merest acquaintance with language shows us it is not like that. Language is notoriously slippery; words change their meaning and pronunciation form continually, they never stay still. This fertile capacity of language for endless diversity means that any attempt to reduce it to a set of laws is fraught with danger. None the less, it is true to say that linguists approach language in a scientific manner. First of all, they adopt an objective, or disinterested, stance. They have no axe to grind: they are not concerned, like some politicians and educators, in enforcing or promoting any “standards” of language use. Secondly, their method is empirical, that is they proceed by observation, description and explanation. These are the three stages of linguistic enquiry distinguished by the linguist Noam Chomsky. Linguists begin by observing the way in which “people use language, on the basis of which they provide a description of

language use, and finally, when all the data has been analyzed, an explanation. Explanations of language use are the stage at which linguists endeavour to establish the underlying rules which speakers are following. It is a basic presupposition of modern linguistics that language is rule-governed, i.e., those speakers obey an internalized set of instructions in the way the construct and use sentences. The word “internalized” is important here, because these rules are derived not from any kind of external authority, like a dictionary or grammar, but from the speaker’s own intuitive knowledge, or competence. Once the rules for particular languages have been mapped in this empirical fashion the linguist hopes to provide a model which will explain how all languages work. The production of this model, or universal grammar, is the pinnacle of linguistic enquiry.

\TALKING ABOUT PROBABILITY AND POSSIBILITY PRESENTATION Read the passage carefully Nowadays Edgar Allan Poe may be regarded as one of the premier authors of horror stories but he might not have received much recognition and money for his stories while he lived. Twenty five of his greatest stories were published in a collection called “Tales of the Grotesque and Arabesque”, which appeared in 1840, but at that time little notice could have been taken of it. Three years later, another story, “The Gold Bug”, was published, selling 300,000 copies, and by 1845 he had written twelve more stories, which he published in “Tales”. But a poem “The Raven”, could bring him his greatest recognition as a writer. Grammar questions: 1. Underline one verb that shows possibility in the present. 2. Underline two verbs that show probability and possibility in the past. PRACTICE Rewrite these sentences using the word in brackets. Follow the example. 1. It is possible that they did all the fundamental tasks of every language (might) They might have done all the fundamental tasks of every language. 2. Perhaps they are reading about Plato and Aristoile. (could) _______________________________________________________ 3. It is possible that they will not devote to study archeological evidence much longer. (may not). _______________________________________________________ 4. Perhaps they are talking about the cultural differences between English and Russian. (might). _______________________________________________________ 5. Perhaps the children forgot to think of grammatical standard. (may) _______________________________________________________ 6. Perhaps David didn’t receive the letter. (might not). _______________________________________________________ 7. It is possible that Noah Webster’s manuscript will be read tomorrow. (could). _______________________________________________________ 8. It is possible that there are no books about homonymy left (might) _______________________________________________________

A.

B. Complete these sentences using the correct form of the verb in brackets. Follow the example. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. C. Paul isn’t at home yet. He might be having (have) a lecture on morphology (have). I’ve lost my book about Alfred Lord Tenmyson this morning. I might (leave) it on the train. It is very cold. I think it may ____________ (snow) tonight. If you studied in Philology faculty, you could _____________ (know) more about the history of English poetry in the twentieth century. I don’t want to cook tonight. I may ____________ (go out) for dinner. The students are outside in the corridor. They could ______________ (discus) about the last poem of W.B. Yeats. Neil was very unfriendly last night. He may ______________ (be) tired. Lisa is in her room. She might _______________ (study) for her exam tomorrow. Complete these sentences using can or could and a suitable verb from the box. Follow the example.

sing wear walk

drop not

hear

break down

1. My last car could break down at the most difficult times. 2. Polly ______________ strange clothes sometimes. 3. It is very quiet in the country park. You_____________all day without seeing anyone. 4. My mother was very musical. She __________________ for hours. 5. My father is getting old now, he ____________________ very well. 6. In winter, the temperature _________________________ to 2oC. Language preview Probability and possibility: can, could, may, might 1. May, might and could are used to talk about the chance, or possibility, of a present or future situation: I may go to the conference on comparative linguistics tonight. (It is possible that I will go). What are you doing next year? I might join a course in English, but I’m not sure. Where are my books? They could be on the shelf. We can use the negatives of may and might (may not, might not) in the same way: They are busy so they may not take part in a workshop on applied linguistics. I feel ill. I might not have a lecture on computational linguistics tomorrow. 2. To talk about something that is possibly happening as we speak, we can use the continuous form of may, might or could, which is made using be and the –ing form of the verb. Where’s Bob? He might be reading a book on linguistics in the library. It’s a nice day. He could be sitting in the garden to compose a poem. 3. When we talk about possibility in the past we use may, might or could with have and the past participle of the verb:

past participle I said hello to Cathy but she didn’t reply. She might not have heard me. Fiona lost her dictionary. It could have been left in class. 4. Can is used to talk about facts or something which is often true: People can communicate with each other in many different ways. Students of Philology Faculty can become linguists. 5. Could is used to talk about these kinds of possibility in the past. When my friend was small, he could be very intelligent. VOCABULARY A. Match a term in A with a phrase in B A a. International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) b. Internal reconstruction B 1. the comparing of morphologically different forms of a word in a language to deduce facts about earlier stages of the language (e.g. pairs such as please/pleasant demonstrate a change involving front vowels in English).

2. the phonetic alphabet designed by the International Phonetic Association to be used to represent the sounds found in all human languages. c. International 3. the organization founded in 1888 to further phonetic research Phonetic Association and develop the IPA. d. semantics 4. the semantic function of the referent of a Noun Phrase, as determined by its relation to the verb. e.g. agent, patient, location, instrument, goal, source. e. semantic role 5. the study of the meaning of words and sentences. B. Complete each sentence with the opposite of the word in brackets. Choose from one of the following words. Use each word once only.

cry decrease end export

fill forget hate lend

lengthen miss pass receive

reject set shut win

1. Do you think he’ll .............................. your offer? (ACCEPT)

2. He really didn’t want to ....................... so much money. (BORROW) 3. They saw him ............................................. his glass again. (EMPTY) 4. I’m sure he’s going to .................................his driving test. (FALL) 5. How many times did she ............................ the target? (HIT) 6. Do you need a license to .............................these goods? (IMPORT) 7. I think sales will .................................. in the next year. (INCREASE) 8. They all began to ............................. when they heard what had (LAUGH) 9. How much money did you ......................... playing cards? (LOSE) 10. Do you really ............................ going to concerts so much? (LOVE) 11. What time do the shops .............................? (OPEN) 12. You must try to ............................... what happened. (REMEMBER) 13. They saw the sun ......................... in the distance. (RISE) 14. We hope to.................................... the letter tomorrow. (SEND) 15. She decided to .............................. her skirt. (SHORTEN) 16. The meeting didn’t ...................... until 6 o’clock. (START) happened.

SKILLS DEVELOPMENT Reading and speaking Pre-reading task: Work in pairs to discuss the below questions 1. Language is the most effective way for communicating. Discuss. Do you agree with the idea? 2. In conversation one sometimes doesn’t understand much or misunderstand what the addresser means. What do you think are the reasons?

Reading STYLISTICS

Stylistics is concerned with using the methodology of linguistics to study the concept of “style” in language. Every time we use language we necessarily adopt a style of some sorts: we make a selection from a range of syntactic and lexical possibilities according to the purpose of the communication. The study of style has traditionally been the preserve of literary criticism, but since the rise of linguistics there has been a more systematic attempt to provide a “linguistic” foundation for literary effects, as well as a concern to broaden the scope of enquiry to include non-literary texts: recipes, car manuals, sermons, and so forth. In many respects stylistics is a twentieth-century development of the classical study of rhetoric. The interest really began with the publication in 1909 because of a work on French stylistics by the linguist Bally, a pupil of Ferdinand de Saussure. Other European linguists were gradually attracted to the subject, and in the ensuing decades its influence spread. There are various sub-branches of stylistics, reflecting the diversity of approaches which exist within the field itself. General stylistics is used as a cover term to refer to the analyses of nonliterary varieties of language. The main focus of such studies is with establishing principles which can account for the choices made by individuals and social groups in their use of language. The problem for linguists is to establish a principled framework which can cope with the almost infinite acts of communication which occur between individuals, or groups. Once of the most influential models has been that of Roman Jakobson, the Swedish linguist, presented at a conference at Indiana University in 1958. Despite the brevity of Jakobson’s paper, most discussions of the factors affecting style have taken his model, which seeks to match six general functions of language to their corresponding situational partners. The idea underlying this model is that all language is oriented in some way towards one or more features of the communicative situation. Language which is oriented towards the situational context, for example, is likely to be referential in nature (a discussion of the weather will contain lots of references to the elements), whilst language directed at the addressee, is likely to be cognitive, i.e. persuasive, interrogative, or directive. The other functions can be paired as below: Phatic language (greetings, leave-takings, and so on) – oriented towards the contact or channel of communication. Emotive language (the expression of feelings and attitudes) – oriented towards the addresser. Metalingual language (language about language, e.g. requests for clarification, I don’t understand/can’t read that) – oriented towards the code. Poetic language (verbal play, e.g. figurative devices, humour, and so on) – oriented towards the message.

Comprehension check A. The answers to some questions are given as follows. Write down the question.

1. 1909 language 2. Bally language 3. Roman Jakolson 4. Six general functions. 7. Emotive language.

5. 6.

Referential Cognitive

B.

Answer the following questions: 1. What have the linguists attempted to do since the rise of linguistics? 2. What is “general stylistics”? 3. How is language oriented in communicative situations?

What do you think? Work in groups: Tell some common types of figures of speech.

Listening Listen to the dialog and complete the profile of Patty.

PROFILE Name : _______________________________________ Nationality : ___________________________________ Marital status : _________________________________ Home town : __________________________________ Qualifications : ________________________________ Occupation :___________________________________ Languages spoken : _____________________________

Translation Translate the text into Vietnamese.

THE DEVELOPMENT OF LINGUISTICS Early history Linguistics, in the sense in which I have been describing it, first developed as a subject in its own right in the late eighteenth century. Before then, language in the western world had been the interest largely of philosophers and prescriptive grammarians – people concerned to enforce particular language forms as “correct”. But in 1786, an Englishman, Sir William Jones, delivered a paper demonstrating that the ancient Indian language, Sanskirt, bore striking structural similarities to Greek, Celtic, Latin and Germanic. The conclusion which he drew was that all of these languages must have sprung from a common source. So important was this discovery that for the next hundred years scholars became preoccupied with tracing the original ancestor from which all these languages were descended. Comparative linguistics became the dominant branch of linguistic enquiry. This entailed a detailed comparison of different languages in terms of their phonology, morphology, and lexis, with the aim of internally reconstructing the lost original. As a result of these painstaking enquiries, we now have an evolutionary map of languages in the western world which shows their individual lineage and their relationship to the hypothetical ancestor, Indo-European.

TALKING ABOUT NECESSITY AND OBLIGATION PRESENTATION Read the passage carefully Charles Dickens was born in Portsmouth in 1812. When he was eleven his father fell into debt? Because he could not pay off his debt, he and his family were sent to a debtor’s prison to work. Charles Dickens himself had to work in a factory washing bottles to earn 6 shillings a week. People looked down on his family and him. Dickens was unhappy and ashamed of this period of his life. His loss of dignity was later reflected in his book “David Copperfield”, in which the main character also had to work in a factory washing bottles as he did. Grammar question 1. Complete the sentence: Charles Dicken ___________ in a factory washing bottles to earn 6 shillings a week. 2. Which verb in the sentence talks about Dicken’s obligation? What is its present form? PRACTICE A. Complete these sentences using the correct form of have to. Follow the example. 1. When the telephone rang he had to stop composing the poem to answer it. 2. It expects I _______________ get a part-time job next year. 3. Our television broke down last week, so we _______________ buy a new one. 4. My parents have been on holiday for two weeks, so I _____________ look after their dog. 5. If you fail the exam, you ______________sit it again next year. 6. You ______________ stay in bed for a week until you feel better. 7. Since Harold got his new job, he ______________ work every weekend. 8. I____________ wait for an hour in the supermarket last week. B. Complete these sentences using must or have to. Follow the example. 1. My dictionary was stolen, so I have to borrow another one from the library. 2. The law says that everyone____________ wear a seat belt when they are traveling by car. 3. You _________ give me this book as soon as you finish reading. 4. I like to sleep late, but I ________ start work at 8 am every morning. 5. I don’t like my hair. I _____________have it cut soon. 6. The doctor says I _________________stay in bed today.

7. You ________be back home before it gets dark or I will be worried. 8. I feel terrible. I _____________ sit down. Language review 1. We use must and have to talk about something which is necessary. Must is more personal than have to. We use must when the speaker feels the necessity or obligation himself: I must study hard. I really want to pass this exam. 2. We use have to when the necessity or obligation comes from a rule or situation we have no control over: I have to work late tonight. My teacher has told me to. 3. As must does not have any other forms such as an infinitive or participles, we use have to when these forms are needed: The translation was so difficult that he had to use different dictionaries. If I don’t finish my report today I might have to work at the weekend. They have so little vocabulary they have had to use a dictionary all the time. VOCABULARY A. Match a term in A with a phrase in B A a. communication B 1. The knowledge of a language represented by the mental grammar which accounts for speakers’ linguistic creativity. For the most part, linguistic competence is unconscious knowledge. 2. The use of linguistic competence in the production and comprehension of language; behavior as distinguished from knowledge. 3. The principles which characterize all human languages, the discovery of which is the goal of modern linguistics. 4. A system for conveying information. Language is a linguistic system of communication; there are also nonlinguistic systems of human communication as well as systems used by other species. 5. Referring to a unique object insofar as the speaker and listener are concerned.

b. linguistic theory

c. definite d. linguistic performance

e. linguistic competence

B. By matching the numbers with the letters find the phrasal verbs with the meanings given.

1 BREAK 4 FIND 6 CALL 9 PASS A OFF D OVER F ACROSS I OUT

2 CARRY 5 TURN 7 GET 10 GO B IN E AWAY G WITH J UP

3 JOIN

8 COME

ARRIVE CANCEL CONTINUE DIE DISCOVER ENTER BY FORCE FIND BY CHANCE MATCH PARTICIPATE RECOVER

5 A 2 E 4 H 8 G 3 D

C ON

H INTO

Use the phrasal verbs to complete each of these sentences: 1. Does this jacket ......................................... my trousers? 2. I wish I could ............................................. the truth. 3. 4. If you ......................................................... late for work, you’re going to get into trouble. (2 phrasal verbs here). We had to ................................................. our holiday because my wife was taken into hospital the day before out intended departure.

5. While I was tidying up, I ............................ these old photos. 6. The burglar ............................................... the house while the owner was away on holiday.

7. Is this a private matter or can anyone ............................?

8. She’s lived alone since her husband................................ 9. It’s taken her a long time to ........................................... the tragedy.

SKILLS DEVELOPMENT

Reading and speaking Pre reading task Look up the following words in your dictionary dialectology (n) philosophy (n) concern (n) utterance (n) discourse (n) ethnomethodology (n) variable (n)

Reading SOCIOLINGUISTICS

Sociolinguistics, or the study of language in relation to society, is a relative newcomer to the linguistic fold. It wasn’t until the early 1960s, largely as a result of William Labov’s work in America, and Peter Trudgill’s in Britain, that it developed into a recognized branch of linguistics. Before then there had been a long tradition of studying dialects, usually in remote rural areas, as part of language surveys, but with an agenda largely dictated by concerns to record and preserve historical features of the language. This kind of dialectology was inherently conservative and was part of larger, comparative language studies pursued under the discipline of philology. Labov was one of the first linguists to turn his attention away from rural, to urban, subjects, in an attempt to analyze the contemporary features of American speech. Sociolinguistics is in many ways a blend of sociology and linguistics. It is sometimes referred to as the “sociology of language”, although that label suggests a greater concern with sociological rather than linguistic explanations, whereas sociolinguists are principally concerned with language, or, to be more precise, with what Dell Hymes crucially calls “socially constituted” language: with the way language is constructed by, and in turn helps to construct, society. Its popularity has grown very much as a reaction to the more “armchair” methods of generative linguists of the Chomskyan school.

Generative linguists examine “idealized” samples of speech in which utterances are complete, in a standard form of the language, and free from performance errors. The standard way in which sociolinguists investigate such use is by random sampling of the population. In classic cases, like those undertaken in New York by Labov, or in Norwich by Trudgill, a number of linguistic variables are selected, such as “r” (variably pronounced according to where it occurs in a word) or “ng” (variably pronounced /n/ or /ŋ/). Sections of the population, known as informants, are then tested to see the frequency with which they produce particular variants. The results are then set against social indices which group informants into classes, based on factors such as education, money, occupation, and so forth. On the basis of such data it is possible to chart the spread of innovations in accent and dialect regionally. One complicating factor, however, is that people do not consistently produce a particular accent or dialect feature. They vary their speech according to the formality or informality of the occasion. So tests have to take into account stylistic factors as well as social ones. A major object of Labovian-type sociolinguistics is to understand how and why languages change. At its core is a very precise, empirical methodology, and its procedures are based on established ways of working in the social sciences. Since these classic studies, however, changes in methods of enquiry have altered the way in which sociolinguists gather their material. In particular, procedures using participant observation, in which observers immerse themselves in communities, rather than relying on random sampling for the collection of data, have yielded more refined accounts of linguistic behavior.

At its outer edges sociolinguistics merges into the related area of stylistics, and in particular, discourse analysis. Two sub-branches, ethnomethodology, and the ethnography of communication, are concerned with style in its contextual and communicative dimension. The first is devoted to analyzing conversation and the rules, or principles, which govern turn-taking. Knowing when to speak and what counts as reply, as opposed to an interruption, are important socializing factors in language use. The second is concerned, on a much broader scale, with the effect of social and cultural variables on what is loosely termed, “linguistic behavior”. Knowing whether to call someone “Mr. Jones”, “Jimmy”, or “Jones”, for example, depends on a number of factors to do with the situational context, the nature of our relationship and the cultural assumptions within which we are speaking. “Terms of address”, as they are known, are a complex area of study, not least because customs differ between countries and nationalities.

Comprehension check Work in pairs: Ask and answer the questions 1. 2. 3. 4. How had dialects been studied before William Labov’s and Peter Trugill’s work? What did Labov do in the early 1960s? In what way are sociolinguists principally concerned with language? What do generative linguists examine?

5. What does ethnomethodology study? 6. What does ethnography study? What do you think? Talk about advantages of using English as a foreign language in Vietnamese education.

Writing Argue for or against studying in a foreign country. Here are some possible matters: 1. new language 2. new people; new culture 3. educational opportunities 4. job 5. being away from problems at home Here are some difficulties: 1. being away from family and friends 2. being away from familiar places 3. being alone; no one to help 4. difficult language; unfamiliar educational system 5. expensive life Add some of your own reasons. Be sure to make one point of view stronger than the other. Make an outline before you write.

Listening Listen to the following text and fill in the blanks with the missing words.

STRUCTURALISM AND MORPHOLOGY 1. When structuralism was in its prime, especially between _______ and 1960, the study of morphology occupied centre stage. Many major structuralists investigated ______________ in the theory of word-structure (Bloomfield; Harris; Hockett…). Nida’s course-book entitled Morphology, which was published ___________ codified structuralist theory and _______________ It introduced generations of linguists to the descriptive analysis of words. The structuralists __________ that words may have intricate internal structures. Traditional linguistics had treated the word as the basic ___________ of grammatical theory and lexicography, whereas. American structuralists showed that words are analyzable in terms of morphemes. These are the smallest units of meaning and grammatical function.

2. In structuralism grammar covers both morphology and syntax, whereas in generative linguistics the term __________ is employed in a much wider sense. It covers not only morphology and syntax, but also semantics, lexicon and phonology. Hence, there are rules of grammar in every linguistic module. Phonological rules, morphological rules, syntactic rules and semantic rules are all regarded as rules of grammar. 3. Morphology is the study and word formation. _____________of word structure. It also studies

Translation FERDINAND DE SAUSSURE Buy if we were to award the credit for turning linguistics from the intensively narrow scholastic position it occupied in the nineteenth century into the broad-based intellectual discipline it is today there would be little disagreement in awarding it to the Swiss linguist Ferdinand de Saussure, himself a nineteenth century linguist, who had the vision to see a larger role for his subject. Saussure, sometimes called “the father of modern linguistics”, never actually published any major work on the subject. But, after his death, his students collected together his lecture notes and published them with the title Cours de linguistique générale. Despite its slimness it had, and continues to have, a seminal influence on linguistics. Saussure was instrumental in the development of structural linguistics. He likened language to a game of chess in which each piece is defined by both its situation on the board and its relationship with the other pieces. Thus a bishop operating on the white squares has considerably more freedom of manoeuvre if its opposite number has been taken, and a pawn occupying a central square is more powerful if supported by other pawns. And just as games of chess, though all following the same rules, are all different, so languages can be said to vary in a similarly principled manner. Saussurean linguistics approaches language as a self-enclosed system. Words are related to each other as signs and can be strung together in various combinations to form sentences. The extent of a word’s capacity to form sentences is seen as the sum of its potential to combine with, or substitute for, others. Saussure imagined sentences as having two axes on which items could be sorted in these ways. The axis of substitution he termed paradigmatic, and that of combination he termed syntacmatic.

TALING ABOUT PURPOSE : IN ORDER TO, SO AS TO PRESENTATION Read the passage carefully. William Shakespeare was the son of an English merchant. He was born in 1564 at Stratford upon Aron. When he was 21, he left for London in order to find an opportunity of showing his ability as an actor. He became a member of one of the chief acting companies of the day, then. He shortly began writing plays for this company and in a few years became famous and prosperous. Shakespeare’s experience as an actor must have helped him a great deal to compose his plays. His knowledge of the stage, combined with his poetical genius and deep insight into the life and thoughts of his time, gave his plays a character of unsurpassed realism. Grammar questions 1. a. b. 2. Answer the following questions briefly Why did Shakespeare leave for London? ________________________________ What could his experience as an actor help him to do? ________________________________ Which words are used to express purpose? ________________________________

PRACTICE A. Use the phrases in the box to make complete sentences. Follow the example. 1 They bought this book in order to understand the relationship between language and social activities in Vietnam 2 He studied hard in order not to know more about Professors Charles Fries and Robert Lado 3 They stopped discussing the so as to check the spelling. notion 4 They read a text about “Applied so as not to show them the way. linguistics” in sociolinguistics 5 She wrote the number down read a text about sociolinguistics 6 They read a text about pass his exams sociolinguistics 7 He drew a map forget it. 8 She used a dictionary have a rest 1. They bought this book in order to/so as to read a text about sociolinguistics.

2. ______________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 3. ______________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 4. ______________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 5. ______________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 6. ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ 7. ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ 8. ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ B. Complete these sentences by choosing in order to or so as to and a suitable reason. Use the words in the brackets to help you. Follow the example. 1. I do exercise in order to keep myself fit (keep/fit) 2. I read this book every day __________________ know/written text. 3. Diane went to the library _________________________ (get/book) 4. It was hot so he took off his jacket _________________ (be/comfortable) 5. Jo borrowed these books _____________________(misunderstand the development of ethnic minority languages in Vietnam from 1945) 6. I joined this course ______________(understand/comparative linguistics) 7. They played their music quietly ________________ (disturb/neighbours) 8. She went to college __________________________ (get/degree) C. Jim is seven years old and he asks his mum a lot of questions. Complete her answers using in order to/so as to and a suitable reason. Use the words in brackets to help you. Follow the example.

1 Jim : Why do people go sunbathing ? 2 Jim : Why do people eat fast food ? (save money) (get/tan) Mum : _______________________ Mum : They go sunbathing so as to get a tan. _____________________ 3 Jim : Why did Phil buy a boat ? (go 4 Jim : Why did Carrie go to teacher training sailing) college? (become / teacher) Mum :_______________________ Mum : _______________________ ______________________ _____________________ 5 Jim : Why did Oliver take an 6 Jim : Why did dad go on a diet? (lose English course ? (learn weight) English) Mum : _______________________

Mum : _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ 7 Jim : Why should people stop 8 Jim : Why do people go on holiday ? smoking ? (not/become ill) (relax) Mum : _____________________ Mum : _______________________ _____________________ _____________________ Language review 1. We use in order to and so as to connect two clauses which explain why someone does something: He wanted to be a journalist so as to be famous. He wanted to be famous in order to be rich. 2. We use in order not to and so as not to in negative sentences. He used body language so as not to talk much. He kept calm in order not to produce slips of the tongue.

VOCABULARY A. Match a term in A with a phrase in B

A a. acoustic signal b. agreement c. acoustic d. allophones

e. acoustic phonetics

B 1. Pertaining to physical aspects of sound. 2. The study of the physical properties of speech sounds. 3. The sound waves produced by any sound source, including speech. 4. A relationship between words of a sentence in which the choice of one restricts the choice of the other (e.g. the choice of a pronoun is restricted by the person, number, and gender of its antecedent). See also subject verb agreement. 5. Predictable phonetic variants of phonemes (e.g. [p] and [p’] of the phoneme /p/ in English).

B. Which of the words on the right does not rhyme with the word on the left ?

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

alone buys clear could goes

phone advise bear

shown price beer

thrown prize dear

town tries fear

6. 7. 8. 9.

knees knew made most

good chose niece grew afraid cost boot

mood lose peas sew paid post foot

should shows please threw played roast shoot

wood toes trees through said toast suit

10. route

C.

Colloquial English and Slang

The kind of informal English which is normal in ordinary conversation but is not considered acceptable in more formal language is called “colloquial”. “Slang” is even more informal language and consists mainly of particular words and phrases used principally by one group of people, e.g. young children, teenagers, students, professional people, working people etc. (The line between colloquial and slang words is not at all clear and many words considered colloquial by some people would be considered slang by others). After each conversation below, rewrite the conversation with the colloquial or slang item in a more formal style. E.g. Alan : Do you fancy going to the pictures tonight ? Jill : Great. Hang on, though. There’s something good on telly. Answer : Alan : Would you like to go to the cinema this evening ? Jill : Wonderful. But wait. There’s a good program on television. 1. Peter : Lend us a few quid. I’m broke. Tony : Here’s a fiver. Peter : Smashing. Ta 2. George : Where’s my thingumajig ? Eileen : Whatsisname’s got it. 3. Chris : Do you like your new school ? Gus : It’s OK. Chris : And the kids in your class ? Gus : They’re a decent bunch. Chris : And the teacher ?

Gus : Oh, he’s a terrific bloke. 4. Fred : I’m not too keen on this new guy in the office. Alex : Yeah, he’s a bit of a big-head. Throws his weight around. Fred : Yeah, if I get any more hassle from him, I’m going to tell him what I think. Alex : Come off it. You haven’t got the guts. You’d get the sack. 5. Joe : Post suit ! Brian : My grandparents’ 50th wedding anniversary. We’re having a bit of a do. Joe : Come and have a drink first. On me. Brian : Just for a mo. Mustn’t get there plastered.

SKILLS DEVELOPMENT Reading and Speaking Pre-reading task Work in pairs : 1. “Psycholinguistics” is a combined word? Can you say what it means based on its formation? 2. Anyone can learn a foreign language. Do you agree with the opinion? Why or why not? PSYCHOLINGUISTICS Psycholinguistics is the study of the mental processes underlying the planning, production, perception, and comprehension of speech. A principal aim of modern linguistics, since the Chomskyan revolution, has been to arrive at an understanding of the way in which our minds work, and in this respect it could be argued that psycholinguistics, with its unique blend of psychology and linguistics, is the most significant of all the linguistic branches. Not surprisingly, because it covers a very large territory, the boundaries of psycholinguistics are rather fluid. One important sub-branch is concerned with psychological constraints on the use of language (e.g. how memory limitations affect speech production and comprehension), yet another with the investigation of speech disorders (clinical linguistics, aphasiology). All of these areas have been enriched in recent year by technical information about language and the brain (neurolinguistics).

Probably the best developed branch of the subject, however, is the study of language acquisition in children, the most important outcome of which has been the establishment of stages of acquisition. Recent studies of language acquisition all suggest that children are tuned into language from a very early age. Just as important is the issue of what language is used for, and how it relates to the child’s emerging sense of self. One of the hotly debated issues in current psycholinguistic studies, not unrelated to this discussion, is the extent to which language activity can be seen as the responsibility of discrete language modules in the brain, or as the output of general cognitive abilities used in thinking and conceptualizing about anything. Some psycholinguists argue that syntactic processing, the way in which we produce and recognize well-formed strings, is carried out separately from other processes performed by the brain, whilst others argue for a more wholistic view of linguistic and other competences. Much of the debate has centered on evidence from the study of language abilities can exist separately from others. Nevertheless, it is still a large step from evidence of this kind to the conclusion that language is a wholly discrete cognitive ability processed in a series of autonomous stages by autonomous components. The distinctive way in which language is interwoven with other human activities would suggest otherwise. What is at issue here is the relation between brain and mind. In popular thought these terms are often used interchangeably, but it’s important not to confuse them. The brain is the physical organ in the skull which controls bodily behavior and thought, and, like any other organ, its operations can be observed. The mind, on the other hand, comprises the mental and emotional capabilities which make us human. In contrast with the brain, it’s not a physical organ and not open to direct observation. Clearly our minds are dependent on our brains, but no one has yet managed to correlate their workings in any precise way. In an earlier age theologians were exercised with trying to find the exact location of the soul in the body. Attempting to determine the boundaries of the mind is proving no lesser task. Psycholinguistics, however, is only indirectly concerned with the brain; its principal target is the human mind. As such it has gained considerably from the discipline of psychology. Making an utterance involves selecting the appropriate information one wishes to share (for whatever purpose), arranging it in such a way that its topic and focus are clear and will attract the attention of our addressee, and performing it successfully. There are various kinds of mental knowledge required here, including the conceptualization of the message, its formulation in terms of a linguistic structure, and its phonological processing. At the same time, however, it’s important to bear in mind that language comprehension is not solely the preserve of autonomous linguistic processes. We also rely on non-linguistic cues from texts, and knowledge of characters, entities and events not explicitly mentioned, for a full interpretation. If an action takes place in a restaurant, for example, the listener can infer the presence of a kitchen, even though it may not be explicitly mentioned. This side of psycholinguistics connects with discourse analysis and is concerned with how we make sense of texts. Evidence suggests that we do so by constructing mental models or schemas based on our knowledge both of the world around us and of its representation in language.

Comprehension check Are the following statements about the text True or False? Say why 1. Psycholinguistics is the significant branch of linguistics. 2. Technical information about neurolinguistics has enriched some areas of psycholinguistics. 3. The establishment of stages of acquisition is the most important outcome of the study of language acquisition in children. 4. Children can acquire a language from a very early age. 5. According to most psycholinguistics, syntactic processing occurs separately from other brain processes. 6. Brain and mind are basically different from each other. 7. Either the mind or the brain makes us human. 8. The principal target of psycholinguistics is both the human mind and brain. 9. Mental knowledge includes the conceptualization of the message, its linguistic structure and its phonological processing. 10. Language comprehension is not only solely the preserve of autonomous linguistic processes, but it is also relied on non-linguistic cues from the texts. Discussion Work in groups of four to discuss the questions. 1. In what age can a child start learning a foreign language? 2. Which learners may acquire a foreign language better? Children or adults? Writing When you write any kind of composition, and especially when you write an analysis, you must operate on at least two levels: a general level that covers the whole topic and a more specific level that gives parts, or divisions, of the general. In the following example, there are two levels: one whole (general) and two equal parts.

Example: I have set several important future goals for myself. First, I want to master English in order to complete my education. general: future goals specific 1 : English for education

Second, I want to get a good job so that I can support my family.

specific 2 : job for support

In the exercise below, write two sentences to complete each short text. In your sentences, name some specific parts of the topic introduced by the general beginning sentence. Express your own knowledge and experience in the specifics. LEARNING ENGLISH There are several linguistic factors that make it difficult for a foreign student to learn English. First, _____________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ Second, ___________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________

Listening Listen to a teacher giving a talk about Guatemala. Complete the chart below with facts about this country. GUATEMALA Capital City Average income Religions Languages Industries Export crops

Translation MID-TWENTIETH-CENTURY DEVELOPMENTS It was America that many of the most important developments in mid-century linguistics took place. In many respects these owed much to the concern of American anthropologists to record the culture and languages of native Indian tribes, which were rapidly vanishing before the concerted power of the white races. The problem, however, was that no generally agreed descriptive framework existed to assist scholars in providing a coherent account of what were sometimes called “exotic” languages. But in 1933, the linguist, Leonard Bloomfield, published a book called Language, in which he outlined a methodology for the description of any language. Bloomfield’s approach was rigorously descriptive. It is sometimes referred to as descriptive linguistics, occasionally as “structuralist” (in a slightly different sense than the Saussurean), and, despite the revolutions that have occurred in linguistic thought it is still at the heart of much linguistic practice. For Bloomfield the task of linguists was to collect data from native speakers of a language and then to analyze it by studying he phonological and syntactic patterns. The concept that all language is patterned was fundamental to these procedures. Bloomfield argued that one of the principal ways in which items are ordered in a language is in terms of, what are called its immediate constituents. These, in turn, can be analyzed into further constituents, and so on, down to those at the ground level of words, which are the smallest continents. A sentence is thus conceived of as a hierarchy of interlocking continents, all of which can demonstrate their constituency, because they can be either substituted by similar constituents, or redistributed to form other sentences. Descriptive linguistics provided a powerful means of uncovering some of the surface structures of language but it ignored two important aspects of language. First, it was not interested in meaning, or semantics, partly because it proved too difficult to analyze the meanings of constituents in the same descriptive fashion and partly because it didn’t seem immediately relevant to providing an account of syntactic structure. Second, it laboured under the illusion that description alone was sufficient for arriving at a set of language rules. It was Chomsky who showed that more important than mere description for the linguist was explanation. To arrive at that meant penetrating beyond the output and understanding the system which produced it.

TALKING ABOUT THE CONTRAST PRESENTATION William Blake, the English poet, painter, and engraver, who created a unique form of illustrated verse, his poetry, inspired by mystical vision, is among the most original, lyric, and prophetic in the language. As a child, Blake wanted to become a painter. He was send to drawing of school and at the age of 14 was apprenticed to James Basire, an engraver. In 1784 he set up a printshop, although it failed after a few years, for the rest of his life Blake eked out a living as an engraver and illustrator. His wife helped him print the illuminated poetry for which he is remembered today. Grammar questions Look at the example pick out from the passage. “In 1784 he set up a print-shop although it failed after a few years”. What does the underlined clause express? PRACTICE A. Rewrite these sentences using the adverb in brackets. Follow the example. 1. She has all kinds of dictionaries, but it is still difficulty for her to translate this quotation. (even though) Even though she has all kinds of dictionaries, it’s still difficult for her to translate this quotation. It’s still difficult for her to translate this quotation even though she has all kinds of dictionaries. 2. We did enjoy the film, but it was a little too long. (though) _____________________________________________________________ 3. Sandy thought she had failed the test, but she had actually passed. (although) _____________________________________________________________ 4. I had a map, but I still got lost. (even though) _____________________________________________________________ 5. He watered the plants often, but they died. (even though) _____________________________________________________________ 6. The weather forecast said it would be fine, but it rained. (although) _____________________________________________________________ 7. The book looked modern, but the content was horrible. (though) ______________________________________________________________ 8. Lisa arrived early, but the books were sold out. (even though) ______________________________________________________________ B. Rewrite these sentences using the adverb in brackets. Follow the example.

1. He continued using hyperbole, even though he knew he should stop. (despite) He continued using hyperbole, despite knowing he should stop. 2. Robber didn’t use any dictionaries although the translation had a lot of morphological terms. (in spite of). ________________________________________________________________ 3. Karen failed her history test, although she studied very hard. (in spite of) ________________________________________________________________ 4. Amy was afraid of dogs, but she tried to be friendly to her neighbour’s pets. (despite) ________________________________________________________________ 5. Even though they searched all night, they couldn’t find the dog. (in spite of) ________________________________________________________________ 6. She enjoyed the meal, even though her soup was cold. (despite) ________________________________________________________________ 7. Although they were beaten, they enjoyed playing the game. (despite) ________________________________________________________________ 8. He won the race, even though he had hurt his ankle. (in spite of) ________________________________________________________________ 9. Though it was very hot, Amy still wore a jacket. (despite) ________________________________________________________________ 10. Happiness is better than wealth, although wealth is very useful. (in spite of) ________________________________________________________________ Language review Concession : although, (even) though, in spite of, despite 1. Although, though and even though are all adverbs for concession. They are used to connect two clauses which we would not expect to be together. They are always followed by a clause, but they can be used at the beginning of a sentence or in the middle position: Although phonetics and phonology are difficult, they still like researching them. They didn’t catch the teacher though they tried their best. Even though they didn’t know many terms, they understood the content of the test. Although is more informal than though. Even though is used for emphasis – to make things very clear; even although is wrong. 2. In spite of and despite are also adverbs of concession and they have similar meanings to although and though. They are used followed by a noun/pronoun or an –ing form of a verb. In spite of/Despite the slips of the tongue, they still kept calm. They didn’t find complete synonymy despite/in spite of using a lot of different dictionaries. 3. No adverb of concession should be used together with but: Although there were a lot of terms in this text, they understood it. Either one, or the other, should be used in the sentence.

VOCABULARY Match a term in A with a phrase in B

A a. goal b. gloss c. knowledge

d. lingua franca

e. dictionary

B 1. (in artificial intelligence) The storehouse of facts in the computer’s memory; (in linguistics) linguistic competence. 2. list of all morphemes and words; lexicon. 3. The semantic role of the Noun Phrase toward whose referent the action of the verb is directed (e.g. the theatre in We went to the theatre). 4. A word in one language given to express the meaning of a word in another language (e.g. “house” is the gloss for the French word mansion); a brief definition of a difficult word or expression. 5. The major language used in an area where speakers of more than one language live, which enables communication and commerce among them.

SKILLS DEVELOPMENT Reading and Speaking

THE NEWSPAPER 1. Reading a newspaper is different from reading a book. Newspapers are organized and written in a special way, a way that enables the reader to select exactly what he or she wants to read. For example, articles are generally categorized into sections on business, sports, entertainment, and local, national, and international news. Then the articles are evaluated by the newspaper staff as to their relative importance within the section, with the most important articles or stories appearing at the beginning. The first page, or front page of a newspaper usually has an index listing the sections and their page numbers. 2. The front page of a newspaper also contains articles that are, in the judgment of the newspaper staff, the most important for that particular day. The headlines, the dark, large titles, serve two purposes: they tell the reader what the article is about, and they indicate, by size and darkness of the type, the importance of the story. Headlines help readers choose the articles that they want to read. Because some readers read only the headlines in papers, the wording of headlines is very important. 3. Just below the headline, at the beginning of the news article, are the abbreviations for the different news services, for example, AP for Associated Press, UPI for United Press International, and Reuters for Reuters Press. These abbreviations indicate the source of the information, the press service that is responsible for the writing. The place that the

news originated is written just before the news service abbreviation. (News items like these are factual and usually do not include the name of the author). 4. The opening paragraph of a news article is called the lead; it contains all the essential facts of the story. A reader in a hurry could read only the headline and the first paragraph of a story and know the most important information. The rest of the article consists of additional details and explanation, organized according to importance. Thus, the closing paragraph of a news story is usually not a conclusion – instead, it contains the least important information. 5. This special newspaper style of writing is also evident in the length of the paragraphs. They are short, so they are easy to read in a column, the long narrow lines of print. Newspapers are generally printed in columns so they can be read faster: the reader’s eyes can move down a column faster than on a line across the page. 6. Some articles have a “by-line” just under the headline that indicates who wrote the article. Feature articles and articles written by columnists have “by-lines”. Any subjective article, one that presents the writer’s point of view or opinion or that is not a serious news article, is likely to include the author’s name in a “by-line” (for example, by John S. Smith). 7. The opinions of the editors of the newspaper are found on the editorial page. Those articles that have no author or “by-line” on that page are written by the newspaper staff to express their opinions or suggestions about a local, national, or international problem. 8. Newspapers are written to read efficiently by the reader. Whatever the reader’s interests or needs, he or she can satisfy them more quickly by understanding how a newspaper is organized.

Comprehension check Work in pairs: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. What is another word for the first page? What are headlines? What is a press service ? What is a lead ? What is a column ? What is a by-line ? Writing Analyze English as a language that is difficult to learn (if you think it is difficult). Narrow the topic down: what aspect of English is difficult (pronunciation, writing, listening comprehension, etc.) ? Who is it difficult for? Why is it difficult? Give reasons. Give examples.

Listening Listen to the following text and fill in the blanks with the missing words. in Syntax is a tern in general use and in linguistics for the study of the ____________ which words combine into such units as phrases, clauses, and _____________ .The sequences that result from these combinations are referred to in linguistics as syntactic ___________ The ways in which components of words are combined into words are studied in morphology, and syntax and morphology _________are generally regarded as the major constituents of grammar, although in one of its uses, grammar is strictly _________with syntax and excludes morphology. In models of __________description that are divided into levels of analysis or components, the ___________level or component is contrasted with the phonological level and semantic _________or component. Syntactic descriptions do not usually go beyond the level of the sentence, though they may deal with _________between sentences such as are signaled by a ___________(it, them) or a conjunction (therefore).

Translation LINGUISTICS TODAY It is a tribute to the combined influence of Saussure and Chomsky that the study of language has become increasingly important in the late twentieth century to non-linguists as well as linguists. The concern with the language potential of human beings has meant that a wide variety of disciplines, notably sociology, psychology and literary criticism, have begun to take more interest in linguistics, and in so doing have left their own mark on the subject, whilst the emphasis of Saussure on the symbolic functioning of language has appealed to students of media and communication systems. At the same time, however, the last quarter of the twentieth century has seen the development of alternative models of language. These are not necessarily at variance with existing models; as often as not they prioritize aspects with which they have not been primarily concerned. Linguistics today then is a subject whose boundaries are forever widening and which presents no single face to the world. In the current work of Chomsky and other GENERATIVE grammarians it continues to grow in intellectual elegance and indeed one of the strengths of Chomsky, and one of the principal reasons for his continued dominance, is his ability to challenge, not simply other people’s orthodoxies, but his own. The account of transformational grammar which exists today differs considerably from that of its first heady outing. And yet, despite the inherent radicalism of linguistics there is much that suggests continuity. The leading ideas of the subject are now in place and, after many years in which it was considered as something of an “upstart” among academic disciplines, it has finally achieved the respect it deserves as a major humanistic discipline. Which is only what one would expect since the final subject matter of linguistics is not so much language, as ourselves, our human existence in time and space, and that will always be endlessly fascinating.

TALKING ABOUT REASON: BECAUSE, SINCE, AS, BECAUSE OF PRESENTATION Read the passage carefully Charles Dickens, who wrote such unforgotten table stories as Oliver Twist and David Copperfield was born to a poor family. When Charles was 12, his father was sent to prison because he failed to pay his debts. Young Charles had to work in a dismal factory. This terrible experience remained to haunt him even when he attained success with his novels. Because of his humble nature, Dickens never forgot what was like to be poor. He was always concerned about the orphaned and the destitute. Dickens was a very respected writer when he died in 1870. Till now, many people think that he is the greater of English novelist. Grammar question 1. Look at these examples picked out from the passage. “His father was sent to prison because he failed to pay his debts”. “Because of his humble nature. Dickens never forgot what was like to be poor”. 2. Complete the rule: To express reasons we use: because with …………………… or because of with …………………… PRESENTATION A. Use the words in the box to make complete sentences. Follow the example 1 June was sad because we want to know more about functional linguistics. 2 Henry got this book as they were enjoying themselves 3 Sally went to the reference since we are interested in linguistics and literature 4 We often join this course there was a lecture on diachronic linguistics 5 Paul arrived late the lecturer arrived 6 The day passed quickly her book about subject – prominent language was lost 7 People think we are students in he missed the bus philology department 8 The students stopped talking it helped him to write an essay about terminology

1. June was sad because her book about subject – prominent language was lost 2. _______________________________________________________________ 3. _______________________________________________________________ 4. _______________________________________________________________ 5. _______________________________________________________________ 6. _______________________________________________________________ 7. _______________________________________________________________ 8. _______________________________________________________________ ] B. Join these sentences, making sure they are in the right order, using the word in brackets. Follow the example. 1. It was raining. The picnic was cancelled. (as) The picnic was cancelled as it was raining. 2. The tree had to be cut down. It was dangerous. (since) _________________________________________________________________ 3. The smoke alarm went off. Kate’s cake was burning. (because) _________________________________________________________________ 4. The neighbours complained about the noise. The police stopped the party (because) _________________________________________________________________ 5. Karen bought the house. It had a big garden. (since) _________________________________________________________________ 6. There were road works. It took two hours to get home. (because) _________________________________________________________________ 7. Jenny couldn’t sleep. A dog was barking all night. (as) _________________________________________________________________ 8. They had watched a horror film. The children had nightmares. (as) _________________________________________________________________ C. Combine these sentences using both because and because of each time. Follow the example. 1. I like Jane Austen. She is a famous novelist. a)I like Jane Austen because she is a famous novelist. b) I like Gordon because of her fame. 2. Sue’s parents are proud of her. She is intelligent. a) _____________________________________________________________ b) _____________________________________________________________ 3. Pat doesn’t like Mike. He is selfish. a) _____________________________________________________________ b) _____________________________________________________________ 4. Brian married Sara. She is rich. a) _____________________________________________________________

b) _____________________________________________________________ 5. Everyone trusts Katie. She is honest. a) _____________________________________________________________ b) _____________________________________________________________ 6. Ivy was good at sports. She was very energetic. a) _____________________________________________________________ b) _____________________________________________________________ 7. Dave has lost his keys. He is very forgetful. a) _____________________________________________________________ b) _____________________________________________________________ 8. Mary didn’t have many friends. She was shy. a) _____________________________________________________________ b) _____________________________________________________________

VOCABULARY A. Match a term in A with a phrase in B

A a. derivational morphemes b. free morpheme c. bound morpheme

d. morpheme e. inflectional morpheme

f. infix

g. grammatical morpheme

B 1. a bound morpheme which is inserted in the middle of another morpheme. 2. a bound grammatical morpheme. 3. free function word or bound morpheme required by the syntactic rules. cf. Inflectional morpheme. 4. single morpheme which can constitute a word on its own. 5. morphemes added to stem morphemes (lexical content morphemes) to “derive” a new stem (i.e. create a new word). 6. a morpheme which can only occur attached to another morpheme; prefixes, suffixes, infixes are bound morphemes. C.f. free morpheme. 7. smallest unit of linguistic meaning.

B. Complete each sentence with the correct form of the word in capital letters. In some cases you will have to make a negative form by using the prefix dis-, in- or un-.

1. ACT We must take .....................................before things get worse. There’s a lot of .................................. outside the stadium. Don’t worry about the volcano. It’s been ....................... for years.

She said she wanted to be a television ....................................... 2. ADD Are all those ............................... they put in food really necessary? In ........................................ to doing the cleaning, I make the coffee. 3. ADMIRE This is an .................................................... piece of work. I am full of ................................................... for the improvements he’s made. 4. ADVANTAGE Unfortunately, you’ll be at a ......................................if you can’t drive. Knowing a lot of languages, he’s in a very ................................ position. 5. ADVERTISE He works for an ........................ agency. I saw an .................................... for the job in our local newspaper.

SKILLS DEVELOPMENT

Reading and Speaking ART AS A HUMAN ACTIVITY 1. All of human work can be divided into two parts: the arts and the sciences. The sciences, in general, are those parts of human work that require “knowledge”. More specifically, science requires observation (watching the natural word), identification (separating and naming the parts of a naturally occurring thing), description (using words to make a picture), experimentation (trying to copy what occurs in nature to learn from it), and theoretical explanation (forming a set of ideas, a theory, that accounts for the occurrence). 2. The arts, on the contrary, are those areas of human endeavor that require skill. Skill is a person’s ability to work well with a part of his or her body. Skill is talent and technique. An artist is someone who does something well or makes something well using hands and tools. Artistry is also a well-developed skill in one area of

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

manufacture. (The word “manufacture”, incidentally, once mean “to make by hand”. Everything that was not “natural” was artificial, that is, made with tools through skill by hand). Today the word art has special meaning. Art is that which is beautiful; the painting of skilled painters, for example, is enjoyed and appreciated by many people. Weaving rugs and tapestries is another art. Ceramic work is also art: the shapes, colors, and textures of bowls, vases, and pitchers make these clay items beautiful to look at and enjoyable to use. Human beings have always decorated their environments. A look back into history shows that this is true. The walls of the caves (openings in the sides of hills or mountains that were the first natural homes for people) were decorated with paintings. Long before history was first written, people were gaining skill at improving the appearance of their surroundings. Another definition of art, therefore, is skilled production. If this definition of art is correct, then there is art everywhere. The baker who makes tasty, attractive bread, cakes, and pies is an artist. The person who arranges items for sale in a store is an artist. The person who writes well is also an artist. The writer’s art is his or her plays, short stories, or advertising. Furthermore, the composer of music, an art form that is heard, not seen, is an artist. Although there are many types of art, there are some basic principles in art too. All kinds of art require the same general characteristics. The most important characteristic of art is order. The elements, the separate parts, of a work of art must be arranged so that there is a pattern, a design. The form itself is important. A pleasing shape and balance are also necessary for art. Balance means the same amount on each side. In art, balance means that a painting or piece of weaving has a continuous pattern, that a ceramic pot is well-formed, that the interesting parts of a structure are found on both sides. Harmony and contrast are also essential aspects of art. The parts of the art must fit together; each must have beauty in itself and look attractive with the other parts. In a figure of a person sculpted out of a large piece of stone, for example, the head and body must match; the parts of a sculpture must suit each other. The artist must carve appropriate sizes and forms into the stone. Furthermore, the clothing and the base of the statue must be appropriate so that the whole statue can be appreciated. Art does something good for a human being. A beautiful thing is enjoyed, felt, experienced. The appreciation of art results in a happier feeling and increased understanding of people and the world. After reading a well-written book or enjoying a well-presented play, a person feels inspiration to improve his or her own circumstances because of the reminder that human beings have many resources. In other words, art inspires the human spirit. Because of art, people’s lives are better. The painter, the sculptor, the musician, the writer, the potter, the weaver – all artists contribute to a better life for everyone.

Comprehension questions Work in pairs:

1. What are the categories of human work? 2. What are the five parts of the scientific procedure? 3. What is the difference between science and art? 4. What is skill? 5. What is an artist? 6. Three definitions of art are given in the reading. What are they? 7. Give some examples of ceramic work. 8. How do we know that human beings have always decorated their environments? 9. What are the four basic principles of art? 10. What is balance? 11. Which of the following statements about harmony are true? 12. How does art do something good for human beings?

Writing A. Read the following outline:

THE ROLE OF NEWSPAPER TODAY Outline 1. Importance of newspaper in our daily life. - How important does the newspaper play part in our life? - Does the newspaper keep you inform of the daily happenings in the world? 2. Freedom of press. - Does the newspaper have absolute freedom? - Do you think it publishes materials which it feels to be of national interest and value? 3. Importance of press in nation building. - What role does the press have in national building? - Is the press in informing and educating the public essential today?

B.

Write essay about the role of newspaper. Listening

Listen to the text and fill in the blanks with the missing words. NEWSPAPER READING Reading newspapers is good for students of my age, because I am in __________six and from next year, I shall _________to taste real education. There are many benefits ________ from reading newspapers. Newspaper reading __________other benefits, helps me to improve my English. Whenever, I come across a new word, I usually _________it and refer to the dictionary. This newspaper reading not only strengthens my _________but also improves my English and _________my out-look. A school-boy like me ________more benefit by reading newspapers. I also keep myself well-informed with world events and improve my _________knowledge. As upper primary school students, we should no more be like _________in the well, but we must also keep ourselves well informed. Needless to say that those who do not read newspapers are like the 11________ and the deaf. So it is advisable for all of us to read newspapers daily.

Translation WHAT IS FOLK ART? 1. In many cultures, people make a distinction between fine art and folk art. Although telling the difference between these two types of art is not always easy, each has certain general characteristics that help to identify it. One characteristic of folk art, for example, is that it is the product of ordinary people, the folk. Furthermore, folk art is often traditional in composition and subject matter. Fine art, in contrast, is usually the product of professionals who have studied art. These professional artists are usually more strongly influenced by the contemporary world and modern composition than by tradition. 2. Another difference between folk and fine art is that folk-art is often created to decorate a functional object. For example, a person who decorates his or her home by sculpting the wooden beam that holds up the roof is creating folk art. Fine art, on the other hand, is usually purely decorative. Its only function is to add beauty to its environment.

3. A third distinguishing characteristic of folk art is that it is “participatory”. This means that the art is created through the active involvement of the participants in the artistic project. 4. A final distinctive characteristic of folk art is that it tends to become rarer as a society becomes more industrialized. 5. Because folk art tends to be traditional, it is often easy to identify the culture in which a particular piece was created. Some patterns are repeated in many kinds of folk art.

TALKING ABOUT RESULT : SO, THEREFORE, SO/SUCH … THAT PRESENTATION Read the passage carefully “The Pearl” by John Steinbeck is the retelling of a legend about a fisherman who find a huge pearl, realizes that the discovery is destroying his life and returns the pearl to the sea. It is told in a style so authetic that readers feel they are hearing the story from one of the villagers who knows all the characters. The work has been interpreted as an allegory of human desires the vanity of material wealth, and the struggle between good and evil. The fisherman had dreamed of buying peace and happiness with the pearl but he realizes that these spiritual gifts are beyond price. They can not purchase. Therefore, Steinbeck himself writes in the introduction. “If this story is a parable, perhaps everyone takes it his own meaning from it and reads his own life into it”. Grammar questions Look at these examples picked out from the passage. - “It is told in a style so authentic that readers feel they are hearing the story from one of the villagers who knows all the characters. - “Therefore, Steinbeck himself writes in the introduction” – What do the underlined words refer to? PRACTICE Join these sentences, making sure that they are in the right order, using either so + adj + that or therefore. Follow the example. Susan wrote an essay about personification. She went to the library. Susan wrote an essay about personification therefore she went to the library. Adrian was very annoyed. He had lost his dictionary. _____________________________________________________________ Mr. Smith called the repair man. His television wouldn’t work. _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ Ben had a lot of work to do. He stayed in the office late. _____________________________________________________________ There was a lecture on heric drama. They went to the workshop. _____________________________________________________________ They handled it carefully. The plate was very old. _____________________________________________________________ I read two books about existentialism. I felt tired.

A. 1. 2. 3.

4. 5. 6. 7.

_____________________________________________________________ 8. The book was written by Daniel Defose. It was one of the best-known books. _____________________________________________________________ B. Rewrite the following sentences using such + N + that. Follow the example. 1. “Beowuff” was so interesting that it became one of the best-known books. “Beowuff” was such an interesting poem that it became one of the best-know books. 2. Jason composed poems so well that he studied in Philology Department. ____________________________________________________________ 3. The city was so big that we often got lost. ____________________________________________________________ 4. The books were so good that they were all sold on the first day. ___________________________________________________________ 5. The discourse analysic was so difficult that they couldn’t understand. ___________________________________________________________ 6. The book was so bad that he couldn’t read it up. ___________________________________________________________ C. Complete these sentences using so or such. Follow the example. 1. The book was so interesting that everybody wanted to buy it. 2. She was ________ a good friend that I miss her very much. 3. They were __________ tired that they couldn’t read the whole book. 4. They made __________ a lot of noise that we phoned to complain. 5. We are _________ bad swimmers that we will have to get lessons. 6. He is __________ excited that he can’t sit still. 7. It was __________ quiet you could hear a pin drop. Language review 1. So and therefore are adverbs of result. We use them to join two clauses which explain the result of something. Therefore is more formal than so: Michael wants to be a famous novelist so / therefore he’s trying to write a lot of novels. 2. We can also use so/such… that .. to explain the result of something. We use so before an adjective or adverb and such before a noun: adverb Gary wrote so badly that people stopped to reading his books. He was such a bad writer that he became quite famous. noun

VOCABULARY A. Match a term in A with a phrase in B B a. fiction 1. writings that are valued as works of art, esp fiction, drama and poetry. b. poetry 2. a type of literature describing imaginary events and people, not real ones. c. poetic 3. a play for the theatre. d. drama 4. a collection of poems or poems in general. f. literature 5. like or suggesting poetry, esp in being imaginative, graceful and showing deep feeling. B. Join one word on the left with one from the right to make a two-word partnership. Use each word once only. Write your answers in the boxes. A 1. car 2. civil 3. common 4. department 5. first 6. notice 7. paper 8. playing 9. pocket 10. post 11. rubber 12. safety 13. telephone 14. trade 15. traffic 16. washing a. aid b. band c. board d. box e. card f. clip g. lights h. machine i. money j. office k. park l. pin m. sense n. service o. store p. union 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

Did you find any other possible combinations while you were doing the exercise? Can you think of any more words to go with those on the left?

C.

Proverbs

1. Match each of the following common proverbs with the most appropriate situation from the list below. (a) Actions speak louder than words. (b) Don’t look a gift horse in the mouth. (c) When in Rome, do as the Romans. (d) Don’t count your chickens before they’re hatched. (e) Prevention is better than cure. 1. Yes, you’ll probably pass the exam, but don’t depend on it till you hear the result. 2. Well, the cassette recorder he gave you may have a few defects, but you shouldn’t complain. It cost you nothing. 3. I’m not impressed by fine speeches. Why doesn’t the government do something? 4. Don’t wait till you’ve got flu. Try not to catch it. 5. If you’re in a foreign country, you should get used to the customs there.

2.

Give the equivalent proverbs in Vietnamese

SKILLS DEVELOPMENT Reading and Speaking Pre-reading task 1. Read the text quite quickly. Find five words (not more) that you don’t know and check them in your dictionary. 2. Compare with a partner the five words you each looked up. Reading LITERATURE SHOULD HAVE ADEQUATE NUANCE AND GRADATION

In Literature, many schools of Letters are often divided and an attacked each other. Every school contends that its viewpoint is right and interesting. In reality, each tendency has its own proficiency and deficiency. Let us take surrealism and realism as examples. Everyone appreciates that the surrealism school produces all legends and chimerical hobbies; they provoke the reader’s curiosity by adventures into an extraordinary, fairy-like world or by delving into an unearthly sight, but ultimately they make people feel bitter upon being returned to practical life. But others realize that the super-realism school stimulates the tendency of nobleness and supports man’s aspiration or at least helps him in overcoming the rigidity of his fate. This allows man to sense himself escaping for a moment the bitter reality of life. Quite opposite to surrealism, the schools of naturalism and realism try to adapt truth without discussion or criticism and have the aim of helping society and people to see their usual abominable faces in the mirror of life. Their only object is to reflect truth, but in the process they usually pay attention to flagitious and anguish truth. Nevertheless, there are those who appreciate that naturalism as well as realism are unconcerned with future life, because they want to be loyal to life for a time. Life always contains its past and implicates its future. It has numerous transformations and constant renewals. Bringing up the opposite attitudes of the schools of Letter, I intend to prove that art should be adequately nuance. The keen insight (observation) of the realistic pen is needed to discover bitterness of society and man’s feeling. The elegant and thoughtful lines of surrealism are needed to analyze the delicate and gentle fibers of soul. The frank and rough words of naturalism are needed to fully describe the abuses of society. The lively images of symbolism are also needed to attain to the “crystallized beauty” of a poetical and dreamlike world. The delicate remarks of Romanticism are needed to fully express the deepest human mysteries and to enumerate the vague ephemeral, but very real aspects of feeling. In brief, to attain to art, literature should touch the human being in his entirety. Each tendency is merely one aspect (angle) of the soul. Art must encompass numerous nuances in which the changes of tendencies are simply the changes of food for sensation. Literature should be imagined as a flower garden with innumerable scents and colours expressing life – real life with flexible and numerous aspects.

Comprehension check Work in pairs: 1. What characteristics does each tendency of school in literature have? 2. Are there any differences between tendencies – between surrealism and realism? If so, what are they? 3. Do naturalism and realism deal with future life? Why? or Why not? 4. Should art be adequately nuance? 5. What aspects does adequately nuance in literature consist of? Why? 6. What should we compare literature with? Discussion Which one do you prefer, surrealism or realism? Compare your own opinion with your partners in group. Listening Check the hobby / pastime these people enjoy now 1. a) b) 2. a) b) 3. a) b) 4. a) b) 5. a) b) 6. a) b) playing in a band playing the piano collecting comic books gardening hiking playing video games collecting stamps collecting baseball cards painting reading reading playing sports

Translation VOCABULARY IN CONTEXT

Each group of people has stories. Some of them they tell to their children to teach the values and beliefs their society. Some stories have just one purpose, to entertain people perhaps to make them laugh. In any case, the literature of a community is an important part of the culture. Rules define what a short story is, how a poem is written, and how a play is performed. Writers learn the art of writing so that they can teach or entertain well. Good writers become famous for their skill. Poets, the writers of poetry, usually choose smaller topics to write about. Using the tools of poetry (word pictures, rhyme, rhythm, and beat) the poet creates music with words. This unit contains two short stories, a small collection of poems, and a short play. Each section has an introduction. As you read, look for definitions of these terms: plot protagonist theme suspense hero climax point of view antagonist character conflict

“round” and “flat” characters foreshadowing

PHRASAL VERBS WITHOUT AN OBJECT PRESENTATION Read the passage carefully. Hans Christian Andersen was the famous Danish author, whose fairy tales have been translated into more than 80 languages and have inspired plays, ballets, films and works of sculpture and painting. Born in Odensen, he suffered from poverty when he was 14, he ran away to Copenhagen. Andersen had poetry and prose brought out and plays produced beginning in 1822. Andersen traveled in Europe, Asia and Africa and went on writing novels, plays, and travel books, but it was his more than 150 stories for children that established him as one of the great figure of world literature. Grammar question The underlined verbs are called phrasal verbs. Do you know why they are called phrasal verbs? PRACTICE Complete these sentences using the phrasal verbs in the box. Use the pictures to help you. Follow the example.

A.

turn up (appear) look out (be careful) move in (start living in a house/flat) set off (start a journey) take off (plane leaving the ground) get by (manage) break down (stop working) stand up (change from sitting to standing)

1. The play- writer was nervous when the plane took off 2. This car is so old, it ___________________ all the time. 3. My brother always ____________________ when dinner is just ready. 4. We should __________________ soon if we want to arrive before dark. 5. Everyone ___________________ when the boss arrived. 6. We __________________ last week, but we haven’t unpacked yet. 7. It won’t be easy to put all our furniture in there, but I’m sure we’ll . 8. _______________! There’s a hole in the floor. B. Complete these sentences using the phrasal verbs in the box. Don’t forget to change the tense where necessary. Follow the example.

grow up clear up

turn round come in

come back get on

drive off get up

1. He left home when he was 19 and he never came back. 2. I _______________ at 7 am every morning. 3. Don’t stand there in the cold! _________________________! 4. I was very nervous on my first day but I _________________fine. 5. It’s raining now, but the weather should ___________ before tomorrow. 6. I stopped to get petrol and then forgot to pay and ________________ 7. When my daughter she wants to be an engineer. 8. He ____________ quickly when he heard a noise behind him. Language review 1. Phrasal verbs are made up of a verb and another word, called a particle. The particle in a phrasal verb is often a small word such as in, on, up, down, out, off, over or away. This particle changes the meaning of the verb. Sometime it changes it only slightly: particle The poet was tired so he sat down. (sat on something) Sometimes the particle changes the meaning of the verb completely. particle I think the poet set off at 6 o’clock. (start a journey) VOCABULARY A. Match a term in A with a phrase in B A a. novelette b. style c. folk-song d. novel B. B 1. an invented story in prose, long enough to fill a complete book. 2. a short novel, esp one of poor literary quality. 3. a song in the traditional style of a country or community. 4. a manner of writing that is characteristic of a particular writer, historical period, or type of literature. Ambiguous Words

The following sentences have two different meanings, due to the ambiguity of the words in italics. Explain the two meanings of each sentence. (a) She was driving on the right side of the road. (b) He’s very fair. (c) She was a very funny girl. (d) Half the workers in the factory are idle. (e) They did not recognize the new President. (f) She’s a very curious person (g) It’s a very cheap newspaper. (h) They are expected to arrive at seven. (i) My grandfather was a very powerful man

(j) I thought he was rather suspicious. (k) She was very jealous of her husband’s reputation (l) She likes to entertain people (m) John should know the answer (n) He didn’t appeal to me. (o) The Morning News is a popular newspaper (p) He might have phoned. SKILLS DEVELOPMENT Reading and Speaking Pre-reading task Work in small groups and discuss the following:

1. Did you read a short story last week?
Can you remember what it was about?

2. Do you often read short stories?
Tell some reasons?

3. Give some titles of short stories you read.
Reading THE SHORT STORY Most people think of a story as a plot, a sequence of events that make up a story. However, the content of a story is not only the plot. It includes the development of the characters, theme or topic, and structure too. In fact, the actions that make up the plot must be significant; they must be somehow related to the meaning of the story. Conflict is the necessary element of plot – a clash of ideas, actions, desires. This conflict may occur between two people, between a person and the world around him or her. Also, the conflict is more likely to be a matter of judgment in a well-written story. The “good” and the “bad” elements are more difficult to define than in a poorly written story. Furthermore, between the development of the conflict and the end of the story, there must be a change in the central character, another character, or the action. The moment at which that happens is called the climax. At the climax, the excitement is the highest, the audience is anxious to know what will happen, and the story could develop any of several ways. The climax is the turning point; after the climax, the story comes to an end. A writer tells the plot to the readers in two ways – through the action, dialog, and interaction of the characters or through narrative, telling the story. A good writer is more likely to use action and dialog to develop the story than to tell the story.

However, in some modern stories, the reader might wonder what the outcome is because the final result often is left to the reader. The end of a story is determined by several considerations: whether or not it is probable and whether it is successful in presenting and dealing with the topic. Some people insist that a good story must teach the reader something; others are satisfied to be entertained. The second element in a short story is the characterization – the way that the people in the story are presented. They may be described directly or explained to the reader in terms of the dialog, action, and interactions. Some characters in stories are very well-developed; these are said to be “round” characters. Others are “flat” because they are not developed by the writer. These flat characters serve as background people for the main character or characters. The third part of the story is the theme or topic. This is the purpose that the writer had in beginning to write the story. It is the general statement about life that is the base of the story. The theme is the reason why the story is successful: it presents a part of life and human nature that is capable of being explained in a situation. The reader who is trying to figure out what the theme is should look at the characters and the plot; the problems that these people face are like the problems that ordinary living people will face in everyday life. Another important aspect of a short story is the point of view. In some stories, the author tells us about the characters. The viewpoint of a character can make a story very interesting because the reader is involved with a personality, not only with a plot.

Comprehension check 1. What does the content of a story include? 2. What’s conflict? 3. When does the climax come to a story? 4. Do readers always know what the outcome is? Why or why not? 5. What’s characterization? 6. What kinds of characters do you know? 7. How does the theme play role in a short story? Discussion 1. What are some common themes in the literature of your country? 2. What kinds of characters are used?

Writing A. Read the following outline:

THE KIND OF BOOKS WE SHOULD READ 1. Reading for pleasure − Short stories − Jokes − Novels 2. Reading for improving knowledge − Academic books. − Non-fiction books such as historical, biological, psychological etc. B. Write a paragraph of about 100 words based on the information given above.

Translation Translate these sentences into English. TIẾNG VIỆT 1. 2. 3. 4. Notes: – – – – – Tiếng nói quật cường: unsubdued language Một dân tộc quật cường: an unsubdued people, an indomitable people (không chịu khuất phục) Sống được, tồn tại: to survive, to exist Tượng trưng: to symbolize, to stand for Sức sống mãnh liệt: the powerful vitality Một dân tộc có mạnh thì tiếng nói của dân tộc ấy mới sống được. Nhưng tiếng nói của dân tộc mất, thì dân tộc ấy cũng không còn. Tiếng Việt quả là tiếng nói quật cường của một dân tộc quật cường. Tiếng Việt còn là nhờ tinh thần bất khuất của dân tộc. Và dân tộc Việt Nam còn là nhờ ở tiếng Việt còn. Tiếng Việt tượng trưng sức sống mãnh liệt của dân Việt.

IDENTIFYING PEOPLE AND THING : RELATIVE CLAUSES PRESENTATION Read the passage carefully. Jack London’s life was not easy and long. He lived less than forty years; but he saw more and did more during those years than many other men see and do in almost a century. Jack London’s father was poor and there were many other children in the family. They always needed money and the boy who was older than the other children had to help as much as he could. Like many other poor boys in California, Jack found work on the ships which went from Africa to the countries of the East. But the ships paid the boy very little and when Jack came back to California he had almost nothing. So he left home again to look for work in the big cities, in the great forests and on the great lakes and rivers of Canada. He never had a day’s rest and he worked from morning to night. But when the day’s work was over he could hear a lot of interesting stories workers and their lives. Grammar questions 1. Look at these examples: - “The boy who was older than other children had to help as much as he could”. - “The ships which went from Africa to the countries of the East” What relative pronouns are used in above examples? 2. Are relative pronouns in the above sentence the subject or the objects? Note: who: which: that: where: when: used for people used for things used both for people and things used for places used for time

PRACTICE A. Complete these sentences using a relative pronoun. Follow the example. he wrote “King Lear”? 1. How old was Shakespears when

2. We went to look for the book ___________was about Agatha Christie. 3. I know a lot of people ________________are interested in comic strips. 4. The shop __________ I saw the interesting books has closed down. 5. Sleep is the only thing ____________ will make you feel better. 6. He is the only person I know ____________lectures are interesting. 7. Can you suggest a time ________________we can meet? 8. It was Jeremy _____________ forgot to tell the ending of the story. B. Mike is looking for the train station, but he has got lost so he asks a woman for directions. Mike repeats the directions to check he understood them. Rewrite the directions using a relative pronoun. Follow the example. 1. Woman: Turn left at the corner. The new bookshop is there. Mike: Turn left at the corner where the new bookshop is. 2. Woman: You will be on a main road. It is very wide. Mike: ______________________________________________________ 3. Woman: Go straight down this road. It leads to the library. Mike: ______________________________________________________ 4. Woman: Just before the park, you will pass an old man. He sells newspapers. Mike: _______________________________________________________ 5. Woman: Cross the road. You will see some new buildings ahead. They are being painted. Mike: ______________________________________________________ 6. Woman: The university is the big building. It is next to the new bookshop. Mike: ______________________________________________________

Language review 1. Defining relative clauses identify the subject or object of the sentence. This information makes it clearer to the reader or listener exactly what is being discussed. He’s the man who wrote “An anthology of English literature”. It’s a fiction story that interests children. 1.2 Who is used to talk about people: Sandra is a dramatist. She has collected and analyzed slips of the tongue. Sandra is a dramatist has collected and analyzed slips of the tongue. 1.3 That is used to talk about things, although we can also use which/ to talk about things in a more formal way: This is the conversation I studied it this morning. This is the conversation that I studied this morning. I want a book. I want it to have various personification. I want a book which has various personification. In informal, spoken English, that can also be used to talk about people: There’s the novelist. I told you about her. There’s the novelist that I told you about. 1.4 Whose takes the place of possessive pronouns like his and her, and is used to talk about who owns the noun: This is the philosopher. I borrowed his interesting book.

This is the philosopher whose book I borrowed. 1.5 Where is used to talk about places: We must understand the context. The meaning of a sentence is uttered there. We must understand the context where the meaning of a sentence is uttered. 1.6 When is used to talk about times? It was February. His new books of sonnets and lyrics were published. It was February when his new books of sonnets and lyrics were published. 1.7 These words, used to introduce the relative clause, are called relative pronouns. VOCABULARY A. Match a term in A with a phrases in B A a. essay b. authorship c. pseudonym d. manuscript e. plot f. author g. character h. fiction i. authology 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. B a collection of poems or pieces of writing on the same subject or by the same writer. a piece of writing, usually short, on any subjects. a type of literature describing imaginary events and people, not real ones. a plan or an outline of the events in play or novel. a person in a novel, play. the identity of the write of a book. the writer of a book, play. a document, piece of music, etc that is written by hand, not printed. a person’s name that is not her or his real name, esp one used by an author, pseudonym.

B. By matching the numbers with the letters find the phrasal verbs with the meanings given. 1 LOOK 4 SET 6 TAKE 9 GO A AWAY D UP F BY I ON G OUT J OFF B INTO E DOWN H THROUGH 7 CARRY 10 GET C AFTER 2 RUN 5 SLIP 8 PUT 3 TURN BE SIMILAR TO CONTINUE ESCAPE EXPERIENCE EXTINGUISH INVESTIGATE MAKE A MISTAKE MANAGE REJECT START A JOURNEY 6 1 2 H 8 B 5 F 3 J

C. Use the phrasal verbs to complete each of these sentences: 1. If you’re finding it difficult to _________ on your salary, why don’t you ask for a rise? 2. I know what you’re ______________and I feel really sorry for you. 3. In many ways you _________________ your father. 4. If you ________________________, you’ll get into trouble. 5. If proposed to her but she ____________me ___________. 6. You’d better __________ your cigarette because smoking isn’t allowed in here.

7. If you ___________ working so hard, you’ll make yourself ill. 8. The advantage of __________ early is that you’ll be able to miss all the traffic. 9. Don’t ______________! I don’t want to borrow anything; I just want a quick word with you. 10. The manager promised to________________ the matter in response to my letter. SKILLS DEVELOPMENT

Reading and Speaking

Pre-reading task Work in pairs: 1. How many Vietnamese poets do you know? 2. Which Vietnamese poets would you like to know more about? Reading WINDOW TO THE SOUL OF A NATION Writers and poets have always occupied a place of very high esteem in Vietnamese society. Their writings reveal the spirit of the Vietnamese, as a nation and as individuals, who, well acquainted with struggle, tribulation, and hardship, find their rich literary heritage a source of comfort, hope and inspiration. A seemingly endless wealth of traditional oral literature, consisting of myths, songs, legends, folk and fairy tales, constitutes Vietnam’s most ancient literature. Later Vietnamese literature, written in Chinese characters chữ nho was penned by scholars, Buddhist bronzed, kings and court ministers who were also talented writers and poets. This was greatly influenced by the Confucian and Buddhist thought of the Hán. Many poems and literary works were written with the advent of Chữ Nôm. However the Vietnamese found Quốc Ngữ’s simple written form a more accessible means of communicating their thoughts and ideas. Through it, Vietnamese literature was enriched with new ideas of Western thought and culture. European literature, translated for the first time by famous Vietnamese writers, influenced Vietnamese prose and poetry with new literary forms which expressed ideas in novel ways and also reflected the mounting nationalism of the time.

THE TALE OF KIỀU: Nearly every Vietnamese reads and remembers a few chapters of a 3,254 verse-story published 200 years ago. Considered the cultural Bible and window to the soul of the Vietnamese people. “The Tale of Kiều” has also been acclaimed by nonVietnamese and translated into other major languages. One may wonder how “The Tale of Kiều came to occupy its special position in Vietnamese literature and why the complicated tale of a woman’s personal misfortunes has come to be regarded by a whole people as the perfect expression of their essential nature, their national soul. To the Vietnamese, regardless of age, gender, geography or ideology, Kiều is the heart and mind of their nation, the mirror of their society, past and present. To them, its author, Nguyễn Du is the faithful interpreter of their hopes and the discreet confidant of their misfortunes. But literary beauty and diversity alone cannot wholly explain the immortality of Kiều. What makes Kiều as pertinent today as it was two centuries ago, is Nguyễn Du’s ability and courage to lay bare the whole spectrum of Vietnamese society. The vices, virtues, ugliness, beauty, noble acts, vile tricks, intrigues, all entangled in a seemingly hopeless tragic-comedy reflect the true face of Vietnam. Kiều also personifies the inherent contradiction between talent and misfortune of disaster, the cause and effect relationship between Tài (talent) and Mệnh (fate) as illustrated by the tales opening lines: “Within the span of a hundred years of human existence, what a bitter struggle is waged between talent and fate”, and the conclusion: “When one is endowed with talent, do not rely on it”. Deep in their hearts and behind their smiling modesty, the Vietnamese know they are not lacking in Tài. At the same time they do not understand why this Tài which has helped them preserve their independence against formidable foreign invasions and enabled them to develop and nurture a respectable culture and civilization, has failed to bring them the lasting peace and durable prosperity deserve.

Comprehension check Answer the following questions 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What do the literary works reveal? What kinds of traditional oral literature are they? How was Vietnamese literature enriched? What is the value of “The Tale of Kiều” to the Vietnamese? What does “The Tale of Kiều” also personify?

Discussion Work in groups Tell some types of metaphor in “The Tale of Kiều”

Listening Listen to the text and fill in the blank with the missing words. Reading is a very important activity growing __________ for it brings the world to their doorsteps. It also makes the task of learning more enjoyable. Children like _______________to to stories. We all are aware of this from our ____________ experience. They like to see pictures for pictorial representation makes the whole story vivid and ___________. Beginning with fairly tales and children’s stories one can progress to geographical and ________________ knowledge. Reading books of every kind helps in the development of a child’s intelligence and personality. There are books about birds, about social ______________, about inventions, wild life or ____________. They serve a purpose. They activate the intellectual curiosity of a person and lead him to further reading. A person who reads a great deal will normally do well in a _______________ or a discussion; he or she will be in a position to organize other activities and above all will never be lonely or solely _____________ on human company. A person who is fond of reading will stay away from ________________ agitations and activities. It is more likely for such a person to develop greater sensitivity and also greater appreciation of nature.

Translation CHARACTER What is character? - A character is represented through a collection of images: conversation, action, outward appearance, behavior and also inner emotional, intellectual and moral qualities. Methods of characterization Character can be represented in two ways: 1. Expository method (Direct method): The writer gives a direct presentation of facts or other information about a character such as look, age and social status… 2. Dramatic method (Indirect method): - The writer shows the character acting in some meaningful situations. - Characters are explained the reader in terms of their behavior, speech, interaction, and thoughts … From these two main methods, there are five specific ways by which a writer can portray his character:

a. by what the character says. b. by his/her action. c. by indicating his / her thoughts and feelings. d. by the way he / she interacts with other character in the story. e. by the way other people treat him / her in the story. Types of character There are two types: 1. Flat character - Flat character is built on a single idea or quality. (Duong Tang in Tay Du Ky or Luc Van Tien in Luc Van Tien) - Flat character can be summed up in one sentence (Luc Van Tien is a young man of virtue). - Flat character is easily recognized and remembered. - Flat character is seen as static character (Its imaged is essentially unchanged form the beginning to the end). 2. Round character - Round character is more complex, more varied, full of changes, surprises and unexpectedness. - In most cases round character undergoes some changes in one or another aspect of his/her personality or outlook as result of a crucial event in life. - Round character has real effect: It has the unpredicted ability of life: life within the pages of a book. - Round character is capable of surprising in a convincing way. If it never surprises, it is flat. If it does not convince, it has flat pretending to be round. For a character to be real, it must meet the following conditions: - The character must be believable. (His/ her speech and action must be consistent with his/her background and motivation. A shoe boy does not talk and behave like a university teacher). - The change in the character must be credible.

RELATIVE CLAUSES PRESENTATION Read the passage below Leo-Tolstoy is the famous Russian novelist, profound social and moral thinker, and one of the greatest writers of realistic fiction of all time. He was born in 1828 at Yasnaya Polyana, the family estate south of Moscow. He was orphaned at the age of 9, then raised by relatives and educated by French and German tutors. After a brief, futile attempt to improve the condition of the serfs on his estate, he plunged into the life of high society, which he candidly recorded in his diary with vows to reform. In 1862 he met a woman whom he loved at first sight and married her. In the next is years he raised a large family, successfully managed his estate, and wrote his two greatest novels. “War and Peace” (1865-1869) and “Anna Karenina” (1875-1877). Grammar questions 1. What words do the relative clauses modify? a. _____________which he candidly recorded in his diary with vows to reform”. b. _____________ whom he loved at first sight and married her” 2. Are relative pronouns in the above sentences the subjects or the objects? PRACTICE A. Rewrite these sentences using whom or which Follow the example. 1. Martha, who I share a flat with, is my best friend. Martha, with whom I share a flat, is my best friend. 2. Philology Department, which we study in for 2 years, has been built for a few yeas. ______________________________________________________________ 3. The door, which I ran through, led to a long hall. ______________________________________________________________ 4. Mr Johnson, who everyone is talking about, is a very famous linguist. ______________________________________________________________ 5. Buddha is someone who I know very little about. ______________________________________________________________ 6. The film, which I have tickets for, starts at 7 o’clock. ______________________________________________________________ 7. My father is a man I would die for. ______________________________________________________________

8. Where is the handbag which I left my book in? ______________________________________________________________ B. Use the extra information in brackets to write sentences with non-defining relative clauses. Use whom or which and a preposition. Follow the example. 1. The books were written by my mother. (Most of them were read) The books, most of which were read, were written by my mother. 2. I took the books back to the library. (I read none of them). _____________________________________________________________ 3. The poets stayed for a week. (I knew a few of them) _____________________________________________________________ 4. The poems were interesting (I composed some of them myself) _____________________________________________________________ 5. The ballet students danced for their parents. (They were all girls) _____________________________________________________________ 6. The lecturers arrived at Philology Department. (Some of them wrote a lot of books about linguistics. _____________________________________________________________ 7. The table had to be thrown away. (Most of it was rotten) _____________________________________________________________ 8. The singers sang very well. (Several of them were children) _____________________________________________________________ Language review 1. We can use slightly different relative clauses in very formal or written English. Whom is a more formal form of who. It is used for the object of a verb in a defining or non-defining clause: Last night I saw a novelist whom I have known for years. Dickens whom you know very well, wrote a tale of two cities in 1849. 2. Whom and which can also be used in a formal way with a preposition. This happens when that preposition is often seen with the verb in the relative clause (to shout at, to talk about). The preposition is used before which or whom: A Christmas Carol is the story of a bad character, about whom my sister often tells (to tell about). Dickens wrote a story of French revolution about which I know very little (to know about) In less formal, spoken English, we normally leave the preposition after the verb: Dickens wrote a story of French revolution which I know very little about. A Christmas Carol is the story of a bad character, who my sister often tells about. VOCABULARY A. Match a term in A with a phrase in B A a. lyric B 1. a long poem about the deeds of great men and women, or about a nation’s past history.

b. prose c. lyricism d. lyricist e. verse f. epic

2. expressing the writer’s feelings. 3. writing arranged in line, often with a regular rhythm or rhyme scheme, poetry. 4. written or spoken language that is not in verse. 5. the expression of strong emotion, esp in poetry, art, music. 6. a person who writes the words of songs.

B. In this exercise you must put each of the words below into the correct list depending on its stress pattern. The sign ▼ shows the main stress. The first word is shown as an example. advertise advertisement advertising assistant bachelor biography 1. ▼ advertise ........................................................ ........................................................ ........................................................ ........................................................ character departure disagree disagreement discussion disqualify expensive indication indicator lemonade mispronounce operation 2. ▼ operator receptionist sensible understanding understatement unemployed

............................................................... ............................................................... ............................................................... ...............................................................

3.

4. ▼ ............................................................... ............................................................... ...............................................................

........................................................ ........................................................ ........................................................

........................................................ 5. ▼ ........................................................ ........................................................ ........................................................ ........................................................

............................................................... 6. ▼

............................................................... ............................................................... ............................................................... ...............................................................

SKILLS DEVELOPMENT Reading and Speaking TO HUU - THE GREAT REVOLUTIONARY POET Out of all the authors-featured in Contemporary Vietnamese Writers, To Huu’s contribution is striking in its brevity. Just 42 words long, his personal statement is a simple expression of the convictions that underpinned his creative and political life: “All my life, I have striven for the cause of national independence and the communist ideal. Besides revolutionary activities, I write poems, also for the revolutionary cause. To me, it is a lifetime’s predestined love: the Party and poetry”. To Huu’s allegiances were clear-cut. He defined himself firstly as a revolutionary and secondly as a poet. A lifetime actively involved in the revolutionary cause provided To Huu with the raw material from which he crafted his stirring literary works. At the age of 17 he led the Hue Democratic Youth League and was imprisoned by the French. At 25, he was chairman of Thua Thien – Hue Province’s uprising board in the 1945 August Revolution. By 31, he was already an alternate member of the Party Central Committee. This honour was followed by a position on its Secretariat (1958-1980), and on the Politburo (1976-1986). He also served as director of the Nguyen Ai Quoc Party School. With his genuine talent and the volume, quality and far-reaching influence of his writing, To Huu came to symbolize the essence of Vietnamese revolutionary poetry. Many people encountering the values and ideals of the Vietnamese revolution were struck by the lines: Since then the fires of summer have blazed within me. The sun of truth has shone in my heart.

In the French colonial prisons, patriotic fighters used to relay the poem Con Ca, Chot Nua (The Fish) by word of mouth to keep up their spirits. They also consoled each other with the lines: Revolutionary life, as I understand it, means Imprisonment, exile; once entering. Swords close to one’s neck; and guns to one’s ears. And life is always at risk. After the anti-French resistance war, To Huu’s verses flourished. Generations of Vietnamese students have learnt his most wellknown verses by heart, including Viet Bac, Sang Thang Nam (A Morning in May) and Hoan Ho Chien Si Dien Bien (Hurrah for Dien Bien Fighters!) To Huu welcomed peace with the Strong Wind collection, which celebrated what he saw as the joy of the North as it constructed a socialist state, and the nation’s anxious sentiments towards the South, which was languishing under the yoke of the US and its puppet administration. After the start of the 21-year struggle for national reunification, To Huu’s verses symbolize the nation’s iron-clad determination: We are going forwards; nothing can divide the country From Muc Nam Quan to Ca Mau We share one sky over our heads. The North and the South have a common sea There is no demarcation in our heart We have one Great-leader, Uncle Ho We have a common capital We share the fortune of Viet Nam. But To Huu is perhaps best known for his many poems about President Ho Chi Minh. Sang Thang Nam underscores the close bond that many Vietnamese people felt with Ho Chi Minh. He is the father, the uncle, the brother. The great heart that filters hundreds of blood streams. He sat there, the red pencil in hand

Charting out courses each minute, each hour. Following Ho Chi Minh’s death in 1969, To Huu found words for the grief that many people were unable to express. Uncel ! Your heart is so vast It embraces the country and all human lives. It is as if he expressed love for the aged father of the nation on behalf of the Vietnamese people. It is impossible to mention individually all of To Huu’s verses on this theme, simply because they are so numerous. Suffice to say, his poems have shaped the thinking, ideals and aesthetic sense of many young people. To Huu’s poetry has left an indelible imprint on the life and times of Ho Chi Minh. It is his single-minded devotion that makes him great: “Besides revolutionary activities, I write poems, also for the revolutionary cause”. He has parted from us, but his verses will remain forever. Comprehension check: Work in pairs 1. 2. What were To Huu’s main activities in all his life? What did revolutionary cause supply To Huu in his literary works?

3. What helped To Huu become symbol of the essence of Vietnamese revolutionary poetry? 4. 5. 6. 7. What did To Huu’s poems effect patriotic fighters in the French colonial prisons? What was the Strong Wind collection about? What did To Huu express in his poems about President Ho Chi Minh? What do you think about To Huu’s poetry?

What do you think? Literature enriches life experiences. Give examples to prove that. Do you prefer short stories or long novels?

Listening

Listen to these people talking about books and movies. Check ( ) the best word that describes what they say about each one. a fascinating silly strange wonderful odd boring a boring terrific dreadful ridiculous interesting exciting b c d b c d

Translation POINT OF VIEW 1. What is point of view?

- Point of view is a literary term that refers to the particular voice, angle of vision or perspective from which the story is told. - Point of view influences how the writer presents the information, describes characters, setting, object etc… To determine point of view, we can ask ourselves two questions: + Who tells the story?

+ To what extent does the writer look inside his/her characters and reports their thoughts and feelings. 2. The four basic points of view a. Omniscent: - The story is told by the writer, using the third person.

- The writer knows almost everything about their character and event: this all-knowing narrator tells us not only what the characters are doing, saying but also what they are thinking and feeling. - The writer may give judgment of the characters and their actions. - This point of view is subjective: the reader views the story through the subjective writer. - It is undramatic: the writer does everything for readers. - It is flexible: It allows readers the widest scope. - It lacks coherence or unity: the continual change of viewpoint from character to character. b. Limited omniscent point of view: - The story is told in the third person. - The reader sees the story from the point of view of one of the chosen characters. - Things emerge before the reader as that chosen character can infer. - This point of view is objective: the reader does not view the story through a subjective writer. - It gains a sense of unity: The world is seen through the mind and senses of only one person. - It offers a limited scope: The reader can go only where the chosen character goes. c. First person point of view: - The story is told in the first person. - The narrator may be a main or supporting character. - It gives a sense of unity: readers get the story directly from a participant. A modern variation of the first person point of view is stream of consciousness: the narrator’s very thoughts become the medium of the story.

d. Objective point of view: - This point view is achieved through factual details which can be perceived by the senses. - The writer if the emotionless narrator: he reports in the matter-of-fact manner the events of the story. - Readers have to figure out for themselves what the narrator are like. - This point of view has much action. - It is objective: The reader views the story objectively through the external details. - It offers little chance for interpretation for it relies heavily on external action and dialogue. We can determine and analyze the point of view by asking ourselves the following questions: + Who tells the story? + Does the narrator tell us too much or not enough? + Is the narrator consistent? If the point of view changes, can you explain why? + What inferences have you made about characters or action from the narration? + How would the story be different if it were told from another point of view? + What truth or insight has been renewed to me?

DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH PRESENTATION Read the passage carefully All of us here in the village as fishermen. My father was a fisherman. He began to take me out or see when I was very small. I met Hemingway in 1933. He was my father’s friend. They often went fishing together and sometimes I went with them. Hemingway was a good fisherman and a skillful sailor. Once, Hemingway came to me and asked me to act in a film of his book “The Old Man and The Sea”. He said that he wanted everything and all the characters in the film to be as they were in real life. He thought the actor who played the old man didn’t know anything about fishing and said I could take the actor’s place in the part where he caught the fish. I was very glad to do it. But acting wasn’t easy for me. I tried as hard as I could, but the film director and Hemingway was not satisfied. After having tried many times, finally succeeded in acting that film. Grammar questions 1. How many sentences can be turned into Direct Speech in the passage? 2. Turn these sentences into Direct Speech. 3. Give the rules when turning Direct sentence into Indirect sentences. PRACTICE A. Last year, Melissa tried to get a job as an assistant in a camera shop. This is what she told the manager who interviewed her. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. I’m 23 years old I enjoy working with people I’m interested in photography I know a lot about cameras I’m a hard worker 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. I have worked for three years I’m a very organized person I’m always on time I can use a computer I don’t mind working overtime

However, after she started work the manager found out she had lied to all the questions at the interview. Report the lies that Melissa had told the manager. Follow the example. 1. She told the manager she was 23 years old, but she wasn’t. 2. _____________________________________________________________ 3. _____________________________________________________________ 4. _____________________________________________________________ 5. _____________________________________________________________ 6. _____________________________________________________________ 7. _____________________________________________________________ 8. _____________________________________________________________

9. _____________________________________________________________ 10. ____________________________________________________________ B. One evening while Sam was listening to the radio he heard this news report. “There has been another bank robbery in the city. It is the third robbery in less than a week. The robber escaped with a lot of money and a lady’s expensive jewelry. No one was injured during the robbery. Video cameras filmed the man while he was taking the money. Police think that the same man did all three robberies. They have a description of the man. He is about 30 years old and about 1.6 metres tall. At the time of this robbery he was wearing a red shirt, blue jeans and white running shoes. The police would like anyone who recognizes this man to ring them”. Later Sam’s Friend Julia asked him about the news report. Complete Sam’s answers. Follow the example. 1. Julia: What was on the news last night? Sam: There was a report that said there had been another bank robbery in the city. 2. Julia: Another one! There have been a lot of robberies recently. Sam: Yes, the reporter said ______________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ 3. Julia: Did the robber steal much money? Sam: Yes, they said ___________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ 4. Julia: Was anyone hurt? Sam: They said _______________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ 5. Julia: Were there security cameras in the bank? Sam: In the report they said _____________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ 6. Julia: Do the police know who did it? Sam: The reporter said _________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ 7. Julia: Do the police have a description of the man? Sam: Yes, they said ___________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ 8. Julia: What does he look like? Sam: The police said ___________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ 9. Julia: What was he wearing? Sam: They said _______________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ 10. Julia: I think I know him! What should I do? Sam: Quick, get the phone, the police said _________________________ ____________________________________________________________

Language review I thought the novelist would be able to write some more interesting books. 1. When we want to report what someone says, we can do it in two ways. The first way is direct speech, using the words that were actually said. In writing, we use quotation marks (“…”) to show this type of speech. We usually use verbs like say or think in front of, or after, the speech. When someone is saying something to another person, we can use tell: “I am going to buy some English novels of the nineteenth century”. She said. “I want you to read Rudyard Kipling’s best known books,” she told him. 2. The other way se can talk about what someone says is by using indirect or reported speech. In indirect speech we do not use quotation marks. The tenses, word order, pronouns, and other words may be different from those used in direct speech. We can also add that between the reporting verb (said, thought, told) and the reported speech: “I’ll be a publisher” he told her. He told her (that) he would be a publisher. “I like the work by Izaak Walton” she said. She said (that) she liked the work by Izaak Walton. 2. Tenses almost always change when we use reported speech. This is how most tenses change. Direct speech Indirect speech Tense change live(s) lived present simple past simple lived had lived past simple past perfect is/am/are living was/were living present continuous past C was/were living had been living past continuous past perfect .C has/have lived had lived present perfect past perfect had lived had lived past perfect past perfect will/shall live would/should live will/shall would /should can/may live could/might live can/may could/might must live must/had to lie must must /had to The tense does not always change in indirect speech. If we are reporting something which is generally true, or something that is still true, the tense stays the same. “The English poet second after Shakespeare is John Milton” He said that the English poet second after Shakespeare is John Milton. VOCABULARY A. Match a term in A with a phrase in B. A d. description h. dramatis personae b. comedy B 1. a play for the theatre, radio or television. 2. a light or amusing play or film, usu with a happy ending. 3. a writer of play.

f. tragedy e. scene a. drama c. dramatist g. play

4. saying in words what sb/sth is like. 5. a sequence of continuous action in a play. 6. a serious play with a sad ending. 7. a work written to be performed by actors. 8. all the characters in a play .

B.

Emphasis

Sometimes you want to be able to say something in a stronger way. Complete the dialogues below using one of the following strong adjectives : enormous fascinating hideous gorgeous delicious tedious impossible spotless charming fantastic freezing disgusting boiling minute filthy

1. “Was it a good hotel?” “Good? It was absolutely ........................... !” 2. “Was it a big place?” “Big? It was absolutely ............................. !” 3. “Was it a small room?” “Small? It was absolutely...........................!” 4. “Was it hot in Seville?” “Hot? It was absolutely ..............................!” 5. “Was it cold in Helsinki?” “Cold? It was absolutely ............................!” 6. “Was she as beautiful as they say?” “Beautiful? She was absolutely..................!” 7. “Was the dining-room as ugly as the lounge?” “Ugly? It was absolutely ...........................!” 8. “Was the house clean?” “Clean? It was absolutely...........................!” 9. “Was the beach dirty?” “Dirty? It was absolutely............................!”

10. “Was an interesting place?” “Boring? It was absolutely .........................!” 11. “Wasn’t it a bit boring?” “Boring? It was absolutely .........................!” 12. “Was the exam difficult?” “Difficult? It was absolutely ...................... 13. “Was she nice?” “Nice? She was absolutely .........................!” 14. “Was the steak as good as it looked?” “Good? It was absolutely ...........................!” 15. “Was the food in the hotel as bad as last year?” “Bad? It was absolutely..............................!” !”

SKILLS DEVELOPMENT

Reading and Speaking Reading THE DRAMA The drama is yet another activity which helps develop and express human personality. It adds an extra-dimension to the relationship between human beings. Men and women who are normally shy and introvert may emerge as entirely different beings on the stage. Drama gives them an opportunity to shed or camouflage their inner beings and for a short while acquire a brand new extrovert personality. The drama is in many ways a direct offshoot of reading. Those who read a great deal possess active imaginations and may indulge in a lot of play-acting in the privacy of their study. Moreover, being always on the look out for good plays and good roles, they may read a lot. There is another aspect to the drama. It develops confidence and a young child can get rid of the initial stage shyness more easily than an adult. An appearance on the stage also gives the child a sense of importance. Applause brings him recognition; a role confers an identity. More than this, appearance on the stage also helps them to relate to others. In some ways it is an effective check on inflated ego. Rehearsals are as much a team work as any sports event and every actor is quick to realize that the success or the

failure does not depend on any single person. It is the result of a combined effort. Thus the drama helps both the shy and the out-going to arrive at a balance in their personalities.

Comprehension check Answer the following questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. What is another activity of the drama? Can shy and introvert men and women perform well on the stage? What does drama relate to reading? What benefit give us by reading a lot? What is another aspect to the drama? To a child what are advantages of being on the stage. In conclusion what does the drama help the shy and the out going people?

Discussion Work in groups. 1. According to the author is drama the only way for us to relax? Why? 2. What are the most significant benefits for students taking part in a drama? 3. Do you think team work is necessary for us? Reasons. Listening Listen to the following text and fill in the blanks with the missing words. THE PLAY A play, though it is _____________ to a story, is different in one important way. All of the action and character development must be given __________ the words of the cast, the group of actors. The scene is also more ___________ than it is in a story because the audience must ___________ the situation without much help. In a play there is no author to tell the audience what has __________and what will happen. The story grows out of the characters (who must act according to the type of people that they appear to be), the dialog (the words that they say), and the action (what the actors do).

Writing As a poet, describe a scene that moved you to write a poem. You might need to do some research to get additional information for your composition. Add a diagram or picture to your composition, if one will help the reader understand your description. Plan out your composition before you start writing.

Translation SETTING

I.

What is setting?

Setting refers to the background against which the action of the story takes place. It involves the place, time, social and physical environment of a story. - Place: includes details showing the geographical location of the story. - Time: The theme of the story: It may cover several years, the whole historical period, or just an evening. - Social environment: Readers have an insight into a particular society through the description of the manners, customs or rules of that society. - Physical environment: the reference to nature. Objects, smell, sounds, styles of architecture, buildings, etc, … II. Why is setting important?

- Setting suggests action: readers may come away with certain expectations or feeling suggested by the setting. - Setting helps express the theme: A skillful writer emphasizes the theme by providing the most appropriate surrounding for it. - Setting helps reveal the character’s personality, his/her will to live or limits of strength can be tested through his / her response to the environment at some crucial moment in his/her life. - Setting helps create the atmosphere of the story. A setting may suggest cheerfulness, excitement, fear, mystery or sadness. - Setting help make a story believable: the writer uses the details describing scenes, places, people… which serve as the representation of the story and strike readers as real within the context of the story. In summary, setting is not there just for the decoration. Instead it is real participant in the action and of vital importance to the development of the character.

QUESTIONS IN INDIRECT SPEECH PRESENTATION Read the passage carefully Once Mark Twain arrived at a small town. He was to give a lecture there. Before dinner he went to a barber’s shop. The barber asked him if he was a stranger in that town and he answered he had just arrived there. And the barber continued to ask him if he would go to Mark Twain’s lecture because Mark Twain was going to give a lecture tonight and asked whether he had booked a ticket yet. Mark Twain said that he had not ticket for the lecture. The barber said that he was afraid Mark Twain would have to stand because the theatre tickets had been sold out. Mark Twain smiled and said that he always had to stand when he gave a lecture. Grammar questions 1. Pick out indirect questions from the passage. 2. Look at the indirect questions in the passage. What word has been added? What form of questions is this? 3. Complete the rule
Subject + ASK + _______________ + Subject + Verb

The barber asked him, “Are you a stranger in this town?” PRACTICE Change these direct questions into reported questions. Write your answers on the lines provided. Follow the example. “Did you enjoy the book about Jane Austen?” he asked me. _____________________________________________________________ “Is your teacher here today?” she asked me. _____________________________________________________________ “Have you been here long?” they asked us. _____________________________________________________________ “Do they always compose interesting poems?” he asked. _____________________________________________________________ “Are these your essays?” she asked me _____________________________________________________________ “Were you in the workshop yesterday?” the boy asked me. _____________________________________________________________ “Does she have a dictionary now?” he asked. _____________________________________________________________

A. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

8. “Will you give me the book by Gareth Lloyd Evans?” she asked him. _____________________________________________________________ 9. “Do you know when you’ll have time to see me?” Helen asked Roger. _____________________________________________________________ 10. “Which story do you prefer – the fairy or the historical one?” the salesman asked me. _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ B. Several years ago, Michael joined a club which arranges dinners for single, young people. He had to fill in a form and answer questions about himself. His friend Brad wants to know about the questions on the form. Look at the form and complete Michael’s. Answers. Follow the example. 1 How old are you? 2 Where do you live? 3 What do you do? 4 What are your hobbies? 5 Who is your favourite singer? 6 Why do you want to join this club? 7 How did you hear about the club? 8 How do you want to pay your membership fee? 1. Brad Michael 2. Brad Michael 3. Brad Michael 4. Brad Michael 5. Brad Michael 6. Brad Michael 7. Brad Michael 8. Brad Michael : Did the form ask about your age? : Yes, it asked how old I was. : What about your address? : ___________________________________________________ : Did it ask about your job? : ___________________________________________________ : Did you have to write about your hobbies and interests? : ____________________________________________________ : Were there any questions about music? : ___________________________________________________ : Did it ask about your reasons for joining? : ___________________________________________________ : What other questions were on the form? : ____________________________________________________ : Were there any questions about payment? : ___________________________________________________

Language review 1. When we report questions we change various words (tenses, personal pronouns, possessive adjectives, here-and-now words) in the same way as in reported speech. However, in reported or indirect questions the word order may also change and we do not use a question mark. 2. When we report “yes/no” questions, we use if or whether in the reported statement:

“Did the popular sonnets and lyrics express real feelings?” He asked them if/whether the popular sonnets and lyrics had expressed real feelings. 3. When we report questions that contain a question word, we include the question word in the reported statement. Note that the subject of the question is moved: “When did many imitators of Chaucer appear?” She asked them when many imitators had appeared. VOCABULARY A. Match a term in A with a phrase in B A B 1. a piece of creative writing in verse esp one expressing deep a. poet feelings. 2. a writer of poem. b. laureats 3. a poet officially appointed to write poem for state occasion. c. poetic justice 4. the freedom to change the normal rules of language who d. poetic licence writing verse. e. poem 5. a suitable or deserved punishment or reward.

B.

Horrible joke time

Different people find different things funny. Here are some examples of jokes which some people find quite amusing. (Other people think they are just silly). Match the question on the left with the answer on the right. 1. What is at the end of everything? 2. How do you stop food from going bad? 3. Which word is always pronounced wrongly? 4. If a man married a princess, what woud he be? a. Her husband. b. Baby elephants. c. Two-the inside outside. and the

d. Darling, of course I do!

5. Where does a large gorilla sit when it goes to the e. Time to get a new one. theatre? 6. Excuse me. Do you know the quickest way to the f. A noise station? 7. If your clock strikes thirteen, what time is it? g. The letter “g”

8. What can you make but can’t see? 9. How many sides has a box got? 10. What’s your new dog’s name?

h. A table i. Yes. Take a taxi. j. Paint

11. What do elephants have that no other animal k. By eating it. has? 12. What’s the best thing to put in a fruit cake? 13. What has legs but can’t walk? l. Anywhere it wants to. m. Wrongly

14. Will you still love me when I’m not beautiful n. I don’t know. He won’t tell any more? me. 15. What do you put on when it’s wet? o. Your teeth.

Write your answers here : 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

SKILLS DEVELOPMENT Reading and Speaking Pre-reading task 1. Do you like Vietnamese poetry? Why or why not? 2. Write down the names of some poets in Vietnamese literature. Reading THE POETRY Poetry is a special kind of literature and language. It is an expression in language that is sometimes like music without notes. The poem might have a special “beat” to it. Poetry also uses the sounds of language to create special effects; repeated sounds help to make a specific mood. The pictures that people make in their minds when they hear some words, symbols, are another important part of understanding poetry. In addition, nearly every poem has a message, a meaning beyond the simple meaning of the words.

In the following poem by Emily Dickinson, the poet is making a simple comparison. She is telling us about the power of the printed word:

THERE IS NO FRIGATE LIKE A BOOK There is no frigate like a book to take us lands away. Nor any coursers like a page Of prancing poetry. This traverse may the poorest take Without oppress of toll How frugal is the chariot That bears the human soul Here is a paraphrase of the poem: There are no ships that can take us to faraway places the way that a book can, nor are there any fast horses that can compare to the excitement of poetry. A trip (within a book) is available to even the poorest of people with out any cost. How careful with money is the carrier of the human spirit. It doesn’t cost much to read; the rewards are great. Notice that there are sentences that are turned around, unusual words like courser and chariot and that there is a beat, called the meter, to the poem. The poet was also careful to rhyme the last words of every other line (away and poetry, toll and soul). The message of the poem is also appropriate; the message of a poem is often a simple thought like this one. Robert Frost, another famous American poet, wrote many poems about the rural life. He took simple scenes from everyday life and added ideas to them. One example is the following poem. On the surface it is a thought by a man who stops along a country road to watch the snow fall, but there is a second level of meaning – that there is much to do in the rest of one’s life.

STOPPING BY WOODS ON A SNOWY EVENING Whose woods these are I think I know. His house is in the village though; He will not see me stopping here.

To watch his woods fill up with snow. My little horse must think it queer To stop without a farmhouse near Between the woods and frozen lake The darkest evening of the year. He gives his harness bells a shake To ask if there is some-mistake The only other sound’s the sweep Of easy wind and downy flake The woods are lovely, dark and deep But I have promises to keep And miles to go before I sleep And miles to go before I sleep. Now think about the two levels of meaning: 1. What could snow mean besides white flakes from the sky? ________________________________________________________________ 2. What is the sleep that he is talking about? ____________________________ 3. What are the promises? __________________________________________ What do you think? Poem is piece of creative writing in verse that expresses deep feelings. Do you agree with the statement? Why or why not. Writing Study the following lines from Southey’s poem. With fire and sword the country round Was wasted far and wide And many a childing mother then And newborn baby died:

But things like that, you know, must be At every famous victory Explain each of them and express your opinion about the attitude of the poet. And what do you think of war? Is it necessary? Listening These people are talking about movies. Check the kind of movie each person describes. 1. a) b) 2. a) b) 3. a) b) 4. a) b) 5. a) b) 6. a) b) science fiction action movie musical comedy horror movie love story science fiction comedy musical Western action movie science fiction

Translation THEME I. What is theme?

Theme refers to the point or meaning of the story, the attitude or personal values that promoted the author to write the story. It is the writer’s revelation about life of human being stated or implied in the work. II. How to determine the theme of a story? To determine the theme of a story, we can ask ourselves what the truth about the world and people the story reveals, what its central insight is, what view of life it offers. We can start the search for theme with an analysis of the elements of a fiction work because the theme itself is the unifying force that links the various elements of a story

together. Also the theme can be seen as successful when it is supported by the other factors in the work. The reader’s interpretation of the theme of a story may be influenced by his /her own experiences or his/her personality. So the meaning he derives from the story may be as new and important as what the writer intends. Yet, he/she is expected to base his/her interpretation on the proofs that exist within the story. Not all stories have theme. A ghost story may be just intended to scare the reader or to provide suspense. The purpose of a murder story may be just to pose a problem to challenge the reader to find out the answer. Theme exists only when the writer has something to say about life and people and intends to use his/her story to illustrate it. III. Theme, subject, topic, moral:

Theme/subject: A subject is what the story is about. A theme shows what the story says about the subject. Theme/topic: A topic is what an essay is about. A theme reveals a truth about the topic. Moral/theme: may be interchangeable and not interchangeable. They are interchangeable when the theme is expressed as a moral principal or a rule of conduct which the reader can apply to his/her own life. They are not interchangeable when in some cases the term “moral” is too narrow to suggest the depth and richness of a story. Then “moral” and “lesson” should be best replaced by the term “theme”. After all, a story is not a sermon and the writer does not directly preach a lesson. IV. Popular themes in literature

Themes usually deal with general areas of human experiences such as love, death, marriage, freedom, the nature of man and society, the relationship of man to the environment, the ethical or moral responsibilities… In brief, these are the problems that confront people in their daily life.

KEY CONCEPTS PLOT I. What is plot?

- Plot is the arrangement of the sequence of incidents into a structure. It is structured action. - Action includes what a character does, says, thinks, feels or reacts. - Plot dramatizes events and abstract ideas. II. The function of plot - Plot is the carrier of theme and the revelation of character. III. The development of plot

Almost all short stories follow a common pattern as follows: a. Situation: serves as an introduction to the world of the story (Ephesus: well-known fidelity to her husband). b. Complication: sudden elements are brought in to “complicate” or make more difficult the struggle of the main character. (Husband’s death – Roman soldier – Conflict) c. Crisis: The leading character is forced to make the biggest and most important decision. (Ephesus exchanges her widowhood for her new love) d. Climax: - referred as the turning point or the grand climax. - the point of greater tension between the opposing forces. - the crucial conflict is presented directly to be solved one way or another. - (The soldier’s life is in danger) e. Solution: Something finally happens to solve the conflict. - open plot : with no clear resolution - closed plot : a definite resolution is reached. (In Ephesus, the lady decided to hang the dead husband up on the cross to save the soldier) IV. Types of conflict

a. Man versus nature (Robinson Crusoe by Daniel Defoe)

b. Man versus man (Chi Pheo Ba Kien by Nam Cao) c. Man versus himself (Crime Punishment by Dostoievsky) d. Combination of the above conflicts. V. How to analyze the plot of a story The following questions may help: a. The facts: What, in a few sentences, is the content of the story? b. Previous events: How are they introduced? c. Initiating force: What action gets things under way? d. Conflict: What is the problem? What type of conflict does it represent? e. Climax: Where does the “turn” in the action occur? f. Solution: Is the conflict resolved or not? Is the ending natural or forced? g. What is the author’s intention? FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE - Figurative language includes words and impressions that are not taken in the literal sense. - It enables readers to get at the mood of the writer or to have profound understanding of what is meant. - With just a few words, the writer can communicate volumes about feelings and expressions. SOME COMMON TYPES OF FIGURES OF SPEECH 1. Simile: A comparison that reveals similarities between otherwise dissimilar things. - “My love is like a red, red rose”. - “Love is like understanding, that grows bright, gazing on many truths”.

(Wuthering Heights) 2. Metaphor: The application of a descriptive term or phrase to an object or action to which it is imaginatively but not literally applicable. Here the comparison is not explicitly stated by like or as. It is implied. Metaphor may be grouped according to their parts of speech. • Noun: - She was breathing fire. - The last of his words. - A flash of hope. - Bloom of youth. • Adjective: - Story heart, burning eye, naked truth. - His eyes flashed angrily. - He threw himself in the mercy of court. The different types of metaphor: Personal metaphor: involves an implied comparison between a nonhuman thing and a human being. A personal metaphor may be a noun, an adjective or a verb. - The dictates of conscience. - The call of the sea. • Adjective: - Smiling Sun. - Angry sea. - Devilish trick. - Stony silence. • Verb: - Fortune has smiled on his family. - The stove hummed its angry song. Extended metaphor: expressed through a series of images all bearing a central point of resemblance. “All the world is a stage. And all the men and women are merely players. They have their exits and entrances. And one man in his times plays many parts”. Dead metaphor: some words and phrases were originally metaphors or similes, but as they are often used, the metaphorical characteristic is lost. The foot of the hill. The face of a clock The mouth of a river. 3. Personification: A figure of speech which gives the qualities of a person to an animal, an object, or an idea. The writer uses it to show something in an entirely new light, to communicate a certain feeling or attitude toward it, and to control the way a reader perceives it. “The house was alive with soft, quick steps and running voices” “Little faint winds were playing chase” “Running” and “playing chase” are usually used to describe people but by assigning human quality to the steps and the winds, the writer calls for our admiration for the beauty and liveliness of the scene described. 4. Denotation and connotation • Noun:

Denotation is the exact meaning specified by a word. Connotation is the meaning implied by a word in addition to its literal or primary meaning. For example, the denotative meaning of orchid is “any of a number of related plants having flowers with three petals, two regularly shaped and the third enlarged and irregular in form”. This, the denotative meaning, is just a bare, factual definition without emotional suggestions. Connotative meanings, on the contrary, have emotional overtones because they reflect the attitude of an individual or a group toward a word. To a young girl the word orchid may have an unspoken and favorable connotation if she has just received one to wear to her first formal dance. To her it is not just a three-petaled flower, but a symbol of expected romance and youthful pleasure. 5. Overstatement: An exaggerated statement not meant to be taken literally but made for a special effect. - I’m dead tired. - I’m bored to death. - Her eyes are brighter than the very sun. 6. Understatement: the expression of an affirmative by the negative of its contrary. - She’s not a bad-looking girl. - I shan’t be sorry. (I shall be very glad) 7. Pun: The humorous use of a word or combination of words that are alike or nearly alike in sound so as to emphasize the different meanings. - Is Life worth living? Yes, it depends on the liver. - She told the child to try not to be so trying. 8. Paradox: An apparently self contradictory statement that may in reality express a possible truth. It is also intended to cause surprise or arrest attention. - Still waters run deep. - The child is the father of the man. - I can resist anything except temptation. - More haste less speed. - Haste makes waste. 9. Antithesis: A striking contrast of ideas marked by the choice and arrangement of words in the same sentence to secure emphasis. - Give me liberty or give me death. - Speech is silvery but silence is gold. - To err is human; to forgive is Divine. 10. Oxymoron: A figure of speech in which apparently contradictory terms appear in conjunction for a startling effect. Ex : loving hate. heavy lightness serious vanity. cold fire sick health cold passion 11. Euphemism: The use of pleasant, mild or indirect phrases in place of more accurate or direct ones. - Pass away for die. - Pass water for urinate

Powder room for toilet. 12. Climax: The arrangement of ideas in the order of more or less importance: - In action how like angel, in apprehension how like a God. - To gossip a fault, to libel a crime, to slander a sin. - Simple, erect, severe, austere, sublime. 13. Synechdoche: The use of a part to stand for a whole, the whole for a part, an individual name for a whole class, the material for the thing made of. - He has many mouths to feed. - She was a girl of 20 summers. - He is a Newton of this age. 14. Metonymy: The use of the name of one object for that of another with which it is closely associated or of which it is a part. - The White House for the American president. - The bench for the judges. - The crown for the king. 15. Transferred epithet: A qualifying adjective is changed from the noun it is intended to qualify to another word which is somewhat in connection with that noun. - He passed a sleepless night. - The plough man plods his weary way homeward. SOUND DEVICES - Techniques for bringing out the sound of words. - Onomatopoeia : the use of words that mimic sounds, like “buzz” or “hiss” - Tuk-Tuk-Tuk, clucked cook like an agitated hen. - Pom ! Ta-ta-ta tee-ta ! The piano burst out so passionately… • Alliteration : The repetition of the same sound at the beginning of closely linked words or syllables. - There was a haze on the horizon. - Look before you leap. - It was hot and humid. - Friend and foes.

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WORD LIST
UNIT 1 comparative linguistics computational linguistics descriptive grammar discourse grammar historical linguistics language language acquisition lexicon linguistic knowledge morphology philology phonology psycholinguistics semantics syntax UNIT 2 concept directory language analytic literal literary literate literati persuasive poetic language semantics stylistics synthetic language world language UNIT 3 communication definite human language information linguistic competence linguistic performance linguistic theory (phr) (phr) (phr) (n) (n) (phr) (n) (phr) (n) (phr) (n) (n) (n) (n) (n) (n) ngôn ngữ học so sánh. ngôn ngữ học máy tính ngữ pháp miêu tả diễn ngôn ngữ pháp ngôn ngữ học lịch sử ngôn ngữ sự lĩnh hội ngôn ngữ từ vựng kiến thức ngôn ngữ hình thái học ngữ văn âm vị học ngôn ngữ học tâm lý ngữ nghĩa học. cú pháp

(n) (n) (phr) (adj) (adj) (adj) (n) (adj) (n) (n) (n) (phr) (phr) (n) (adj) (phr) (n) (phr) (phr) (phr)

khái niệm sách chỉ dẫn ngôn ngữ phân tích tính theo nghĩa đen thuộc về văn học biết đọc, biết viết giới nhà văn, nhà nghiên văn học thuyết phục ngôn ngữ văn chương ngữ nghĩa học phong cách học ngôn ngữ tổng hợp ngôn ngữ thế giới giao tiếp rõ nghĩa ngôn ngữ loài người thông tin khả năng sử dụng ngôn ngữ tiềm năng ngôn ngữ lý thuyết ngôn ngữ

cứu

listener modern linguistics sociolinguistics speaker standard form system UNIT 4 agglutinative language descriptive linguistics development dialect euphemism general linguistics isolated language language activity linguistic practice machine translation parent language psycholinguistics source language speech errors target language

(n) (phr) (n) (n) (phr) (n)

người nghe ngôn ngữ hiện đại ngôn ngữ xã hội học người nói dạng chuẩn hệ thống

(phr) (phr) (n) (n) (n) (phr) (phr) (phr) (phr) (phr) (phr) (n) (phr) (phr) (phr)

ngôn ngữ chắp dính ngôn ngữ học miêu tả sự phát triển tiếng địa phương uyển ngữ ngôn ngữ học đại cương ngôn ngữ đơn lập hoạt động ngôn ngữ thực hành ngôn ngữ dịch máy ngôn ngữ cơ sở ngôn ngữ tâm lý học ngôn ngữ nguồn lỗi lời nói ngôn ngữ đích

UNIT 5 abbreviation announcement capacity contemporaries description dictionary form gloss goal knowledge linguagranca penetrate structure volume

(n) (n) (n) (n) (n) (n) (n) (n) (n) (n) (n) (v) (n) (n)

chữ viết tắt thông báo năng lực bạn đồng nghiệp (báo chí). sự mô tả từ điển hình thức lời chú giải mục tiêu kiến thức ngôn ngữ chung thấm nhuần cấu trúc tập

UNIT 6 acoustic signal circumstance colloquial colloquialism critic editor ethnic minority language headline opinions slang symbolic symbolism UNIT 7 applied linguistics bound morpheme disruption essay free morpheme functional linguistics language policy lecture morpheme press pun subject – prominent language terminology theme-prominent language UNIT 8 adequate conference drama fiction gradation literature naturalism nuance personification poetic (phr) (n) (adj) (n) (n) (n) (phr) (n) (n) (n) (adj) (n) dấu hiệu âm thanh tình huống thông tục cách nói dùng phổ biến trong khẩu ngữ nhà phê bình người biên tập ngôn ngữ dân tộc thiểu số phần tóm tắt in chữ lớn ở báo. ý kiến tiếng lóng tượng trưng chủ nghĩa tượng trưng

(phr) (phr) (n) (n) (phr) (phr) (phr) (n) (n) (n) (n) (phr) (n) (phr)

ngôn ngữ học ứng dụng hình vị phụ thuộc gián đoạn tiểu luận hình vị tự do ngôn ngữ học chức năng chính sách ngôn ngữ thuyết trình hình vị nhà xuất bản chơi chữ ngôn ngữ thiên chủ ngữ thuật ngữ ngôn ngữ đề-thuyết

(adj) (n) (n) (n) (n) (n) (n) (n) (n) (adj)

tương xứng hội nghị kịch tiểu thuyết sự phân đoạn văn học chủ nghĩa tự nhiên sắc thái nhân cách hóa thuộc về thơ ca

poetry proverb realism romanticism surrealism symbolism tendency UNIT 9 action ambiguous word antagonist central character character climax conflict desire idea meaningful meaningless plot protagonist sequence short story structure theme topic UNIT 10 abstract author characterization emblem emotional forceful humane imagination lyric metaphor novelist portray pseudonym

(n) (n) (n) (n) (n) (n) (n)

thơ ca tục ngữ, châm ngôn chủ nghĩa hiện thực chủ nghĩa lãng mạn chủ nghĩa siêu thực chủ nghĩa tượng trưng khuynh hướng

(n) (phr) (n) (phr) (n) (n) (n) (n) (n) (adj) (n) (n) (n) (n) (phr) (n) (n) (n)

hành động từ mơ hồ vai phản diện nhân vật trung tâm nhân vật cực điểm mâu thuẫn sự mong muốn ý tưởng nhiều nghĩa sự vô nghĩa bố cục vai chính diện sự liên tiếp chuyện ngắn cấu trúc chủ đề đề tài

(adj) (n) (n) (n) (adj) (adj) (adj) (n) (n) (n) (n) (v) (n)

trừu tượng tác giả đặc điểm biểu trưng xúc động có hiệu quả nhân văn tưởng tượng thơ trữ tình phép ẩn dụ người viết tiểu thuyết mô tả bí danh

publish purpose report rhyme symbol UNIT 11 amusing anthology appearance backhanded capable dramatist humour important character irony manuscript point of view substance UNIT 12 analyze coherence determine epic inference omniscient paragraph prose setting summary unity verse

(v) (n) (n) (n) (n)

xuất bản mục đích bài báo vần hình tượng

(adj) (n) (n) (adj) (adj) (n) (n) (phr) (n) (n) (phr) (n)

buồn cười hợp tuyển bề ngoài châm biếm có năng lực người viết kịch hài hước nhân vật quan trọng mỉa mai bản thảo quan điểm phẩm chất

(v) (n) (v) (n) (n) (adj) (n) (n) (n) (n) (n) (n)

phân tích mạch lạc quyết định sử thi suy luận thông suốt đoạn văn văn xuôi bối cảnh tóm tắt đoàn kết khổ thơ

REFERENCE 1. Aitchison, T (1992) - Introducing language and Mind, London. 2. B. Thomas, BT, (Nguyen Thanh Yen), (2002), Advanced Vocabulary & Idiom, Youth Publishing House. 3. Betty Schrammpfer Azar (1995), Basic English Grammar, Prentice Hall Regnets. 4. Centre of Information – Marketing, 1995, “Vietnam – Culture and tourism Saigon – VE.F.A.C”. 5. Dac Son, (1991), "Luyện dịch tiếng Anh và tìm hiểu văn chương", HCM city Press. 6. Formkin, V., and Rodman, R. (1980) An Introduction to language; New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. 7. Geoffrey Finch, (2000), Linguistic Terms and Concept, Macnorillan Press LTD. 8. Ho Hai Thuy, Chu Khac Thuat, Cao Xuan Pho (1994), English - Vietnamese Dictionary, HCM City Press. 9. Huynh Cong Minh Hung (2000), English for Philology, Ho Chi Minh University of Education. 10. J.B. Heato (1997), Longman tests in context. Nguyen Thanh Yen, Youth Publishing House. 11. Jack C. Richards, John Platt, Heidi Platt, “Dictionary of language teaching and applied linguistics”. 12. Jack. C. Richards (1995), Changes, Cambridge University Press. 13. Jack.C.Richards (1997),ListenCarefully (Nguyen Thanh Yen), Youth Publishing House. 14. John & Liz, S (1990), Headway, Oxford University Press. 15. Jonathan Crowther (1995), Advanced Learner's Dictionary, Oxford University Press. 16. Kenworthy, J. Language in action, London : Longman. 17. Le Thuy Hang, Tran Thi Binh (2000), English for political education, Ho Chi Minh University of Education. 18. Le Van Su, (2001), An anthology of English literature. 19. Linda London Blanton (Nguyen Thanh Yen), Intermediate Composition Practice, Youth Publishing House. 20. Michael Mc Carthy - Felicity O'Dell (1995), English Vocabulary in Use, Cambridge University Press. 21. Morag Reive (1996), Complete Basic Grammar, Macmillan Publishers'. 22. Nguyen Hoa Lac (1999), An Outline of Morphology, Youth Publishing House. 23. Nguyen Minh, (1997) Semantics - a coursebook, Youth Publishing House. 24. Nguyen Nguyen Tru, (1991), "Thơ và thẩm bình thơ", Education Publishing House. 25. Nguyen Nhu Y, Ha Quang Nang, Do Viet Hung, Đăng Ngoc Le, (1996), "Từ điển giải thích thuật ngữ ngôn ngữ học" HCM City Press. 26. Nguyen Thanh Tung (2000), English for students of Biology, Ho Chi Minh University of Education.

27. Nguyen Thi Bich Thuy (2002) - English for physical education, HoChiMinh University of Pedagogy. 28. Nhan dan Newspaper, September 3, 2002. 29. Pham Vu Lua Ha (1996), Perfect your writing - 300 English Compositions, Youth Publishing House. 30. Thomas, BJ. (Nguyen Thanh Yen), (1997), Intermediate Vocabulary, Youth Publishing House. 31. Todd, L.(1987) An Introduction to linguistics, London, Longman. 32. Tom Hutchinson (1997), Life lines, Oxford University Press. 33. Tran Van Đien (1995), English Essay Course, HCM City Press. 34. V.B. Kasevich, (1998) Những yếu tố cơ sở của ngôn ngữ học đại cương" – Education Publishing House. 35. Victoria Fromkin, An introduction to language, Harcourt Brace. 36. Vu Loc Ha, Nguyen Ngoc Hai, Pham Tan, (2000) Introducing English literature, Youth Publishing House. 37. Wardhaugh, R., (1993), Investigating language: The Basics London, Routledge. 38. Yule, G. (1996), Discourse Analysic, OUP. 39. Yule, G. (1996), Pragmatics, OUP.

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Người biên soạn :

ThS. Nguyễn Thị Bích Thủy PGS-TS. Trịnh Sâm

Chịu trách nhiệm biên tập : ThS. Lê Thúy Hằng Chịu trách nhiệm xuất bản: ThS. Trần Thị Bình

Giáo trình “ANH NGỮ CHUYÊN NGÀNH NGỮ VĂN 2” của Tổ Ngoại ngữ chuyên ngành trường Đại học Sư phạm Tp. Hồ Chí Minh (Triển khai giảng dạy thí điểm, lưu hành nội bộ năm học 2003-2004). Ban Ấn Bản PHNB sao chụp 600 quyển, xong ngày 25 tháng 9 năm 2003.

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