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Virus and Immunity

Virus Structure Contains core o Made of nucleic acids (DNA or RNA) o Contains genetic code to make new viruses Capsid o Made of protein that surround nucleic acid core Tail o Collar holds capsid to tail o Baseplate holds tail to fibers used to penetrate host cell wall o Tail fibers attach to cell wall

Living and Non-living characteristics of viruses Terms Phage- virus Bacteriophage- bacteria virus (attacks bacteria cells) Virulent phage- highly infectious, usually causes cell death Lysis- disintegration of cell (kills cells) Temperate phage- non virulent, rarely causing disease Prophage- intracellular bacteriophage harmless to host cell Zoonoses- animal diseases that cross to humans Pandemic- an outbreak of disease over a whole country or world Epidemic- widespread occurrence of infectious disease in a community in specific time Emerging Disease- disease emerged from another disease (first appearance) Pathogen- an organism (virus) that causes disease Antigen- any substance that the immune system recognizes as potential pathogen and provokes immune response Living characteristics- growth, metabolism, genetic material Non-living characteristics- no organelles, cannot produce without host, does not grow or respire

Viruses are not able to attack both plant and animal cells due to different structures of the cell. Plant cells have a cell wall to provide that rigid structure, and animal viruses cannot penetrate that. Lytic and Lysogenic cycles Lysogenic o Attachment of virus to host cell o Injects viral DNA o Integration of the viral DNA into host genome (at this stage, it may turn virulent and become lytic due to ex. Chemicals or Radiation) o Multiplication of host cell with viral DNA

Lytic o o o o o

Attachment of virus Nucleic acid injected Replication of virus by transcribing mRNA from the viral DNA Assembly of virus Virus is released resulting in destruction of cell

Prions and viroids Prions o o o o Viroids o o o o proteins rather than a form of nucleic acid Abnormal forms of proteins that clump together inside a cell Clumping activity kills cell by blocking cells normal functions Ex. Bovine Spongiform encephalopathy Simpler than viruses Smallest known particles able to replicate Short, single strand of RNA with no capsid Able to disrupt plant cell metabolism and damage crops

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Attacks the immune system, Helper T cells (type of white blood cell) T cells protect body, looking for outside invaders to destroy. When infected, T cells stop and virus replicates inside. th Helper T cell population begins to drop and by the 10 year, clinical AIDS symptoms appear. Retrovirus (RNA -> DNA) Immune system weakens and vulnerable to simple diseases Common transfer is through sexual intercourse, contaminated needles

Non Specific Immunity General guard against any pathogen st 1 line of defense- skin, hair, mucus, sweat, tears nd 2 line of defense- stomach acid, phagocytes, fever, inflammation Interferon o Prevents the reproduction of viruses

Specific Immunity Attacks specific antigen using Lymphocytes ( B and T cells) Primary immune response and cell mediated immunity

Macrophages and Helper T cells Macrophages o Most abundant o Kills invaders and engulfs them via phagocytosis o Constantly at work o Displays fragments of pathogens antigens on surface of cell membrane. o Finds helper T cell with matching receptor o Rid worn out cells and cellular debris Helper T cells o Controls immune response o Activates B and T cells

Killer T cells and Plasma B cells Killer T cells o Cytotoxic T cells o Combat pathogen by destroying infected cells Plasma B cells o Highly specialized cells that produce defensive proteins (antibodies) into the blood

Fever is a sign that the body is responding to an infection. It suppresses growth of some bacteria and promotes action of white blood cells. Primary Immune Response The immune response when the body encounters an antigen for the first time Memory cells o Bodys long term protection against re-infection of specific pathogen o With memory cells, cannot get most diseases more than once o When exposed to same pathogen again, memory cells recognizes and rapidly divides Secondary immune response is the response of memory cells recognizing infection by the same pathogen Immunity is gained when body is infected by pathogen and then survives the disease it causes.

Cell mediated immunity Involves T cells Helper T cells triggers the cytotoxic and suppressor T cells and they rapidly divide Killer T cells destroys infected cells (can tell by pathogens antigens on surface) o Also kills foreign tissues (disadvantage for organ transplant) Suppressor T cells help shut down immune response after pathogen is cleared Takes a while to be activated o Must find matching T cells

Phagocytosis White blood cells that engulf and destroy Macrophage moves toward bacteria Bacteria is engulfed and contained Releases enzymes to digest and destroy

Antibodies Y-shaped molecules Attaches to antigen to inactivate them or trigger its destruction Prevents virus from entering cell For larger bacteria, they attach to two bacterial cells each, causing bacteria to clump together and become inefficient Binds to virus binding sites and immobilizes them Attracts macrophages

Passive and active immunity Passive o Immunity acquired by transfer from another o Usually temporary but gives protection immediately o Ex. Vaccine

Active o o o

Body produces antibodies after stimulated by invasion of weakened pathogen Usually permanent Memory cells

Histamine increases blood flow to the injured area, resulting in warmth, swelling, and redness Vaccination Deliberate exposure to pathogen to produce memory cells If later exposed to pathogen, body will respond much quicker ad effectively Pathogen is already killed, weakened, or related strain is used

Cell types Helper T cell o Activates B and T cells Killer T cell o Kills infected cells Suppressor T cell o Slows down immune response after infection is over Memory B cell o Circulate in lymph and blood for years o Initiate a quicker and effective response if infected with same pathogen again Plasma B cell o Produces and releases mass production of antibodies into the blood system

Allergy -

Immune system reacts to harmless antigens in a harmful way Antigens can trigger allergic reactions include pollen, dust, food

Autoimmune Immune system does respond to bodys own cells, attacking as if they were pathogens Multiple sclerosis