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LIBRARY
OF THE

University of California.
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HEBREW GRAMMAR
ALEXANDER MEYROWITZ,
A.M., Ph.D.

PROFESSOK OF HEBREW AND SHEMITIC LITERATURE IN THE


UNIVERSITY OF THE STATE OF MISSOURI.

PUBLISHED AT THE UNIVERSITY, COLUMBIA, MISSOURI.

ALIFDi
NEW
YORK:

PRINTED AT INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL, HEBREW ORPHAN ASYLUM,


76th Street, neab Thibi) Avenue.
1877.

/^'p

1k0.P^titi*i4

I'Jiitercd

according to Act of Congress, in the year 1877,

By Alexani>ek Meyrowitz,
in the Oflice of the Librarian of

Congress at Waahington,

ysr^s*

PREFACE.

The number of Hebrew Grammars already published would


seem
to exceed the scholars studying this language.

And

yet

there are but few which are of real use.

Some,

like Gesenius,

are too large, and are written rather for the scholar than for the
student.

Others are too meagre to satisfy even the beginner.

After having been a teacher of


years, I believe I

Hebrew

for

more than
I

thirty

have found the middle way.

have omitted

the Guttural verbs in


vocalization
verbs,
etc., as
{e. it
;

my Tables, their deviation being but in the

but

I liave

g,

y'^

added, besides the double anomalous and r('^) the verbs ri^n, Vs&>^ ^^. TPn,

will be seen

by glancing

at the Tables.
critics

And though
it

this

work

will not be the last,

and

may

find fault with

this as I

have found with others, I believe nevertheless that


even for
self-instruction,

will be of great use to the student,


facilitate the

and

comprehension of the
is

Word

of

God

revealed for
desire.

the salvation of men, which

my

greatest aim and

There are three systems of pronunciation of the Hebrew, viz., I follow the Polish, bePolish, German, and Portuguese.
cause
it is

the most

common among
is

the Jews.

It gives this

me

pleasure to acknowledge that the appearance of


chiefly

work before the public

owing

to the munificence

of the Rev. S. S. Laws, LL.D., President of the State University of Missouri.

ALEXK. MEYROWITZ.
Columbia, Mo., 28th April, 1877.

LI

li

Iv

A W V

ALlFOUNiA.J

LETTEKS.

1.

Tlie

Hebrew

letters

in

present

use are

tlie

square

Chaklee, derived from


Ezra.

tlie

Pulinyrene alphabet, adopted by


letters are the Pluenician,

The

original

Hebrew

found

on monuments and the Maccabean coins.

2.

All the letters are consonants, except

and y,

also

at

the beginning of a word, where they serve to express a vowel


syllable,
e.

g.,

pQ^^

Aharon,

Q^^
;

Odoni, "j^y omod, "^^j;


the vowels are expressed

ophor,

y^'y\

uvain, '''^SDI

nmipri

by

lines

and dots above, below, or within the

letters.

N.B.

Hebrew was

originally written without vowels, like

Arabic and Syriac.

Letteft'8.

be seen in the above table that five letters assume a different form when at the end of a word, wherefore they are called finals. They owe their origin to the time when
3. It will

and to mark writing was still done without dividing the words, When in the end of a word, -final letters were introduced. of time the words were divided from one another, all process
the Jinals were dropped except the five, because they served as numerals for 500- 600, etc.
4.

The whole alphabet

is

primarily divided into two parts

a. Radicals, b, Serviles.

a.

Radicals are those letters which are used only for the formation of nouns and verbs, consisting chiefly of three letters, which form the root of a noun or verb.
Serviles are those letters which, besides being used in the formation of nouns and verbs, are also used as prefixes or suffixes to nouns and verbs, to express other parts of
speech.

b.

These

serviles include half the alphabet,

and are

^, when

prefixed to a verb in the future tense, denotes the

2 n

personal pronoun, nominative Ist singular common. prefixed to any word, denotes the prepositions m, by^ or with. with a pathach under it (,"j), when prefixed to a noun

with a daghesh

(^.

e.,

point)

in its

first
is

letter,

e.

g.^

"n^tjn

[<^^*j

if *^^^ fii'st

letter

of the noun

one

of the

Gutturals, y, n,
prefixed

1^, {^,

is

with

which cannot take a daghesh,* the komats |-( instead of pathach J-}] it
T

denotes the definite

article.
e.

suffixed

to

denotes the precative,

g.,

HDS

^9^'*

the imperative, (^ome now pj


!

prefixed to the participle of the verb denotes the relative pron. who, that, p] suffixed to the future 1st sing, or pi.

com. denotes the future optative. |i profixed to any word with Chatuf Pathach ,") denotes an interrogation, e. g.,
"^^S^'n
j^

whether keeping? (Gen.


(jr\)

iv. 9),

Jpf]

whether from?
posses-

with a Mappik

suffixed to a

noun denotes the


is

* The effect of a Daghesh in the middle of a word but the Gutturals cannot be doubled.

to doable the letter,

sive pron.
iii.

3d per?,

feni,

sing.,

e.

g. J^it;*];

her seed

(Gen.
to^

15), Pi
g.

e.

without a Mappik denotes the proposition n?i1D ^^^ Sodom (Gen. xix. 1).
in
tlie

at

the beginning of any word (except most of them being pj-oper names) denotes
.
. .

eleven

words,
:

conjunctions

and, but, even, both pretixed to a verl) in


pron. nom. 3d

and.
tense

the future

denotes the pers.

pers. sing, or

])hir.

Suffixed to a

noun
(witli

it

2>

denotes the possessive pron. pers. sing. pretixed to any word denotes the ad verl)
first,

com.
like.
7J

vowel) suffixed to a noun denotes tlie posseissive pron. 2d perWitliout a vowel, 2d pers. son masc. sing. rj, poss. pron. fem. singular.
*)

Prefixed prefixed to any word denotes tlie preposition to. to the infinitive construct, denotes in order to. with a Cheerick under it, pretixed to any word witli a Da-

ghesh in its first letter [and if the first letter be a Guttural which cannut take a Daghesli,* the Cheerick is changed into
a Tsaireh

^J denotes

the proposition from.,


earth.

e.

g.^

D^'2^*i2
a

from heaven,

V"^^^ from
in
tlie

Q
pi.

suffixed

to

noun

denotes the possessive pron. 3d pers.


J prefixed to a verl>

masc.

future tense denotes pers. pron.

nom.
J
'

1st pei-s. })hir.

suffixed to

tense, denotes

the 2d and 3d pers. plur. of a verb in future fut. optative. Suffixed to a noun, it denotes

possessive pron. 3d pers. pi. fem. prefixed to any word, denotes the relative pron. who., which^ that [Abbreviation of '^^^^J.
this letter, as prefix or suffix, are so

p. The meanings of
tifarious tliat they
5.

mul-

cannot be reduced to any short rule.f


divided into classes (commonly organs of speech, /. ^.,
is

Secondly the alphabet


according
to the

in five)

* See note to letter n.


f D and n are frequently prefixed to the change them into nouns, e. g. nriD from r\V\,

infinitive

construct of

verbs,

to

Ddn

from 3C>\

Gutturals,
Palatals,
Lingiials,

....
.

CH)

y H H

^^
-:i

p T

n
.

(1)

:i

^
:L'

CO "I

Dentals (Sibilants)
Labials,

^*

D
1

^ ^
to

Nasals, Letters belonging


in

J
tbe
its

D
pyt^, to

same

classes
e.

a
5

word witbout altering


0^^"$
^^'

meaning,

may g.^ py]

intercbange
or

^^T

Or\Z*^ ^^ laugb

^S;^

or

^^S,

to escape.

IL
1.

^^ THE VOWELS. r\

^'^':/.\s;^
-

was written \^rtH0iit/\^^felsv f tbe tbi-ee long vowels, o, ee, and ow, were expressed oy "^-^ Only tbe tbree letters, 1, (H) ^ or ^ for tbe long o, ] for ow, and Yor ee. Tbese letters, wben serving as vowel bearers, were called vowel letters, bnt tbey are frequently omitted. The
Origmally, tbe
"^

Hebrew
;

text

")

Massoretes, about tbe Hftb century, invented certain signs, to I'epresent tbe vowels. Tbey are ten in number; five long and live sbort ones.

Long.
1.

Short.
6. 7.
8. 9.

T
2.
3.
^

Komats,
Tsaireb,

Patbacb,
Segol,

Cbeerik,

Cbeerik parvum,

4.
5.

Cbowlom,
Sburuk,

Komats

chatuf,

?|

10.
five
first

Kubbuts.*
all

N.

[).

Tbe names of the


:

long vowels contain

the

ten vowels

the vowel in tbe


its

syllable being the long, the

one in tbe second


2.

corresponding short vowel.


"^

Tbe

tbree long vowels

i,

and

^,

may be
and
;

written
retain
;

with or without tbe


*
1, like
;

accompanying
a in able
;

letter,

yet
in
10,

o in home

2, like
,

3,
8,
i

in

machine
;

ow
;

vow
u in

5,
full.

in rule

6,

a in sharp

7,

e in

met

in pin

9,

o in off

10
sound, in which case they are called long and while in tlie other case they are called long and full, defective ; N. B. When ^ is written defective, it is changed into
their long

kubbuts.
3.

Hebrew

is

Shemitic languages (except Ethiopic)

written and read from right to left, like all and the consonants are ;
|^
is

pronounced before the vowels, except the Pathach under at the end of a word, e. g.^ p|!|"] riiach, where the vowel
because
mate.
#

pronounced before the consonant. It is called Pathach furtive^ its position and pronunciation are, as it were, illegiti-

SH'YA.
4.

Any

letter
is

which has no vowel

is

marked by a Sh'va
is,

^^J^", which

equal to an apostrophe.

This mark

however,

omitted at the end of a word, except in the following three


cases.
a.

When
The The

two vowelless
e.

letters

come

to stand at the

end of

the word,
h.
c.

g. 'I'^i

yard^ both are marked with Sh'va.


"Tj^

final

Tj

has always a Sh'va

hoch.

pers. pron.

nom. 2

pers. fem. J?^^ at.

5. As there is a difference between the pronunciation of a vowelless letter at the beginning of a syllable and a vowelless letter at the end of a syllable; the letter in the first case

being vocal, and in the latter case quiescent the grammarians called the Sh'va whicli marks a vowelless letter at the beginSh'va mobile, i. e., Sh'va vocal and ning of a syllable j;^
;

^1(^'

Sli'va wliich marks a vowelless letter a syllable pJJ )X\^ Sh'va quiescent, i. e. rest.

and the

at

the end of

is to be pronounced of the gutturals, y, H? H? ^^ without a vowel, it gets at the beginning or middle of a word

6.

When one

half a vowel [composite Sh'va], viz.


J

or
v:

e.

g.

t:

-:

"^^'^ v
:

''slier,

n!0^

^meth,

7r>^0

ini^'^^h^^l-

11
III.

DAGIIESH.
is

1.

Dagliesh,

i. e..

a point within the letter,

of twofold use:

a.
b.

To harden the pronunciations To double the letter.


first

of

some

letters.

In the
letters:

case

it is

called

Daghesh
and

in a letter beginning a syllable,

lene, and can occur only only in the following six

p, ^, ;,

-], },

2^

iW2

n:2).
with it " "
''

"
'

3 3 i
PI

like b.

"
"

k. p.

p
The
3.

"

"

"

''

'

th;

"

t.

difference in the pronunciation of ^ and


is lost.

with or with-

out the daghesh

daghesh

in

any

letter,

except the gutturals

{^,

,,

and "^j in the middle or at the end of a word, doubles the 1^, V letter, and is called the daghesh forte.
lY.

ACCENTS.

12

clio,

10

Tipdio,

Ethiiaohto, 12
-

Pozer, 13 --

T'li-

sho k'tMioh,14

T'lislio o;Vl()wlt)li, 15

Kadinoh, IH
-

Y'azlo.

17

Azloo-arash,* 18
Y'thiv, 22
f

Gershajini, 19
2?>
I

Dargo, 20

T'vir,

21
<

P'ssick,
QP

Siliik,* 2P,

SluilsheieTli.

25
))

Merelioli k'fnloli, 20

Kariie poroli, 27
^

Yprrtcli

l)eii

yowniow.
these 27 accents only No. 3, 5, 9, 13, 15, 19, 25, and 27, are conjunctives all the rest are disjunctives. Tlie principal
;

Of

disjunctives, a knowledge of which

is

absolutely iiecessary for


:

proper

reading,

are

tlie

following

Eeveei,

Tipcho,

Segol,

Zokef katon,

Ethnach,

Siluk, or

Soph

possuk.
4.

When

without the accent are joined


horizontal line called

two or three words have but one accent, the words to tlie accentuated word by a

Makkaf r^P^

(").

5. The accent is generally placed on tlie ultimate, or penultimate syllable and when a syllable before the acc^entuated one is to be intoned, it gets a pei'pendicular line under it, called
;

Metheg ^HDj
vowel
before

(^*-

^-

^i

bridle)

e.

gf.,

^22^- Even
a

tiie

third
e.

the

Metheg

takes

also

Metheg,

g.,

y.
1.

AETICLE.
is

The
the

Tlel^rew article fully written

^|^, like tlie Arabi.-

al

ter of the

S is, however, always dropped, and the tirst letnoun gets a Daghesh compensative. (For the change
? I.,

of
*

its

vowel, see

4, letter
>

)
)

To

distingnish between
<

Pashto and
V'azloand

Kadmo, one must be guided by


Azlogaresh, by theprecediogone.

the following accent. So by

13
2.

It stands
;

only:

a. ns

a deiinitu article, never for

tlie

indetliis

finite

h. as a demonstrative

prononn, tlms,
^'^^'^

c.

<j.,

tH^^Ts T
:

night (Gen. xix. :U.) D>L2'J


relative
X. 24).

^^'"^ (E^- ^^' 2^^)


^^'^^^

^-

is

prononn

iH^

^^^-'?'"1'J

went with

liini

(Josh.

AVhen one of the letters ^, 2, ^, is prefixed to anonn with article, the whole article disa])pears, and tl\e prefixed letter takes tlie vowel of the article. Tlins, instead of nDSijS '^ '^
:3.

an

rjp32

in tlie silver. *n.n2 ^^^ '^T'\T\2. hi the nionntain.

C1^^^

the man. 2"l^rj'p to


4. When the nonn has the Jirticle, all the following adjectives and prononns also have the article. If the nonn has the article, and the adjective has not, then the adjective is a predicate.

YL NOUN.

1. The Hehrew nonn has two genders, and three nnmhers. The genders are masculine and feminine the nnmhers, singu;

lar, plural,

and dual.

Masculine are

a.

All living beings of male gender, e.g. Cn*l!5^ Ahraham,


n"^*]^?

a lion, ;2i^

it

father.
e.

b.

All

names of

nations,

g., p^?3J7.-^'ii'dek,

*")*,

a nation,

"IV^'^ Ashur.
c.

All names of seas and rivers,


the Jordan, I'l"!^

e, g.^

Q''

the sea, "IPO


T T

^^

I'iver,

n*12 Enphrates.
e.

d.
e.

Names Names

of mountains,

g.^

"'JQ Sinai,
'^

^ll^H Tabor.
];^'^!!^^^

of months,

e. //.,

t^^"in

month,

April,

TTT
/'^^

a month.
f.

The names of
iron.

metals,

e.

g.^

^H*

gold,

^03

silver,

N. B.
^' 9")

There

is

a tliird gender,

which may be called either

1D3

cattle,

l^y

sheep.

14
2. a.

Feminine nouns are

All living beings of the female gender,

e.

^.,7)1*1 Rachel,

Q^
d.

a mother,

["HS

^ cow.
in

All nouns wliich end


^. ^-^

^- ff-i
^-

TOIS ^ blessing; T T
:

in

H
;

ny_l knowledge

in fl

^-^

H^'IH^

the end

in

kingdom.
c.

Names
Canaan.

of countries

and towns,

e.

^.,

*^^y a city,

jy^J

d.

All the njem])ers of the body,


foot, )tj^

e.

^.,

"I^

9-

hand,

^j^

<^

an ear,

ry_ an

eye.

3.
th-e

of masculine gender form tlicir plural by suffixing e. syllable Q"' g. ID^ ^ word, D^*!!]^ words, DIO a horse,

Nouns

D^'DID horses.
ni,
^'-

Feminine nouns form


Ji

their plural

by suffixing
t:

^-

n"iD TT

cow,

rins T
will

^^^s,

rois T T
:

a idessing, riir*i3

])iessings, nj;.!-

niy'i;
observe that

N.B. The learner


lose this termination,
4.

nouns ending

in

and take

in its place the phiral

form ^^.
a hand,

All nouns which exist by nature or art in pairs, take instead


e.
(/.,

of the plural a dual form, which ends in Q"^


Q*^ J**

^j"^

two hands,

D^Dp^D

scales, 7J*) a foot, Q"'5^'l feet.

N. B.
line

When

any of the dual nouns assumes either a mas<;ue.

or a femine plural ending,

g.,

DIH''

it

loses its

original

meaning. The word pi")^ means handler; so Q'^^3*1 means times.


5.

There are some masculine nouns which have


e.

their plural
fathers,

in

the feminine termination, a place,

g.,
;

^^n
and

father,

Pl^i^

DiDD

nliDDp

P^^^es

feminine nouns which


e.

luive their plural in the

masculine termination,
^'^
''-"^j

g,

niir}*n a

bee, Q'^'nili'n

^^^^^^

n^DJ

D'^'PDJ ^"^s.

Sonu; nouns

15
take their plural in either gender,
^^^r; or
f^^^^i'T}
e. g.,

"^^rj

generation,

generations.

Masc. nouns which have feminine pi. terminations, nouns which have masc. pi. terminations, have their natural gender, e. g., adjectives and verbs according to their the fathers are good, nlDto CD'^'liinn the D^into

N. B.

and

fern,

nn^n

bees are good.


6. There are some nouns which exist only in plural form and have no singular, e. g.^ Q"'^ face, D'^JP.^ ^^^ ^S^' Q''*11J7J

youth,

''Dl^i^

boyhood.
e.

Some nouns have


g., tl^f^^* sun,

only the singular

number, and no plural,

^HT

gold,

Vip summer,

DDi^ T T
1

dust.

The

last

mentioned are mainly collective nouns.

7.

Proper nouns,

e.g.^

^*^ David, T

m{< T T

the

mark

of gender nor number.

Adam, have neither But when a proper noun


e.

stands

as family

name, or national name,


it

g.y

*^y)

i^evy,

D^'^iyp Mizraim, Egypt, Jl^^ Zidon,


gender,
e.

takes

number and

g.,

H^^T^ Levites, ni''")yp Egyptian women, |^^^J

D'^^niJj Zidonians.

YII.
1.

CONSTKITCT STATE.

"When two nouns come together and one belongs to, or is \i. e. Gen it.] the noun possessing or defining remains unchanged, but the noun possessed or defined
defined by the other,

undergoes the following changes. 2. a. Nouns masc. sing, shorten their syllables when constructed to another noun, e. g.^ 111^ a word, *1I1"1

H^D

word of Moses, an elder, ^^3 elder of the house, jp] jD] ^Zl^ a heart, QH^^ DD7 the heart of man. T TT b. Kouns in masc. drop the last Q and change the plural
:

preceding Cheerick

into Tsaireh

e.

y.,

-C^^^l words, T
:

16

nro
.

'^'l.^'l

words of Moses.
D'^2p\
last
(/.,

elders,

0*13 '^^pX the

elders of the house.

Dual construct drops the


(

and

and changes
[^'^^ ij"^^

the penultimate

into

a.

U^'2^^

two eyes,

eyes of
d.

man; Q'jnD?'*
sing,

^^P^'

Dm
T

'^OCip'* ^Jps
iri

of the wise man.

Feminine
T

nouns ending
(

change the
:

hito

and the (-^)

into

e. g.,

HDm
:

wisdom,

fdl^ Hl^m T
:

wisdom of Solomon,
e.

"5^^*^

n*l1n the law of Moses.


tlieir

Feminine plural nouns shorten


const. Pi ^1^'^;]^;
is

second vowel,
'

c.

<j.^

abs.

riilDI^' N. B. The noun wliich

abs.

Hiu'^i/!.

const.

p|^2^1^.

defined stands always before the

defining noun and takes no

article.

VIII.
1.

ADJECTIVE.
Hebrew always
in
<^

The

adjective stands in

after the noun,


as ^*''^

and must agree with the noun


DiCO a good

gender and number,

man

POiCO
T

Hk^'^^ T

good woman

Q^^to D^J2 T
(also verbs
;

good sons
2.

pi]}te 0133 good

(hiughters.

An

adjective belonging to

two or more nouns

or participles) must be rendered in the plural numl)er and if one of the nouns be masculine, the adjective, verb, or participle ^

must be
and

in

the masculine gender,


""

e.

a..
"

H^ti^l
T
I
:

DrH^^l T T :
:

">Jp]
3.

Abraliam
tlie

and Sarah were old (Gen.


tlie

xviii.

11).

But when

verb stands before


e.
</.,

noun,

it

is

not modi-

tied

by the nouns which follow,

ip^^'^^l

d^n ^^500!*]
8),

and

Adam
When
lias

and

liis

wife hid themselves (Gen.

iii.

i^^p^

^i^l

PiP"* Q''^'^ and were not found fine


4.

women

(Jol)

xlii.

15).

the adjective stands before the noun, or when the article and the adjective none, the adjective is t(j be understood as a predicate, e. g.^ V*l5^n HDto the land IS

noun

an

good,

ni^to V"n^ / V
T
1

a-

^^od land,

HDto iH^^n T T T
1
'.

the land

i^

IT
the good good, r\2)^ri yn^iin the good land, nriten yii? In the last case the emphasis lies on the adjective. laud.

Comparative and superlative of the Hebrew adjectives, verbs, particles, and pronouns are formed in the following
6.

manner

When
3
is

two nouns are compared


e.

in the positive form, the letter

prefixed to both nouns,

g.,

IDJ?? 1"35
it

2^^

HTil

nn*1^-l3 nn^^^'D VJ1^3-

And

shall be as with the

people, so with the priest; as with the servant, so with the master; as with the maid, so with the mistress (Is. xxiv.
2).

In the comparative, the letter


it

12

^^'i^^^

before the

noun with which

is

compared,

e.

g., ^ICO
is

|P?^*P Q?^ 3lCD

1'n^in DVt2 Pl?^n QV)'


ointment, and
(Eccl.
vii.

^ good name

better than precious

the day of death than the day of one's birth

1),

730
is

D1*iy more subtile than


i.

all

(Gen.

iii.

1)

nJDD T V
The

nZjlEn? better than she (Esther T


formed, superlative i^ost holy; b.
;
.

19).

"'^np ^"ip *i^p ^to very good


tive,
e.

by repeating the adjective, e.g., by adding the word ^^p, e. g.,


article before the adjec-

c.

by putting the

and the

letter

g.,

Q''^\35
'7'1'n

3 before the noun witli which it is compared, HD^n the most beautiful among the women,
the poorest in (the tribe of) Menasse.

n&^jp3

N. B. When the superlative is expressed by a verb, the word ^2 with the prefix p is put before the noun with which
it is

compared,

e.

g.,

Dn^<"^3p nt^bp D^Jl^) And Solomo

was wiser than

all

men.
IX.

^^

^ JX A
J^KM
I \

Ix
\

PK0N0UI!^S.
are of two kinds;.

1.

The Hebrew pronouns


Inseparable words,
^^ e.,

^^^-'--'Ar

ly

a.
b.

Separable, consisting of distinct words.


letters suffixed to

~^==^.

Separable pronouns

are, 1.

personal

2. relative

nouns and verbs. 3. demon;

18
strative
5.
;

and
;

4. interrogative.
6.

possessive

passive

The inseparable pronouns are, both expressed by the letters ,^ ,n

?D

O (CliSn pronouns) suffixed to nouns and verbs.


2.

PERSONAL PKONOUNS.
Ac.

Inst.

Abl.
I

D.

N.

'5

'^sc

^?

^?
12
T

I??

1"?

19
suffixed to a
it is, e. g.^

in singular or plural, to denote whose object ^ book, ''lOD ^^y book. ^HSTD

nonn

7.

The

possessive pronominal suffixes are

To A Singular Noun

20
passive pronouns are the same suffixes as those of the in which they are objective, uouns, appended to the verb instead of possessive pronouns. table of tliem will be found ainonsr the verbs.
8.
;

The

X.
1.

NUMERATION.

Nanieration

is

divided in units, tens, hundreds, thousands,

letters of the alphabet are used to represent them. etc.; with a (See the alphabet table.) To express 1,000 by letters

and the

dot over
i'hus

it t< is

we now

"2 2,000, 3 3,000, "i 4,000, f] -^,000, etc. the present year of the creation, sliortlv, figure

used,

ryn'nn5637*.
2.

Numbers

are divided into cardinals and ordinals.

cardinals have masc. and fern, absolute and construct.

The The

numbers have two genders, but no constrnct state. Tlie numbers have also pronominal suffixes, e. g., 1J''Jt^ us two
ordinal

(Gen. xxxi. 37),

n^r\pbp you three (Numb. CARDINAL NUMBERS.

xii.

47).

Feminine.

21
4.

From

ten to twenty, the


viz.:

number

ten has

its

proper gender

termination,

masc. without

HT

^^^ ^6^- with

HT

Some

of the units stand in the absolute and some in construct state.

Feminine.

Masculine.

mn
1
<VPV..
''^Pl

it^V,

11.

12.

le.

n^y^niz^'sj^

T 'T
1^.

B.

It will

be observed that number 11, m. as well as

fem., is used only in the construct state ; 12, in construct as well as in absolute state. From 13 to 19, inclusive, the masc.
in absolute, the fem. in constr.
5.

The numbers 20

to

90 are formed by
suffix

C
^

suffixed

to

"n^j; in the number 20, and the same masc. unit numbers,
is
e-

Q^

to the constr. ^^ ^ ^"it

e. g.,

D''t^7^' 30, D'^yS^I^? ^0-

added, the unit

is

used in the absolute with the


21, D^'i^'DHi

conjunctive,

g^
6.

w^bv^

nnv^

nysn^^

54, etc.
:

100,

The hundreds have always the feminine termination T\^'Q ^^ units which number the hundreds plural ^1^^^Q
>

are the
to

same
e.

as are used in the fem. cardinal

numbers from 13
the masc.
6,000.

19,

g.,

ril^iP
e.

"d^^

300.

The thousands have

termination,

g.,

Q^C^^

^IJ^51^? 4,000, D^5^^5

T<^W

N. B.

Two

hundred, two thousand, and two ten thousands

22
take the dual form,
20,000.
n!!l!2^5
e. g.,

D^HJ^D
'

200,

D^B^i?

2,000,

'^n^iS*!
multitude;

plural

Hl^D*)? means,

a great

vsi^n 1^'^^^'

p^^"'^i

Ts^'^'y

7. The ordinal numbers are in all cases like the adjective, and have both numbers and genders they must agree with the
;

noun.
Feminine.

23
b.

written, but not pronounced which are called quiescent verbs. (For particulars see

When

the letters are

all

XL
2.
1-

2.)

The Hebrew verb has 7


/i^S
0^6

voices, or paradigms.
(light),

wrought) or 7p_

because this voice

is

unburdened by any additional


the simple active.
2. 'PJ^CJ (he

letter or

daghesh, denotes

was wrought upon) characterized by a prein the first radical letter, denotes

fixed J or

by a daghesh

N. B.
yet
it

the simple ^am-y^. TheJNifal form cannot be

made

oiintransitive verbs,
e.

can stand as a deponent, signifying Kal,

g.,

DH /3

l^^

warred, fought, Ji^^\3 he leaned.

Such verbs have generally


lie

no Kal form at same meaning,


'

all.
e.

In some verbs Kal and Nifal have the

g.,

TjSl' TlS"!^
^^^

went,
sick.

Dip

and

D"*!p-l

he approached.
Nifal has the

n^H- H^n^ T V: V T T
of the

was

In some verbs
reflective,
e.

meaning

Hithpael,

i. e.,

g.,

niB^
3.

he will divide himself,


(1^

etc.

7j^5

wrought

diligently) characterized

by a daghesh

in the second radical, denotes the intensive active.

N. B.

When

Piel

is

made

of a

verb which
i. e.,

is

in

Kal

intransitive, it denotes in Piel the transitive,

HD^

^^ ^^

glad,

nS^

he made glad.

In some verbs the Piel has the


e.

opposite

meaning of Kal,
stones.

g.,

/pD

he stoned,

S'pD he

removed the
4.

^VQ
the

(he was diligently wrought upon) characterized


,

by a shooruck
in

under the

first radical,

and a daghesh

second

radical,

denotes

the

intensive passive.

N. B.
in Pual,

Some
e. g.,

verbs have their active in Kal, and their passive

VrTl he washed, VH"! he was washed.


find verbs

In the

same way we

which have their active in Piel, and

24
their passive in Nifal,
e.

g.,

QH^

he comforted, to be UT\1T}

comforted. (Psalm
5.

Ixxiii. 3.)

^"'J^Dn (he caused another to work), characterized by


prefixed and a
^

between the second and third

radicals,

denotes causative active.

N. B.

n2^sl
T]*'7^'n
6.

to

There are some verbs used only in Hifil form, e. g., rise early, C0''2n he looked, HSH he smote,

he cast down.
It is

T5JJSn (he was caused to work).

characterized by

n
^'

prefixed,

and denotes the causative

passive.

/i?Snn
reflexive.

(he wrought on liimself), characterized by

OH

prefixed and a daghesh in the second radical, denotes the Some verbs have in Hithpael the same meaning
as in Kal,
e.

g.,

and

"Tj^npn
radical
is

Tj^H

he went,

DpipHn,
^*, j^,

Qlp,
2.

to arise against one.

When

the

first

one of the
its

letters,

D
5

the characteristic
radical, as

of Hithpael changes

place with the


for

first

^SlTlpn "he feigned himself drunk,"

73Dnn

"IJjn^n "he guarded


sake.
3.
is

himself," for "nj^^'prh for euphony's

When

the

first

radical

is *!' CO'

or

p, the

characteristic 21
first radical, e.

omitted, and compensated by a daghesli in the


for
np"ivN:,
4.

g^

npin^' ^^^^^
is

*or

nn(5r;^n*

The Hebrew verb


and genders.

sons,

varied by moods, tenses, numbers, perThere are three moods: 1. The indicative^
e.

describing the action as done with certamty,


hast learned.
chiefly

g.^

V^t^

thou
is

There

is,

liowever, also a conjunctive, wliich


^^,

formed by the words,

^^^, and j^
might
live

^^^Qli^^"";

"h

Tl'^JOb

TOTO "Oh,

that Ishmael

before thee!"
3).

Lest he tear (Ps. 18), (Gen. |S hnperative^ commanding a thing to be done.


xvii.

^^\

vii.

2.

The
can

This

mood

26
also be

made
!

a precative^ either by suffixing

^-

9">

T^yW
Oh,
g.^
e.

Oh, turn

or by adding the particle


!

^^
3.

e. g.,

'^^ "^^T

remember

Sometimes by using both forms together,


save (Psalm
xviii. 25).

^J nU'^in Olij

The infinitive mood,


It

simply speaking of an action without any regard to time. is used sometimes only to give force to an action.
5.

The

tenses in the

Hebrew verb

are three:

The

past, or

preterit, expressing a thing already done ; imperfect and pluperfect are included, and are to be understood by the context
2. The progressive present, of which there are two, the present participle and the past participle. (See 3. The futare, declaring the action yet to be done. table I .) The past in the future is expressed by the simple past, e. g.,

of the sentence.

Dnnn^ Ol^in II^'^? TjnnbiDl but thy chldren which thou


shalt
6.

have born

after them. (Gen. xlv. 6.)

a.
b.
c.

The The The The

Hebrew verb
person spoken
person spoken

has three persons:


to.
of.

person speaking.

Two

genders, mascuhne and feminine, and two numbers,

When anything impersonal is related, singular and plural. the 3d person sing. masc. is used, e. ^., HDl'^T' ^Di^"! 3,nd one
I

told Joseph.

(Gen.

xlviii. 1.)

XII.
1.

IRREGULAK VERBS.
of the irregular verbs
"^

The
X.

first class

is

Those verbs of which the 1). (See are imperfect, D''"lQn> i- ^-^ the J and
"^

first

the imperfect. radical is J and

will be omitted,
e.

and

the second radical takes then a daghesh,


will give jp^ he
2.
;

g.,

J^^ he gave,

p^Ji

he poured,

p^^"'

he will pour.

The second
-3'

class of irregular verbs is called quiescents,

DTI
*

^- ^-j

the letters are written, but are not pronounced.*

the three radical letters of any verb. So instead of saying the first radical
:

The Hebrew Grammarians made use of the three letters ^ y Q to designate The 1st they call Q the 2d y the 3d ^. is {< they say it is a verb K"2 , tc.
, ,

26

These verbs are 1when {*^"^


2.

the

first

radical

is

Ji^,

e.

g.
''

72*^^
2S^";i

1"^,
"
V'y,
V'^,
"
vN^"^.

%
second
((

" "
iC

3.
4.
5.

"
((

"
U

\
"f

"

Q!|p
i(

7*)^

third

"

"

^,

"

"
^tJl;^

6.
7.

n'^^,

J7"y?

when
is

the 2d and 3d letters are the same

TT 22DD

i. e.,

is

a third class of irregular verbs, called guttural^ of the radicals is "^j j;, H? in which case there caused a deviation from the usual vowel pointino of the verb.
3.

There

when one

4.

Some

verbs are quadriliteral, as


to

752^3

to

gird,

00*13

to cut oif, lg^'^2

expand.

Also the piel of some verbs


form,
as

Vy

and

^"^ appear
from ^120
,

in quadriliteral

7CO7D

t<^

prostrate,

to throw, ^\lf to delight, }['{(;

from

ny^\

ory;;^-*
XIII.
1.

PASSIVE PJFtONOU:^S OF VERBS.

The active verb takes a double pronominal suffix, first denote the number and person, second the objective or accusative case, as they suffer the action of the verb to which
to

they are joined


''P

thus

H'^in^^?^'

^^^^

^P^

^^^^' "'H

J^>

Pi hei*;

being the agent,

the patient.

(See Table.)
possessive,

2.

The infinitive takes the pronominal suffix of the


e.

as well as the objective,


in

g., ^^'^\)'2 in

my

calling,

in"n33
to ^0^*^^

his fleeing,

Q^^ISPG T :t
:

in creating them,

n"l3r^ T .t:
suffix

her.

The participle

takes the objective

in

the like

manner.
3. The pronominal objective suffixes are sometimes to be rendered as if they were detached pronouns governed by a preposition understood, thus, ''JQHJ thou gavest unto me.

27
(Josh. XV. 16.)

^JUn

t)e

favorable unto us,

TTS^

shall dwell

with thee (Fsalm

v. 5).

XIY.

ADVERBS OR PARTICLES.
takes the suffix of noun plural. " " " " " "

1-

*ini^
'^i;,

after,

ri''^?

where?
not,

"
|>J^

" " " "

" "
"

"
"
" "

"
sing.

^^
025^
^5J^

"
to, against,

"
plural.

none, but
near, beside,

" "

"
sing.

"

"

"

p
7n

^^P

""^'
because,^
between/
besides,
^'

^^ > "
^"
, ,

"

^^'^^

}''r

)',

lybs
^ri^5

"

.(^tLiXr (J l^^yV ^ "


^''''^'==''==-=-^-^
'*

plural.
^;

except,

^'V'
" "

sing.

ndl73
nb)]

for the sake of


lo,

behold,

"

"

"
^'

"
''

"

"
''

only,
"
as, like,

i03
-\ib
|J;q^

" "
^'

^'

" " "


''

"
apart,

*'

"
^'

because

"
of,

" " " "


"

"

"
"
"

"
''

nDijb
'^^pi'
|p'

opposite,
before,
" "
of,
^'

"

plural.
'' ^'

from, out
opposite,

sing. " "


<t
''

"
''

^1D
n.iJ
p*"-^*^

before, opposite," " U

"
<<

"
<<

''

<<

<<

S'^^D T

round about,

"

''

"

"

*'

plural.

28
*|J^
"Ili?

unto,
yet,

takes the suffix of


"
*'
''
'

noun
^*

plural.

sing.
"
''

^2
;;

''

upon,
with,

plural.
*'
''

"
sing.
*'

^nn
2.
''l^,
1^il

under, instead,

'

''

Adverbs or

particles which take no suffix: ^^ or, either; then, at that time; liow; "H^ only,
T]^;;^,

^Q^^

surely;

1^^ It

id.;

'^,
if;

HD''^?,
.

H^^ TT
|^^

where
;

-^^^^

perhaps,

peradventure;
also;
"l'^'^^^

Q^

Q/^^

but;

whither

T^

nothing;

H^

as,

^^not;

^^*^N^ if;

according; ^^5^ yet ; Q^pi<; verily ; 3^ slowly; so be it; ^2 not; ^^2 without; H^here;

J^^

1^5
D'hil
]}ll

^^
,

*^^^^

manner
;

Q^

also

TTT] ^low

n^^/H beyond
;

n^n
;
;

liither

ym except;
;
;

Q^IQ
,

not yet
so
; ;

T'iri^_ together;
or,
if,

because

^23 long ago n3 nD2


so,

15

perhaps,

because
1^5

J2
;

thus

HJ^S
;

^^^w

much

how many
;

^^
;

not

perhaps

H^^ why

D''^D^ formerly

i^p

very

i^^C

without;

j;i'nj3

wherefore;

anything; "iriD

IPD quickly; nDI^D something, to-morrow; nQD below; COUP ^ little; 7);c
;

above; ">p^ when


Dl^lJ over against
that not;
;

^^ now; H^J

eternal;

*Ii7
;

unto; "I'nyid.;
liere;

Hl^y now; l^pj? because


;

HB
;

|2

lest,

Di^^^P suddenly

DID

in past time
;

2)^D
;

closely;

^T) much,

many
;

U^^^ momentary
i^''^^"

20^*1 emptily
;

p*l only,

but; {^*^* vainly

the day before yesterday

Qgr there;

D^2^2 because T:

of;

/i^H yesterday; T^^H ^ilways, " T


:

continually.

XV.

INTERJECTIOISrS.
syllables,

Sounds of one or more

used

when experiencing

joy or pain, are called interjections. They being natural When the expressions, are almost in all languages the same.

29
expression
or
is

of joy, the sounds


the

*Tnn
T-

lamentation
-:

words

HH

H^il are used of pain TV Hn^? h"T'1^^ -""1^5 ^-'^77^


;
!

""i^^
!

"'In are used.

For request or petition the words


^^^-

^J T

"^^

are used.

XVI.
1.
all

SYNTAX. NOimS.
come

When
case.

several nouns
i.

either alike

same
e.ff;

They
:

to stand in a sentence, they are or objects, or they are not of the e., subjects may be all subjects having the same predicate,

rn:2 T
:

invx

n^ TT
and

^j21
:

vjb TT
with

nnx
liini
:

i;;nr'7n T ::

3pr
I

".-

VZ3 nl^DI Jacob TT


sons'

his seed

his

sons,

and

his

sons with him, his daughters and his sons' daughters


xlvi. 6, 7).
|!}1
I

(Gen.
I

Also as objects,

e. ^.,

3/111 nfr^iDn ^L^^

"np^n TT object,

And
all

he took butter and milk and the calf (Gen.


the nouns in the sentence

xviii. 8).
c.

Or
g.,

may

denote one

D^j;n'l D'^^n:! D'^^rn U'Z'y^ wise men and understanding, and known (Deut. i. 13). Lastly one noun

may

define the otlier,

e, g.,

D'J'iyp

^:^ nyiS

rC'2

The

house of Paraoh, king of Egypt.


2. When several nouns are in a sentence as subjects, they need not necessarily be of the same gender and number, although they are in tlie same relation the verb and adjective are then generally in plural masculine, yet when the verb
;

stands at the beginning, before the nouns, the verb can be in


inasc. sino:.,
e. g.,

W\2^^ D^^3 T-T


t?::i

D'^^pT )":

T^y^ tt:
^^H'^l

^."ln3^^^ ^"ow

tt:-;

Abraham and Sarah were xviii. 11). h^^t'^ ^JpT t:


) :

old, well stricken

Aaron and
the verb
3.
is

t: t-:the elders of Israel (Exod. xviii. 12). Generally governed by the chief person in the sentence.
I

tnnX

with age (Gen. And he came.

all

Sometimes, when the verb stands before the noun, it is regarded as impersonal^ and agrees with the following noun neither in gender nor in number, e. g., HlD"' 0*^^.3 ^^IJDJ {*^7l

30

And

it

was not found beautiful women (Job


if

xlii.

15), H^'n"' "'S

n'njj^
4.
is

there be a virgin (Dent. xxii. 23).


several nouns in the
tlie 1

The conjunction of

same sentence

done either by placing

copulative before every noun,

as i*)iDni llfe'1

IDDX]

and his il3J71 and his man-servant,


J^euben,

maid-servant, and his ox, and his ass (Ex. xx. 14), or before the
last

noun, as rnin**! ^)b ])^i2P p^^^"l

Simeon,

Levy and Jehudah (Ex. i. 2.), or by placing the conjunc. before the second and fourth nouns *?^'^1 *n^ "^^flDJI ?"1 T>s.n and
:

-:

Naphthali, Gad and Asher only before the last.


5.

and when there are three nouns,


in predicate, all

AYhen several nouns stand


sign,

must have the

same

v^lr:y"n^^T^^^n2"n^^ vonp-n^^i riz;np"n^^


taclies,

P^n^^"n^?1 His and his sockets

and
xxxv.

his boards, his bars, his pillars,


11).

(Ex.

TlDt^^in /I Ti^'^2?i^^1

For thee and

for thy servant,

T]^D^?^1 T]"]5i;^l Tjb and for

thy maid, and for thy hired servant, and for thy stranger tliat sojourneth with thee (Levit. xxv. 6). The same is the case
the propositions. one object has several adjectives, they must all with the object. (See VIII. 1.) But when the object agree is constructed to the adjective, it is not modified.
all
6.

with

When

7. Nouns belonging to one subject, which are explanatory of one another, if they stand before the subject, must have the

same mark
pnii'^

as

the subject,

e. g.,

"Hi^

T]*l'^n"'"ri^?

TjIlB^ri^
TJ'^H^^

Thy

son, thy only one, Isaac (Gen. xxii. 2). to

/^

l^j;

^^

to thy brother,

Esau

(ibid, xxxii. 6).

But when

the subject precedes, the other nouns need not stand in the * same case, e. g., not

r\^^^r\ Tjn? ^n"].3


-^-^

TjIlD?

^H^?

XYII.

COISTSTKUCT STATE.

1.

When
it is

words,

any idea is to be expressed in Hebrew by two formed by the first noun being constructed to the

31
second.
first,

(See
:

VII.

1).

The second noun

is

then defining the


^^7^1 city,

as

H'^'ID ^ town, n*li^ a field,

TOD D^^D
field.

residence,
struct
ject.

H^Dr^^n nli^

the Machpelah

This con-

form can occur in an active as well as in a passive subOften we find two synonyms in construct state, as p^^

nt^j; green herb,


part of
2.

^^1DJ;.n^^^^D

work of labor,
"'p^j;^

flJO

my

portion.
Jl^^N?,
'

The words

^W^,

|3'

n?'

D'^t^J^^'

n1^2

^^

often constructed

^J?2' H^J^S^ ^22^ with an abstract, to

form an adjective, as
valiant

H ul^n ^^^
^

^ wise man, ^'^H


(to death)

H^^
HJ^

woman, niD"?3

condemned man

H"^

a (w^oman) year old, n5^*p"I3 ^^ arrow

(lit.

the son of the

bow).
3. A noun can be constructed to another noun, adjective and a demonstrative pronoun, as HT Dip?p ^^ to this place,

n^i^

njj'^y
e.

doer of these.
g.,

It

can also be constructed to a


old).

numeral,

U^^IJ^^^ ?2 son of forty (forty years


to

The noun can never be constructed


except by
^'
ellipsis,
it
e.

a particle or verb,

g.,

Q^ffi^? rpy^r\ n;p^?


is

where

is

to be read as

"W"^^ D'''n^P^?

'n "121
*)^*1
.

n^nn

which

to

be read -)^fr^

QlpP DlpO ^^^^^ rmiir\ n^nn

llZ/i^

particle, whtjn the particle is regarded as a as ^^^ wliatsoever he sheweth substantive, "^^^^'^/'"nD ^311

Also to a

me (Numb,
4.

xxiii. 3).

Neither can a noun be constructed to

a noun with a proposition.

peated when

noun is constructed to several nouns, it is rethe nouns are of difi'erent kinds, but when tliev are of the same kind, the construct noun is not repeated, e. g.,
a

When

Tf}m}^ np?1 "^Opn?


every time repeated
the noun
is
;

"^I^pl "^JCO?

nS?

tlie

noun

is

ji^^Sl

H^^^HI jpjl

m^VV^ HEn

y"]vX

not repeated.

32
Often there are several nouns in the construct state, as ^!)^^ Thl2 ^3/ T^'l^ "^"l? ^^^ which case one noun explains
the other, but two or

structed to one noun.

more separate nouns cannot be conThus you cannot say H^ll^ffl nDpH
:
:

nt^ but must say

TT

in^i'zni D"i^^ TT T

no^H T
:
.

XYIII.
1.

PECULIAR USE OF THE NOUN.


uses sometimes the

The Hebrew

same noun

twice, eitlier

in
it

the same gender and number, or in different numbers. If is used in tlie same number, it has the significance of every
^^^^'2/ ^^^^^^
<^^'

one, as, ^^^^it^"* fl^BiD '^^^ ^O^^


Israel,

the house of

2^ Dr
^
by
altar,
^

^^^^"2/

day, daily.

Secondly, emphasis, as pH!^


rigliteousness
xiii. 2).

n1*l"^np"'y Highteousness,
p]2*D
united
altar! (1
it

follow.

HB'p

Kings

When

two nouns are

conjunctive

signifies a diversity

between the two


r^y''^]^ This land

nouns, as

tl^^S UV^ Dj;i TGnrD


as
it

Hmd
nl?!

and that land


as
it

writes,
i.

and one people or another people

speaks (Esth.

22).

n3T

3|?3 with a double

But when the first noun is in singular heart do they speak. in plural, it denotes the superlative, as and the second

TD^

D^r7?0

ki"t^

<^*

kings,

i. <?.,

the highest king, likewise t^l^p


d.,

Qij^-]p holy of holiness,

'%.

the most holy (See

YIII.

5).

XIX.

RELATION OF THE ADJECTIVE, ADVERB AND VERB TO THE NOUNS.


verl),

1.

The
in

adverb, and

noun

gender and number adverb or adjective must agree with the noun con^'"^ n^^*^"' the fear of the Lord is pure. structed, as n^linD state the

adjective must agree with the And in construct (See VIII. 1).

The adverb n*lin[0


n^^n*^
is feni.

^s

therefore fern, because the construct

33
2.

When
e. g.,

verb, the verb

several nouns of various genders belong to one is used in the gender of the most prominent

noun,

^^TK^y\ '^l"!?^ HS^SH ^y^^'^\ And she wrote Esther the queen and Mordechai the Jew (Esth. ix. the chief person. 20), Esther being ^ni^ijl

inp^

Tj^

pp^

Hprnn
i.

Wisdom and knowledge


The second noun
agrees with
3.
in.

is

granted unto thee (2 Chron.

12).

J^*1p. being of a higher degree, the verb

Sometimes the noun is in plural and the verb in singular, and this for two reasons. 1) Because there is an ellipsis, as *ll^^l where it is to be understood, riH^? /3
TjigStJ^D
)

n!z;'''VDDSi;:^'?3^' also V T T T
*
:

rn^^ ni:i3 t^:t t

js

rr^^^ t-:t

nusD nn^^ t

^3 t

2) Lies

it

in the imagination of the writer, seeing

each of the

n1^3
4.

singly mounting the wall (Gen. xlix. 22).

Where
to

noun

which

the noun constructed has the same meaning as the it is constructed, or where one noun can be left

out entirely, the verb agrees with the second noun, as J^^J

PPnn
xiii.

^^

rii^T.!^

when
^;jj

the plague of leprosy will be (Lev.


it is

9).

The noun
>

though

masc, the verb

is

yet in
first

fem. n^'nn

because the nouns could be inverted, or the

noun

left

out altogether.

So

in

^on

^
i^i

\CWT\ nPlSlil
16); the conit

Neither did the cruse of


struct

oil fail (1

Kings

xvii.

nnSy

feminine, yet the verb

^IpH

masc, because

refers to the oil^ not to the cruse.


5.

The adverb and


as

adjective belonging to a collective noun,


It is in sing,

can be in sing, as
to the whole,

w^ell as in plur. 3'^"]


7i"ljl

when

it

refers

Qj;
it

people great and many

(Deut.

iii.

21), but in plur.


^l^J^

when

refers to each individual, as

n.^^3 IP
(Josh.
6.

DJ^"1 And

the people
is

came up out of Jordan


meant.
as
'^JS face,

iv. 19),

where every individual


only the
pi.

Some nouns have

number,

34
Q'^'^n
li^e,

Q'^Q water, Q'^D^*

and the verb, adverb, or

The adjective belonging to them are to be always in plural. and 7^2 often come to stand in plural, whilst the nounL^ |il5^
verb and adjective stand in singular, as tl^L^O D^2)'^^ ^ cruel
"

lord

(Is. xix.

4),

vb::2 nob)

XX.
1.

FKOKOUlSrS.
in

The personal pronouns

Hebrew

are either separable

words, or letters added to the verb (See sometimes they are both used together, as

IX.

1).

But
"^IJ^J^^?

y]^^^

^1^^
2.

*ri^?l'

^bp ^pn3 my own

vineyard.

Often the pronouns, in such a case, are changed, e. g.^ shall praise ^^r}^ TlllV nn^ n*!irp Judah, thy brethren
thee (Gen. xlix.
8),

where
jo^^i'

Dri^ Di?'''13d ^^^^


should
double,
l)e
e.

ought to be T]1*lV TlHi^^ or carcases (Numb. xiv. 32), where it


it
>

Qr*'^^'
^.,

Dr'^I^Dl

Sometimes they stand even


^^Til ^iid she, even she said
Ivii.

(""Hl^^^ ^"^H

QJ

(Gen. XX.
6), for
3.

5), T]^"li^

DH Qm

they, they are thy lot (Is.

emphasis' sake.
dative
"^7
,

The personal pronoun

Tr)

etc., is
i*^

sometimes
^^'^11

used without denoting the dative case, as


return

rD1k^*^5 ^

(Numb.
it

xxii.

34).

i^lj

rh

''^in

D^^

according to the general idea of the Hebrew Grammarians, bnt I nouns D*0 , D^Tl and D^DE^ are rather in Dual form, and that Of D^tt we read (Gen. i. 7) that it was divided into two for certain reason. Of c,"n we know that it is divided into two parts, viz., the life here and parts.
believe that the
hereafter.
is

* I give

Also D^'-5^ which means sky, and

is

derived from DC* there, space,


:

in dual,

mea; ing the two hemispheres.


n^tD'^X^^ nn^':''^t:' n""inN^ T
:
:

The Kabbala says


:

p^PD 13

fjlD

pX

inx n3Q nn T T
.

TT

nnU'lS when

the infinite intended to


a place, etc.

shew his perfection, and to do good by it, he made must be in existence, before anything existing can be. ning God created heaven, i. e., space, and the earth."

The place Hence " In the begin-

35
knowest not where the particle seems
If thou

to

go (Cant. i. 8). Yet even liere, be superfluous, it denotes that the


f-?

action
4.

advantage of the subject. The demonstrative pronoun H] "^-j H^^l


is

to the

H^^
by

P^- ^-^

denotes some person or thing which

is

present, or

relation

we have become aquainted with it, as if it were present, as for this child I prayed (Sam. "'n^Jgnn n^n '^VJn b^ iThe 27), lJ^!ilO D^] this we found (Gen. xxxvii. 32).
pron. n*

^n

'

I'^n are used for a present object at a distance

r\}br\ D"''^^n

^P

who

is

t/mt

man? (Gen.

xxiv.

65).

The

demonstrative "T generally stands for concrete nouns,


for abstract nouns.

^^*

Also with these pronouns, as with the verbs, there is a repetition, w^hen tliey are connected by the copulative ) which
5.
,

ipl^^ HV One said on this manner, and another said on that manner (1 Kings xxii. 20). Also D'^DID^ ^O^) ^D^Zl Hv^ These in chariot^s, .....
denotes a diversity, as li^^ 1^1^^ Hll

^02

..

...J.

and those in horses (Ps. xx. 8). The personal pronoun is also sometimes used as a demonstrative, as These |*ini^l nk^D ^IH
are the personal

Moses and Aaron (Exodus vi. 27). We often also find and demonstrative pronouns together, or two
is

demonstratives (but in w^iich case the second


or
1

always

{^^JH

on) together, as Tp^JZ'B HllD ^^IH '^ITJ^^ "^r^J^^ I, even V TV T T he that blotteth out thy transgressions (Is. xliii. 25). I, am feasts (Lev. xxiii. 2). The ^'ZV)!^ rhi^ These are
:

D"

my

second pronoun in these cases is always explanatory of the first. 6. The demonstrative pronouns must also agree with the

noun constructed, like the adjective (See XYIII. 1). When, however, the noun to which it is constructed, is the chief noun, the demonstrative agrees with it, and not with the construct, as Jni^'in rrnlnn ISp? ^^ ^^^ book of this law (Deut. xxviii.
61).

The demonstrative can


is

noun

implied by

it,

as

also take a preposition when a niD ^^ this place (Gen. xlviii. 9).

36

Also (Ps.
fident
;

xxvii. 3)

nci3
is

-ij^lt

ni^n

in this will I be con-

rii^-in

*1D^3 T T-

to

be understood.

XXI.
1.

KELATION OF THE YEEB.


^^d
And
^"d

The verb

usually precedes the noun, n{J^?0 HDi^^'l

said Moses.

When, however,
it

the emphasis, or stress,

is

put on

the noun,

will precede the verb, as


xviii.

niJDiC^* H^iL^I
lij^'IDI

Sarah was hearing (Gen.

10),

2*'^pn

to

Pharaoh drew nigh (Exod. xiv. 10). When two verbs refer one noun, the noun stands between the verbs, as "^n^^l
D^^'l D*)Di^ T
:

^nd Abram removed


Where

his

tent.... and dwelt

(Gen.
2.

xiii.

18).

noun stands

either after the

several verbs refer to one noun, the first or after the last verb.

In Hebrew, like in most ancient languages, the second person is addressed in sing, only; if the word Lord is added, the verb is put in 3d pers. sing., as 7^^* My lord has
''J"i^^

asked (Gen.
(ibid. xli. 33).
3.

xliv.

19),

n^^lS
]'l^
or

^>*1^

-^^t
^^

Pharaoh look out

The word
The

Tl'^P

here to be understood.
5), past,

The verb has


and
:

three tenses (See


past
'HI

X.

progressive

present,
xxi. 1)

future.

n*1t^"n5<
T] jli^

npD
II

may imply imperfect, as (Gen. ^"d Grod visited Sarah. Again

Dl*l^^

n3

"IpS
22)

^^^ visited thine iniquity,

O daughter

of

Edom

(Lam.

iv.

fect, as

nnC"''5

and pluperfect, when it follows a perFor she heard that he nypCi^" ^2

had

In prophetic language, the past is (Rutli i. 6). the future, as "'riPlJ instead of )T-\'^ used for ^J^^l"? ^iZ*]]?
visited

(Gen. XV. 18).

Thus
for

it is

sometimes used for the present, as


.

^\^^n^^ mnvsii jpy.^? njn^?i 4. The He])rew language, properly speaking, has no present tense (and in fact, time being transient, cannot have a present).
It combines,

however, past and future, and forms a present, as

Ay

Ji

niD7 7^X[

^r^J^

n^n

Beholdl I

am

This tense is to die (Gen. xxv. 32). ^^' with the personal pron, nom. before it. 5. This form sometimes also stands for the future, as "^J^H
^^''DD Behold, I shall bring (Gen.
action appears as present,
it is

going {4lf.fj\\me) (,^ formed by the parti oi'^Jlfej

vi.

17).

Also when an

used in this form, as u^T]


xlviii. 1).

HyiC^

And Pharaoh was dreaming


which
is

(Gen.

When
is

an action

often repeated

is

described, the future

used instead

of the past, as "^^^

r\^T

(1^3 So used Job

to

do (Job

i.

5).

The same

is

the case with an action which


:

dent of time, as 2^^ r\\^^*^


T father (Prov. x. 1).
6.

DDl T T

?3
)

is entirely indepenwise son makes glad a

The

hifinitive gives an

Tji^n

to go,

ril3n

to smite

abstract idea of the action, as independent of time and person

But

it

may

take the prepositions

^, 3, ^, ^,

as

Tj^j^HB

in

going, '7&)i\2 like going, TjISh^ to go {i. e., in order to go), TliSlD from going. It is treated like a noun. It is also

placed before the past or future to imply a certainty, as *1p5

lipD''
is

lie will

surely visit (Gen.

1.

24).

When
it
!

the infinitive

imperative or participle, place, as ]3\]2^ IJ^D?^' Hear ye indeed


joined to
tlie

takes the second


9),

(Is. vi.

'^D^ln

rchr\
7.

Still

went on

(2

Kings

ii.

11).

The infinitive Kal^ which is the easiest to be pronounced, when in itself without meaning, as above, placed before any is, other paradigm of the same verb, as H'^D ^^^ where the
first is in

Kal, the second in Pual


;

second Niphal

^^ is ^'I'^pp^ *^5?P not used in Kal, the Piel stands for Kal) and the second in As the iifiiiitive is to be regarded as an abstract Hiphil.

^^

T ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^ -^1^1 0^^^^ ^^


T

3J;P 3^^ the

first

Kal, the

noun,

it

is

sometimes interchauged with the

participle,

as

b^'^t:^

iJ^I n^ "nDOp^ And number

a fourth part of

38
Israel

(Num.

xxiii. 10),

instead of

*l1Sp^1

HDpn

iljp ^or

nppn |yp
The imperative mood (See X. 4) can only be used in command when in the negaiive, the future with the adverb ^7 or 7^ is used, as 1*1210 ^ / remember
8.

the affirmative

not, n<3]D

/H

T'N do not go

etc.

The imperative
;

also can

only be used in active^ not in passive voice but in Niphal, which is properly a deponent verb and has the same meaning
as Kal, the imperative
9.
is

used.

The future proper has one form (See Tab. of the verb). The Hebrew uses, however, a commanding future (jussive)
and that by omitting the quiescent letter of the future * The (apocap.), and a future optative^ which expresses a wish. form, as ^COD"^ ^^ shall (not will) rain (Psalm xi. commanding
6), "TT' it sliall

be

or, let

there be

is

of frequent occurrence.

future optative is formed by suffixing H to the first pers. sing, and pi., and a 7 to the second and third pers. plural masc.

The

rCP^
you

I will go,

n^^J

we

will go,

jl^bl

they will go,

jD^n

will go.

XXII.
1.

Y AY CONJUNCTIYE.

letter ^ at the beginning of a word (except eleven most of which are proper nouns) with a Sli'va (~)used words, before a letter with a Sh'va, or a letter of its own class ^, ^, 3 is the equivalent of the conjunction and.

The

2.

The

copulative,

by way of explanation^ as

1l'^J7!Iil

HD^IS
So
*l'^j;

in

Ramah, even

in his
{i. e.,

own

city

(1

Sam.

xxviii. 3).

[^'ir^pT
3.

a watcher

an angel) even a holy one (Dan.


but
"^

iv. 10).

As

an adversative

like the adverb 7^2!^ as j*I^?

^7

ti^-^^t;^
*

Not

so,

my

lord, but thy servants (Gen. xlii. 10).

Hence

this /w^r6 is

found in the regular verb in Hiphil, and in verbs

?\"^ in all the paradigms.

39
4.

As an

apodosis thou^ as D"''?3n


art athirst, then
is ]i^

/^ 0^/111

P'^D^Jl
ii.

^^d
The

when thou
like adverb
5.

go to the vessels (Ruth


although, yet^ as

9).

or

"'^^^

As
:

the adverb

Q^ ri^

rUH"!!^

"^3

nDn*1 *121D '''"'1 3n^ ^or he loved Hannah, yet the Lord ~ - T -T T had shut up her womb (1 Sam. i. 6).
6.

As

adcBquationis, so^just so, adverb |3

As

D^^^^p D''D

pn^D
7.

yiNiQ n^ici
is

nj;iDi^*i nD^.y. iz;5?j

by ascoui water
country (Proverb
I^^^l l''^^

to a thirsty soul, so

good news from a

far

XXV. 25).

As

a disjunctive (See

XVII.

1),

e.

g.,

HSDl

And he
like
8.

that smites his father, or his


"^^
.

mother (Exod.

xxi. 15),

adverb

As

inferential, like the adverb

y^VJ^

^\
As

D^PID
1

"h

n3T

jyOp m order that, S^ ^^^^^ ^^^* multiply


etc.
.

as

to

himself horses, that he cause to return,

(Deut.

xvii.

16).

When doubled
9.

it

signifies both.

and, as n*11^57l

"H.jlbl

conclusive,
'^"^

like

the adverb

Yj^

therefore, as V^^_

"I21"ri^ riD^Hp Because thou hast rejected the word of God, therefore God has rejected thee from being king (1. Sam. xv. 23).
T]^5)p ^P^?P^1
10.

As

conversive,
it

viz.,

when

with a

ShVa

(1) is
T

prefixed

to the past tense,

Pathach or

means the future, and when a a Komats (}, 1), is prefixed to the future

with a
denotes

it

the past, as "ID^^I and he will say, ^nd he said. "Ipi*^^]

This

holds good only in the narrative style

but not otherwise, as


3).

"IpP^l

and he

shall appoint (Esther

ii.

40
Note. The root of the Hebrew Verb, consistiDg of three radicals, being found, without any prefix or sufl&x, in the 3d person masculine singular of the past tense, the conjugation of the verb therefore begins with the 3d pers. masc. sing, of that tense.

TABLE Z
Femin.

FIRST PARADIGM ^j;^ OR


Com.

^p_.

Masc.
-id':'
^sinir.

rr<d->
:

:'t

t
13. pi.

'niD? Tip^
IJID^
Participle Presen

1.

42

PARADIGM ^yZ)
Past.
Fern.

Com.

Masc.
1.

sing.

""-ib^j

3.
1.

pi.

'3.

Participle Passive.

n-jc"'?:

nnc':':

4:^

Infinitive.

-i)?i>no>

iSi'n'?-

-5^"?'

"iD^n?.

co"-

-iip|n

45
Participle Passive.
i:JJ}^
1.

sing.

^1^)^

T 1

^'H
I r

un:t<
!

'.

in

an
I

3-

47

PARADIGM ^y^H- T
:

Past.
Fein.

Com.

Masc.

nDbn

Participle Passive.

48
Infinitive.

no'pnQ,

iiQbrh,

nr^bro,

nr^bra,

lobn

49
Infinitive.

ns^nni?.

nis^rin'?,

"la'^nn?.

"isbnn?

50

ma'? T T
:

"

slie

taught."

IJOnob

l-c.pl.

suffix.

"'^rno'?
TjoirJ'p

l. 2. 2.

csing.suffix.

m.
f.

irno'?)
nn-io'^

3.

f.

jOfV'?

n'HD^
Ijm.O'?
1-

" thou didst teach."


1
c.

"

P'-

^"''-

''Jrn.15'?

sing, suffix.

T :-

J
3.
f.

:-,:

-*

3.

f.

nj;51D'?

riniD^
ij"'rnD'?
1-

" thou
p'-

(f.)

didst teach."
io-

"

^^^^-

"'^''rn.D'?

sing- suffix.

D^nio^

3. 3.

m.
f.

iiT'niD'?

^-

"
f.

pnio?

n^'nn.c?

3.

'n'lO^
Q2"'p-ip'p
2.

" I taught."
2.

m.
f.

pi. suffix.

?]''ri*lD7
2.

m.
f.

sing, suffix.

p^niD?
D^nip)
pnio'?

2.

"T]''niD^
3.

m.

"

i,TnnD7r3.
f.

3.

f.

n^'i^i-ip?

51
"

111??
1.
c.

they taught."
1.
c.

pi. suffix.

sing, suffix.

2. 2.

m.
f.

2.
2.

m.
f.

3. 3.

m.
f.

nnD^
or

3.

f.

"

|nnD^
IJiniD^
T^-

nri^^D^

je did teach."
1c-

c.

pi. suffix.

'3iniD^
fflnn'D^

sing, suffix.

3.

m.
f.

P^T

3.

3.

f.

IJ^D^

"

we

did learn.*'

DDIJID^

2.

m.

pi. suffix.

T]1jnD^

2-

^-

sing, suffix.

mjHo^
|iJlb^

3. 3.

m.
f.

inijnb^

3.
3.

m.
f.

nij^D^

Participle act.

1D)b

learning, or a learner,

is

suffixed like
.

the noun.

Likewise the participle passive

ni^7

Future, HID/'^
Ijnp'?'^
1.
c.

" ^^ will learn.'


'^J*1^7''
1.
c.

pi. suffix.

sing, suffix.

Tpbb\ rp^b\
3.

2. 2. 3.

m.
f.

m.

C-ilJ^-i

mnp^l
niDb"^

m.
f.

3.

52

The

1st sing,
{))

and
into

pi.
(

and 2d m.
);

sing, follow the

by changing
Ti it is
I

but before the suflSxes )^,


(

same form, Qp, and


.

changed into short


sing,

).

H T

is

preceded by
pi. pi.

(.*)

The 2d fem.

and 3d and 2d

m. take the
f.

suffixes

without any change.

The 2d and 3d

drop

HJ

a,nd pre-

ceding

Infinitive

IID T /

" to learn.**

1JTD /

^'

^-

P^- suffix.

"^ID

12.

^'

s^^o- suffix.

DDIP^

2. 2.

m.
f.

m.
f.

Tj^p^
2.

pip^
Q^bS
pp'5

rj-ip^
3. 3.

m.
f.

)^^l2b
T T nnp^
:

3-

^'
f.

3.

Imperative
!)J*|^^
1.
c.

^^7

" learn

"
!

pi. suffix.

""jniO^

1-

c.

sing,

suffix.

u^fy?

3.
3.

m.
f.

inip7

3. 3.

m.
f.

nn^ T
I

rnn^ t: T

PARADIGM bVB WITH SUFFIXES.


!)j*np^
1.
c.

pi. suffix.

^J^IP"?

^' 2.

^-

^^"^*

^"^^

;^n^^

2.
2.

m.
Tjn?3b
f.
.

m.
f.

pH^S
Q-ip^

2.

r^np^'
3.

m.
f.

^np^
nnrbb

3.

m.
f.

P^b

3.

3.

53

54

TAJ^ZFIIL-YEnB

yr)

IMPERFECT
.

XL

1).

PAKADIGM
Past.

hp_

Fem.

55
Infinitive.

nmD,

nmb^

r^:o,

nm2

nC^*3

con.

Fem.

PAEADIGM

bv.^ri'

67
Pakticiple Active (Pkogkessive Pees
).

^r\

3.

nnnj

1-

pi-

on

3-

is

Pakticipi-e Passive ^ICi'^ " seated," T conjugated like tlie Participle Active.

Future.

Fem.

Com.

Masc.
1.
sinsf".

optat.

n2^j

ll.

pi.

3.

opt.

|13-^;; j

Infinitive.
2*ti'"'

abs.

n^t^'P'

nnE'b.

n5i?;3,

n:ic:'2.

nTi:?^

con.

Fem.

58

PARADIGM hv^i ^ERB vg


Past Tense 2Z^)^ Par. Pass.
y

(GRIG. V'S)
'^'^^^ etc.

TDt^'lj
T
:

etc.

Future Tense
Infinitive abs.

2^)1 D^^)^ etc.


^'-

and con. 2{7'^n

Imperative, as Infinitive.

PARADIGMS

bys,

b^jj?

AND

^j;Dnn

are conjugated like the regular Verb.

PARADIGM b^Dn
PastT. "^^p^n, ro^p)r\et(5.
Part. Act.

Future Apocap.
Infill,

2^1*^
con.

etc.

D^piD y^p)r2 Future Tense y^^'V etc.


i'-

abs.

:}''5^'^n
^

y^p)r]

Imperat. "21^)^]

^2^\!J)r\ etc.

PARADIGM
Past Tense Z^^'lH. Part. Pas. 2ti:riD
f-

bv.^n

n::C:^*in etc.

Fut. Tense
Infin. abs.

^pV

2p)r\

etc.

HS^^^'lD etc.

and con. ^^'IH

etc.

No

Imperative.

TABLE
Fem.

F.

VERB PROPER
Past.

r'^, pj''

" to suck."

Jom.

69
Participle Active.

1^0

PAEADIGM b^U^n
PastTense
Part. Act.

p^^rn, HD'^rn

etc.
etc. etc.

Future

A poc.

pj'''^,

pJ^'Oetc.
etc. etc.

p^rpf.np;;^
,

Simple Fut. p^y^

p'^^n

Imp. Mood prPh ^p^yn Infinitive Mood p^^H

TABLE FZ VERB

yy, Q^p "to stand."

61

Future.
Kal.

62

TABLE
Kal.
2.
].

YII.

VERB DOUBLE AYIN yy,


Niphal.
Piel.

3:30 "to surround"


Pnal.

3D. n2D. ni3D,


ni2D.
"ntaD,
12D,

22p n22D
J?22p

2DJ - T

22to
^1

2D1D
ft)

3. ra.

sing.

3.f.
2.111.

n22p
O

2.f.

I.e.
3. c.pl.
2.

'f!l22p

122D

5'

Dnl2D.
1J12D,

Dn22D
1J22D

p
o
&9

m.

2.f.

^^

I.e.

Infinitive.
Kal.
absolute

Niphal.

Piel.

Pual.

Dl^D T

2lDn

22to

23iD

construct

^D

2Dn
Imperative.

Future.

2d;.

63
Participle.

Kal.

64:

TABLE
Kal.

F//7.

VERB

^"^,

^^^

"he found."

il
65
'

/.'/

^^Ji 'lisir
(

VERB
Hiphil.

ii"b,

"he found"
ii.^D

<gontUie&^.''0/^>

v-

or)

TABLE
Kal.

ZX.

VERB

n"^

rhl

" tu reveal.

67

VEKB

n"^

'

n^:i

" to reveal "

(Continued).

Hiphil.

68

69
W)

0)'

>

71

72

73
th 9h
r-'

c4

CO

rH

(M*

CO

^^^

jCV
fZ

%H%i
.

II

%i

;i,

r:

_.

j^.

i:^

c ^ ^ a

gen
~
"

ip>'
c
i-i

%i%'n:

%H

ninp^
G^ CO

Eh
CO"

tH

G^

55h%i
r;
>

fl

2ir% n:
pi
,:

GHg

2
Ph

n ^ %

p'

"

II

5iH%i
>=
;

%i %i

fi:

;:-

fee

--^-^ c
r\...
?^

^
ifr 9

r:

'^^

^ ^

p'

G
c

^&
-~

74

75

r-J

<W

3 H

a O

76

77

78

79
tD

80

81

82

CO

G<l

tH

CO

*TH
.

*~Kh

^..

,J^I

.J^l

,J^-

J^-

Jr^" J^:

(N

1^

83

84
/

85

4i

CO

.^H

.]

INDEX
Letters

PAGE 5
9

Vowels

ShVa
Daghesh
Accents
Article

10 11
11

12
13

Noun
Construct State
Adjective

15

16 17
18 18 18
19

Pronoun
Personal

Demonstrative
Interrogative

Noun, with Suffixes Numeration, Cardinal


Ordinal

20
22 22
25

Verb, Regular
Irregular Passive Pronouns of Verbs

26

Adverbs
Interjections

27
28 29

^Nouns Construct State

Syntax

30

Peculiar use of the

Noun Noun
:
.
. . .

32 32 34
36

Relation of Adjective, Adverb, and Verb to the

Pronouns
Relation of the Verb

Vav Conjunctive
Table I. Regular Verb no^ Verb, with Suffixes Table II. Verb N''D, ^3K Table III. Verb J"Q, :Ji
Table IV. Verb ''D (originally V'S) Table V. Verb >"Q proper py Table VI. Verb V'V, Dip

38 40-49
49-52 53
54-56 56-58

58-60
60, 61

88
PAGE

Verb V"y, 320 Table VIII. Verb ^<"fJ, KV^ Table IX. Verb n"^, nh: " " Table X. ^Substantive Verb " to be and Verb "to have Table XL Irregular Verb -j'jn Table XII. Irregular Verb Hp^ Table XIII. Double anomalous Verbs 3"Q and n''^ ^"D and Table XIV. Double anomalous Verbs >'Q and T]"^ Table XV. Double anomalous Verbs J "'Q and K"!? Table XVI. Verb Vy and H"^ Table XVII. Verb n"^ with Suffixes Table XVIII. Verb )'y with Suffixes Table XIX. Verb y"y with Suffixes
Table VII.
;

62, 63 64, 65
.66,

67

68, 69
70, 71 72, 73
K''^)

74, 75

76, 77
78, 79
80,

81

82, 83
84,

85 86

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