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ABSTRACT

An understanding of the natural world has progressed in the direction of higher energies. The stationary

quantum state has emerged as a central theme within this quest. The stationary quantum states were used to explain the

workings of nature. The emergence of the macroscopic multi-body cold fusion phenomena has allowed an

understanding of nature to progress in the direction of lower energies. This author’s qualification of this low energy

regime has revealed the transitional quantum state. The use of the transitional quantum state provided a causative

explication for the quantum condition. This paper will produce the energy of the photon, the energy levels of the

hydrogen atom, and the probability of transition as effects of the transitional quantum state. These productions lead to

new technology.

INTRODUCTION

Joseph von Fraunhofer devised the first spectrometer, in the early 1800’s. With his invention, he

discovered spectral lines within the sun’s light. He used these lines as reference points in the design of

achromatic lenses.

1

, Robert Bunsen and Gustav Kirchhoff, in the mid 1800, discovered spectral lines in the

light that emanated from the elements within the flame of their Bunsen burner.

2

Johann Balmer produced

an empirical equation that described this spectrum in the late 1800’s.

3

Johannes Rydberg extended

Baumer’s formulation to the spectra of all of the elements.

4

These discoveries allowed astronomers to

determine the elemental composition of stellar objects. These early scientists could not, however, provide a

causative explanation for the spectral emissions.

In the early 1900’s Max Planck offered an explanation for these spectral emissions by introducing

that idea that thermal energy is bundled within tiny quantum units.

5

Albert Einstein used Planck’s constant

and showed that a light wave is bundled into particle like photons.

6

The appearance of the photon lead to

the introduction of the principle of quantum correspondence. It states that the square of the amplitude of a

classical light wave directly corresponds, in some limiting way, to the frequency of a photon.

Niels Bohr applied Planck’s construct to the atomic structure of the atom. Bohr’s quantized atom

explained the emission spectrum of the atoms and the chemical properties of the elements.

7

According to

classical electromagnetic theory of James Clerk Maxwell orbiting electrons should continuously emit

electromagnetic energy.

8

An atom’s electrons emit packets of energy at random intervals. Bohr’s model

could not explain the stability of the stationary atomic states, produce the probability of transition, or

explain why the frequency of the emitted photon is not that of any stationary quantum state.

Lewis de Broglie offered what became the contemporary solution to this problem. He proposed

that the electron has wave-like properties.

9

The electron does not accelerate around the nucleus; but rather,

that it encircles it in the form of a standing wave. A particle like photon is emitted as these standing waves

instantaneously collapse. The emitted photon exists as both a wave and a particle. These properties are

mutually exclusive and their simultaneous emergence is a paradox.

In an attempt to reconcile some of these difficulties Bohr introduced the principle of

complementarity. It states that the wave like frequency of a quantum wave exists, in some mysterious way,

as a complement to its particle-like quantum of energy. This solution attempted to describe the quantum

condition and in the process introduced many intractable problems.

The de Broglie wave is a curious mathematical formulation that shrinks and swells with speed. It

has no classical analog. No explanation was provided as to why the undulating de Broglie waves do not

continuously leak energy through a process of radiation. The problem of the stability of the atom was, in

effect, transferred from the stationary quantum state to the de Broglie wave. Max Born’s Copenhagen

interpretation attempted to get around these difficulties and stated that matter’s de Broglie wave is not

real.

10

According to this interpretation the matter wave is a subjective construct of probability that exists

only within a mathematical configuration space. Albert Einstein rejected the subjective nature of this

construct and believed until his death that the theory of quantum mechanics was not complete.

11

In the late 20

th

Century Frank Znidarsic observed a speed within some cold fusion and

gravitomagnetic experiments. He discovered that speed is that of mechanical wave propagation within the

nucleus, henceforth referred to as “sound”. He produced a classical model of quantum reality that includes

both the atomic spectra and this speed. He discovered that the quantum condition is the result of a classical

impedance match that occurs when the speed of light within the electronic structure of the atom equals the

speed of sound within its nuclear structure.

THE OBSERVABLES

Thermal energy, nuclear transmutations, and a few high energy particles have reportedly been

produced during cold fusion experiments. The transmutation of heavy elements has also been

reported.

12,13,14

The name Low Level Nuclear Reactions is now used to describe the process. The process

was renamed to include the reported transmutation of heavy elements.

According to contemporary theory heavy element transmutations can only progress at energies in

the millions of electron volts. The available energy at room temperature is only a fraction of an electron

volt. These experimental results do not fit within the confines of the contemporary theoretical constructs.

They have been widely criticized on this basis. These experiments have produced very little, or no

radiation. The lack of high energy radiation is also a source of contention.

Nuclear reactions can proceed without producing radiation under a condition where the range of

the nuclear force is extended. The process of cold fusion may require a radical restructuring of the range

and strength of the natural forces. The condition of the active nuclear environment provides some clues:

Low Level Nuclear reactions proceed in a domain of 50 nanometers.

15,

They have a positive thermal

coefficient.

16

The product of the domain size and the thermal frequency is one million meters per second.

Equation #1 expresses this speed as the product of the circumference of the active domain and

the thermal frequency. The formulation expresses the thermal frequency as a fraction n of the Compton

frequency. The speed V

t

is that that of sound within the dissolved deuterium.

(1)

) / )( 2 ( n fc nr V

p t

t =

The gravitational experiments of Eugene Podkletnov involved the 3 megahertz stimulation of a 1/3

of a meter superconducting disk. These experiments reportedly produced a strong gravitational anomaly.

17,

18,

19

,

20

The results also do not appear to fit within the contemporary scientific construct. They have been

widely criticized. It is assumed that the generation of a strong local gravitational field violates the principle

of the conservation of energy.

The strength of the electromagnetic field can be amplified with the use of a conductor. The

existence of a gravitomagnetic field amplifier no more violates the principle of the conservation of energy

than does the existence of a conductor; like iron, which amplifies an electromagnetic field. The geometry

of the superconducting structure provides collaborating information. The product of the disk diameter and

the stimulation frequency expresses, as in the case with cold fusion, a speed of one meter million meters

per second. This speed V

t

may be associated with optical phonons within the superconductive structure.

21

THE SPEED OF SOUND WITHIN THE NUCLEUS

The energy produced by two interacting charges is expressed by Coulomb’s Equation #2.

(2)

) / 1 (

4

2

2

r

e

Q

E

o

t

=

In order to analyze V

t

this author regrouped the constants in Coulomb’s formulation, Equation #2,

into the form a spring, Equation #3. The reformulation expresses both the electron’s particle-like and the

electron’s wave-like properties. It suggests that the electrical force is produced as the particle-like

displacement at the classical radius of the electron 2r

p

disrupts the field of another electron. The force

produced by the disruption is similar to the force produced by a bubble in water. The displacement r

p

may

be a classical effect that is associated with a universal minimum of stray capacitance.

(3)

2

) 2 (

2

1

p e

r K E

÷

=

The variable classical elastic constant of the electron K

-e

emerged from this redistribution. It is

expressed in equation #4. The electron’s wave-like properties are an effect of its classical elastic constant

K

-e

.

(4)

r

F

K

e

max

=

÷

The elastic constant of the electron’s field equals the elastic constant of the strong nuclear force at

points where the expansive electromagnetic force balances the compressive strong nuclear force. Under

this condition the electrical elastic constant K

-e

may be employed to produce the harmonic motion of a

nucleon. The electrical force is expelled from the nucleus, does not act between nucleons, and was not

factored into the calculation. The frequency of a nuclear mechanical wave, at small displacements, was

produced in Equation #5.

(5)

n

e

t

M

K

F

÷

= t 2 / 1

The elastic constant of the electron was inserted into Equation #5 producing Equation #6. V

t

emerged as a product of the harmonic motion of the nucleons at a displacement equal to twice the Fermi

spacing, r

n,

of the nucleons.

22

The Fermi spacing is a little longer than the radius of a proton as a result of

the close packing of the nucleons.

(6)

n

n

n

t

r

M

r F

V 2

) 2 / (

2 / 1

max

t =

The speed of sound within the nucleus was produced. This speed is also exhibited across atomic

distances within the active regions of cold fusion experiments (Ref. Equation #1). The quantum condition

is established through the action of V

t

.

THE ENERGY OF THE PHOTON

Max Planck introduced the quantum and solved the problem of spectral emission. As a

conventional physicist Planck struggled to find a classical solution. Over one hundred years later the

emergence of new observables has enabled Frank Znidarsic to propose one. The quantization of energy

emerges as a classical effect of a condition where the speed of light within the electronic structure of the

atom equals the speed of sound within its nuclear structure. The equalization of speeds aligns the

impedance of the interacting states, through the equalization of the magnetic force components of all four

forces, which are not conserved in the currently accepted laws of physics. This impedance match allows

energy to be exchanged, without reflection, and the quantum transition can progress. The speed of

quantum transition was expressed as the product of frequency and wavelength in Equation (7).

(7)

ì f V

t

=

The frequency of the emitted photon is not that of any stationary atomic state. It is, however,

directly coupled with the frequency of the transitional atomic state f. The energy of a photon emerges as an

effect of the interaction of the transitional length ì and an electrical charge. The simultaneous emergence of

both the photon’s frequency and energy is fundamental to Bohr’s principle of complementarity. These

effects reconcile the duality of nature.

Capacitance is a function of geometry. A flat plate capacitor was used, in this analysis, to

determine the capacitance of the transitional quantum state. The capacitance C of a flat plate capacitor of

area A and spacing D is given in Equation (8).

(8)

D

A e

C

o

=

The area swept out by a light wave was set equal to the transitional length ì squared and the

distance between the peaks in the wave’s amplitudes was set to one half of this wavelength. The

capacitance experienced by such a cycle of light is given in Equation (9).

(9)

ì

ì

5 .

2

o

e

C =

The reduction of Equation (9) produced Equation (10). Equation (10) expressed the geometry of

the transitional quantum state in terms of its electrical capacitance.

(10)

ì

o

e C 2 =

Equation (7) was solved for wavelength producing Equation (11).

(11)

f V

t

/ = ì

Equation #11 was inserted into Equation #10 producing Equation #12. Equation #12 expresses the

capacitance of the transitional quantum state in terms of its frequency.

(12)

f

v e

C

t o

2

=

The energy of an electrical charge is expressed in Equation #13.

(13)

C

Q

E

2

2

=

The energy of light wave is a function of geometry of the transitional quantum state. This energy

was qualified through the simultaneous solution of Equations #12 and #13. The result (Equation #14)

describes the energy of a photon. Equations #12 and #13 reveal that this energy varies inversely with

capacitance. The voltage produced by an electrical charge increases as its capacitance decreases. The

energy of a photon is proportionate to the amplitude of this voltage. This analysis has shown that the energy

of both a photon and a classical wave are functions amplitude. The relationship between the photon’s

energy and frequency, which was described by Planck is dependent upon this voltage. The action of the

amplitude of this voltage is fundamental to the principle of quantum correspondence.

(14)

f

v e

Q

E

t o

]

4

[

2

=

The terms within the brackets [ ] equal Planck’s constant. Planck's constant was substituted for

the quantity within the brackets. Einstein’s famous photoelectric relationship was produced.

(15)

hf E =

The energy of a photon is a classical function of its amplitude. This amplitude was expressed in

volts. The photon interacts with matter at points were the speed of sound within the nucleus equals the

speed of light within the electronic environment. The photon exhibits particle like properties at these

points. The action of light, at other points, is that of a wave. The frequency of the emitted photon is not

that of any stationary quantum state, it is that of the transitional quantum state.

The Energy Levels of the Hydrogen Atom

Maxwell’s theory predicts that accelerating electrons will continuously emit electromagnetic

radiation. Bound electrons experience a constant centripetal acceleration; however, they do not

continuously emit energy. An atom’s electrons emit energy at discrete quantum intervals. The quantum

nature of these emissions cannot be accounted for by any existing classical theory. The author proposes that

the quantum structure of the atom is established at points of energetic accessibility. Energetic accessibility

requires the matching of impedances. These points of matching impedances were qualified by setting the

speed of sound in the nuclear environment (ref. Equation #16) equal to the speed of light within the

electronic structure. The speed of light within the electronic structure equals the product of the electron’s

angular frequency and its radius.

(16)

r V

t

e =

Harmonics exist at integer multiples of half the classical radius of the electron. The radius r

p

is

also the electromagnetic radius of the proton. The wavefunction extends for n cycles of this fundamental

length.

(17)

p

e

e

t

nr

M

K

V

÷

÷

=

The variable elastic constant of the electron, as given in Equation #4, was inserted into Equation

#17 producing Equation #18.

(18)

p

e

x

t

nr

M

r F

V

÷

=

) / (

max

Equation (18) was solved for r

x

resulting in (19).

(19)

] [

2

2

max 2

e t

p

x

M V

r F

n r

÷

=

The quantity within the brackets [ ] equals the ground state radius of the hydrogen atom. The

reduction of the terms within the brackets produced Equation #20.

(20)

h x

r n r

+

=

2

The result r

x

equals the principle radii of the hydrogen atom. The principle energy levels of the

hydrogen atom were produced as a magnetic force component amplification condition in which the speed

of a mechanical wave equals the speed of an electromagnetic wave.

This author has described the principle atomic state as a condition where the speed of light within

the electronic structure equals the speed of sound with the nuclear structure. The speed V is inversely

proportional to the inductance and capacitance of the system.

(21)

LC

V

1

o

This author has also described the energy levels of the atoms in terms of an impedance match.

Electrical impedance O is also a function of the capacitance and inductance of the system.

(22)

C L/ = O

A change in the dielectric of a material equally affects the characteristic impedance and the speed

of light. The electrical properties of materials tend to vary and the magnetic properties remain mostly

constant. The principle quantum numbers are effects of a change in the electrical constant. The principle

spectral lines split into several fine lines under the influence of a magnetic field. Arnold Sommerfeld

qualified these fine lines through the introduction of a second quantum number.

23

Equations #21 and #22 diverge under a condition were the magnetic permeability of the material is

varied. States of matching impedance are no longer associated with states of matching speeds. The fine

structure of the atom emerges under this condition. The difference between the length of the longer fine

line and the length of the shorter fine line divided by the length of the longer line yields the fine structure

constant. The origin of this constant has been a mystery. Richard Feynman stated, “Physicists put this

number up on their wall and worry about it.” This author has classically produced the fine structure

constant as the ratio of the transitional speed to the speed of light.

24

(23)

c V

t

/ 2 = o

The Intensity of Spectral Emission

Bohr’s semi-classical atomic model could not account for the intensity of the spectral lines.

Werner Heisenberg arranged the properties of the electron on a matrix. Planck’s empirical constant was

inserted ad-hoc into the formulation as a commutative property of matrix multiplication. Heisenberg’s

solution produced the intensity of the spectral emission.

The particle like solution established the field of quantum physics; however, it did not provide a

visual image of the process. Lewis de Broglie proposed that matter is a wave. Erwin Schrödinger

incorporated de Broglie’s electron waves into a solution that also produced the intensity of spectral

emission. The introduction of the de Broglie wave produced a cleaner solution, but in the process, it

introduced a conceptual problem. How do the discrete properties of matter naturally emerge from a

continuous wave?

Schrödinger proposed that the superposition of an infinite number of waves localized the wave

function. Wave patterns repeat at intervals. The solution suggests that the particle appears at intervals in

remote locations. Matter’s particle nature did not spontaneously emerge from the analysis and Planck’s

empirical constant had to be, once again, injected ad-hoc into the solution.

A particle emerges, from the probability wave, upon the immediate collapse of the wavefunction.

The solution attempted to extract a particle out of a wave and to solve the problem of wave particle duality.

The interpretation did not provide for a mechanism to bind the electron to a state, disclose the whereabouts

of configuration space, or explain how a wavefunction collapses at superluminal velocities.

The great scientists knew nothing of the path of the quantum transition.

25

Their solutions did not

incorporate the probability of transition. Znidarsic claims to have discovered the path of the quantum

transition. His construct is centered upon the probability of transition. The amplitude (displacement) of

vibration at the dimensional frequency of V

t

squared is proportionate to the probability of transition.

the transitional electronic state may be described in terms of its circumferential speed. Equation

#24 describes the spin of a quantum system in terms of the classical speed V

t

.

(24)

t

V r = e

The angular frequency of the electron was determined using its elastic constant. The elastic

constant was determined in Equation #4 from a rearrangement of Coulomb’s equation. Angular frequency

n times the half the classical radius of the electron equals the speed V

t

of the transitional quantum state (ref.

Equation #25).

(25)

p

e

e

nr

M

K

r f

÷

÷

= ) 2 ( t

The elastic constant of the electron was expressed, in Equation #26, in terms of a harmonic n of

the classical radius of the electron.

(26)

p

e

nr

F

K

2

max

=

÷

The elastic constant of the electron was placed into Equation #25 resulting in Equation #27.

(27)

p

e

p

nr

M

nr F

r f

÷

=

) 2 / (

) 2 (

max

t

Equation #26 was squared, reduced, and solved for r. Equation #28 expresses the amplitude of the

transitional quantum state squared. This amplitude equals the probability of transition.

(28)

2 2

max 2

4 f M

nr F

r

e

p

÷

=

t

The Compton frequency of the stationary electron was determined in Equation #29.

(29)

p

t

c

r

V

f

t 2

=

Equation #29 and was factored into Equation #28. The solution, Equation #30, incorporates both

the transitional and the stationary states.

(30)

f M V

nr F

r

e t

p

÷

=

t 2

2

max 2

The constants in Equation #30 were regrouped producing Equation #31.

(31)

)

8

](

4

[

2

2

max 2

f M

n

V

r F

r

e

t

p

÷

=

t

t

The factors within the [ ] equal Planck's constant. The reduction of the terms within the brackets

produced Equation #32, the formulation for the amplitude of electronic harmonic motion squared.

(32)

f M

nh

r

e ÷

=

2

2

8t

This formulation expresses the intensity of the light emitted by the harmonic motion of an

electron. The intensity of this emission is a function of the probability of transition. The probability of

transition is proportionate to the square of amplitude of the transitional quantum state. The solution

requires no probability waves, special configuration spaces, or paradoxical quantum principles.

26

A CONVERGENCE OF THE MOTION CONSTANTS

It has been shown that the quantum condition arises through the action of an impedance match,

which is necessary fully transfer of energy from one state to another, which is observed in photon

absorption and emission. This match strongly couples electromagnetic and mechanical waves. This author

suggests that impedance matching property of the transitional quantum state extends to all of the natural

forces. The magnetic components of each of the natural forces interact strongly and at range during the

quantum transition.

This author’s theorem, “The constants of the motion tend toward the electromagnetic in a Bose-

Einstein condensate that is stimulated at a dimensional frequency of 1.094 megahertz-meters”, describes

this strong magnetic force component interaction. The experimental results of cold fusion experiments also

support the idea that the magnetic components of the natural forces interact strongly. These reactions

proceed without producing a commensurate amount radiation. No radiation will be emitted after the range

of the magnetic component of the strong nuclear force; the spin-orbit force, has been extended to that of the

electromagnetic.

The process of quantum transition also supports the idea that a convergence in the motion

constants of the magnetic components occurs. The reconfiguration of a state is facilitated through the

strong interaction of natural forces. The frequency of an emitted photon, for example, is not that of any

stationary quantum state. The frequency of the emitted photon is an effect of a strong interaction of the

natural forces.

The collapse of the wavefunction and the non-local nature of the quantum realm also support the

idea that a convergence in the motion constants occurs. The convergence of the motion constants of the

magnetic components of the forces within the transitional quantum state increases the system’s negative

gravitational potential to the point where it equals its positive energy. The composite zero energy

wavefunction is able to immediately collapse.

The flow of the mathematics within this paper also supports the idea that a convergence in the

motion constants occurs. The radius r

p

rests at the point where the intensity of a proton’s electrical field

equals the intensity of its strong nuclear field. This equalization strongly couples the speed V

t

with both the

electromagnetic and spin-orbit force. The radius 2r

p

is at a point where the electrical force between two

electrons, F

max

, is of the magnitude to induce the gravitational field of the electron. This effect establishes

the energy levels of the atom as points of electromagnetic and gravitomagnetic accessibility.

CONCLUSION

The field of quantum physics revolves around the stationary quantum state. A speed has emerged

from experiments involving low level nuclear reactions. This author, with the use of this speed, has

developed results as a condition of the transitional quantum state. This new understanding suggests that a

macroscopic body may be forced into a state of quantum transition. Trillions of atoms may be adjoined

within a single transitional state. Strong gravitational and long range nuclear forces may be produced. The

use of these strong, long range forces could provide new sources of propulsion, allow for the reduction of

nuclear waste, and lead to the development of new sources of energy.

NOMENCLATURE

F

c

=

1.236 x 10

20

hertz, the Compton frequency

F

max

= 29.05 Newtons, the electrical charge force maximum

M

-e

=

9.109 x 10

-31

kg, the mass of the electron

M

n

= 1.67 x 10

-27

kg, the mass of a nucleon

2r

p

= 2.818 x 10

-15

meters, the classical radius of the electron

r

+h

= .529 x 10

-10

meters, the radius of the hydrogen atom

V

t

= 1.094 x 10

6

meters per second, the transitional speed

r

n

= 1.36 x 10

-15

meters , the nuclear Fermi spacing

n = an integer harmonic

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Biography

Frank Znidarsic graduated from the University of Pittsburgh with a B.S. in Electrical Engineering

in 1975. He is currently a Registered Professional Engineer in the state of Pennsylvania. In the

1980’s, he went on to obtain an A.S in Business Administration at St. Francis College. He

studied physics at the University of Indiana in the 1990’s. Frank has been employed as an

Engineer in the steel, mining, and utility industries. Most recently he was contracted by Alstom

Power to start up power plants in North Carolina.

The lack of high energy radiation is also a source of contention. as in the case with cold fusion. The geometry of the superconducting structure provides collaborating information. It is assumed that the generation of a strong local gravitational field violates the principle of the conservation of energy. (2) E 2Q 2 (1 / r ) 4eo . a speed of one meter million meters per second. (1) Vt (2nrp )( fc / n) The gravitational experiments of Eugene Podkletnov involved the 3 megahertz stimulation of a 1/3 of a meter superconducting disk. like iron. nuclear transmutations. They have a positive thermal coefficient. The existence of a gravitomagnetic field amplifier no more violates the principle of the conservation of energy than does the existence of a conductor. 18.17. According to contemporary theory heavy element transmutations can only progress at energies in the millions of electron volts.14 The name Low Level Nuclear Reactions is now used to describe the process.16 The product of the domain size and the thermal frequency is one million meters per second.13. The condition of the active nuclear environment provides some clues: Low Level Nuclear reactions proceed in a domain of 50 nanometers. The transmutation of heavy elements has also been reported. Equation #1 expresses this speed as the product of the circumference of the active domain and the thermal frequency. The strength of the electromagnetic field can be amplified with the use of a conductor. or no radiation. The process of cold fusion may require a radical restructuring of the range and strength of the natural forces. The product of the disk diameter and the stimulation frequency expresses. These experiments reportedly produced a strong gravitational anomaly. The results also do not appear to fit within the contemporary scientific construct. This speed Vt may be associated with optical phonons within the superconductive structure. The formulation expresses the thermal frequency as a fraction n of the Compton frequency. The process was renamed to include the reported transmutation of heavy elements. and a few high energy particles have reportedly been produced during cold fusion experiments. THE OBSERVABLES Thermal energy. These experiments have produced very little. which amplifies an electromagnetic field. The available energy at room temperature is only a fraction of an electron volt. The speed Vt is that that of sound within the dissolved deuterium. These experimental results do not fit within the confines of the contemporary theoretical constructs.impedance match that occurs when the speed of light within the electronic structure of the atom equals the speed of sound within its nuclear structure. They have been widely criticized on this basis. Nuclear reactions can proceed without producing radiation under a condition where the range of the nuclear force is extended.12. 19 20 . They have been widely criticized. 21 THE SPEED OF SOUND WITHIN THE NUCLEUS The energy produced by two interacting charges is expressed by Coulomb’s Equation #2. 15.

The displacement r p may be a classical effect that is associated with a universal minimum of stray capacitance. of the nucleons. does not act between nucleons. V t emerged as a product of the harmonic motion of the nucleons at a displacement equal to twice the Fermi spacing. This speed is also exhibited across atomic distances within the active regions of cold fusion experiments (Ref. The quantum condition is established through the action of Vt . The force produced by the disruption is similar to the force produced by a bubble in water. The reformulation expresses both the electron’s particle-like and the electron’s wave-like properties. Under this condition the electrical elastic constant K-e may be employed to produce the harmonic motion of a nucleon. and was not factored into the calculation. The frequency of a nuclear mechanical wave. (4) Ke Fmax r The elastic constant of the electron’s field equals the elastic constant of the strong nuclear force at points where the expansive electromagnetic force balances the compressive strong nuclear force. (3) E 1 K e (2rp ) 2 2 The variable classical elastic constant of the electron K-e emerged from this redistribution. Equation #3. The electron’s wave-like properties are an effect of its classical elastic constant K-e. (5) Ft 1 / 2 Ke Mn The elastic constant of the electron was inserted into Equation #5 producing Equation #6. . into the form a spring.In order to analyze Vt this author regrouped the constants in Coulomb’s formulation. It is expressed in equation #4. It suggests that the electrical force is produced as the particle-like displacement at the classical radius of the electron 2rp disrupts the field of another electron. (6) Vt 1/ 2 ( Fmax / 2rn ) 2rn Mn The speed of sound within the nucleus was produced. at small displacements. was produced in Equation #5. The electrical force is expelled from the nucleus. Equation #2. Equation #1). rn. 22 The Fermi spacing is a little longer than the radius of a proton as a result of the close packing of the nucleons.

The capacitance C of a flat plate capacitor of area A and spacing D is given in Equation (8). (10) C 2eo Equation (7) was solved for wavelength producing Equation (11). As a conventional physicist Planck struggled to find a classical solution. (7) Vt f The frequency of the emitted photon is not that of any stationary atomic state. The quantization of energy emerges as a classical effect of a condition where the speed of light within the electronic structure of the atom equals the speed of sound within its nuclear structure. to determine the capacitance of the transitional quantum state. The equalization of speeds aligns the impedance of the interacting states. which are not conserved in the currently accepted laws of physics. The energy of a photon emerges as an effect of the interaction of the transitional length and an electrical charge. without reflection.5 The reduction of Equation (9) produced Equation (10). The speed of quantum transition was expressed as the product of frequency and wavelength in Equation (7). These effects reconcile the duality of nature. and the quantum transition can progress. Capacitance is a function of geometry. The simultaneous emergence of both the photon’s frequency and energy is fundamental to Bohr’s principle of complementarity.THE ENERGY OF THE PHOTON Max Planck introduced the quantum and solved the problem of spectral emission. (9) C eo 2 . (11) . (8) C eo A D The area swept out by a light wave was set equal to the transitional length squared and the distance between the peaks in the wave’s amplitudes was set to one half of this wavelength. This impedance match allows energy to be exchanged. It is. however. The capacitance experienced by such a cycle of light is given in Equation (9). in this analysis. A flat plate capacitor was used. Over one hundred years later the emergence of new observables has enabled Frank Znidarsic to propose one. directly coupled with the frequency of the transitional atomic state f. through the equalization of the magnetic force components of all four forces. Equation (10) expressed the geometry of the transitional quantum state in terms of its electrical capacitance.

This energy was qualified through the simultaneous solution of Equations #12 and #13. The result (Equation #14) describes the energy of a photon. The action of the amplitude of this voltage is fundamental to the principle of quantum correspondence. (13) E Q2 2C The energy of light wave is a function of geometry of the transitional quantum state. (12) C 2eovt f The energy of an electrical charge is expressed in Equation #13. The voltage produced by an electrical charge increases as its capacitance decreases. This amplitude was expressed in volts. This analysis has shown that the energy of both a photon and a classical wave are functions amplitude. The relationship between the photon’s energy and frequency. which was described by Planck is dependent upon this voltage. Equation #12 expresses the capacitance of the transitional quantum state in terms of its frequency. The photon interacts with matter at points were the speed of sound within the nucleus equals the . The energy of a photon is proportionate to the amplitude of this voltage. Planck's constant was substituted for the quantity within the brackets. (15) E hf The energy of a photon is a classical function of its amplitude. Vt / f Equation #11 was inserted into Equation #10 producing Equation #12. Einstein’s famous photoelectric relationship was produced. (14) E [ Q2 ]f 4eo vt The terms within the brackets [ ] equal Planck’s constant. Equations #12 and #13 reveal that this energy varies inversely with capacitance.

(16) Vt r Harmonics exist at integer multiples of half the classical radius of the electron. The action of light. (19) rx n 2 [ Fmax rp 2 2 Vt M e ] The quantity within the brackets [ ] equals the ground state radius of the hydrogen atom.speed of light within the electronic environment. (17) Vt Ke nrp M e The variable elastic constant of the electron. they do not continuously emit energy. however. The speed of light within the electronic structure equals the product of the electron’s angular frequency and its radius. at other points. Bound electrons experience a constant centripetal acceleration. as given in Equation #4. These points of matching impedances were qualified by setting the speed of sound in the nuclear environment (ref. The author proposes that the quantum structure of the atom is established at points of energetic accessibility. is that of a wave. The photon exhibits particle like properties at these points. The Energy Levels of the Hydrogen Atom Maxwell’s theory predicts that accelerating electrons will continuously emit electromagnetic radiation. Energetic accessibility requires the matching of impedances. The frequency of the emitted photon is not that of any stationary quantum state. . The radius r p is also the electromagnetic radius of the proton. it is that of the transitional quantum state. An atom’s electrons emit energy at discrete quantum intervals. The quantum nature of these emissions cannot be accounted for by any existing classical theory. The reduction of the terms within the brackets produced Equation #20. The wavefunction extends for n cycles of this fundamental length. was inserted into Equation #17 producing Equation #18. (18) Vt ( Fmax / rx ) nrp M e Equation (18) was solved for rx resulting in (19). Equation #16) equal to the speed of light within the electronic structure.

The origin of this constant has been a mystery. States of matching impedance are no longer associated with states of matching speeds. The introduction of the de Broglie wave produced a cleaner solution. Erwin Schrödinger incorporated de Broglie’s electron waves into a solution that also produced the intensity of spectral emission. Lewis de Broglie proposed that matter is a wave. however. but in the process. “Physicists put this number up on their wall and worry about it. The principle energy levels of the hydrogen atom were produced as a magnetic force component amplification condition in which the speed of a mechanical wave equals the speed of an electromagnetic wave. The particle like solution established the field of quantum physics. The difference between the length of the longer fine line and the length of the shorter fine line divided by the length of the longer line yields the fine structure constant. Richard Feynman stated. Werner Heisenberg arranged the properties of the electron on a matrix. The principle quantum numbers are effects of a change in the electrical constant. Electrical impedance is also a function of the capacitance and inductance of the system. The principle spectral lines split into several fine lines under the influence of a magnetic field. (22) L/C A change in the dielectric of a material equally affects the characteristic impedance and the speed of light. The electrical properties of materials tend to vary and the magnetic properties remain mostly constant.” This author has classically produced the fine structure constant as the ratio of the transitional speed to the speed of light. The speed V is inversely proportional to the inductance and capacitance of the system. 23 Equations #21 and #22 diverge under a condition were the magnetic permeability of the material is varied. This author has described the principle atomic state as a condition where the speed of light within the electronic structure equals the speed of sound with the nuclear structure. Heisenberg’s solution produced the intensity of the spectral emission. The fine structure of the atom emerges under this condition. it .24 (23) 2Vt / c The Intensity of Spectral Emission Bohr’s semi-classical atomic model could not account for the intensity of the spectral lines. Planck’s empirical constant was inserted ad-hoc into the formulation as a commutative property of matrix multiplication. it did not provide a visual image of the process. (21) V 1 LC This author has also described the energy levels of the atoms in terms of an impedance match. Arnold Sommerfeld qualified these fine lines through the introduction of a second quantum number.(20) rx n r h 2 The result rx equals the principle radii of the hydrogen atom.

upon the immediate collapse of the wavefunction. from the probability wave. Equation #25). the transitional electronic state may be described in terms of its circumferential speed. once again. The solution suggests that the particle appears at intervals in remote locations. reduced. The elastic constant was determined in Equation #4 from a rearrangement of Coulomb’s equation. in Equation #26. This amplitude equals the probability of transition.25 Their solutions did not incorporate the probability of transition. The interpretation did not provide for a mechanism to bind the electron to a state. disclose the whereabouts of configuration space. How do the discrete properties of matter naturally emerge from a continuous wave? Schrödinger proposed that the superposition of an infinite number of waves localized the wave function. (27) (2f )r ( Fmax / 2nrp ) M e nrp Equation #26 was squared. (24) r Vt The angular frequency of the electron was determined using its elastic constant. (25) (2f )r K e nrp M e The elastic constant of the electron was expressed. Wave patterns repeat at intervals. Angular frequency n times the half the classical radius of the electron equals the speed V t of the transitional quantum state (ref. (28) .introduced a conceptual problem. His construct is centered upon the probability of transition. Znidarsic claims to have discovered the path of the quantum transition. The solution attempted to extract a particle out of a wave and to solve the problem of wave particle duality. or explain how a wavefunction collapses at superluminal velocities. The amplitude (displacement) of vibration at the dimensional frequency of Vt squared is proportionate to the probability of transition. (26) K e Fmax 2nrp The elastic constant of the electron was placed into Equation #25 resulting in Equation #27. Equation #28 expresses the amplitude of the transitional quantum state squared. A particle emerges. The great scientists knew nothing of the path of the quantum transition. injected ad-hoc into the solution. in terms of a harmonic n of the classical radius of the electron. and solved for r. Matter’s particle nature did not spontaneously emerge from the analysis and Planck’s empirical constant had to be. Equation #24 describes the spin of a quantum system in terms of the classical speed V t.

The solution requires no probability waves. The reduction of the terms within the brackets produced Equation #32. or paradoxical quantum principles. incorporates both the transitional and the stationary states. Equation #30. The solution. The probability of transition is proportionate to the square of amplitude of the transitional quantum state. (29) fc Vt 2rp Equation #29 and was factored into Equation #28. (30) r2 Fmax nrp 2 2Vt M e f The constants in Equation #30 were regrouped producing Equation #31. 26 A CONVERGENCE OF THE MOTION CONSTANTS It has been shown that the quantum condition arises through the action of an impedance match. (32) r2 nh 8 M e f 2 This formulation expresses the intensity of the light emitted by the harmonic motion of an electron. The intensity of this emission is a function of the probability of transition. . the formulation for the amplitude of electronic harmonic motion squared. This match strongly couples electromagnetic and mechanical waves.r2 Fmax nrp 4 2 M e f 2 The Compton frequency of the stationary electron was determined in Equation #29. The magnetic components of each of the natural forces interact strongly and at range during the quantum transition. This author suggests that impedance matching property of the transitional quantum state extends to all of the natural forces. which is necessary fully transfer of energy from one state to another. (31) r2 [ 4Fmax rp n ]( 2 ) Vt 8 M e f 2 The factors within the [ ] equal Planck's constant. which is observed in photon absorption and emission. special configuration spaces.

No radiation will be emitted after the range of the magnetic component of the strong nuclear force. The radius rp rests at the point where the intensity of a proton’s electrical field equals the intensity of its strong nuclear field. The experimental results of cold fusion experiments also support the idea that the magnetic components of the natural forces interact strongly. Fmax. NOMENCLATURE Fc Fmax M-e Mn 2rp r+h Vt rn n = 1. The collapse of the wavefunction and the non-local nature of the quantum realm also support the idea that a convergence in the motion constants occurs. This effect establishes the energy levels of the atom as points of electromagnetic and gravitomagnetic accessibility. The flow of the mathematics within this paper also supports the idea that a convergence in the motion constants occurs. A speed has emerged from experiments involving low level nuclear reactions. the transitional speed = 1. The convergence of the motion constants of the magnetic components of the forces within the transitional quantum state increases the system’s negative gravitational potential to the point where it equals its positive energy. is of the magnitude to induce the gravitational field of the electron. the radius of the hydrogen atom = 1.05 Newtons. and lead to the development of new sources of energy. The radius 2rp is at a point where the electrical force between two electrons. The frequency of the emitted photon is an effect of a strong interaction of the natural forces. The process of quantum transition also supports the idea that a convergence in the motion constants of the magnetic components occurs. the spin-orbit force. with the use of this speed.818 x 10-15 meters. allow for the reduction of nuclear waste. Trillions of atoms may be adjoined within a single transitional state. has been extended to that of the electromagnetic. The composite zero energy wavefunction is able to immediately collapse.109 x 10-31 kg. “The constants of the motion tend toward the electromagnetic in a BoseEinstein condensate that is stimulated at a dimensional frequency of 1. the electrical charge force maximum = 9. The use of these strong. This equalization strongly couples the speed Vt with both the electromagnetic and spin-orbit force. describes this strong magnetic force component interaction. CONCLUSION The field of quantum physics revolves around the stationary quantum state. the classical radius of the electron = . The reconfiguration of a state is facilitated through the strong interaction of natural forces. long range forces could provide new sources of propulsion. the Compton frequency = 29. the nuclear Fermi spacing = an integer harmonic . This new understanding suggests that a macroscopic body may be forced into a state of quantum transition. has developed results as a condition of the transitional quantum state.236 x 1020 hertz.529 x 10-10 meters.094 megahertz-meters”.This author’s theorem. Strong gravitational and long range nuclear forces may be produced. for example. This author. is not that of any stationary quantum state. The frequency of an emitted photon. the mass of the electron = 1. the mass of a nucleon = 2.094 x 106 meters per second.36 x 10-15 meters . These reactions proceed without producing a commensurate amount radiation.67 x 10-27 kg.

Development of our Conception of the Nature and Constitution of Radiation.. The Strange Theory of Light and Matter. and Fujita H. Vol 9. Rev. pp 585-594.G. Annalon der Physik. Band 25. Physikalische Blätter 5 (1949). A Challenge to Modern Science. No. The Statistical Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics. Magnetische Atomfelder und Serienspektren. 47. p 23. 26.780 (1935) 12. What is Quantum Mechanics. Zhang Y. Einstein Albert... Ser. and Klein B. Vol. Gravitational effects on the Magnetic Attenuation of Superconductors. Sommerfeld.B. M. Ritz. 1964 11. 11-14 4. Physics Essays. Vol.org/abs/gr-qc/0003011 20.net/science/znidarsic. Physica C. Vol. Gorden F. 3 1083 23. 78. 2nd International Conference on Low Energy Nuclear Reactions. Phys. Volume 22. Roses.G. Modarres. light and Spectra. Can Quantum-Mechanical Description of Physical Reality Be Considered Complete. and N. p. 1988 25. Infinite Energy. vol 203. 660–696. Use of CR-39 in Pd/D co-deposition Experiments. (1996). 1981 2. Philosophical Magazine. Physical Review B..wbabin. Max Born. (1909) 7. 1975) 22. L Hartmann. 4. Li Ning and Torr D. Annalen der Physik. Mosier-Boss. Arata Y. 19.pdf .7 (2002) 17. Dec 2005. (1992) 18. Naturwissenschaften (1924). http://www. Letters (July 14. No. Thesis. Robert Bunsen. A. The General Journal of Physics. and Forsley L. Henry Crew. 4. Vol. 1908.REFERENCES 1. A Einstein. Recherches sur la théorie des quanta (Researches on the quantum theory). Intense deuterium nuclear Fusion of Pycnodeuterium-Lumps Coagulated Locally within highly Deuterated Atomic Clusters. Joseph von Fraunhofer. Papaconstantopoulus D. Planck Max. deMathos C. (1995) 15. Richard Feynman. 2 (June 2002). W. Miley George H. Lett. p 553. Szpak S. 1987 Europhys. Johann Jakob Balmer. De Witt Bristol Brac. On the Law of the Distribution of Energy in the Normal Spectrum. and Levi A. Znidarsic Frank. Series 6.is the magic domain that produces a detectable cold fusion reaction" 16. 6. I. (1901). page 189. 1996 26. Ayer Publishing.D. A Reconciliation of Quantum Physics and Special Relativity. Rev... pp 1-25 (1913) 8. Nuclear Transmutations in Thin-Film Nickel Coatings Undergoing Electrolysis. A Possibility of Gravitational Force Shielding by Bulk YBa2Cu307-x Superconductor. (1999) "50 nano-meters . The Lex Foundation.. Journal of the American Chemical Society. 1900 3. Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Paris. 21. #9. Podolsky. 40. A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field. Storms Edmond. Physikalische Zeitschrift 22. Coupling of Gravitational and Electromagnetism in the Weak Field Approximation. Vol 46. (2007) 14..E. European Journal of Applied Physics. (1865) 9.. 1924 10. Podkletnov E. Reiss Harrald. The Journal of Scientific Exploration. Cold Fusion. B. Bernard Cohen. 777 . http://arxiv.. pp 441-444 (1992). On the Constitution of Atoms and Molecules. 155. 16. No. 12 1047-9 24. Anomalies Observed During the Cool-Down of High Temperature Superconductors. 5. A. 293-303. M. Superconductivity in Palladium-Hydrogen Systems. Principles of the Quantum Theory and the Bohr Atomic Model. Maxwell James Clerk.P. Momentum Distributions of Nuclear Matter. Nobel Lectures. Tajmar M. Issue 29. The Wave theory. Phys. Rothwell Jed. Vierte Folge. Lewis deBroglie. Vol. 13. Bohr Niels.

. and utility industries. Francis College.S. Most recently he was contracted by Alstom Power to start up power plants in North Carolina. he went on to obtain an A. mining.Biography Frank Znidarsic graduated from the University of Pittsburgh with a B. Frank has been employed as an Engineer in the steel. In the 1980’s. He is currently a Registered Professional Engineer in the state of Pennsylvania.S in Business Administration at St. He studied physics at the University of Indiana in the 1990’s. in Electrical Engineering in 1975.

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