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Katz Index of Independence in Activities of Daily Living

Activities
Points (1 or 0) BATHING Points: __________ DRESSING Points: __________ TOILETING

Independence
(1 Point) NO supervision, direction or personal assistance
(1 POINT) Bathes self completely or needs help in bathing only a single part of the body such as the back, genital area or disabled extremity (1 POINT) Get clothes from closets and drawers and puts on clothes and outer garments complete with fasteners. May have help tying shoes. (1 POINT) Goes to toilet, gets on and off, arranges clothes, cleans genital area without help. bed or chair unassisted. Mechanical transfer aids are acceptable (1 POINT) Exercises complete self control over urination and defecation. into mouth without help. Preparation of food may be done by another person.

Dependence
(0 Points) WITH supervision, direction, personal assistance or total care
(0 POINTS) Need help with bathing more than one part of the body, getting in or out of the tub or shower. Requires total bathing (0 POINTS) Needs help with dressing self or needs to be completely dressed.

Points: __________ (1 POINT) Moves in and out of TRANSFERRING Points: __________ CONTINENCE

(0 POINTS) Needs help transferring to the toilet, cleaning self or uses bedpan or commode. (0 POINTS)Needs help in moving from bed to chair or requires a complete transfer. (0 POINTS) Is partially or totally incontinent of bowel or bladder (0 POINTS) Needs partial or total help with feeding or requires parenteral feeding.

Points: __________ (1 POINT) Gets food from plate FEEDING Points: __________ Total Points: ________ Score of 6 = High, Patient is independent. Score of 0 = Low, patient is very dependent.

WHY. Normal aging changes and health problems frequently show themselves as declines in the functional status of older adults. Decline may place the older adult on a spiral of iatrogenesis leading to further health problems. One of the best ways to evaluate the health status of older adults is through functional assessment which provides objective data that may indicate future decline or improvement in health status, allowing the nurse to intervene appropriately.

BEST TOOL: The Katz Index of Independence in Activities of Daily Living, commonly referred to as the Katz ADL, is the most appropriate instrument to assess functional status as a measurement of the client's ability to perform activities of daily living independently. Clinicians typically use the tool to detect problems in performing activities of daily living and to plan care accordingly. The index ranks adequacy of performance in the six functions of bathing, dressing, toileting, transferring, continence, and feeding. Clients are scored yes/no for independence in each of the six functions. A score of 6 indicates full function, 4 indicates moderate impairment, and 2 or less indicates severe functional impairment. TARGET POPULATION: The instrument is most effectively used among older adults in a variety of care settings, when baseline measurements, taken when the client is well, are compared to periodic or subsequent measures. VALIDITY/RELIABILITY: In the thirty-five years since the instrument has been developed, it has been modified and simplified and different approaches to scoring have been used. However, it has consistently demonstrated its utility in evaluating functional status in the elderly population. Although no formal reliability and validity reports could be found in the literature, the tool is used extensively as a flag signaling functional capabilities of older adults in clinical and home environments. STRENGTHS AND LIMITATIONS: The Katz ADL tool assesses basic activities of daily living. It does not assess more advanced activities of daily living. Katz developed another scale for instrumental activities of daily living such as heavy housework, shopping, managing finances and telephoning. Although the Katz ADL index is sensitive to changes in declining health status, the tool is limited in its ability to measure small increments of change seen in the rehabilitation of older adults. A full comprehensive geriatric assessment should follow when appropriate. The Katz inventory is very useful in creating a common language about patient function for all practitioners involved in overall care planning and discharge planning.

Barthel Index
What is the Barthel Index? The Barthel Index consists of 10 items that measure a person's daily functioning specifically the activities of daily living and mobility. The items include feeding, moving from wheelchair to bed and return, grooming, transferring to and from a toilet, bathing, walking on level surface, going up and down stairs, dressing, continence of bowels and bladder. How is the Barthel Index used? The assessment can be used to determine a baseline level of functioning and can be used to monitor improvement in activities of daily living over time. The items are weighted according to a scheme developed by the authors. The person receives a score based on whether they have received help while doing the task. The scores for each of the items are summed to create a total score. The higher the score the more "independent" the person. Independence means that the person needs no assistance at any part of the task. If a persons does about 50% independently then the "middle" score would apply. In the United Kingdom quite frequently the 5, 10 and 15 scores are substituted by 1, 2, and 3. This gives a potential maximum of 20 rather than 100.

Example form:
Patient Name: __________________ Rater: ____________________ Date: Activity Feeding 0 = unable 5 = needs help cutting, spreading butter, etc., or requires modified diet 10 = independent Bathing 0 = dependent 5 = independent (or in shower) Grooming 0 = needs to help with personal care 5 = independent face/hair/teeth/shaving (implements provided) Dressing 0 = dependent 0 / / : Score

10

0 5

5 10

5 = needs help but can do about half unaided 10 = independent (including buttons, zips, laces, etc.) Bowels 0 = incontinent (or needs to be given enemas) 5 = occasional accident 10 = continent Bladder 0 = incontinent, or catheterized and unable to manage alone 5 = occasional accident 10 = continent Toilet Use 0 = dependent 5 = needs some help, but can do something alone 10 = independent (on and off, dressing, wiping) Transfers (bed to chair and back) 0 = unable, no sitting balance 5 = major help (one or two people, physical), can sit 10 = minor help (verbal or physical) 15 = independent Mobility (on level surfaces) 0 = immobile or < 50 yards 5 = wheelchair independent, including corners, > 50 yards 10 = walks with help of one person (verbal or physical) > 50 yards 15 = independent (but may use any aid; for example, stick) > 50 yards Stairs 0 = unable 5 = needs help (verbal, physical, carrying aid) 10 = independent TOTAL (0 - 100)

10

10

10

10

15

10

15

10

________

Metro Manila Development Screening Test (MMDST)


Definition

Simple and clinically useful tool To determine early serious developmental delays Dr. William K. Frankenburg Modified and standardized by Dr. Phoebe D. Williams DDST to MMDST Developed for health professionals (MDs, RNs, etc) It is not an intelligence test It is a screening instrument to determine if childs development is within normal Children 6 years and below

Purposes

Measures developmental delays Evaluates 4 aspects of development

Aspects of development

Personal-social Fine-motor adaptive Language Gross motor behavior