MUH 2512 World Music Dr.

Bakan Exam #2 (“Final” exam) Study Guide Chapters of text covered: 9, 10, 11, and 13 Format: The exam in total includes 100 questions. 34 of these are listening questions based on 21 musical examples that will be played in class. The remainder of the 66 questions will be divided about evenly among the materials of the four chapters studied (i.e., 16-17 questions each pertaining to Chapters 9, 10, 11, and 13, respectively). The following is a detailed breakdown of the contents of the exam that is intended to guide you in your studies: I) Listening: • Again, there are 21 examples generating 34 listening questions. Examples generating two or more questions are generally those linked to Guided Listening Experience (GLE) selections on the CD set; be prepared to answer questions relating to the GLE narratives and quick summaries • Some examples drawn from online Musical Guided Tours and Musical Illustrations are included as well (www.mhhe.com/bakan1). See below for details. • Study hints: For Irish examples, focus on instruments, ornaments, standard song forms, featured bands and performers on the CD tracks, “markers” of traditional vs. neo-traditional vs. post-traditional musical styles. For African examples, focus on instruments, jeliya performance styles (sataro, birimintingo, kumbengo), jeli instruments (kora, koni, bala), featured performers on the CD tracks, “progression” of kora part in “Okan Bale.” For Latin examples, focus on different kinds of drums (e.g., batá, conga); clave rhythm, tumbao rhythm; featured bandleaders and performers; the different versions of “Oye Como Va” on your CD (featured performers, stylistic distinctions). For Chinese examples, focus on different regional styles of vibrato (Musical Guided Tour), type of zheng used in different pieces (e.g., number of strings, where indicated), baban form, titles of main pieces (e.g., those that are the basis of GLEs), playing techniques in zheng pieces (e.g., two-hand techniques, pianistic influences, etc.), “source” materials of zheng pieces (e.g., Tibetan, Uighur, etc.) and specific applications of those source materials, issues of “minority music” appropriation Examples drawn from: • Chapter 9 Musical Guided Tour (Irish--identify melodic ornament[s]) • CD exs. #2-16, 2-17, 2-18, 2-19, 2-20 (Irish) • CD exs. #2-22, 2-24, 2-25, 2-26 (African) • Online Musical Illustration #25 (Latin) • CD exs. #3-1, 3-2, 3-3, 3,4, 3-5, 3-6, 3-7 (Latin) • Chapter 13 Musical Guided Tour (China—identify regional identify vis-à-vis type of vibrato) • CD exs. #3-20, 3-23, 3-25, 3-27, 3-28, 3-30 II) Chapter 9 (Irish) questions Listening CD#2-16 “The Cuckoo’s Hornpipe” Seamus Ennis

o Instruments: tinwhistle (pennywhistle), Irish wooden flute, low flute o Form: AA’ BB’ o Hornpipe: 2-beat meter o Traditional style CD#2-17 “The First House in Connaught/The Copper Plate Reel” (Medley), Seamus Ennis o Instruments: Uilleann pipes o Traditional: staccato notes (also characteristic of uilleann piping); most elaboration at end o Polyphonic texture produced by Uilleann pipes o 2 reels o Form: AA’BB’ Each reel is played twice (form repeats) CD#2-18 “The Dingle Set” (Medley), The Chieftains o 3 reels: “Far From Home,” “Gladstone,” “The Scartaglen” o Neo-traditional o Instruments: tinwhistle & uilleann pipes (Paddy Moloney), fiddle, irish wooden flute, Irish harp, accordion, concertina, banjo, bodhran o Form: “Far from Home” AABB; “Gladstone” and “The Scartaglen” is AB CD#2-19 “The Emyvale/Ril Gan Ainm/The Three Merry Sisters of Fate” (Medley), Altan o Instruments: Fiddles, flutes, Irish bouzouki, guitar o Neo-traditional-rock, jazz and funk influences in syncopations in guitar and bouzouki parts o 3 reels o Form: AB AB AB for 1st & 3rd tunes; middle tune is AABB played twice CD#2-20 “Gravelwalk” (Medley), Eileen Ivers Group o Post-traditional-electronics CD#2-22 Akan Fontomfrom music, Eyisam Mbensuon (group o Gongon, atumpan, from, eguankoba CD#2-24 “Dounuya” Seckou Keita o Instruments: kora, voice o Jeliya o Kumbengo, birimintingo, sataro CD#2-25 “Atlanta Kaira” Toumani Diabate, Taj Mahal, and ensemble o Instruments: kora, guitar, vocals, koni o Played in a mode called sauta (one of 4 principle modes in Mande music) F G A B C D E F CD#2-26 “Okan Bale” Angelique Kidjo group, with Angelique Kidjo (vocals), Mamadou Diabate (kora) o Lush pop ballad o Form: verse-chorus song o Progression of kora: cascading runs up and down the instrument; birimintingo sections o 1st verse-kora absent o 2nd verse-prominent o 1st chorus-no soloing o 2nd chorus-prominent; waterfall-like birimintingo runs o Takes listener on journey back to Mother Africa CD#3-1 Ritual drumming on the bata drums accompanies sacred songs CD#3-2 Rumba o Palitos-wooden idiophone; plays embellished version of clave rhythm

o Dance style is called rumba guaguanco Cd#3-3 “El Bodeguero” o Cha cha cha o Composer/performer: Enrique Jorrin o Tumbao rhythm played by percussion o Instruments: bongo, congas, guiro, cowbell, maracas CD#3-4 “Sambia” Machito and the Afro-Cubans o Big Band Mambo CD#3-5 “Oye Como Va” by Tito Puente o Instruments: Organ, timbales, congas, guiro, trumpets, trombones, saxophones, flute CD#3-6 “Oye Como Va,” Santana (guitar), Gregg Rolie (Hammond B-3 electronic organ) o Replaced flute & horn riffs with guitar o Fused rock-R&B and cha cha cha rhythms o Horn riffs replaced by improv guitar & organ solos o Same key (a), tempo, lyrics, unison male singing, cha cha cha groove, song form CD#3-20 Performer is Tao Chu Sheng, played on qin CD#3-23 “Autumn Moon over the Han Palace,” Deng Haiqiong (zheng) o Most traditional CD#3-25 “Return of the Fishing Boats” by Lou Shuhua o Tuning: D E F# A B C D CD#3-27 “Spring on Snowy Mountains,” by Fan Shang’e o Conservatory style o Virtuosic piano-style o Tuning: D E G A B D • Basic info on Ireland (political/geographical division of the landmass of Ireland, history of national independence, issues of religion, languages) o “Ireland”: actually Republic of Ireland AND U.K. province of Northern Ireland (our main focus will be Republic) (see chapter opener MAP) o Irish free state founded 1921 o Official Languages (2)  95% English speaking  Irish Gaelic language spoken in concentrated areas called Gaeltacht (map p.153) o 93% Catholic • Potato famine, Irish diaspora, Irish music revival, Radio Eireann o Irish diaspora: Millions of Irish people left Ireland for other lands during the potato famine and subsequent periods o Radio Eireann: Irish national radio station, est. 1926  Strong nationalist symbol for new Irish free state  Big push for Irish music preservation in homeland  Featured performers from all over the island o Irish music revival: 1960s-Growing interactions and cross-pollination between performers of Irish music in Ireland and in the U.S., Canada, England, and other lands yielded many new musical innovations and musicultural developments. • Sean nós, Irish harp, dance tunes and medleys

o Sean nós-“Old way” songs sung in Gaelic  Heart of Irish traditional music, subtle melodic ornamentation, distinctive rhythmic phrasing, emotional expression. o Irish harp- National symbol of Ireland  Dance rhythms:  Jig: 6/8 meter  Hornpipe: 2 beat meter, triplet subdivision of beat, medium to medium-fast tempo, lilting quality from steady alternation of notes of uneven length  Reel: quadruple subdivision of beat Irish traditional music, ceílí, session, traditional/neo-trad/post-trad performance contexts, ornaments and styles of ornamentation (espec. re: Musical Guided Tour) o Domestic gathering: in old days, usually a solo instrumentalist or ad hoc group playing fiddle, pipes, or tinwhistle accompanying dancing o Ceílí: informal social gathering that is normally held at a neighborhood pub or dance hall and involves dancing. o Session (seisiun): informal gathering where musicians join together to play Irish tunes amidst socializing. Old tunes and new tunes are played. Often, does not involve dancing o Performance context: Dancing and music not seen as separate entities o Neo-traditional: 1960s, recordings from all counties produced, large-scale industrialization (food processing and beer/ale)  Youth returning to their roots  Music moved from countryside to pubs, dance halls, and concert halls  Chordal & rhythmic accompaniment  Songs that used to be “common property” now associated with specific arrangements & performers.  Reduced role of dancing  Sean Ó’Riada o Post-traditional: Eileen Ivers o Ornamentations: Roll, cran, treble, cut, triplet Seamus Ennis, Sean Ó’Riada, Ceoltoiri Cualann, Paddy Moloney, The Chieftains, Mairéad Ni Mhaonaigh, Altan, Eileen Ivers o Seamus Ennis: Traditional music, Uillean piper, no formal lessons or Uillean pipe training (little bit from father), could read/write music  Folk music collector for government’s Irish Folklore Commission  1947 appointed Outside Broadcast Officer for Radio Eireann o Traveled around recording top musisicans and broadcasted them; thus, generation of older, rural singers & musicians of all regions became known throughout country  1951 worked for British Broadcasting company  1958: returned Ireland, became cultural icon during 1960s Irish music revival period  1964: Newport Folk Festival perf o Sean Ó’Riada:  innovations: neo-trad style “invented” with combining old solo style with ensemble sound and sophisticated arrangements, changing textures, alternating solos, etc. (see p.

171)  insts.: pipes (renewed status), button box accordion, bodhrán (new role and status), two fiddles, tinwhistle. Sometimes harpsichord too  1960: Organized ensemble Ceoltóirí Cualann-musicians of Dublin o incl. Paddy Moloney [founder/leader of Chieftains], John Kelly [father of James] o Uilleann pipes, 2 fiddles, tinwhistle, button box accordion, bodhrán o Chieftains: Imerged from Ceoltóirí Cualann  Led by Uilleann pipe master Paddy Moloney o Altan: Founded by Mairéad Ni Mhaonaigh  Re: this tight, ensemble sound, carefully planned out, with advanced harmonic progressions and such, old Gaelic saying “It’s not the same, but it’s just as nice” applies when comparing to Ennis, etc. o Eileen Ivers: No limit to breaking of conventional boundaries of Irish music traditions except music remains rooted in Irish traditional music  Born 1965, Bronx, to Irish immigrant parents; grew up in vibrant Irish/multicultural neigborhood (read or refer to quote by McCourt, p. 180)  9-time All-Ireland Fiddling champion; featured fiddler for Riverdance; performs with her own bands and with everyone from The Chieftains (photo, p. 172) to the London Symphony. Uilleann pipes (construction, pieces featuring, performers, musical functions of the various pipes), tinwhistle, fiddle, bodhrán, other instruments o Tinwhistle (pennywhistle): small, end-blown flute with six fingerholes, usually metal (tin), but sometimes wood or plastic. Brought to Ireland from another land o Uillean pipes: form of Irish bagpipe, melodies and chords  pipes provide drones (3 drone pipes)  Tonic pitch is D  4th pipe called chanter plays melody  3 Regulator pipes create chords  Air forced through bellows  “Uillean” means elbow  Performer: Seamus Ennis CD 2-17 “The First House in Connaught/The Copper Plate Reel” (Medley) o Fiddle: Brought to Ireland from another land o Bodhrán: Handheld frame drum with a goat skin heard, elevated status because of Ceoltóirí Cualann o Button box accordion o Low whistle o concertina Stylistic comparison: Seamus Ennis (traditional) vs. Altan (neo-traditional) vs. Ivers (post-traditional) o Ennis  Creating in the moment  spontaneous and loose style o Altan  More planned out

 style very tight unison almost throughout, right down to the ornaments  old Gaelic saying “It’s not the same, but it’s just as nice” o Ivers  International influences (Spanish, African, West Indies, Cuba)  Electronics (violin, bass, synthesizer) • Names of tunes in medleys (especially Ivers “Gravelwalk”) o “Gravelwalk” Medley: “Fermoy Lasses,” “The Noisy Curlew,” “Gravelwalks to Granie” • Features of a medley (Same rhythm or different from one tune to next? Standard song forms? Typical number of tunes?) o All songs same type (i.e. all jigs or all reels) o Form-most common AABB called double reels o Other form AB-single reel • Main features of modern ensemble sound (neo-traditional—bullet list, p. 175) o Performances by groups-combination of melody and chordal/rhythmic accompaniment o Unison ornamented melody o Heterophony-varied versions of single melody o Divided-up melody o Jazz/rock influenced textures-improvisation o Chording instruments (i.e. guitar and Irish bouzouki) o Complex chord progressions (as opposed to older drone techniques) o Jazz, rock, African, Latin, Balkan rhythmic influences o Percussion instruments (drum set, and latin instruments) • Instrumentation, featured musicians (Altan, Ivers band, Chieftains examples) o Altan:  Mairéad Ni Mhaonaigh and Paul O’Shaughnessy—fiddle  Frankie Kennedy—Flute  Ciaran Curran—Irish Bouzouki  Mark Kelly—Guitar o Ivers Band:  Ivers—acoustic fiddle, electric violin  Jerry O’Sullivan—uilleann pipes  Seamus Egan—Irish wooden flute  Bakithi Kumalo—electric bass  Steve Gadd drumset o Chieftains:  Paddy Moloney—tinwhistle, uilleann pipes  Fiddles  Irish harp  Irish wooden flute  Accordion  Concertina (smaller accordion type) III) Chapter 10 (African) questions

River-and-path proverb (name of drum, meaning of proverb, language, drum speech) o Akan proverb of Ghana o Can be perfomed as a recitation or in drum speech  Call-and-response (imitative) between reciter (appellant) and atumpan player o Language composed in: Twi  Tonal language-meaning of words determined by pitch, rhythm and timbre o Atumpan Concept of polyvocality as it applies to musical “conversations” o People alternately speak in turn and all at once. Not just music for its own sake. o Ability of many voices to speak and be heard simultaneously, expressing a unified diversity of views and perspectives, valued in many modes of social/conversational interaction in W. Africa, including the social interaction of music making. This is our musicultural focus Geographical/musicultural foci of the chapter o West Africa/sub-saharan  Ghana  Mande people (instrument-kora; art of the jeliya) Akan, Mande, jeli, jeliya, Fontomfrom (names of drums, which is lead drum, which drums engage in call-and-response, which instruments play more variations and which do more ostinato-based playing, what is time-line [be able to identify in notated form] and what instrument plays it, cultural issues [royal patronage, etc.]) o Jeli/jeliya: Heriditary “praise singer,” or griot, families among the Mande  (pl. jelilu; female jeli=jelimuso [pl. jelimusolo; generic term griot [from French].  Hereditary families (Kouyate, Diabate, Sissoko)  Men sing and play instruments  Women normally specialize in singing  Kandia Kouyate-Most famous  People born into jeli families have exclusive right to play instruments • Devote lives to cultivating jeliya  Praise songs  o Fontomfrom: Akan royal drum ensemble (Ghana)  Sponsored by Akan chiefs for processions, village ceremonies, funerals.  Chief often dances while brandishing royal sword • Assistance watch chief to make sure he does not fall o Considered bad because chief shows vulnerability & weakness  Sometimes makes utterances in “speech mode” of drum language  Call-and-response techniques-played by from and atumpan  Polyrhythms: multiple layers of rhythm (in diff. parts) that imply different beats & meters simultaneously  Instruments: All played with wooden sticks • Gongon bell o Plays time-line rhythm CHECK OUT PATTERN ON PG. 193 • From-pair of drums, tall, low pitch, lead drum

o Play varied rhythms • Atumpan-pair of drums, large but not as tall as from, middle pitched o Play varied rhythms • Eguankoba-pair of drums, thin, tall but not as tall as from, highest pitch o More ostinato Salif Keita, Seckou Keita, Sidiki Diabate, Toumani Diabate, Mamadou Diabate, Angélique Kidjo, Paul Simon, Ladysmith Black Mambazo, Damascus Kafumbe o Salif Keita-“radical royal” in Mande people  Malian-born, world beat superstar  Music blends traditional jeliya , contemporary popular sound, and social & political commentary o Seckou Keita-broke jeli ranks to pursue musical career  Born “mixed heritage” family in South Senegal 1977  Father was a keita (not a jeli family)  Mosther descendant of Sissoko family of the jelilu  Keita-Sissoko mix created ambiguity regarding right to play jeli instr.  Should have not taken up music and lived up to Keita name, but was instead raised in mother’s jeli musical heritage o Sidiki Diabate-original “Kaira” piece associated with him  Wide travels performing “Kaira”  Associated with Mali’s independence movement [from French colonization]-1940s • Eventually arrested by French  Important figure in nationalism movement • National hero after independence in 1960  note also 1971 Ancient Strings album w. Djelimadi Sissoko o Toumani Diabate-son of Sidiki Diabate  Kora virtuoso heard in “Atlanta Kaira”  Develops and cultivates “Kaira” with various recorded versions Ghana, Mali, Benin (also Senegal, Gambia, Paris/London/New York) o Ghana  English official language  About 50% speak a version of Akan language (mainly Twi version)  Akan chiefs used to have control, but now mainly Ghanaian government o Mali  Home to some of Mande people o Paris, London, New York—where many leading Mande kora players of modern era reside o Benin  Angélique Kidjo born and raised  Tiny country between Ghana and Tongo to the W. and Nigeria to the E.  Population = 6 million  Beninese city of Abomey was capital of West African Kingodom of Dahomey  Dahomey Empire rivaled Mande empire during pre-colonial era  Dahomey rulers heavily involved in European slave trade

 Renamed Benin by French in 1975  French official language  Major ethnic groups’ languages of Yoruba and the Fon are widely spoken, too Histories of colonization (nations formerly colonized and by whom) o European colonization beginning 15th century o Ghana achieved independence from Britain in 1957 o Gambia formerly colonized by Britain o Guninea-Bissau formerly colonized by Portugal o Colonization: French (Senegal, Mali, Guinea, Benin) [languages reflect] Musical Africanisms (list, p. 195-96) o Polyphonic textures-multiple layers of instruments/voices o Layed ostinato w/varied repetition o Conversational element-call-and response techniques; dialogue of sound and movement (dance) o Improvisation o Timbral variety-wide range of timbres; instead aiming for “pure” tone, try to manipulate voices/instruments to create “buzzing” sound o Distinctive pitch systems & scales Designated jeli instruments o Kora-21-stringed spike harp chordophone, straight neck, resonator made from a calabash (half gourd)  2 parallel rows of strings pass through notches carved into bridge  Played by holding 2 handgrips on either side of neck and plucks strings with only thumbs & forefingers  Classified as a spike harp and bridge harp o Bala-xylophone-type idiophone  17-21 hard wooden slats (keys) of diff. lengths suspended over wooden frame  Up to 3 octaves-typically 7 notes per octave  Keys have calabash resonators  Played by striking rubber-headed mallets  Played with instrument stationary on a stand or wearing a strap (“marching band” style) o Koni  Bajo-like plucked chordophone  Body/resonator made from hollowed-out, canoe-shaped piece of wood  Neck is round fretless stick  Held horizontally across player’s lap and played like a guitar  4-5 or even 7 strings, various sizes/ranges Nature of “conversation” in Seckou Keita’s “Dounuya” (multiple voices of kora plus singing voice) o “Dounuya” means “the world o 3 kumbengo layers become a choir of 3 kora “voices” weaving in and out of one another o Interaction of Keita’s voice and multiple voices of kora o (1:41-2:14)-layering of kumbengo patterns, birimintingo passages & call-and-response between middle and high kora voices Sataro, kumbengo, birimintingo—What are they? Where do they occur in examples?

o Kumbengo-layed ostinato-based style; accompanies singing  (CD 2-24 “Dounuya” played by kora)  3 layers of different pitch ranges: low (bass), middle, high  Each time patterns repeat, they have variations o Birimintingo-virtuosic melodic flourish  (CD 2-24 “Dounuya” (0:24-0:29) played by kora) o Sataro-improvisatory singing in high range; speechlike in character  (CD 2-24 “Dounuya” (2:15-2:56) played by kora) Mande musical family lineages (espec. re: kora) o Now spans across Mali, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Senegal and Gambia o Spread 3 great waterways: Niger, Senegal and Gambia Rivers o Formerly had an empire  Empire unified by warrior Sunjata Keita in 13th century  Centered south of present-day Bambako  Epic accounts of founding provide texts for much of traditional Mande repertoire o Art of jeliya “Kaira,” “Atlanta Kaira”: history (sociopolitical and musical) o Contemporary reinterpretation of the piece “Kaira” & less off an example of cross-cultural fusion o “Peace” song o Original “Kaira” associated with Sidiki Diabate & independence from French colonial rule beginning in 1940s o Recorded by Toumani Diabate as a tribute to father (Sidiki) Chapter 11 (Latino/American) questions Different definitions of “Latin dance music,” “Latino/American” West African/Spanish “roots” of Cuban musics discussed Drums used in Santeria (Orisha) rituals, drums used in rumba—musicultural features of both genres Charanga (instrumentation, associated musical styles) Son, Cha cha chá, danzón, danzón-mambo, mambo (big band mambo—bullet list, p. 228), salsa, Latin jazz, Latin rock, Latin Dance* (*Tito Puente Jr.) Enrique Jorrin; Arcaño y Sus Maravillas; Tito Puente, Tito Rodriguez, Machito and the Afro-Cubans (“mambo kings) Ethnic and cultural admixture in New York (Cuban, Puerto Rican, Newyorican) and ethnic/cultural identities of main musicians discussed Compare and contrast the various recordings of “Oye Como Va” focused on in the chapter (musical features, instrumentation, historical significance, performers, improvised solos, treatment of the cha cha chá groove, etc.) By-products of commercial success of Santana’s “Oye” (re: career of Tito Puente, pan-Latino identity, etc.) Tito Puente, Carlos Santana, Tito Puente Jr. (biographies, relationships, interconnections musically in “Oye”, issues of identity) Celia Cruz, Rubén Blades, Xavier Cugat, Desi Arnaz

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Chapter 13 Questions (Chinese music) Instruments: zheng (various types, history, performers, compositions, etc.), other East Asian board zither chordophones (koto, kayagum, jatag, dan tranh), pipa, erhu, qin, sheng o Zheng  Oldest forms consisted of 5 silk strings mounted on a bamboo frame  Later-wooden frame and 12 or 13 strings  Evolved into 16 string (3 octaves) or 21 string (4 octaves) • 16 strings sometimes preferred because traditional music only needed 3 octaves  stuff of legend: zheng means “dispute” • Story of two sisters in imperial palace during qin era, breaking of se, 12-string “half” to Korea (became kayagum), 13-string “half” to Japan (became koto) [NOTE: name might just be onomatopoeic  237 BCE (Qin era), first written reference: rural musicians who “beat clay drums and earthen jars, play zheng and slap their thighs to accompany songs”  Took root in diff. areas of Qin • Regional styles emerge o Shaanxi, Henan, Chaozhou  Shaanxi call their zheng approach “Qin zheng style” • The popular music of ancient China o Pipa-brought China through Silk Road  Plucked chordophone with 4 strings  Pear-shaped  Closely associated with zheng starting in Tang dynasty  Accompanied sung poetry, instrumental duets, diff. types of ensembles and performances  Heard in Beijing Opera o Erhu-2 stringed fiddle o Xiao-end-blown bamboo flute o Qin-7 string played by junzi  Solo instrument, often in solitude  Aid to enlightenment, disciplined-thinking, self-reflection  Confucius himself played this o Koto-Japanese relative to zheng; 13 strings o Kayagum-Korean relative to zheng; 12 strings o Jatag-Mongolian relative to zheng o Dan tranh-Vietnamese relative to zheng Basic facts: Han majority, Mandarin language, “ethnic minorities” (Uighur, Tibetan), major cities, conservatories, main historical periods discussed in chapter (imperial dynasties, Republican, initial communist, Cultural Revolution, Period of Openness), important dates o Han majority = 92 % o Mandarin is official language o Zheng also popular in Taiwan and Hong Kong

o Imperial Dynasties  Qin: Zheng took root  Han • Confuciansim est. as foundation of Chinese social order • Zheng played at weddings, banquets, funerals, sometimes on horseback • Zheng accompanied rituals involving singing, acrobatics, dancing • Played by professional court musicians, women, slaves, commoners • Favored by diverse social classes • Ensemble instrument for entertainment purposes  Tang: Era of musical experimentation and cosmopolitanism • Zheng reached it’s apogee • Government music ministry employed 30,000 musicians and dancers from all throughout China • Zheng heard in many different kinds of ensemble • Additional strings added • New playing techniques • Elaborate decorations on zhengs o Silver-engraved wooden frames o Jade bridges • Silk Road-connected China to Central Asia, India, Egypt, and Turkey • Zheng associated with female performers o Female performances promoted by Emperor Xuanzong  Period between Tang and Ming dynasties saw decline in popularity for zheng  Ming: • Large middle class • Zheng standard household item • Regional styles of Chinese opera (xi, xiqu, xiju) • Important instrument in Chinese opera  Qing: • Crystallization of solo playing styles • Shandong, Henan, Shaanxi, Chaozhou, Hakka, Zhejiang styles the main ones. • Baban form o Republican era, 1912-1949  conservatories began to emerge, and ideas about “national music” in China developed then prefigured the modern communist era of music culture  Period of political instability, massive social and cultural reform, with modernization key to reform efforts.  European art music (espec. Romantic, Classical) became symbol of Chinese modernity  Two schools of thought for Chinese musical nationalism: • Wholesale replacement of Chinese music by Western • Reform Chinese music in accordance with modern, nationalistic o Folk music basis

o Liu Tianhua  Zheng & Pipa masters hired as part-time music instructors at conservatories  Western elements: • Standardized tunings • Western harmonies and textures • Modifications to traditional instruments inspired by modern technologies (i.e. piano) Yijing, yun, baban form, gua-zou (and other ornaments) o Ornaments  Gua-zou-glissando • Short gua-zou-sweeping of a few notes • Long gua-zou-“falling water” • Strong gua-zou-heavily accented • Gua-zou with left hand on left side of bridges  Shang hua-yin-Up-glide  Xia hua-yin-Down-glide  Hui hua-yin-Round-glide (pitch goes up then down or vice versa)  Vibrato • Xiao chan-yin-narrow o Region of Shandong province • Da chan-yin-wide o Region of Henan province  Fan yin-Harmonics or overtones o Baban form:  8 phrases  Basic unit of measurement = ban • Consists of 2 beats—ban (strong) and yan (weak) o Yun = regional character of the music o Yijing-designated emotional quality of a composition Confucianism re: music o Started in Han dynasty o Solo zheng tradition started for self-cultivation o Self-cultivation & self-refinement seen as key to development and maintenance of morally virtuous social order on large scale of society o Deference to authority o Codification of behavior across full range of social classes o Music was medium for establishing & sustaining good moral society  Cultivate inner character  Music could mold peoples’ minds and hearts making them more committed serving common good o Gov. regulated musical activities for each social class o Top of Confucian social hierarchy: Junzi or “superior individuals”  Played the qin

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Politics and music relationship historically Chinese Opera: o 4 standard character types:  Male (sheng)  Female (dan)-played by boys or adult female impersonators  Painted face male (jing)  Clown (chou) o Beijing Opera (Peking Opera)-highly stylized  26 ways to laugh  20 diff. types of beards  39 ways of manipulating beard Innovative, distinctive features of main pieces discussed (“Autumn Moon over the Han Palace,” “Return of the Fishing Boats,” “Spring on Snowy Mountains,” “Music from the Muqam” o Autumn Moon over the Han Palace  Traditional  Includes baban form • Phrase 5 has 12 ban however  Shandong regional style  16 Steel-stringed zheng  Music is about the “feeling” and “cultural background”  Tuning: D E G A B (D)  Yijing of piece: “sadness” o Return of the Fishing Boats  Composer: Lou Shuhua  Performer: Xiao Ying (sheng)  Broke away from baban form  Melody leaps  Tuning: D E F# A B (D)  Ornamental innovations: gua-zou  Programmatic-highly explicity musical symbolism Deng Xiaoping’s statement on policy of the arts (long block quote) Tiananmen Square uprising, Cui Jian Musical reform movements (re: Western music, Chinese music, Liu Tianhua, etc.) Tan Dun, Yo-Yo Ma, “New Wave” Chinese composers Tensions in relationship of Chinese government and “ethnic minorities” (Uighur, Tibetan)

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