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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (Redirected from Advertisements) This article is about the form of communication. For other uses, see Advertiser (disambiguation). "Advert" redirects here. For the band featuring musician Gaye Advert, see The Adverts. For content guidelines on the use of advertising in Wikipedia articles, see Wikipedia:Spam. For a proposal on advertising about Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Advertisements.
A Coca-Cola advertisement from the 1890s
Key concepts Product marketing · Pricing Distribution · Service · Retail Brand management Account-based marketing Ethics · Effectiveness · Research Segmentation · Strategy · Activation Management · Dominance Marketing operations
Advertising · Branding · Underwriting Direct marketing · Personal sales Product placement · Publicity Sales promotion · Sex in advertising Loyalty marketing · SMS marketing Premiums · Prizes
Promotional media Printing · Publication · Broadcasting Out-of-home advertising · Internet Point of sale · Merchandise Digital marketing · In-game advertising Product demonstration · Word-of-mouth Brand ambassador · Drip marketing · Visual merchandising
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Advertising is a form of communication used to encourage or persuade an audience (viewers, readers or listeners) to continue or take some new action. Most commonly, the desired result is to drive consumer behavior with respect to a commercial offering, although political and ideological advertising is also common. The purpose of advertising may also be to reassure employees or shareholders that a company is viable or successful. Advertising messages are usually paid for by sponsors and viewed via various traditional media; including mass media such as newspaper, magazines, television commercial, radio advertisement, outdoor advertising or direct mail; or new media such as websites and text messages. Commercial advertisers often seek to generate increased consumption of their products or services through "Branding," which involves the repetition of an image or product name in an effort to associate certain qualities with the brand in the minds of consumers. Noncommercial advertisers who spend money to advertise items other than a consumer product or service include political parties, interest groups, religious organizations and governmental agencies. Nonprofit organizations may rely on free modes of persuasion, such as a public service announcement (PSA).
Modern advertising developed with the rise of mass production in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. In 2010, spending on advertising was estimated at more than $300 billion in the United States and $500 billion worldwide. Internationally, the largest ("big four") advertising conglomerates are Interpublic, Omnicom, Publicis, and WPP.
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1 Definition 2 History o 2.1 Public service advertising 3 Marketing mix 4 Advertising theory 5 Types of advertising 6 Sales promotions 7 Media and advertising approaches o 7.1 Rise in new media o 7.2 Niche marketing o 7.3 Crowdsourcing o 7.4 Global advertising o 7.5 Foreign public messaging o 7.6 Diversification o 7.7 New technology o 7.8 Advertising education 8 Criticisms 9 Regulation 10 Advertising research 11 Semiotics 12 See also 13 References 14 Bibliography 15 External links
1. The non-personal communication of information usually paid for & usually persuasive in nature, about products (goods & services) or ideas by identified sponsor through various media. (Arens, Wei gold, Arens 2010)
person or ideas. services. Normally the advertisements are prepared in such a way that they attract the attention of the intended parties easily. The advertisement will speak about the salient features of the product on offer and the benefit the customer/consumer can derive out of the product. and help to retain the interest. (Lamb. interesting visual or pictures. (Wells. product. It can also educate the target audience about the various other details such as the products cost. Now newer media of advertisements are emerging and growing. Marketing managers conceptualise special event simply to coercively communicate product related sales communications. Ingram. The element of the marketing communication mix that is non personal paid for an identified sponsor.goods or services by an identified sponsor. web portals. (Bearden. (Zikmund & D'amico 1999) 6. or idea from an identified sponsor. Advertisement also is used to inform a mass of audience about various socially relevant factors such as employment. Professional managers don’t construe this as the final point in advertising. An informative or persuasive message carried by a non personal medium & paid for by an identified sponsor whose organization or product is identified in some way. a clearly designed. etc. Thoughtfully constructed copy (words/diction of an advertisement). Persuasive elements of the advertisement drive the customers towards a strong desire to possess the product.Daniel 2000) 7. Usually the aim of an advertisement is to increase the sales of a product introduced into the market. aesthetically appealing and content-wise accurate communiqué intended to effectively persuade the target audience(viewers/listeners/readers) to arrive at a decision as desired by the advertiser often concerning the product (goods/service). a uniquely arrived at theme. problems that may arise whiles using it and the probable solutions to those problems etc. 2006) The Principle of Advertisement Advertisement is an encapsulated communication about a product (good/services). concise. Any paid form of non-personal communication about an organization. Any paid form of non-personal presentation and promotion of ideas. are some of those.service. & disseminated through channels of mass communication to promote the adoption of goods. Paid non-personal communication from an identified sponsor using mass media to persuade or influence an audience. usage modalities. upcoming events. Internet based media like social networks.. & Laforge 1998) 5. This finally leads them toward buying or possessing the product. trade portals etc. contests or elections or a host of other such events. availability. Impersonal. Hair & Mc. (Kotler et al.2. (Blech & Blech 1998) 3. arouse interest of the customers. one way communication about a product or organization that is paid by a marketer.  History . & Moriaty 1998) 4. the central steam of thought. attractive colours and designs. They proceed for an extra mile to ensure the initial trial becomes a success and ensures repeated clientele. Burnett.
which were increasingly sought after as disease ravaged Europe. which is present to this day in many parts of Asia. signs that today would say cobbler. as well as printing. advertising grew alongside. In the United States. Fruits and vegetables were sold in the city square from the backs of carts and wagons and their proprietors used street callers (town criers) to announce their whereabouts for the convenience of the customers. As education became an apparent need and reading. History tells us that Out-of-home advertising and billboards are the oldest forms of advertising. false advertising and so-called "quack" advertisements became a problem. miller. which became increasingly affordable with advances in the printing press. . Commercial messages and political campaign displays have been found in the ruins of Pompeii and ancient Arabia. a candle or even a bag of flour. and South America.Edo period advertising flyer from 1806 for a traditional medicine called Kinseitan Egyptians used papyrus to make sales messages and wall posters. However. tailor or blacksmith would use an image associated with their trade such as a boot. and the general populace was unable to read. and medicines. a diamond. a horse shoe. a hat. developed advertising expanded to include handbills. As the towns and cities of the Middle Ages began to grow. a clock. The tradition of wall painting can be traced back to Indian rock art paintings that date back to 4000 BC. a suit. which ushered in the regulation of advertising content. These early print advertisements were used mainly to promote books and newspapers. Africa. In the 18th century advertisements started to appear in weekly newspapers in England. Lost and found advertising on papyrus was common in Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome. Wall or rock painting for commercial advertising is another manifestation of an ancient advertising form. the success of this advertising format eventually led to the growth of mailorder advertising. As the economy expanded during the 19th century.
was still prepared by the company wishing to advertise. The actual ad . in France. Around 1840. extend its readership and increase its profitability and the formula was soon copied by all titles. N. Ayer and Son offered to plan.  Around the same time.W.the copy. At first. layout. Ayer & Son was founded. Ayer opened in 1869. in effect. and advertising was firmly established as a profession. The situation changed in the late 19th century when the advertising agency of N. In 1842 Palmer bought large amounts of space in various newspapers at a discounted rate then resold the space at higher rates to advertisers. French newspaper La Presse was the first to include paid advertising in its pages. and execute complete advertising campaigns for its customers. agencies were brokers for advertisement space in newspapers.In June 1836. N. allowing it to lower its price. Volney B. and artwork . W. and was located in Philadelphia. Havas to include advertisement brokerage. create. An 1895 advertisement for a weight gain product. Charles-Louis Havas extended the services of his news agency.W. Palmer established the roots of the modern day advertising agency in Philadelphia. By 1900 the advertising agency had become the focal point of creative planning. . Ayer & Son was the first fullservice agency to assume responsibility for advertising content. Palmer was a space broker. making it the first French group to organize.
Since women were responsible for most of the purchasing done in their household. advertising was one of the few. advertisers and agencies recognized the value of women's insight during the creative process. however. sponsored by a milk company and published in the Los Angeles Times on May 6. 1930 At the turn of the century. In fact. Although tame by today's standards. .A print advertisement for the 1913 issue of the Encyclopædia Britannica Advertisement for a live radio broadcast. the advertisement featured a couple with the message "The skin you love to touch". the first American advertising to use a sexual sell was created by a woman – for a soap product. there were few career choices for women in business.
many non-profit organizations followed suit in setting up their own radio stations. This practice was carried over to commercial television in the late 1940s and early 1950s. Public broadcasting now exists in the United States due to the 1967 Public Broadcasting Act which led to the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) and National Public Radio (NPR). advocates like Graham Spry were likewise able to persuade the federal government to adopt a public funding model. clubs and civic groups. the capitalist model prevailed with the passage of the Communications Act of 1934 which created the Federal Communications Commission (FCC). In Canada. and necessity". creating the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. rather than selling the sponsorship rights to single businesses per show. and included: schools. However. the U. radio station owners soon realised they could earn more money by selling sponsorship rights in small time allocations to multiple businesses throughout their radio station's broadcasts. but incorporated as a public body by Royal Charter in 1927.Advertisements of hotels in Pichilemu. A fierce battle was fought between those seeking to commercialise the radio and people who argued that the radio spectrum should be considered a part of the commons – to be used only non-commercially and for the public good. In the early 1920s. As time passed. DuMont had trouble finding sponsors . the first radio stations were established by radio equipment manufacturers and retailers who offered programs in order to sell more radios to consumers. convenience. The United Kingdom pursued a public funding model for the BBC. originally a private company. When the practice of sponsoring programs was popularised. the DuMont Television Network began the modern practice of selling advertisement time to multiple sponsors.S. Previously. However. Congress did require commercial broadcasting companies to operate in the "public interest. Chile from 1935. each individual radio program was usually sponsored by a single business in exchange for a brief mention of the business' name at the beginning and end of the sponsored shows. the British Broadcasting Company. In the early 1950s. However. in the United States.
and ShopTV Canada. billboards. Tiger imagery can still be seen on the pumps of successor firm ExxonMobil.9 percent. By 1998. For example. At the turn of the 21st century. such as The United States Steel Hour. in the US in 1925. and interactive advertising where the viewer can respond to become part of the advertising message.Guerrilla advertising is becoming increasing more . such as QVC. Advertising spending as a share of GDP was about 2. Nonetheless. The share of advertising spending relative to GDP has changed little across large changes in media. a number of websites including the search engine Google. users. which involve unusual approaches such as staged encounters in public places. including photos with tiger tails supposedly emerging from car gas tanks. signs on streetcars. television and radio had become major advertising media. The single sponsor model is much less prevalent now. This eventually became the standard for the commercial television industry in the United States. This has led to a plethora of similar efforts and an increasing trend of interactive advertising. and outdoor posters. a notable exception being the Hallmark Hall of Fame. specialty channels emerged.for many of their programs and compensated by selling smaller blocks of advertising time to several businesses. the Esso gasoline company spent hundreds of millions of dollars on a brand awareness campaign built around the simple and alliterative theme Put a Tiger in Your Tank. In some instances the sponsors exercised great control over the content of the show—up to and including having one's advertising agency actually writing the show. and chose the tiger as an easy–to–remember symbol to communicate those feelings. magazines. Pioneering the concept of the music video. rather than inundate. For example.4 percent. A recent advertising innovation is "guerrilla marketing". Entire corporations operated solely on advertising revenue. marketing through the Internet opened new frontiers for advertisers and contributed to the "dot-com" boom of the 1990s. it was still a common practice to have single sponsor shows. promotional events featuring real tigers. The North American and later European campaign featured extensive television and radio and magazine ads. unobtrusive ads intended to help. With the advent of the ad server. campaigns featuring heavy spending in different mass media channels became more prominent. Home Shopping Network. started a change in online advertising by emphasizing contextually relevant. As cable and satellite television became increasingly prevalent. Psychologist Ernest Dichter and DDB Worldwide copywriter Sandy Sulcer learned that motorists desired both power and play while driving. including channels entirely devoted to advertising. However. rather than it being a byproduct or afterthought. advertising spending as a share of GDP was slightly lower—about 2. MTV ushered in a new type of advertising: the consumer tunes in for the advertising message. offering everything from coupons to free Internet access. In the 1960s. The late 1980s and early 1990s saw the introduction of cable television and particularly MTV. the main advertising media were newspapers. and in Europe station pump hoses "wrapped in tiger stripes" as well as pop music songs. giveaways of products such as cars that are covered with brand messages.
having consumers vote through text messages. public interest issues and initiatives. Advertising. Product is the first P representing the actual product. Public service advertising reached its height during World Wars I and II under the direction of more than one government. is a powerful educational tool capable of reaching and motivating large audiences. Price represents the process of determining the value of a product. This type of advertising is unpredictable and innovative. leaving more day and prime time commercial slots available for high-paying advertisers. many broadcast stations in America air the bulk of their required public service announcements during the late night or early morning when the smallest percentage of viewers are watching. During WWII President Roosevelt commissioned the creation of The War Advertising Council (now known as the Ad Council) which is the nation's largest developer of PSA campaigns on behalf of government agencies and nonprofit organizations. such as via product placement. Jerome McCarthy in the 1960s. educate and motivate the public about non-commercial issues. which causes consumers to buy the product or idea. In the United States. This reflects an increasing trend of interactive and "embedded" ads. the granting of television and radio licenses by the FCC is contingent upon the station broadcasting a certain amount of public service advertising.  Marketing mix Main article: Marketing mix The marketing mix has been the key concept to advertising.popular with a lot of companies. Smokey Bear. and social marketing are different terms for (or aspects of) the use of sophisticated advertising and marketing communications techniques (generally associated with commercial enterprise) on behalf of non-commercial. The marketing mix consists of four basic elements called the four P’s. political ideology. in its non-commercial guise. Public service advertising. including the longest-running PSA campaign. "Advertising justifies its existence when used in the public interest—it is much too powerful a tool to use solely for commercial purposes. non-commercial advertising. . such as HIV/AIDS." Attributed to Howard Gossage by David Ogilvy. energy conservation and deforestation. public interest advertising. The marketing mix was suggested by professor E. and various innovations utilizing social network services such as Facebook. Place represents the variables of getting the product to the consumer like distribution channels. To meet these requirements.  Public service advertising The advertising techniques used to promote commercial goods and services can be used to inform. cause marketing.
The steps are: 1.  Advertising theory • Hierarchy of effects model It clarifies the objectives of an advertising campaign and for each individual advertisement. 3. 2. • Verbal and Visual Images  Types of advertising . 5. • Leverage Points It is designed to move the consumer from understanding a product's benefits to linking those benefits with personal values. The last P stands for Promotion which is the process of reaching the target market and convincing them to go out and buy the product.market coverage and movement organization. 6. The model suggests that there are six steps a consumer or a business buyer moves through when making a purchase. • Awareness Knowledge Liking Preference Conviction Purchase Means-End Theory This approach suggests that an advertisement should contain a message or means that leads the consumer to a desired end state. 4.
as with this Human billboard pictured above A bus with an advertisement for GAP in Singapore. Such signs are common on storefronts. Buses and other vehicles are popular media for advertisers.An advertisement for a diner. . Paying people to hold signs is one of the oldest forms of advertising.
radio. cinema and television adverts. bus stop benches. shopping cart handles (grabertising).5 million (as of 2012). typically five minutes or longer. human billboards. as is reflected by the high prices TV networks charge for commercial airtime during popular TV events. Infomercials describe. street furniture components. Virtual product placement is also possible. town criers. printed flyers and rack cards. roof mounts and passenger screens. Any place an "identified" sponsor pays to deliver their message through a medium is advertising. The main objective in an infomercial is to create an impulse purchase.doors of bathroom stalls. shopping carts. web popups. Radio advertising . Infomercials An infomercial is a long-format television commercial. The majority of television commercials feature a song or jingle that listeners soon relate to the product. taxicab doors. and often demonstrate products and their features. It is typically inserted into otherwise blank backdrops or used to replace local billboards that are not relevant to the remote broadcast audience. musical stage shows. Commercial advertising media can include wall paintings. newspapers.stickers on apples in supermarkets. in-flight advertisements on seatback tray tables or overhead storage bins. subway platforms and trains. The average cost of a single thirty-second TV spot during this game has reached US$3. This technique is especially used in televised sporting events. billboards. and the backs of event tickets and supermarket receipts. web banners. virtual billboards may be inserted into the background where none exist in real-life. so that the consumer sees the presentation and then immediately buys the product through the advertised toll-free telephone number or website. and commonly have testimonials from consumers and industry professionals. skywriting. banners attached to or sides of airplanes ("logojets"). The annual Super Bowl football game in the United States is known as the most prominent advertising event on television. mobile telephone screens. Virtual advertisements may be inserted into regular television programming through computer graphics. sides of buses. the opening section of streaming audio and video. Television advertising / Music in advertising The TV commercial is generally considered the most effective mass-market advertising format. The word "infomercial" combining the words "information" & "commercial". elastic bands on disposable diapers.A DBAG Class 101 with UNICEF ads at Ingolstadt main railway station Virtually any medium can be used for advertising. magazines. More controversially. display. posters.
they are located on main roads with a large amount of passing motor and pedestrian traffic. Online ads are delivered by an ad server. including e-mail spam. or his watch engraved with the Bulgari logo. Online advertising Online advertising is a form of promotion that uses the Internet and World Wide Web for the expressed purpose of delivering marketing messages to attract customers. VAIO. Examples of online advertising include contextual ads that appear on search engine results pages. Rich Media Ads. While radio has the limitation of being restricted to sound. BMW and Aston Martin cars are featured in recent James Bond films. in text ads. banner ads. Billboard advertising Billboards are large structures located in public places which display advertisements to passing pedestrians and motorists. proponents of radio advertising often cite this as an advantage. According to Arbitron. Another example of advertising in film is in I. or more than 93 percent of the U.S. or trade journal. population. Product placements Covert advertising. which as a result contained many scenes in which Cadillac cars were used. Blade Runner includes some of the most obvious product placement. Robot. Most often. most notably Casino Royale. which allows private individuals or companies to purchase a small. For example. advertising networks and e-mail marketing. Radio advertisements are broadcast as radio waves to the air from a transmitter to an antenna and a thus to a receiving device. Another form of press advertising is the Display Ad. Social network advertising. the main transport vehicle shows a large Dodge logo on the front. Radio is an expanding medium that can be found not only on air.6 million weekly listeners. where main character played by Will Smith mentions his Converse shoes several times. also known as guerrilla advertising. where Tom Cruise's character John Anderton owns a phone with the Nokia logo clearly written in the top corner. however. Similarly. narrowly targeted ad for a low fee advertising a product or service. the main character can use an item or other of a definite brand. calling them "classics. Airtime is purchased from a station or network in exchange for airing the commercials. but also online. is when a product or brand is embedded in entertainment and media. magazine. the whole film stops to show a Coca-Cola billboard. product placement for Omega Watches. in a film.Radio advertising is a form of advertising via the medium of radio. to more narrowly targeted media such as local newspapers and trade journals on very specialized topics. Press advertising Press advertising describes advertising in a printed medium such as a newspaper. radio has approximately 241. which is a larger ad (can include art) that typically run in an article section of a newspaper. as in the movie Minority Report. Ford." because the film is set far in the future. Cadillac chose to advertise in the movie The Matrix Reloaded. I. such as a major national newspaper or magazine. In "Fantastic Four: Rise of the Silver Surfer". Robot and Spaceballs also showcase futuristic cars with the Audi and Mercedes-Benz logos clearly displayed on the front of the vehicles. This encompasses everything from media with a very broad readership base. online classified advertising. A form of press advertising is classified advertising. .
The RedEye newspaper advertised to its target market at North Avenue Beach with a sailboat billboard on Lake Michigan. It includes placement of a product in visible locations in a store. and advertisements in such places as shopping carts and in-store video displays. for example. Conventions. Mobile displays are used for various situations in metropolitan areas throughout the world. and in stadiums. such as at eye level. they can also be specially equipped cargo trucks or. Coffee cup advertising Coffee cup advertising is any advertisement placed upon a coffee cup that is distributed out of an office. eye-catching displays promoting a specific product. India. such as on mass transit vehicles and in stations. Street advertising This type of advertising first came to prominence in the UK by Street Advertising Services to create outdoor advertising on street furniture and pavements. One-day. large banners strewn from planes. in some cases. including: Target advertising. These can be on dedicated vehicles built solely for carrying advertisements along routes preselected by clients. at the ends of aisles and near checkout counters (aka POP—Point Of Purchase display). and parts of the Middle East. some being backlit. and Big advertisements from smaller companies. This form of advertising was first popularized in Australia. in shopping malls or office buildings. Store openings and similar promotional events. while others change. and others employing spotlights. The billboards are often lighted. Mobile billboard advertising Mobile billboards are generally vehicle mounted billboards or digital screens. Some billboard displays are static. continuously or periodically rotating among a set of advertisements. and long-term campaigns. and has begun growing in popularity in the United States.they can be placed in any location with large amounts of viewers. Sporting events. In-store advertising In-store advertising is any advertisement placed in a retail store. or drive-through coffee shop. café. Working .
and to jumpstart sales. China.  Sales promotions Sales promotions are another way to advertise. Advertising on the World Wide Web is a recent phenomenon. loyalty programs. Technological advances have also made it possible to control the message on digital signage with much precision. radio and newspaper because of a shift toward consumer's usage of the Internet for news and music as well as devices like digital video recorders (DVRs) such as TiVo. Celebrities are often involved in advertising campaigns such as television or print adverts to advertise specific or general products. For example. Digital signage is poised to become a major mass media because of its ability to reach larger audiences for less money. however. enabling the messages to be relevant to the target audience at any given time and location which in turn. Sales promotions include things like contests and games. samples coupons. swimmer Michael Phelps' contract with Kellogg's was terminated. following his performance of eight gold medals at the 2008 Olympic Games in Beijing. . One mistake by a celebrity can be detrimental to the public relations of a brand. Advertisers often advertise their products. product giveaways. as Kellogg's did not want to associate with him after he was photographed smoking marijuana. when celebrities share their favorite products or wear clothes by specific brands or designers. and discounts. gets more response from the advertising. The ultimate goal of sales promotions is to stimulate potential customers to action. sweepstakes. and malls. Another successful use of digital signage is in hospitality locations such as restaurants. popularity to gain recognition for their products and promote specific stores or products. money. Digital signage is being successfully employed in supermarkets. Celebrity branding This type of advertising focuses upon using celebrity power.  Media and advertising approaches Increasingly. other media are overtaking many of the "traditional" media such as television. Prices of Web-based advertising space are dependent on the "relevance" of the surrounding web content and the traffic that the website receives. fame. air dancer's and 3D pavement advertising. The use of celebrities to endorse a brand can have its downsides. the media became an affordable and effective tool for getting brand messages out into public spaces. for example. Sales promotions are double purposed because they are used to gather information about what type of customers you draw in and where they are.with products such as Reverse Graffiti. Digital signage also offer the unique ability to see the target audience where they are reached by the medium.
also first launched in Finland in 2000. More advanced mobile ads include banner ads.Reasons for online display advertising: Display ads generate awareness quickly. However. A new form of advertising that is growing rapidly is social network advertising. and recently Toyota. and uses the camera feature of modern phones to gain immediate access to web content. advergames and various engagement marketing campaigns. As the mobile phone became a new mass media in 1998 when the first paid downloadable content appeared on mobile phones in Finland. spreading buzz. some companies oppose the use of their brand name to label an object. . The CW Television Network airs short programming breaks called "Content Wraps. Multimedia Messaging Service picture and video messages. "Kleenex" = tissue. 83 percent of Japanese mobile phone users already are active users of 2D barcodes. Unsolicited bulk E-mail advertising is known as "e-mail spam". which replaces the need to do any typing of web addresses. Guitar Hero II. CoverGirl. Spam has been a problem for e-mail users for many years. Display works well for direct response. but it has shown a lot of promise as advertisers are able to take advantage of the demographic information the user has provided to the social networking site. Some companies have proposed placing messages or corporate logos on the side of booster rockets and the International Space Station.2 billion and providers such as Admob delivered billions of mobile ads. and "Band-Aid" = adhesive bandage) — these can be seen as the pinnacle of any advertising campaign." to advertise one company's product during an entire commercial break. The CW pioneered "content wraps" and some products featured were Herbal Essences. "sell it"). can provide good exposure at minimal cost. it’s used for direct response campaigns that link to a landing page with a clear ‘call to action’. E-mail advertising is another recent phenomenon. "Xerox" = "photocopier". Friendertising is a more precise advertising term in which people are able to direct advertisements toward others directly using social network service. which requires someone to be aware of a need. It is online advertising with a focus on social networking sites. A particular feature driving mobile ads is the 2D Barcode. display advertising can drive awareness of something new and without previous knowledge. Personal recommendations ("bring a friend". Unlike search. or achieving the feat of equating a brand with a common noun (in the United States. This is a relatively immature market. it was only a matter of time until mobile advertising followed. coupons. By 2007 the value of mobile advertising had reached $2. "Vaseline" = petroleum jelly.turning it into a generic term which means that its legal protection as a trademark is lost. From time to time. "Hoover" = vacuum cleaner. Unpaid advertising (also called "publicity advertising"). Equating a brand with a common noun also risks turning that brand into a genericized trademark . Display is not only used for generating awareness. Crest.
 Rise in new media With the dawn of the Internet came many new advertising opportunities.2% respectively. although some have used the Internet to widely distribute their ads to anyone willing to see or hear them. User-generated ads are created by consumers as opposed to an advertising agency or the company themselves.  Niche marketing Another significant trend regarding future of advertising is the growing importance of the niche market using niche or targeted ads. "ARvertising". For the 2007 Super Bowl.7% (newspapers ). the Frito-Lays division of PepsiCo held the Crash the Super Bowl contest. In the past. banner. However. Among others. In the last three quarters of 2009 mobile and internet advertising grew by 18. advergaming. Comcast Spotlight is one such advertiser employing this method in their video on demand menus. the advertising community has not yet made this easy. allowing consumers to create their own Doritos commercial. right from their home.8% (magazines) and −18. most often they are a result of brand sponsored advertising competitions.1% and 9. In general. usage tracking. Frito-Lays relaunched the competition for the 2009 and 2010 Super Bowl.7% (radio). Due to the success of the Doritos user-generated ads in the 2007 Super Bowl. customer profiles and the growing popularity of niche content brought about by everything from blogs to social networking sites. Popunder. the most efficient way to deliver a message was to blanket the largest mass market audience possible.Recently. some people may like an advertisement enough to wish to watch it later or show a friend. leading to ads that are more relevant to viewers and more effective for companies' marketing products.1% (TV). advertising on Augmented Reality technology. The resulting ads were among the most- . This causes the viewer to become proactive and actually choose what advertisements they want to view. and the pervasiveness of mass messages (see propaganda). provide advertisers with audiences that are smaller but much better defined. Older media advertising saw declines: −10. Popup. −14. advertisers will have an increasing ability to reach specific audiences. there appeared a new promotion concept. Chevrolet held a similar competition for their Tahoe line of SUVs. and email advertisements (the last often being a form of spam) are now commonplace. These advertisements are targeted to a specific group and can be viewed by anyone wishing to find out more about a particular business or practice at any time. Flash.  Crowdsourcing Main article: Crowdsourcing The concept of crowdsourcing has given way to the trend of user-generated advertisements. Particularly since the rise of "entertaining" advertising. −11. Controversy exists on the effectiveness of subliminal advertising (see mind control). Also brought about by the Internet and the theory of The Long Tail.
Flow of Emotion and branding moments provide insight into what is working in an ad in any country or region because the measures are based on the visual. Founded in 2007. This trend has given rise to several online platforms that host user-generated advertising competitions on behalf of a company. high consumer engagement. and importing ideas that travel. For global advertisers. while reading a periodical. Nike. A prime example of this messaging technique is advertising campaigns to promote international travel. In fact. it remains controversial. particularly those that own marketable commercial products or services. international. that idea or ideas can be imported by any other market. maximising local effectiveness of ads. producing local executions. developing economies of scale in the creative process. Born from the evolutionary stages of global marketing are the three primary and fundamentally different approaches to the development of global advertising executions: exporting executions. General Mills. and increasing the company’s speed of implementation. as the long-term impact on the advertising industry is still unclear. and global. such as Flow of Attention. potentially competing. The ability to identify which elements and/or moments of an ad contribute to its success is how economies of scale are maximised. some travel campaigns carry the additional or alternative intended purpose of promoting good sentiments or improving existing ones among the target audience towards a given nation or region. and Mini Cooper.  Foreign public messaging Foreign governments. It is common for advertising . However. Hershey’s. not verbal. Microsoft.  Global advertising Advertising has gone through five major stages of development: domestic. there are four. multi-national. Crowdsourced advertisements have gained popularity in part to its cost effective nature. or while passing by billboards in public spaces.watched and most-liked Super Bowl ads. Advertising research is key to determining the success of an ad in any country or region. Market research measures. and ability to generate wordof-mouth. Zooppa has launched ad competitions for brands such as Google. often promote their interests and positions through the advertising of those goods because the target audience is not only largely unaware of the forum as vehicle for foreign messaging but also willing to receive the message while in a mental state of absorbing information from advertisements during television commercial breaks. elements of the ad. Zinio. NBC Universal. business objectives that must be balanced when developing worldwide advertising: building a brand while speaking with one voice. Once one knows what works in an ad. export. the winning ad that aired in the 2009 Super Bowl was ranked by the USA Today Super Bowl Ad Meter as the top ad for the year while the winning ads that aired in the 2010 Super Bowl were found by Nielsen's BuzzMetrics to be the "most buzzed-about". While advertising foreign destinations and services may stem from the typical goal of increasing revenue by drawing more tourism.
a wide range of foreign airlines and travel-related services which advertise separately from the destinations. Many advertisers have opted for product placement on TV shows like Survivor. means the company will receive additional profits from the sales of these sets. enabling them to fast forward through commercials. See: Soft Power • See also: International Tourism Advertising  Diversification In the realm of advertising agencies. such as the advance of online social networking. A surge in advertising interest is typically attributed to the strong relationship advertising plays in cultural and technological changes.  New technology The ability to record shows on digital video recorders (such as TiVo) allow users to record the programs for later viewing. some like brands have opted for social television sponsorship. . Qatar Airways (Qatar). as more seasons of pre-recorded box sets are offered for sale of television programs. Singapore Airlines (Singapore). Additionally. so these ads often carry political statements and/or depictions of the foreign government's desired international public perception. the Emirates airline (Dubai). countries market themselves to populations abroad in a manner that could mitigate prior public impressions. master and doctorate degrees becoming available in the emphasis. where advertising students create campaigns for real companies. and other services in a favorable and pleasant light. A unique model for teaching advertising is the student-run advertising agency. are owned by their respective governments. and creating TV apps. a variety of strategies have been employed. advertising on companion devices (like smartphones and tablets) during the show. Other strategies include integrating advertising with internet-connected EPGs. By depicting their destinations. Organizations such as American Advertising Federation and AdU Network partner established companies with students to create these campaigns. To counter this effect. China Airlines (Taiwan/Republic of China). Additionally. airlines. Additionally. continued industry diversification has seen observers note that “big global clients don't need big global agencies any more”. fewer people watch the shows on TV. examples include. and Air China (People's Republic of China). such as Canadian business TAXI and SMART in Australia and has been referred to as "a revolution in the ad world".promoting foreign countries to be produced and distributed by the tourism ministries of those countries. themselves.  Advertising education Advertising education has become widely popular with bachelor. However. the fact that these sets are sold. though are not limited to. This is reflected by the growth of non-traditional agencies in various global markets.
Advertisers. Criticisms Main article: Criticism of advertising While advertising can be seen as necessary for economic growth. advertising frequently uses psychological pressure (for example. by making a particular product more appealing. “banning advertisements for children's toys between 7 am and 10 pm and a total ban on advertisement for war toys".500 . the advertising industry operates a system of self-regulation. Some self-regulatory organizations are funded by the industry. This debate was exacerbated by a report released by the Kaiser Family Foundation in February 2004 which suggested fast food advertising that targets children was an important factor in the epidemic of childhood obesity in the United States. Canada. In Europe and elsewhere. and the total ban of advertising to children under 12 imposed by the Swedish government in 1991. which had found that Sweden was obliged to accept foreign programming.  Regulation Main article: Advertising regulation There have been increasing efforts to protect the public interest by regulating the content and the influence of advertising. it is not without social costs.Many even feel that often. Greece’s regulations are of a similar nature. such as schools. In the UK most forms of outdoor advertising such as the display of billboards is regulated by the UK Town and County Planning system. which some critics argue is a form of child exploitation. which may be harmful. The general aim of such codes is to ensure that any advertising is 'legal. it has been weakened by the European Court of Justice. In New Zealand. Some examples are: the ban on television tobacco advertising imposed in many countries. by playing with the consumers needs and wants. honest and truthful'. Though that regulation continues in effect for broadcasts originating within the country. advertising agencies and the media agree on a code of advertising standards that they attempt to uphold. with the intent of upholding the standards or codes like the Advertising Standards Authority in the UK. South Africa. Currently the display of an advertisement without consent from the Planning Authority is a criminal offense liable to a fine of £2. Advertising is increasingly invading public spaces. advertisements exploit the desires of a consumer. as well as being a financial burden on internet service providers. but remain independent. decent. there is a vigorous debate on whether (or how much) advertising to children should be regulated. In addition. appealing to feelings of inadequacy) on the intended consumer. Unsolicited commercial e-mail and other forms of spam have become so prevalent as to have become a major nuisance to users of these services. including those from neighboring countries or via satellite. and many European countries.
 Semiotics Main article: Advertising research Today’s culture is made up of meanings between consumers and marketers. The purpose of semiotics is to study and interpret the message being conveyed in advertisements. It entails numerous forms of research which employ different methodologies. the tobacco industry is required by law in most countries to display warnings cautioning consumers about the health hazards of their products. Advertising has many hidden signs and meanings within brand names. and television advertisements. Advertising research includes pre-testing (also known as copy testing) and post-testing of ads and/or campaigns—pre-testing is done before an ad airs to gauge how well it will perform and post-testing is done after an ad airs to determine the in-market impact of the ad or campaign on the consumer. The “key to advertising analysis” is the signifier and the signified.  Advertising research Main article: Advertising research Advertising research is a specialized form of research that works to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of advertising. words. As long ago as the 1960s in the US there were attempts to ban billboard advertising in the open countryside. For instance. In France. Many advertisers employ a wide-variety of linguistic devices to bypass regulatory laws (e. The advertisement of controversial products such as cigarettes and condoms are subject to government regulation in many countries. print advertisements. Cities such as São Paulo have introduced an outright ban with London also having specific legislation to control unlawful displays. and slogan must be interpreted by the audience or consumer. printing English words in bold and French translations in fine print to deal with the Article 120 of the 1994 Toubon Law limiting the use of English). Continuous ad tracking and the Communicus System are competing examples of post-testing advertising research types.Semiotics is the study of signs and how they are interpreted.per offence. fonts. The signifier is the object . All of the major outdoor billboard companies in the UK have convictions of this nature. The combination of images. Linguistic variation is often used by advertisers as a creative device to reduce the impact of such requirements. colors. In the US many communities believe that many forms of outdoor advertising blight the public realm. These signs can be images. Logos and advertisements can be interpreted at two levels known as the surface level and the underlying level. The surface level uses signs creatively to create an image or personality for their product. These meanings depict signs and symbols that are encoded in everyday objects. or slogan. package designs. The underlying level is made up of hidden meanings. words.g. colors. logos.
Apple’s commercials used a black silhouette of a person that was the age of Apple's target market. the one thing that stays the same in these ads is that there is music in the background and the silhouette is listening to that music on a white iPod through white headphones. Men are more often portrayed as authorities. However. men are represented as independent. The signified has two meanings known as denotative and connotative. Objective claims stem from the extent to which the claim associates the brand with a tangible product or service feature. Males tend to respond better to objective marketing communications claims while females tend to respond better to subjective marketing communications claims. the camera has auto focus features. For instance the brochure has a beautiful design. Men are more likely to be shown outdoors or in business settings. Males process information through heuristic devices such as procedures. On the other hand women . They placed the silhouette in front of a blue screen so that the picture behind the silhouette could be constantly changing. subjective. They are non-physical features of a product or service that cannot be directly perceived. logo design. For instance. Women are depicted in domestic settings. imagery-laced interpretation. Through advertising.and the signified is the mental concept. Men are more likely to be shown advertising cars or business products. A product has a signifier and a signified. with age men seem to gain wisdom and authority. Apple is an excellent example of using semiotics in their advertising campaign. A television’s denotative meaning would be that it is high definition. In advertisements. situational factors may be important to influence the elaboration of the message. the white color on a set of earphones now signifies that the music device is an iPod. They are shown in more occupations than women. The semiotics of gender plays a key influence on the way in which signs are interpreted. as they have no physical reality. The signifier is the color. while women advertise domestic products. When considering gender roles in advertising. A connotative meaning of a television would be that it is top of the line. Second. The denotative meaning is the meaning of the product. brand name. When advertising to different genders it is important to remember how men and women process information. associative. individuals are influenced by three categories. Women are represented mainly as housewives and mothers. and technology. There are two types of marketing communication claims-objective and subjective. As far as ads go. Subjective claims convey emotional. impressions of intangible aspects of a product or service. Certain characteristics of stumuli may enhance or decrease the elaboration of the message (if the product is perceived as feminine or masculine). Men prefer to have available and apparent cues to interpret the message where females engage in more creative. The connotative meaning is the product’s deep and hidden meaning. The white color signifies almost all of Apple’s products. Females process information comprehensively. methods or strategies for solving problems. the characteristics of individuals can affect attention and elaboration of the message (traditional or non-traditional gender role orientation). Lastly.
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Leiss. 2 edition (July 27. Sonia and Lunt. 1976. S. ISBN 978-1583671610 Prothers. ISBN 9780465021550. Basic Books. ISBN 0465021557 Williamson. Judith (1994): Decoding Advertisements (Ideas in Progress). Captains of Consciousness: Advertising and the Social Roots of the Consumer Culture. Scripps's Chicago Experiment (History of Communication). (May 1. London: Sage Publications. Identity and Control in Public Space. W. Norton. London: Taylor & Francis. (2000) Culture Jam: how to reverse America's suicidal consumer binge .. (1999) Culture Jam: The Uncooling of America. (2007) Freedom from Advertising: E. March 1998. Louw.and why we must. Christopher. ISBN 0688156568 Lees. (1994) Talk on Television: Audience Participation and Public Debate. Rorty. ISBN 9780405080449 Sinclair. Fyfe (ed) Images of the Street: Planning. Duane C. Upton (1919): The Brass Check Stuart. Robert W. the free dictionary. Kalle. Harper Paperbacks (November 7. Eric. James: “Our Master's Voice: Advertising” Ayer Co Pub. (1998) "Urban Renaissance and the Street" in Nicholas R. Stolzfus. Robert W. ISBN 978-0714526157  External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Advertising Look up advertising in Wiktionary. Univ of Illinois Pr (March 30. 2000). ISBN 0714526150. 1st edition (November 1999).• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Lasch. ISBN 0415903548. Emerging Dilemmas”. McChesney. ISBN 978-0393307382 Lasn. William: (1990) Social Communication in Advertising. London. Wikibooks has a book on the topic of Marketing Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Advertising . ISBN 0688178057.org. Kalle. Jay L. Routledge. 2007) McChesney. (1995) Textual Politics: Discourse and Social Dynamics. Marion Boyars Publishers Ltd (March 1. New York: Routledge. New York. ISBN 978-0415903547 Lemke. Lisa (1998) Bad. "Culture Jamming: An Interview with Pedro Carvajal" in Bad Subjects: Political Education for Everyday Life. Peter. Loretta. ISBN 978-0688178055 Lasn. Livingston. 2008). The Culture of Narcissism: American Life in an Age of Diminishing Expectations. “The Political Economy of Media: Enduring Issues. Ewen. John C. 1994).eserver. (2001) The Media and Cultural Production. Issue #37. Monthly Review Press. 1990). William Morrow & Company. and Nerone. New York. London & New York: Routledge.
• • • • Advertising Educational Foundation.000 U. illustrating the rise of consumer culture and the birth of a professionalized advertising industry in the United States. includes World War II propaganda. over 7. o AdViews. 9. Eisner Museum of Advertising & Design Art & Copy. dated 19111955. a 2009 documentary film about the advertising industry View page ratings Rate this page What's this? Trustworthy Objective Complete Well-written I am highly knowledgeable about this topic (optional) Categories: • • • • • • • • • • • • Advertising Communication design Graphic design Promotion and marketing communications History of television Television terminology Log in / create account Article Talk Read Edit View history • • • • Main page Contents Featured content Current events .000 advertising items and publications dating from 1850 to 1920.S. and Canadian advertisements. archived advertising exhibits and classroom resources Duke University Libraries Digital Collections: o Ad*Access. vintage television commercials On-Line exhibits at William F. o Emergence of Advertising in America.
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