This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

BooksAudiobooksComicsSheet Music### Categories

### Categories

### Categories

Editors' Picks Books

Hand-picked favorites from

our editors

our editors

Editors' Picks Audiobooks

Hand-picked favorites from

our editors

our editors

Editors' Picks Comics

Hand-picked favorites from

our editors

our editors

Editors' Picks Sheet Music

Hand-picked favorites from

our editors

our editors

Top Books

What's trending, bestsellers,

award-winners & more

award-winners & more

Top Audiobooks

What's trending, bestsellers,

award-winners & more

award-winners & more

Top Comics

What's trending, bestsellers,

award-winners & more

award-winners & more

Top Sheet Music

What's trending, bestsellers,

award-winners & more

award-winners & more

Welcome to Scribd! Start your free trial and access books, documents and more.Find out more

Preparatory exercises ideally should be attempted before coming to the tutorial. A suggestion is given for exercises to be completed during and after the tutorial. Questions labelled with an asterisk are suitable for students aiming for a credit or higher. Important Ideas and Useful Facts: (i) If v is a geometric vector and λ is a scalar then |λv| = |λ||v|. (ii) A unit vector is a vector of length one. There is always a unit vector pointing in any given direction. (iii) If λ is a nonzero scalar and v a vector then we write (iv) Let v be a nonzero vector. Then v = 1 v for the scalar multiple v. λ λ

v is called the hat of v, or simply v-hat, and |v| is the unit vector pointing in the direction of v. It is designed to satisfy the equation v = |v| v ,

which captures precisely the idea of v being characterised by length and direction. (v) Parallel vectors: Nonzero vectors v and w are parallel if and only if v = λw for some nonzero scalar λ. (vi) Cartesian form: The unit vectors i, j and k point in the directions of the positive x, y and z-axes respectively. If v is the position vector of the point P (a, b, c) then v = ai + bj + ck , called the Cartesian form of v. In this case, a, b, c are called the components of v. (vii) Component-wise operations: To add, subtract or negate vectors, simply add, subtract or negate respective components. To multiply a vector by a scalar, simply multiply the components by the scalar. √ (viii) If v = a i + b j + c k then |v| = a2 + b2 + c2 . (ix) If P (a1 , b1 , c1 ) and Q(a2 , b2 , c2 ) are points in space then − → P Q = (a2 − a1 )i + (b2 − b1 )j + (c2 − c1 )k . (x) Linear independence of two vectors: Two vectors v and w are linearly independent if they are not parallel, which is equivalent to saying that the vector equation av + bw = 0 implies that the scalars a and b must both be zero. 1

5. −1) in the xy-plane. 5) and B(6. Tutorial Exercises: 4. j and k. −2) in space. (iv) the unit vector pointing from B towards A. (iii) |a| c = 3i − 4k . (iii) the unit vector pointing from A towards B. − → − → (i) Write down the position vectors OP and OQ in terms of i and j. −2) in the xy-plane. ﬁnd 2 |b| (iii) a (iv) b (v) √ √ 2 3 a+ 2 b (ii) Given points A(4. |a| √ 1 3 i + j and b = √ i − j . In the xy-plane the z-coordinate is ignored and i and j are. as usual. − → (ii) Write down the displacement vector P Q in terms of i. 1) and Q the point (4. (iii) the unit vector pointing from A towards B. − → − → (i) Write down the position vectors OP and OQ in terms of i. ﬁnd (i) the position vectors of A and B in terms of i. j and k. −1. As usual the origin (0. 3. Let P be the point (3. (iv) a (v) c 2. ﬁnd (i) the position vectors of A and B in terms of i and j. − → (ii) the displacement vector AB in terms of i. (iv) the unit vector pointing from B towards A. −2) and Q the point (4. j and k. 3) and B(4. 0) is denoted by O. Given points A(−2. Given that ﬁnd (i) a+b a = 2i − j + 2k . − → (ii) the displacement vector AB in terms of i and j. 5) in space. As usual the origin (0.Preparatory Exercises: 1. − → (ii) Write down the displacement vector P Q in terms of i and j. (ii) a + 3b − 2c b = i+j−k. −1. 2 . 1. Let P be the point (3. 0) is denoted by O. unit vectors in the positive x and y-directions respectively. −2. j and k. Given that a = (i) 6. − → − → (iii) Write down the coordinates of the point R such that OR = P Q. 0. − → − → (iii) Write down the coordinates of the point R such that OR = P Q.

Is the parallelogram ABCD a rectangle? − → 12. −3). . Find (i) (vi) −v |v| (ii) w − v (vii) |w| (iii) 2v (viii) v (iv) 3w (ix) w (v) 2v − 3w (x) |v + w| 8. (ii) the ﬁnal distance (to the nearest km) and direction (to nearest degree. Let v = 2i − 6j + 9k and w = 4i + 2j − 4k . Further Exercises: 11. 2 Find α and β. β and γ such that (i) (iii) 3i + j is parallel to αi − 4j (ii) 3i + β j − k 3i + γ j + 3k has the same length as 12i − 5k . 9. Find the Cartesian form of OP . − → (ii) Let P be the midpoint of AC. 1) and C(0. 2. (suitable for group discussion) Let ABCDEF be a regular hexagon. Find the scalars α. −2.) 13. 3 is parallel to i − 4j + 4k (i) Find the point D such that ABCD is a parallelogram. Find the Cartesian form of v. Find (i) the above displacements of the aeroplane and their vector sum in terms of the unit vectors i and j . 1). 0) and Q = (4. (The cosine of each angle will be the relevant component divided by the length of the vector. 1. 2. the length of v and the angles v makes (to the nearest degree) with each of the positive x. Let v = P Q where P = (−3. 2. − − → −→ − (iii) Find the Cartesian forms of BP and P D. south of east) of the aeroplane from the starting position. (suitable for group discussion) Let i and j denote displacements of 1 km east and north respectively. An aeroplane travels 300km southeast and then 150 km in the direction 30◦ west of north. B(−2. True or false: − → −→ − − → −→ − − → −→ − − → −→ − (i) AC = F D (ii) AC = DF (iii) AC = BD (iv) |AC| = |BD| − − → − → (v) |AC| = |AD| (vi) The line segments AD and BE bisect each other. 3).∗ Suppose that v and w are vectors which are not parallel (so are linearly independent) and the following vector equation holds for some scalars α and β: 1 v + α(w − v) = β v + w . y and z-axes. 10.7. and deduce that the diagonals AC and BD bisect each other. − → −→ − (iv) Find the lengths of AC and BD. Consider the points A(1.

36◦ . 3. 12. 74 . 4. 4i − j (ii) 2(3i − 2j) (iii) (i) 2 (ii) 1 (iii) √ 3 2 i − 1 j + 2 k (v) 3 3 (3i − 2j) (iv) − √1 (3i − 2j) 13 √ (v) 4 i + ( 3 − 1) j i+ 1j 2 (iv) 1 √ 2 (i − j) (i) 4i − j + 5k . 7. 5.14. F.∗ The line joining the vertex of a parallelogram to the midpoint of an opposite side divides one of the diagonals into two pieces of unequal lengths. 118◦ . F. ±4 15.] Short Answers to Selected Exercises: 1. [Hints: (1) check your answer directly after conjecturing (say from a diagram) the value of the ratio. −12 . −12 . 3 5 2 2 √ 7i − 4j + 3k . 6. 2/3 11. T. −3. −3) 3 5 4 i− 5k (iii) (1. OQ = 4i − 2j 3i + j − 2k . 70◦ 13. exploiting the fact that adjacent sides of the parallelogram are not parallel. (i) −2i + 6j − 9k (ii) 2i + 8j − 13k (iii) 4i − 12j + 18k (iv) 12i + 6j − 12k √ 1 1 (v)−8i − 18j + 30k (vi) 11 (vii) 6 (viii) 11 (2i − 6j + 9k) (ix) 3 (2i + j − 2k) (x) 77 √ √ √ (i) (150 2 − 75) i + (75 3 − 150 2) j (ii) 160 km . 6i − j − 2k (ii) 2i − 7k (iii) √1 53 (2i − 7k) (iv) − √1 (2i − 7k) 53 8. T √ √ 1/3 . 31◦ 9. α+β C 15.∗ Let D be the point which divides the side BC of the triangle ABC in the ratio α : β. 2. Find the ratio of the lengths of these pieces. 10. 1 : 2 4 . 4i − 2j + 5k − → (ii) P Q = i − 3j (ii) i − 3j + 7k 2 3 √1 13 (iii) R = (1. (i) (i) − → − → OP = 3i + j . F. 7) (i) 3i + k (ii) −i + 2j + 7k (iii) 3 (iv) (i) −2i + 3j . −3) (ii) 1 i + 2j − k (iii) 5 i + j − 2k (iv) 17 . (i) (3. T. B D A − → − → − − → β AB + α AC Verify that AD = . 3. or (2) use Exercise 10 (guaranteed to work but takes longer).

Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

We've moved you to where you read on your other device.

Get the full title to continue

Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.

scribd