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HYDRAULICS HYDRAULICS
Introduction Introduction
Basic Hydraulics Basic Hydraulics
Head Loss Head Loss
Pipelines Pipelines
Lateral Design Lateral Design
Mainline Design Mainline Design
HYDRAULICS HYDRAULICS
Introduction Introduction
An understanding and use of An understanding and use of hydraulics hydraulics is is
absolutely essential for proper development absolutely essential for proper development
and operation of modern irrigation systems and operation of modern irrigation systems
Irrigation hydraulics involves the determination Irrigation hydraulics involves the determination
of the pressure distribution in the system, the of the pressure distribution in the system, the
selection of pipe sizes and fittings to convey selection of pipe sizes and fittings to convey
and regulate water delivery, and the and regulate water delivery, and the
determination of the power and energy determination of the power and energy
requirements to pressurize and lift water. requirements to pressurize and lift water.
HYDRAULICS HYDRAULICS
Mistakes made in setting up an irrigation system Mistakes made in setting up an irrigation system
are often very expensive to correct, whereas the are often very expensive to correct, whereas the
cost of appropriate planning to avoid errors is cost of appropriate planning to avoid errors is
small. small.
2
HYDRAULICS HYDRAULICS
Basic Hydraulics Basic Hydraulics
3
HYDRAULICS HYDRAULICS
Basic Hydraulics Basic Hydraulics
One of the most important considerations in One of the most important considerations in
the hydraulics of irrigation systems is the the hydraulics of irrigation systems is the
amount of amount of energy energy that is available in the water that is available in the water
at any point within the system. With water at any point within the system. With water
flow, energy can be in the following forms: flow, energy can be in the following forms:
1. 1. Kinetic energy due to velocity Kinetic energy due to velocity
2. 2. Potential energy due to elevation Potential energy due to elevation
3. 3. Potential energy due to water Potential energy due to water
pressure. pressure.
HYDRAULICS HYDRAULICS
Basic Hydraulics Basic Hydraulics
In this class, the energy in water is expressed In this class, the energy in water is expressed
as energy per unit weight of water. Energy has as energy per unit weight of water. Energy has
the units of FL (force times length) and weight the units of FL (force times length) and weight
has the units of Force (F). has the units of Force (F). Thus, energy per Thus, energy per
unit weight has the units of FL / F or just the unit weight has the units of FL / F or just the
dimension of L (LENGTH). dimension of L (LENGTH).
Hence, the energy of water in an irrigation Hence, the energy of water in an irrigation
system includes velocity head, elevation head, system includes velocity head, elevation head,
and pressure head. and pressure head.
HYDRAULICS HYDRAULICS
Basic Hydraulics Basic Hydraulics
The The potential energy potential energy due to elevation is a due to elevation is a
result of the location of the water relative result of the location of the water relative
to an arbitrary reference plane. Water at a to an arbitrary reference plane. Water at a
higher elevation has more potential higher elevation has more potential
energy than water at a lower elevation. energy than water at a lower elevation.
HYDRAULICS HYDRAULICS
Basic Hydraulics Basic Hydraulics
The water has the ability to do work as it The water has the ability to do work as it
flows downhill, such as eroding the soil flows downhill, such as eroding the soil
surface, generating power, etc. The surface, generating power, etc. The
potential energy of the water decreases potential energy of the water decreases
as it flows downhill. The letter Z will be as it flows downhill. The letter Z will be
used to represent elevation head or used to represent elevation head or
called called gravitational head gravitational head. .
4
HYDRAULICS HYDRAULICS
Basic Hydraulics Basic Hydraulics
The potential energy due to the pressurization of The potential energy due to the pressurization of
water can be a very large component in an water can be a very large component in an
irrigation system. Pressure is the force per unit irrigation system. Pressure is the force per unit
area exerted on the walls of a container. The area exerted on the walls of a container. The
pressure may be expressed as: pressure may be expressed as:
P = P = λ λ h or h = P / h or h = P / λ λ Equation 2 Equation 2
where: where: P = pressure (lb per square inch) P = pressure (lb per square inch)
λ λ = weight of a unit volume of fluid = weight of a unit volume of fluid
(specific weight), lb per ft (specific weight), lb per ft
3 3
. .
HYDRAULICS HYDRAULICS
Basic Hydraulics Basic Hydraulics
In general, the maximum recommended average In general, the maximum recommended average
velocity in an enclosed pipeline is 5 ft/sec. velocity in an enclosed pipeline is 5 ft/sec.
When the velocity in a pipeline exceeds 5 ft/sec, When the velocity in a pipeline exceeds 5 ft/sec,
there is a potential to develop very high there is a potential to develop very high
pressure surges pressure surges which may damage pipelines. which may damage pipelines.
Pressure surges are due to flow being stopped Pressure surges are due to flow being stopped
suddenly while the upstream water has a large suddenly while the upstream water has a large
amount of amount of momentum momentum. When the flow is . When the flow is
stopped too quickly, the rapid change in stopped too quickly, the rapid change in
momentum results in impulsive force called momentum results in impulsive force called
water hammer water hammer. .
HYDRAULICS HYDRAULICS
Basic Hydraulics Basic Hydraulics
P = P = λ λ h or h = P / h or h = P / λ λ Eq Eq 2 2
where: where: P = pressure (lb per square P = pressure (lb per square
inch) inch)
λ λ = weight of a unit volume of = weight of a unit volume of
fluid (specific weight), lb fluid (specific weight), lb
per ft per ft
3 3
h = pressure head, ft. h = pressure head, ft.
HYDRAULICS HYDRAULICS
5
HYDRAULICS HYDRAULICS
EXAMPLE 1 EXAMPLE 1
Two columns of water are filled to a height of 10 Two columns of water are filled to a height of 10
feet with water. One column has a cross feet with water. One column has a cross 
sectional area of 1 in sectional area of 1 in
2 2
, the other 10 in , the other 10 in
2 2
. Find the . Find the
pressure at the bottom of each column. pressure at the bottom of each column.
Given: Given: h = 10 ft, and h = 10 ft, and
λ λ = 62.4 lb/ft = 62.4 lb/ft
3 3
Find: Find: Pressure, P Pressure, P
HYDRAULICS HYDRAULICS
EXAMPLE 1 EXAMPLE 1
Given: Given: h = 10 ft, and h = 10 ft, and
λ λ = 62.4 lb/ft = 62.4 lb/ft
3 3
Find: Find: Pressure, P Pressure, P
Solution: Solution:
P = P = λ λ h or h = P / h or h = P / λ λ Equation 2 Equation 2
P = 62.4 lb/ft P = 62.4 lb/ft
3 3
(10 ft) (ft (10 ft) (ft
2 2
/ 144 in / 144 in
2 2
) = 4.33 lb/in ) = 4.33 lb/in
2 2
P = 4.33 psi P = 4.33 psi
HYDRAULICS HYDRAULICS
EXAMPLE 1 EXAMPLE 1
Given: Given: h = 10 ft, and h = 10 ft, and
λ λ = 62.4 lb/ft = 62.4 lb/ft
3 3
Find: Find: Pressure, P Pressure, P
Solution: Solution:
P = 4.33 psi P = 4.33 psi
NOTE: THE PRESSURE IS NOTE: THE PRESSURE IS
INDEPENDENT OF THE SURFACE AREA INDEPENDENT OF THE SURFACE AREA
OF THE COLUMN. OF THE COLUMN.
HYDRAULICS HYDRAULICS
Basic Hydraulics Basic Hydraulics
The PRESSURE IS INDEPENDENT OF THE The PRESSURE IS INDEPENDENT OF THE
SURFACE AREA! SURFACE AREA!
In English units, it is convenient to express: In English units, it is convenient to express:
λ λ = 0.433 psi / ft = 0.433 psi / ft Equation 3 Equation 3
Or Or
1/ 1/λ λ = 2.31 ft / psi = 2.31 ft / psi ONLY FOR ONLY FOR
WATER WATER
6
HYDRAULICS HYDRAULICS
Basic Hydraulics Basic Hydraulics
Kinetic energy is the result of the movement of Kinetic energy is the result of the movement of
the fluid and the term the fluid and the term VELOCITY HEAD VELOCITY HEAD is given is given
by: by:
Velocity Head = V
2
/ (2g) Equation 1 Equation 1
where: where: V = average velocity at a point in a V = average velocity at a point in a
pipe or channel, ft/sec, pipe or channel, ft/sec,
g = gravitational constant, 32.2 g = gravitational constant, 32.2
ft/sec ft/sec
2 2
. .
HYDRAULICS HYDRAULICS
Basic Hydraulics Basic Hydraulics
The sum of the energy forms the total energy The sum of the energy forms the total energy
per unit weight called HYDRAULIC HEAD (H). It per unit weight called HYDRAULIC HEAD (H). It
is: is:
H = + elevation head + pressure head + velocity H = + elevation head + pressure head + velocity
head head
H = Z + h + H = Z + h + V V
2 2
/(2g) /(2g) Equation 4 Equation 4
HYDRAULICS HYDRAULICS
Basic Hydraulics Basic Hydraulics
Another important concept of water flow is Another important concept of water flow is
continuity continuity. In a hydraulic system, mass must . In a hydraulic system, mass must
be conserved. For incompressible fluid flow, be conserved. For incompressible fluid flow,
such as water, the continuity equation is such as water, the continuity equation is
expressed as: expressed as:
Q = V A Q = V A Equation 5 Equation 5
where: where: Q = volumetric flow rate or Q = volumetric flow rate or
discharge, discharge,
V = average flow velocity V = average flow velocity
A = cross A = cross sectional area of flow. sectional area of flow.
7
HYDRAULICS HYDRAULICS
HYDRAULICS HYDRAULICS
EXAMPLE 2 EXAMPLE 2
In the pipeline system shown on the next In the pipeline system shown on the next
page, find the hydraulic head at the inlet into page, find the hydraulic head at the inlet into
the 4 the 4 inch diameter pipeline. inch diameter pipeline.
Given: Given: Z = 15 feet Z = 15 feet
P = 60 psi P = 60 psi
Q = 400 gpm Q = 400 gpm
d = 4 inch (internal diameter) d = 4 inch (internal diameter)
Find: Find: h, V = Q/A, Velocity Head, and h, V = Q/A, Velocity Head, and
Total Head Total Head
8
HYDRAULICS HYDRAULICS
EXAMPLE 2 EXAMPLE 2
Solution: Solution:
h = 60 psi (2.31 ft/psi) = 139 feet h = 60 psi (2.31 ft/psi) = 139 feet
A = A = π π/4 (4 in) /4 (4 in)
2 2
= 12.57 in = 12.57 in
2 2
(ft (ft
2 2
/144 in /144 in
2 2
) = 0.087 ft ) = 0.087 ft
2 2
Q = 400 gpm/ (450 gpm/cfs) = 0.89 cfs (ft Q = 400 gpm/ (450 gpm/cfs) = 0.89 cfs (ft
3 3
/sec) /sec)
V = Q/A = 0.89 ft V = Q/A = 0.89 ft
3 3
/sec / 0.087 ft /sec / 0.087 ft
2 2
= 10.23 ft/sec = 10.23 ft/sec
HYDRAULICS HYDRAULICS
EXAMPLE 2 EXAMPLE 2
Solution: Solution:
V = Q/A = 0.89 ft V = Q/A = 0.89 ft
3 3
/sec / 0.087 ft /sec / 0.087 ft
2 2
= 10.23 ft/sec = 10.23 ft/sec
Velocity Head = V Velocity Head = V
2 2
/2g = /2g =
(10.23 ft/sec) (10.23 ft/sec)
2 2
/ {2 (32.2 ft/sec / {2 (32.2 ft/sec
2 2
)} = 1.6 ft )} = 1.6 ft
Total Head (H) = 15 ft + 139 ft + 1.6 ft = 156 ft Total Head (H) = 15 ft + 139 ft + 1.6 ft = 156 ft
HYDRAULICS HYDRAULICS
EXAMPLE 3 EXAMPLE 3
What is the velocity head at point 2 in What is the velocity head at point 2 in
EXAMPLE 2? EXAMPLE 2?
Given: Given: Q Q
2 2
= Q = Q
1 1
= 400 gpm = 400 gpm
d d
2 2
= 10 inch = 10 inch
Find: Find: A A
2 2
= = π π/4 d /4 d
2 2
2 2
Velocity, V Velocity, V
Velocity Head at point 2 Velocity Head at point 2
HYDRAULICS HYDRAULICS
EXAMPLE 3 EXAMPLE 3
Solution: Solution:
A A
2 2
= = π π/4 (10 in) /4 (10 in)
2 2
= 78.5 in = 78.5 in
2 2
(ft (ft
2 2
/144 in /144 in
2 2
) = 0.526 ) = 0.526
ft ft
2 2
Q Q
2 2
= Q = Q
1 1
= 400 gpm/ (450 gpm/cfs) = 0.89 cfs = 400 gpm/ (450 gpm/cfs) = 0.89 cfs
(ft (ft
3 3
/sec) /sec)
V = Q/A = 0.89 ft V = Q/A = 0.89 ft
3 3
/sec / 0.526 ft /sec / 0.526 ft
2 2
= 1.69 ft/sec = 1.69 ft/sec
9
HYDRAULICS HYDRAULICS
EXAMPLE 3 EXAMPLE 3
Solution: Solution:
V = Q/A = 0.89 ft V = Q/A = 0.89 ft
3 3
/sec / 0.526 ft /sec / 0.526 ft
2 2
= 1.69 ft/sec = 1.69 ft/sec
Velocity Head = V Velocity Head = V
2 2
/2g = /2g =
(1.69 ft/sec) (1.69 ft/sec)
2 2
/ {2 (32.2 ft/sec / {2 (32.2 ft/sec
2 2
)} = 0.04 ft )} = 0.04 ft
THUS, the velocity head in the 10 THUS, the velocity head in the 10 inch pipe is inch pipe is
only 0.025 times the velocity head in the 4 only 0.025 times the velocity head in the 4 inch inch
pipe. pipe.
HYDRAULICS HYDRAULICS
Basic Hydraulics Basic Hydraulics
An important law of fluid mechanics is An important law of fluid mechanics is
conservation of energy conservation of energy. Conservation of energy . Conservation of energy
for irrigation systems is described by the for irrigation systems is described by the
Bernoulli Equation Bernoulli Equation, which is given by: , which is given by:
H H
2 2
= H = H
1 1
  h h
L L
Equation 6 Equation 6
where: where: H H
1 1
= hydraulic head at point 1 in a = hydraulic head at point 1 in a
system system (upstream) (upstream)
H H
2 2
= hydraulic head at point 2 in a = hydraulic head at point 2 in a
system system (down stream) (down stream)
h h
L L
= head loss during flow from point 1 = head loss during flow from point 1
to point 2. to point 2.
HYDRAULICS HYDRAULICS
Basic Hydraulics Basic Hydraulics
The head loss from point 1 to point 2 is The head loss from point 1 to point 2 is
due to friction loss from the resistance due to friction loss from the resistance
to flow along a pipeline and to minor to flow along a pipeline and to minor
pressure losses of energy through pipe pressure losses of energy through pipe
fittings, etc. fittings, etc.
10
HYDRAULICS HYDRAULICS
Friction Loss in Pipes Friction Loss in Pipes
Darcy Darcy Weisbach Weisbach Formula Formula
). (L/T gravity of on accelerati the is
(L/T), pipe the in velocity fluid mean the is
(L) diameter pipe internal the is
(L), length pipe the is
less), (dimension number Reynolds and properties fluid
roughness, pipe of function a is which factor, friction Weisbach  Darcy the is
(L), loss friction the is
: where
2
2
2
g
V
D
L
f
h
g
V
D
L
f h
f
f
=
HYDRAULICS HYDRAULICS
Friction Loss in Pipes Friction Loss in Pipes
constant. conversion
where
2
: made be can ons substituti following the pipes, circular for Further,
2
5
2
2
2
=
= =
k
D
Q
L f k
g
V
D
L
f h
f
HYDRAULICS HYDRAULICS HYDRAULICS HYDRAULICS
11
HYDRAULICS HYDRAULICS
Friction Loss in Pipes Friction Loss in Pipes
The friction factor is a function of Reynolds The friction factor is a function of Reynolds
Number and relative roughness of the pipe Number and relative roughness of the pipe
internal material. Generally, the solution of internal material. Generally, the solution of
this equation is often a trial and error as the this equation is often a trial and error as the
flow is not known and thus the Reynolds flow is not known and thus the Reynolds
number (and thus the friction factor) is not number (and thus the friction factor) is not
known. known.
Hazen Hazen Williams Formula Williams Formula
/T), (L velocity fluid mean the is
(L) diameter pipe internal the is
(L), length pipe the is
material. pipe of function a is which
factor friction Williams  Hazen the is
units, the handle factor to conversion a is
(L), loss friction the is
: where
2
852 . 1
852 . 1
167 . 1
V
D
L
C
K
h
C
V
D
L
K h
f
f
=
HYDRAULICS HYDRAULICS
Friction Loss in Pipes Friction Loss in Pipes
/T), (L rate flow the is
(L) diameter pipe internal the is
(L), length pipe the is
material. pipe of function a is which factor, friction Williams  Hazen the is
units, the handle factor to conversion a is
(L), loss friction the is
: where
: made be can tion simplifica following the conduits, circular for Further,
3
1
852 . 1
852 . 1
871 . 4 1
Q
D
L
C
k
h
C
Q
D
L
k h
f
f
=
HYDRAULICS HYDRAULICS
Computing Friction Loss Computing Friction Loss
h h
f f
= 1054 [Q/C] = 1054 [Q/C]
1.852 1.852
[1/D [1/D
4.866 4.866
] ] Equation 8a Equation 8a
P P
f f
= 456 [Q/C] = 456 [Q/C]
1.852 1.852
[1/D [1/D
4.866 4.866
] ] Equation 8b Equation 8b
where: h where: h
f f
= friction loss, ft of head per 100 ft = friction loss, ft of head per 100 ft
of pipe of pipe
P P
f f
= friction loss, psi per 100 ft of pipe = friction loss, psi per 100 ft of pipe
Q = flow rate, gpm Q = flow rate, gpm
D = inside pipe diameter, inches D = inside pipe diameter, inches
C = roughness coefficient C = roughness coefficient
12
HYDRAULICS HYDRAULICS
Computing Friction Loss Computing Friction Loss
Representative values of C for different pipe Representative values of C for different pipe
materials are given in materials are given in TABLE 1 TABLE 1. The value of C . The value of C
decreases as the roughness of the pipe wall decreases as the roughness of the pipe wall
decreases. Accordingly, of the materials listed decreases. Accordingly, of the materials listed
in in TABLE 1 TABLE 1, steel pipe is the roughest material (C , steel pipe is the roughest material (C
= 100) while PVC is the smoothest (C = 150). = 100) while PVC is the smoothest (C = 150).
Table 2 Table 2 illustrates the friction loss for PVC pipe illustrates the friction loss for PVC pipe
as a function of pipe size and flow rate. Note the as a function of pipe size and flow rate. Note the
friction losses in Table 2 are in ft per 100 ft and friction losses in Table 2 are in ft per 100 ft and
are for PVC pipe of an SDR of 21. are for PVC pipe of an SDR of 21.
HYDRAULICS HYDRAULICS
Computing Friction Loss Computing Friction Loss
TABLE 1. HAZEN TABLE 1. HAZEN WILLIAMS C VALUES WILLIAMS C VALUES
MATERIAL MATERIAL C C
Aluminum pipe with couplers Aluminum pipe with couplers 120 120
Aluminum pipe with gates Aluminum pipe with gates 110 110
Cement asbestos pipe Cement asbestos pipe 140 140
Galvanized steel pipe Galvanized steel pipe 140 140
Standard steel pipe Standard steel pipe 100 100
PVC Class 160 irrigation pipe PVC Class 160 irrigation pipe 150 150
PVC pipe with gates PVC pipe with gates 130 130
HYDRAULICS HYDRAULICS
Table 2 Friction loss for IPS PVC pipe.
Q
(gal/min) 1in 1
1
/4in 1
1
/2in 2in 2
1
/2in
       Friction head loss in ft/100 ft       
2
4
6
8
10
.15
.54
1.15
2.98
.04
.17
.37
.63
.95
.02
.09
.19
.32
.49
.03
.06
.11
.16
.01
.02
.04
.06
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
6.32
10.79
16.30
22.86
2.03
3.46
5.22
7.32
9.75
12.46
15.51
18.87
1.04
1.78
2.70
3.78
5.03
6.46
8.02
9.75
.35
.60
.91
1.27
1.70
2.18
2.71
3.30
.14
.23
.36
.50
.67
.86
1.07
1.30
Q
(gal/min) 4in 5in 6in 8in 10in 12in
       Friction headloss in ft/100 ft       
150
160
170
180
190
200
1.11
1.26
1.41
1.57
1.73
1.90
220
240
260
280
300
320
340
360
380
400
420
440
460
480
500
550
600
650
700
750
800
850
900
950
1000
2.28
2.67
3.10
3.56
4.04
4.56
5.10
5.67
6.26
6.90
.81
.95
1.10
1.26
1.43
1.62
1.82
2.02
2.22
2.45
2.69
2.92
3.18
3.44
3.70
.34
.40
.46
.54
.61
.69
.77
.86
.95
1.04
1.14
1.25
1.35
1.46
1.58
1.89
2.22
2.58
2.96
3.36
3.78
4.24
4.71
5.21
5 73
.09
.10
.12
.14
.17
.19
.21
.24
.26
.28
.31
.34
.37
.41
.43
.52
.61
.71
.81
.93
1.04
1.17
1.30
1.44
1 58
.10
.10
.11
.12
.14
.15
.18
.21
.24
.28
.32
.36
.40
.44
.49
54
.060
.083
.096
.110
.125
.141
.158
.175
.194
.213
233
13
HYDRAULICS HYDRAULICS
Pipe Sizes Pipe Sizes
Both the internal and external pipe diameters Both the internal and external pipe diameters
are determined by the material used to are determined by the material used to
manufacture the pipe and the manufacture the pipe and the “ “nominal nominal” ” pipe pipe
diameter. These values are available in diameter. These values are available in
many different locations and standards. many different locations and standards.
Several are included here for reference. Several are included here for reference.
HYDRAULICS HYDRAULICS
SHOW EXAMPLES OF PVC PIPE SHOW EXAMPLES OF PVC PIPE
HYDRAULICS HYDRAULICS
Pipelines Pipelines
Discuss pipe sizes Discuss pipe sizes
PVC PVC   OD controlled (fittings are external OD controlled (fittings are external
to pipe). Thus, pipe thickness reduces to pipe). Thus, pipe thickness reduces
pipe pipe ID. ID.
ALUMINUM ALUMINUM   OD controlled (fittings are OD controlled (fittings are
external to pipe). Thus, pipe thickness external to pipe). Thus, pipe thickness
reduces pipe ID. reduces pipe ID.
BLACK POLY BLACK POLY   ID controlled (fittings are ID controlled (fittings are
internal to pipe). Thus, pipe thickness internal to pipe). Thus, pipe thickness
does not impact pipe ID. does not impact pipe ID.
HYDRAULICS HYDRAULICS
Aluminum Pipe Sizes Aluminum Pipe Sizes
NOTE: Aluminum Pipe with Couplers, C = 130 NOTE: Aluminum Pipe with Couplers, C = 130
9.818 9.818 10.00 10.00 10 10
7.856 7.856 8.00 8.00 8 8
6.872 6.872 7.00 7.00 7 7
5.884 5.884 6.00 6.00 6 6
4.896 4.896 5.00 5.00 5 5
3.906 3.906 4.00 4.00 4 4
2.914 2.914 3.00 3.00 3 3
1.902 1.902 2.00 2.00 2 2
PIPE I.D. (in) PIPE I.D. (in) PIPE O.D. (in) PIPE O.D. (in) NOMINAL PIPE SIZE NOMINAL PIPE SIZE
(in) (in)
14
22 50 ft head
43 93.5
25 30 40 50 81.0
30 40 50 63 64.0
40 50 63 80 51.0
31 40 50 63 80 100 41.0
40 50 63 80 100 125 32.5
50 64 80 100 125 160 26.0
64 80 100 125 160 200 21.0
63 80 100 125 160 200 250 15.0 17.0
160 200 250 315 11.5 13.5
100 125 160 9.0 11.0
125 160 200 7.0
160 200 250 5.3
psi psi Psi psi psi Psi psi I.D.
Based
Pipe
O.D.
Based
Pipe
PE 2305 PE 3406
PE 3306
PE 2306
PE 3408 PVC 2110 PVC 2112 PVC 2116 PVC 1120
PVC 1220
PVC 2120
SDR SDR
HYDRAULICS HYDRAULICS
PVC Pipe Sizes PVC Pipe Sizes
Table 1. Pressure ratings (PR) for nonthreaded thermoplastic pipe.
HYDRAULICS HYDRAULICS
5.840 5.90 6.000 PIP 6.140 156.00
5.761 6.065 5.845 5.993 6.115 6.301 6.417 IPS 6.625 168.28 6 150
4.813 5.047 4.909 5.033 5.135 5.291 5.389 IPS 5.563 141.30 5 125
3.932 3.972 4.004 PIP 4.134 105.00
3.826 4.026 3.970 4.072 4.154 4.280 4.36 IPS 4.500 114.30 4 100
3.364 3.548 3.530 3.62 3.692 3.804 IPS 4.000 101.60 3 ½ 90
2.900 3.068 3.088 3.166 3.230 3.330 IPS 3.500 88.90 3 80
2.323 2.469 2.537 2.601 2.655 IPS 2.875 73.02 2 ½ 65
1.939 2.067 2.095 2.149 2.193 IPS 2.375 60.32 2 50
1.500 1.610 1.676 1.720 1.754 IPS 1.900 48.26 1 ½ 40
1.218 1.380 1.464 1.502 1.532 IPS 1.660 42.16 1 ¼ 32
0.957 1.049 1.161 1.189 1.212 IPS 1.315 33.40 1 25
0.742 0.834 0.926 0.930 IPS 1.050 26.67 ¾ 20
0.546 0.622 IPS 0.840 21.34 ½ 15
0.423 0.493 IPS 0.675 17.14 3/8 10
0.302 0.364 IPS 0.540 13.72 ¼ 8
0.215 0.279 IPS 0.405 10.29 1/8 4
Pipe
I.D.(in)
Pipe
I.D.(in)
Pipe
I.D.(in)
Pipe
I.D.(in)
Pipe
I.D.(in)
Pipe
I.D.(in)
Pipe
I.D.(in)
Pipe
I.D.(in)
Pipe
I.D.(in)
in mm In mm
Schedule
80
Schedule
40
SDR 17 SDR 21 SDR 26 SDR 41 SDR 51 SDR 64 50 ft
head
Pipe
Class
Average
O.D.
Average
O.D.
Nominal
Pipe Size
Nominal
Pipe Size
HYDRAULICS HYDRAULICS
PVC Pipe Sizes PVC Pipe Sizes
HYDRAULICS HYDRAULICS
31.764 32.572 33.230 34.244 IPS 36.000 914.40 36 900
26.47 27.144 27.692 28.536 IPS 30.000 762.00 30 750
25.803 26.589 26.857 PIP 27.953 710.00 27 700
22.895 23.593 23.831 24.271 PIP 24.803 629.99
21.176 21.714 22.154 22.830 23.058 23.486 IPS 24.000 609.60 24 600
20.351 20.971 21.183 21.575 PIP 22.047 559.99 21 550
17.648 18.096 18.462 19.024 19.200 19.564 IPS 20.000 508.00 20 500
17.263 17.789 17.969 18.310 PIP 18.701 475.00
15.882 16.286 16.616 17.122 17.280 17.606 IPS 18.000 457.20 18 450
14.118 14.476 14.770 15.220 IPS 16.000 406.40 16 400
13.844 14.124 14.554 14.700 14.972 15.000 PIP 15.300 388.62 15 380
12.354 12.668 12.924 13.318 IPS 14.000 355.60 14 350
11.642 11.760 11.978 12.000 PIP 12.240 311.00
11.938 11.250 11.538 11.770 12.128 IPS 12.750 323.85 12 300
9.720 9.800 9.982 10.000 PIP 10.200 259.00
10.02 9.486 9.728 9.924 10.226 IPS 10.750 273.05 10 250
7.762 7.840 7.986 8.000 PIP 8.160 207.00
7.981 7.609 7.805 7.961 8.205 IPS 8.625 219.08 8 200
Pipe
I.D.(in)
Pipe
I.D.(in)
Pipe
I.D.(in)
Pipe
I.D.(in)
Pipe
I.D.(in)
Pipe
I.D.(in)
Pipe
I.D.(in)
Pipe
I.D.(in)
in mm In mm
Schedule
40
SDR 17 SDR 21 SDR 26 SDR 41 SDR 51 100 ft
head
50 ft
head
Pipe
Class
Average
O.D.
Average
O.D.
Nominal
Pipe Size
Nominal
Pipe Size
HYDRAULICS HYDRAULICS
PVC Pipe Sizes PVC Pipe Sizes
HYDRAULICS HYDRAULICS
Table 3. Pipe dimensions for PE pipe, I.D. Controlled.
6.625 7.119 6.873 6.703 6.065 154.05 6 154
4.000 4.726 4.562 4.450 4.026 102.26 4 102
3.500 3.602 3.478 3.390 3.068 77.93 3 78
2.875 2.899 2.799 2.729 2.469 62.71 2 ½ 63
2.375 2.847 2.657 2.527 2.427 2.343 2.285 2.067 52.50 2 52
1.900 2.218 2.070 1.968 1.890 1.824 1.780 1.610 40.89 1 ½ 41
1.660 1.900 1.774 1.686 1.620 1.564 1.526 1.380 35.05 1 ¼ 35
1.315 1.445 1.349 1.283 1.231 1.189 1.169 1.049 26.64 1 27
1.050 1.134 1.060 1.008 0.968 0.944 0.944 0.824 20.93 ¾ 21
0.840 0.856 0.800 0.760 0.742 0.742 0.742 0.622 15.80 ½ 16
Pipe
O.D.(in)
Pipe
O.D.(in)
Pipe
O.D.(in)
Pipe
O.D.(in)
Pipe
O.D.(in)
Pipe
O.D.(in)
Pipe
O.D.(in)
in mm In mm
Schedule
40
SDR
5.3
SDR
7
SDR
9
SDR
11.5
SDR
15
SDR
19
Average
I.D.
Average
I.D.
Nominal
Pipe Size
Nominal
Pipe Size
15
HYDRAULICS HYDRAULICS
Basic Hydraulics Basic Hydraulics
Bernoulli Equation Bernoulli Equation
H H
2 2
= H = H
1 1
  h h
L L
Equation 6 Equation 6
h h
2 2
+ Z + Z
2 2
+ V + V
2 2
2 2
/2g = /2g = h h
1 1
+ Z + Z
1 1
+ V + V
1 1
2 2
/2g /2g  losses losses
Z Z
1 1
= 110 feet, Z = 110 feet, Z
2 2
= 100 feet = 100 feet
P P
1 1
= 50 psi, P = 50 psi, P
2 2
= ?? = ??
Pipe is 6 inch IPS PVC, SDR = 21 (200 psi) Pipe is 6 inch IPS PVC, SDR = 21 (200 psi)
Length is 1,000 feet Length is 1,000 feet
HYDRAULICS HYDRAULICS
Basic Hydraulics Basic Hydraulics
Z Z
1 1
= 110 feet, Z = 110 feet, Z
2 2
= 100 feet = 100 feet
P P
1 1
= 50 psi, P = 50 psi, P
2 2
= ??; h = ??; h
1 1
= 50 (2.31) = 115.5 feet = 50 (2.31) = 115.5 feet
In this case, V In this case, V
1 1
= V = V
2 2
, thus velocity heads cancel , thus velocity heads cancel
h h
2 2
+ 100 = h + 100 = h
1 1
+ 110 + 110 – – losses losses
h h
2 2
= 115.5 + 110 = 115.5 + 110   100 100   losses losses
HYDRAULICS HYDRAULICS
Basic Hydraulics Basic Hydraulics
h h
2 2
= 115.5 + 10 = 115.5 + 10 – – losses losses
Q Q losses losses losses losses h h
2 2
P P
2 2
gpm gpm ft/100 ft ft/100 ft 1,000 ft 1,000 ft ft ft psi psi
600 600 2.22 2.22 22.2 22.2 103.3 103.3 44.7 44.7
300 300 0.61 0.61 6.10 6.10 119.4 119.4 51.7 51.7
HYDRAULICS HYDRAULICS
EXAMPLE OF PIPE EXAMPLE OF PIPE
MATERIAL ON MATERIAL ON
FRICTION LOSS FRICTION LOSS
16
HYDRAULICS HYDRAULICS
Computing Friction Loss Computing Friction Loss
h h
f f
= 1054 [Q/C] = 1054 [Q/C]
1.852 1.852
[1/D [1/D
4.866 4.866
] ] Equation 8a Equation 8a
where: h where: h
f f
= friction loss, ft of head per 100 ft of = friction loss, ft of head per 100 ft of
pipe pipe
Q = flow rate, gpm Q = flow rate, gpm
D = inside pipe diameter, inches D = inside pipe diameter, inches
C = roughness coefficient, C = roughness coefficient,
HYDRAULICS HYDRAULICS
Computing Friction Loss Computing Friction Loss
Pipe Pipe Pipe Pipe
Size Size Material Material I.D. I.D. O.D. O.D. C C
1 in 1 in Sch 40 PVC Sch 40 PVC 1.049 1.049 1.315 1.315 150 150
1 in 1 in Sch 40 Steel Sch 40 Steel 1.049 1.049 1.315 1.315 100 100
½ ½ in in Sch 40 PVC Sch 40 PVC 0.622 0.622 0.848 0.848 150 150
Q = 10 gpm Q = 10 gpm
HYDRAULICS HYDRAULICS
Computing Friction Loss Computing Friction Loss
h h
f f
= 1054 [Q/C] = 1054 [Q/C]
1.852 1.852
[1/D [1/D
4.866 4.866
] ]
½ ½ inch SCH 40 PVC inch SCH 40 PVC
h h
f f
= 1054 [Q/C] = 1054 [Q/C]
1.852 1.852
[1/D [1/D
4.866 4.866
] ]
h h
f f
= 1054 [10/150] = 1054 [10/150]
1.852 1.852
[1/0.622 [1/0.622
4.866 4.866
] ]
h h
f f
= 70.5 ft/100ft = 70.5 ft/100ft
h h
f f
= 130.5 psi/100ft = 130.5 psi/100ft
HYDRAULICS HYDRAULICS
Computing Friction Loss Computing Friction Loss
h h
f f
= 1054 [Q/C] = 1054 [Q/C]
1.852 1.852
[1/D [1/D
4.866 4.866
] ]
1 inch SCH 40 PVC 1 inch SCH 40 PVC
h h
f f
= 1054 [Q/C] = 1054 [Q/C]
1.852 1.852
[1/D [1/D
4.866 4.866
] ]
h h
f f
= 1054 [10/150] = 1054 [10/150]
1.852 1.852
[1/1.049 [1/1.049
4.866 4.866
] ]
h h
f f
= 5.541 ft/100ft = 5.541 ft/100ft
h h
f f
= 2.4 psi/100ft = 2.4 psi/100ft
17
HYDRAULICS HYDRAULICS
Computing Friction Loss Computing Friction Loss
h h
f f
= 1054 [Q/C] = 1054 [Q/C]
1.852 1.852
[1/D [1/D
4.866 4.866
] ]
1 inch SCH 40 STEEL 1 inch SCH 40 STEEL
h h
f f
= 1054 [Q/C] = 1054 [Q/C]
1.852 1.852
[1/D [1/D
4.866 4.866
] ]
h h
f f
= 1054 [10/100] = 1054 [10/100]
1.852 1.852
[1/1.049 [1/1.049
4.866 4.866
] ]
h h
f f
= 11.74 ft/100ft = 11.74 ft/100ft
h h
f f
= 5.08 psi/100ft = 5.08 psi/100ft
HYDRAULICS HYDRAULICS
Computing Friction Loss Computing Friction Loss
COMPARISONS BETWEEN PIPES COMPARISONS BETWEEN PIPES
½ ½ INCH PVC INCH PVC   30.5 PSI/100 FT 30.5 PSI/100 FT
1 INCH PVC 1 INCH PVC   2.4 PSI/100FT 2.4 PSI/100FT
1 INCH STEEL 1 INCH STEEL   5.08 PSI/100FT 5.08 PSI/100FT
STEEL HAS TWICE THE LOSS OF PVC STEEL HAS TWICE THE LOSS OF PVC
DOUBLE SIZE HAS APPROXIMATELY 1/6 DOUBLE SIZE HAS APPROXIMATELY 1/6
LOSS LOSS
HYDRAULICS HYDRAULICS
Head Loss Head Loss
Minor or Fitting Losses Minor or Fitting Losses
Head losses also occur in the fittings used in Head losses also occur in the fittings used in
construction of a system. These head losses construction of a system. These head losses
are due to the friction in the fitting, plus losses are due to the friction in the fitting, plus losses
resulting from the turbulence and changes in resulting from the turbulence and changes in
the direction of flow. Head losses in fittings, the direction of flow. Head losses in fittings,
valves, etc., can be described by: valves, etc., can be described by:
HYDRAULICS HYDRAULICS
Head Loss Head Loss
Minor or Fitting Losses Minor or Fitting Losses
Head losses in fittings, valves, etc., can be Head losses in fittings, valves, etc., can be
described by: described by:
h h
m m
= K {V = K {V
2 2
/2g} /2g} Equation 9 Equation 9
where: where: h h
m m
= head loss in fitting, ft = head loss in fitting, ft
K = resistance coefficient for fitting, K = resistance coefficient for fitting,
V = velocity of flow, ft/sec V = velocity of flow, ft/sec
18
HYDRAULICS HYDRAULICS
Head Loss Head Loss
Minor or Fitting Losses Minor or Fitting Losses
Resistance coefficients for various types of Resistance coefficients for various types of
fittings and valves are given in fittings and valves are given in TABLE 4. TABLE 4.
Table 4 Resistance coefficient K for use determining head losses in fittings and valves.
Standard pipe
Nominal diameter
Fitting or valve
3 in
(76.2 mm)
4 in
(101.6 mm)
5 in
(127.0 mm)
6 in
(152.4 mm)
7 in
(177.8 mm)
8 in
(203.2 mm)
10 in
(254 mm)
Bends:
Return flanged
Return screwed
Elbows:
Regular flanged 90°
Long radius flanged 90°
Long radius flanged 45°
Regular screwed 90°
Long radius screwed 90°
Regular screwed 45°
Tees:
Flanged line flow
Flanged branch flow
Screwed line flow
Screwed branch flow
Valves:
Globe flanged
Globe screwed
Gate flanged
Gate screwed
0.33
.80
0.34
.25
.19
.80
.30
.30
.16
.73
.90
1.20
7.0
6.0
.21
14
0.30
.70
0.31
.22
.18
.70
.23
.28
.14
.68
.90
1.10
6.3
5.7
.16
12
0.29
0.30
.20
.18
.13
.65
6.0
.13
0.28
0.28
.18
.17
.12
.60
5.8
.11
0.27
0.27
.17
.17
.11
.58
5.7
.09
0.25
0.26
.15
.17
.10
.56
5.6
.075
0.24
0.25
.14
.16
.09
.52
5.5
.06
HYDRAULICS HYDRAULICS
Head Loss Head Loss
VELOCITY HEAD (practical guide) VELOCITY HEAD (practical guide)
V V
2 2
/(2g) = 2.594 * 10 /(2g) = 2.594 * 10
 3 3
(gpm (gpm
2 2
)/I.D. )/I.D.
4 4
EXAMPLE EXAMPLE
Q = 40 GPM, ID = 1.5 INCH Q = 40 GPM, ID = 1.5 INCH
V V
2 2
/(2g) = 2.594*10 /(2g) = 2.594*10
 3 3
(40 (40
2 2
)/1.5 )/1.5
4 4
= 0.82 ft = 0.82 ft
HYDRAULICS HYDRAULICS
Pipelines Pipelines
Irrigation pipelines are made of many Irrigation pipelines are made of many
materials. Currently, the most common materials. Currently, the most common
materials used for above ground sprinkler materials used for above ground sprinkler
systems and gated systems and gated pipe surface irrigation pipe surface irrigation
systems are aluminum and ultraviolet systems are aluminum and ultraviolet
radiation protected PVC (polyvinyl chloride radiation protected PVC (polyvinyl chloride
plastic). Center plastic). Center pivot and lateral systems pivot and lateral systems
commonly use galvanized steel as the commonly use galvanized steel as the
pipeline material. pipeline material.
19
HYDRAULICS HYDRAULICS
Pipelines Pipelines
For pipelines that are buried below the For pipelines that are buried below the
ground, the most common material in ground, the most common material in
agricultural applications is PVC and in agricultural applications is PVC and in
landscape and turf application it is either landscape and turf application it is either
PVC or PE (polyethylene plastic). PE is also PVC or PE (polyethylene plastic). PE is also
commonly used for above commonly used for above ground micro ground micro 
irrigation systems. irrigation systems.
HYDRAULICS HYDRAULICS
Pipelines Pipelines
Sizing mainlines is usually based on a Sizing mainlines is usually based on a
maximum of 5 to 6 ft/sec average velocity. maximum of 5 to 6 ft/sec average velocity.
The typical flow ranges for aluminum pipe The typical flow ranges for aluminum pipe
and class 160 PVC pipe at various nominal and class 160 PVC pipe at various nominal
sizes and reasonable flow velocities are sizes and reasonable flow velocities are
shown below. shown below.
HYDRAULICS HYDRAULICS
Pipeline flow rates. VELOCITY = 5 ft/sec Pipeline flow rates. VELOCITY = 5 ft/sec
Nominal Nominal Aluminum Aluminum Class 160 PVC Class 160 PVC
Size Size ID ID Q Q ID ID Q Q
in in in in gpm gpm in in gpm gpm
1 1 ½ ½ 1.4 1.4 24 24 1.754 1.754 38 38
2 2 1.9 1.9 44 44 2.193 2.193 59 59
4 4 3.9 3.9 186 186 4.154 4.154 211 211
6 6 5.9 5.9 426 426 6.115 6.115 458 458
8 8 7.9 7.9 764 764 7.961 7.961 776 776
10 10 9.9 9.9 1199 1199 9.924 9.924 1205 1205
12 12 11/9 11/9 1733 1733 11.770 11.770 1695 1695
HYDRAULICS HYDRAULICS
Table 8.2 Friction loss for I PS PVC pipe.
Q
( gal/min) 1in 1
11
/44in 1
11
/22in 2in 2
11
/22in 3 in 3
11
/22in
       Friction head loss in ft/100 ft       
2
4
6
8
10
. 15
. 54
1.15
2.98
.04
.17
.37
.63
.95
.02
.09
.19
.32
.49
. 03
. 06
. 11
. 16
.01
.02
.04
.06
.01
.02 .01
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
6.32
10 .79
16 .30
22 .86
2.03
3.46
5.22
7.32
9.75
12. 46
15. 51
18. 87
1.04
1.78
2.70
3.78
5.03
6.46
8.02
9.75
. 35
. 60
. 91
1.27
1.70
2.18
2.71
3.30
.14
.23
.36
.50
.67
.86
1.07
1.30
.05
.09
.13
.19
.25
.32
.40
.49
.02
.04
.07
.10
.13
.17
.21
.25
20
VA = Vacuum, Air Vent Valve
C = Check Valve or Backflow Preventer
G = Shutoff Valve
PR = Pressure Relief
D = Automatic Drain Valve
Lateral Design Lateral Design
The irrigation planner and designer is The irrigation planner and designer is
interested in two basic problems related to interested in two basic problems related to
pipeline hydraulics. The first is concerned pipeline hydraulics. The first is concerned
with the flow of water in pipes with multiple with the flow of water in pipes with multiple
outlets (sprinkler laterals or drip irrigation outlets (sprinkler laterals or drip irrigation
laterals) and flow of water in pipelines laterals) and flow of water in pipelines
without multiple outlets, such as main lines without multiple outlets, such as main lines
and sub and sub mains. mains.
HYDRAULICS HYDRAULICS
Computing Friction Loss Computing Friction Loss
A pipeline with outlets has a lower friction loss A pipeline with outlets has a lower friction loss
than a conveyance pipe because the velocity than a conveyance pipe because the velocity
decreases with distance along the pipe. To decreases with distance along the pipe. To
correct for the effect of outlets, a multiple correct for the effect of outlets, a multiple
outlet factor, F is used. The value of F is one, outlet factor, F is used. The value of F is one,
for pipelines without outlets. for pipelines without outlets.
ess). dimensionl ( exponent diameter pipe the is
and less), (dimension exponent, velocity the is
(L/T), velocity fluid mean the is
(L), diameter pipe internal the is
(L), length pipe the is
chosen, formula loss friction the and
units, the handle factor to conversion a is
(L), loss friction the is
: where
: following the as expressed be can pipes in loss friction the general, In
n
m
V
D
L
K
h
V
D
L
K h
f
m
n
f
=
21
m
n m
f
m
m
n
m
n
f
m
n
f
Q
D
L
k h Thus
D
Q
D
L
K
V
D
L
K h
D
Q
V
A
Q
V
V
D
L
K h
+
=

.

\

= =

.

\

= = =
2
3
2
2
general, in
4
Thus,
4
or and
: made be can tion simplifica following the Further,
t
t
Assume the sprinkler spacings (S) are all equal Assume the sprinkler spacings (S) are all equal
and that the total number of sprinklers is N, the and that the total number of sprinklers is N, the
total flow into the lateral is Q and each sprinkler total flow into the lateral is Q and each sprinkler
flow (q) is equal to Q/N. Further, the sprinkler flow (q) is equal to Q/N. Further, the sprinkler
lateral length (L) is given as SN. The head loss in lateral length (L) is given as SN. The head loss in
section one of the above figure is calculated as: section one of the above figure is calculated as:
m
n m
f
q
D
S
k h
+
=
2
3 1
Likewise, the head loss in section two and the Likewise, the head loss in section two and the
next sections are calculated as: next sections are calculated as:
m
n m
f
q
D
S
k h
) 2 (
2
3 2
+
=
m
n m
f
q
D
S
k h
) 3 (
2
3 3
+
=
m
n m
fi
iq
D
S
k h
) (
2
3
+
=
The total head loss in the entire lateral in now the The total head loss in the entire lateral in now the
sum of the head loss from each section of the sum of the head loss from each section of the
lateral, or lateral, or
¿ ¿
=
+
=


.

\

= =
N
i
m
n m
N
i
fi T
iq
D
S
k h h
1
2
3
1
) (
N L S / =
¿ ¿ ¿
=
+
=
+
=


.

\

=


.

\

= =
N
i
m
n m
N
i
m
n m
N
i
fi T
iq N L
D
k iq
D
N L
k h h
1
2
3
1
2 3
1
) ( / ) ( /
22
N Q q / =
¿ ¿
=
+
=
+ 

.

\

=


.

\

=
N
i
m
m
m
n m
N
i
m
n m T
i
N
Q
N
L
D
k N iQ N L
D
k
h
1
2
3
1
2
3
) ( ) / ( /
¿
=
+ +
=
N
i
m
m
m
n m
T
i
N
Q L
D
k
h
1
1 2
3
) (
NOW, finally recall that for the entire lateral, if it NOW, finally recall that for the entire lateral, if it
were a mainline, the friction loss is were a mainline, the friction loss is
m
n m
f
Q
D
L
k h
+
=
2
3
1
1
1
1
1
1 2
3
) (
1
) (
+
=
=
+
=
+ +
¿
¿ ¿
= = =
m
N
i
m
f
N
i
m
m f
N
i
m
m
m
n m T
N
i
h i
N
h i
N
Q L
D
k
h
Factor F. * line main a were lateral the if loss Head
outlets. multiple for account Factor to * line main a were lateral the if loss Head
=
=
T
T
h
h
2 1
1
6
1
2
1
1
1
Factor F
N
m
N m N
i
m
N
i
m
÷
+ +
+
= =
+
=
¿
If the first sprinkler outlet is located If the first sprinkler outlet is located ½ ½
spacing from the inlet to the lateral, then the spacing from the inlet to the lateral, then the
factor F must be adjusted. These are given factor F must be adjusted. These are given
in the attached tables. in the attached tables.
23
Computing Friction Loss Computing Friction Loss
For lateral pipelines with constant spaced For lateral pipelines with constant spaced
outlets and nearly the same discharge per outlets and nearly the same discharge per
outlet, use outlet, use TABLE 3. TABLE 3. With center With center pivots, the pivots, the
sprinkler discharge increases with distance sprinkler discharge increases with distance
from the pivot point. These factors are given from the pivot point. These factors are given
at the bottom. at the bottom.
Table 3 Multiple out let factors for laterals with equally
spread out lets of the same discharge. For center
pivots, see footnote
**
.
No. of
outlets F
No. of
out lets F
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
1. 0
0.634
0.528
0.480
0.451
0.433
0.419
0.410
0.402
0.396
0.392
0.388
0.384
0.381
0.379
16
17
18
19
20
22
24
26
28
30
35
40
50
100
More than
100
0. 377
0. 376
0. 373
0. 372
0. 370
0. 368
0. 366
0. 364
0. 363
0. 362
0. 359
0. 357
0. 355
0. 350
0. 345
* *
F = 0.54 for center pivots without end guns.
F = 0.56 for center pivots with end guns.
0.30
0.35
0.40
0.45
0.50
0.55
0.60
0.65
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55
Number of Sprinklers on the Lateral
M
u
l
t
i
p
l
e
O
u
t
l
e
t
F
a
c
t
o
r
(
F
)
Lateral Design Lateral Design
The sizing of sprinkler laterals is a fundamental The sizing of sprinkler laterals is a fundamental
consideration for sprinkler systems. The consideration for sprinkler systems. The
lateral must be large enough to carry the lateral must be large enough to carry the
needed flow rate so that the pressure loss needed flow rate so that the pressure loss
along the lateral is not excessive. along the lateral is not excessive.
A standard has been established by the A standard has been established by the
American Society of Agricultural Engineers for American Society of Agricultural Engineers for
maximum variations of discharge along a maximum variations of discharge along a
sprinkler lateral. sprinkler lateral.
24
Lateral Design Lateral Design
To achieve an acceptable uniformity the To achieve an acceptable uniformity the
standard requires that the discharge variation standard requires that the discharge variation
from the sprinkler with the largest flow to the from the sprinkler with the largest flow to the
sprinkler with the smallest flow not exceed 10% sprinkler with the smallest flow not exceed 10%
of the average discharge. of the average discharge.
Since the discharge from a nozzle is related to Since the discharge from a nozzle is related to
the square root of the pressure, the 10% the square root of the pressure, the 10%
discharge variation is equivalent to a maximum discharge variation is equivalent to a maximum
permissible pressure variation of 20%. permissible pressure variation of 20%.
Lateral Design Lateral Design
The variation of pressure along a lateral can be The variation of pressure along a lateral can be
due to elevation changes along the lateral and due to elevation changes along the lateral and
friction loss in the lateral and fittings. The friction loss in the lateral and fittings. The
pressure distribution along a lateral placed on pressure distribution along a lateral placed on
level ground is illustrated in Figure level ground is illustrated in Figure (NEXT). (NEXT).
The pressure at the inlet of the lateral is The pressure at the inlet of the lateral is
determined by the pressure available from the determined by the pressure available from the
mainline. The pressure loss in the first several mainline. The pressure loss in the first several
joints of the lateral is nearly the same as for a joints of the lateral is nearly the same as for a
mainline of the same diameter and pipe mainline of the same diameter and pipe
material. material.
Lateral Design Lateral Design
However, as water is discharged from the However, as water is discharged from the
sprinklers on the lateral the flow rate sprinklers on the lateral the flow rate
decreases with distance along the lateral. decreases with distance along the lateral.
Ultimately, the only flow in the last joint of the Ultimately, the only flow in the last joint of the
lateral is that discharged from the last sprinkler lateral is that discharged from the last sprinkler
on the lateral. on the lateral.
Of course there is very little loss in the lateral Of course there is very little loss in the lateral
for such a small flow. The diagram in Figure for such a small flow. The diagram in Figure
(NEXT) (NEXT) shows that the friction loss for a lateral shows that the friction loss for a lateral
is about 35% of the loss encountered in a is about 35% of the loss encountered in a
mainline pipe of the same diameter when flow mainline pipe of the same diameter when flow
rate into the mainline and lateral are the same. rate into the mainline and lateral are the same.
25
Lateral Design Lateral Design
The average pressure along the lateral on The average pressure along the lateral on
level ground occurs at a location about 1/4 to level ground occurs at a location about 1/4 to
1/3 of the way from the inlet of the lateral. 1/3 of the way from the inlet of the lateral.
Obviously since pressure varies along the Obviously since pressure varies along the
lateral the discharge also varies. lateral the discharge also varies.
Sprinkler systems are usually designed to Sprinkler systems are usually designed to
select the nozzle size for the average pressure select the nozzle size for the average pressure
along the lateral. Then the pressure at each along the lateral. Then the pressure at each
end of the lateral is computed. end of the lateral is computed.
Lateral Design Lateral Design
The diagram in the pressure loss Figure The diagram in the pressure loss Figure
shows that the average pressure is closer to shows that the average pressure is closer to
the pressure at the distal end of the lateral the pressure at the distal end of the lateral
than to the pressure at the inlet of the lateral. than to the pressure at the inlet of the lateral.
For practical purposes the pressure at each For practical purposes the pressure at each
end of a lateral on level ground can be end of a lateral on level ground can be
computed by: computed by:
P P
i i
= P = P
a a
+ + ¾ ¾ P P
l l
Equation 5 Equation 5
P P
d d
= P = P
a a
– – ¼ ¼ P P
l l
Equation 6 Equation 6
26
Lateral Design Lateral Design
P P
i i
= P = P
a a
+ + ¾ ¾ P P
l l
Equation 5 Equation 5
P P
d d
= P = P
a a
– – ¼ ¼ P P
l l
where: where: P P
i i
= pressure at the inlet into = pressure at the inlet into
the lateral (psi), the lateral (psi),
P P
a a
= average pressure along the = average pressure along the
lateral lateral (psi), (psi),
P P
d d
= pressure at the distal end of the = pressure at the distal end of the
lateral (psi), and lateral (psi), and
P P
l l
= pressure loss along the lateral = pressure loss along the lateral
(psi). (psi).
Lateral Design Lateral Design
From a practical perspective, the maximum From a practical perspective, the maximum
acceptable pressure loss along a lateral acceptable pressure loss along a lateral
placed on level ground equals 23.4% of the placed on level ground equals 23.4% of the
average, or design, pressure of the lateral. In average, or design, pressure of the lateral. In
other words, other words,
Maximum P Maximum P
l l
< 0.234 P < 0.234 P
a a
Equation 6 Equation 6
Lateral Design Lateral Design
When a lateral runs up or down hill, the change When a lateral runs up or down hill, the change
in elevation causes changes in pressure. An in elevation causes changes in pressure. An
elevation change of 10 feet is equal to a elevation change of 10 feet is equal to a
pressure change of 4.3 psi. pressure change of 4.3 psi.
Thus, when laterals run downhill there is less Thus, when laterals run downhill there is less
pressure variation from the inlet to the distal end pressure variation from the inlet to the distal end
than for laterals on level ground because the than for laterals on level ground because the
slope provides some pressure increase. When slope provides some pressure increase. When
laterals run uphill the pressure in the lateral laterals run uphill the pressure in the lateral
drops because of friction and because of the drops because of friction and because of the
change in elevation. change in elevation.
Lateral Design (EQUATION 7) Lateral Design (EQUATION 7)
P P P
E E
i a l
i d
= + ÷
÷

\

.

3
4
1
2 231 .
P P P
E E
d a l
i d
= ÷ +
÷

\

.

1
4
1
2 231 .
where: Ei = the elevation of the inlet to the lateral (ft) and
Ed = the elevation of the distal end of the lateral (ft).
27
Example 4 Example 4
Given Given: : A sprinkler lateral was designed for A sprinkler lateral was designed for
an average pressure of 50 psi and sprinkler an average pressure of 50 psi and sprinkler
heads with one 5/32 inch nozzle in each heads with one 5/32 inch nozzle in each
sprinkler head. sprinkler head.
The sprinkler lateral is made of 4 inch diameter The sprinkler lateral is made of 4 inch diameter
aluminum pipe with joints 30 feet long. There is aluminum pipe with joints 30 feet long. There is
one sprinkler outlet at the end of each joint of one sprinkler outlet at the end of each joint of
pipe. The lateral is 1,320 feet long. pipe. The lateral is 1,320 feet long.
Lateral Design Lateral Design
Example 4 Example 4
Find Find: : a) The pressure at the inlet and a) The pressure at the inlet and
distal ends of the lateral if the lateral is on level distal ends of the lateral if the lateral is on level
ground. b) The pressure at each end of the ground. b) The pressure at each end of the
lateral if the lateral runs down a uniform 2% lateral if the lateral runs down a uniform 2%
grade. c) The pressure at each end of the grade. c) The pressure at each end of the
lateral if the lateral runs up a uniform 2% grade. lateral if the lateral runs up a uniform 2% grade.
Which of these systems meet the ASAE criteria Which of these systems meet the ASAE criteria
for pressure variation in laterals for pressure variation in laterals
Example 4 Example 4
Solution Solution: : There are 44 sprinklers on the lateral There are 44 sprinklers on the lateral
(i.e., 1,320 feet with 30 feet between sprinklers). (i.e., 1,320 feet with 30 feet between sprinklers).
With 5/32 inch nozzles, the average flow is 5 With 5/32 inch nozzles, the average flow is 5
gpm per sprinkler and the total flow for the gpm per sprinkler and the total flow for the
lateral is 220 gpm (5 x 44 sprinklers). lateral is 220 gpm (5 x 44 sprinklers).
Aluminum pipe with couplers has a C value of Aluminum pipe with couplers has a C value of
120 in the Hazen 120 in the Hazen Williams equation so the Williams equation so the
friction loss for a mainline with a flow rate of 220 friction loss for a mainline with a flow rate of 220
gpm through a 4 inch aluminum pipe is given by: gpm through a 4 inch aluminum pipe is given by:
Example 4 Example 4
P P
m m
= 4.56 [Q/C] = 4.56 [Q/C]
1.852 1.852
[1/D [1/D
4.866 4.866
] ] Equation 8b
P P
m m
= 4.56 [220/120] = 4.56 [220/120]
1.852 1.852
[1/4.0 [1/4.0
4.866 4.866
] = 21.5 ] = 21.5
psi psi
where P where P
m m
= the pressure loss in a mainline of = the pressure loss in a mainline of
constant diameter and flow. constant diameter and flow.
28
Lateral Design Lateral Design
Example 4 Example 4
The multiple outlet friction factor (F) for a The multiple outlet friction factor (F) for a
lateral with 44 sprinklers is about 0.36 so the lateral with 44 sprinklers is about 0.36 so the
friction loss for the lateral is: friction loss for the lateral is:
P P
l l
= F P = F P
m m
= 0.36 x 21.5 psi = 7.7 psi. = 0.36 x 21.5 psi = 7.7 psi.
Example 4 Example 4
The pressure at the inlet to the lateral for level The pressure at the inlet to the lateral for level
ground is: ground is:
P P
i i
= P = P
a a
+ 3/4 P + 3/4 P
l l
= 50 + 0.75 x 7.7 = 56 psi. = 50 + 0.75 x 7.7 = 56 psi.
The pressure at the distal end of the lateral for The pressure at the distal end of the lateral for
level ground is: level ground is:
P P
d d
= P = P
a a
  1/4 P 1/4 P
l l
= 50 = 50   0.25 x 7.7 = 48 psi. 0.25 x 7.7 = 48 psi.
Example 4 Example 4
The pressure variation along the lateral is The pressure variation along the lateral is
7.7 psi compared to the average pressure of 7.7 psi compared to the average pressure of
50 psi. The variation is 15.4% of the average 50 psi. The variation is 15.4% of the average
pressure and is less than the maximum pressure and is less than the maximum
permissible pressure variation so the lateral permissible pressure variation so the lateral
meets the ASAE standard. meets the ASAE standard.
Example 4 Example 4
When the lateral runs down a 2% grade, the When the lateral runs down a 2% grade, the
elevation change along the lateral is: elevation change along the lateral is:
E E
i i
  E E
d d
= 0.02 x 1320 ft = 26.4 ft. So the inlet is = 0.02 x 1320 ft = 26.4 ft. So the inlet is
about 26 feet above the distal end. about 26 feet above the distal end.
29
Example 4 Example 4
The pressures at the inlet and distal ends are The pressures at the inlet and distal ends are
then: then:
P P
i i
= P = P
a a
+ 3/4 P + 3/4 P
l l
  0.5 ( 0.5 (E E
i i
  E E
d d
)/2.31P )/2.31P
i i
(Equation 7) (Equation 7)
= 50 + 0.75 X 7.7 = 50 + 0.75 X 7.7   0.5 x 26.4/2.31 = 50.1 psi 0.5 x 26.4/2.31 = 50.1 psi
P P
d d
= P = P
a a
  1/4 P 1/4 P
l l
+ 0.5 ( + 0.5 (E E
i i
  E E
d d
)/2.31 (Equation 7) )/2.31 (Equation 7)
= 50 = 50   0.25 X 7.7 + 0.5 X 26.4/2.31 = 53.8 psi 0.25 X 7.7 + 0.5 X 26.4/2.31 = 53.8 psi
Here the pressure variation is only 3.7 psi, Here the pressure variation is only 3.7 psi,
well within the allowable variation. Note that well within the allowable variation. Note that
the highest pressure occurs at the distal end the highest pressure occurs at the distal end
of the lateral for this case. of the lateral for this case.
When the lateral runs uphill the elevation of When the lateral runs uphill the elevation of
the inlet is now below the distal end so the the inlet is now below the distal end so the
value of ( value of (E E
i i
  E E
d d
) = ) =  26.4 feet. Using this value 26.4 feet. Using this value
and the method in Part B the pressures at the and the method in Part B the pressures at the
ends of the lateral are: ends of the lateral are:
Example 11.4 Example 11.4
P P
i i
= 61.5 psi and P = 61.5 psi and P
d d
= 42.4 psi. = 42.4 psi.
Now the pressure variation is about 19 psi or Now the pressure variation is about 19 psi or
38% of the average pressure which is 38% of the average pressure which is
unacceptable according to the standard. unacceptable according to the standard.
HYDRAULICS
Basic Hydraulics
2
generating power. such as eroding the soil surface. energy can be in the following forms: 1. Energy has the units of FL (force times length) and weight has the units of Force (F). Water at a higher elevation has more potential energy than water at a lower elevation. the energy of water in an irrigation system includes velocity head. Thus. etc. HYDRAULICS Basic Hydraulics The water has the ability to do work as it flows downhill. energy per unit weight has the units of FL / F or just the dimension of L (LENGTH). 3. The potential energy of the water decreases as it flows downhill.HYDRAULICS Basic Hydraulics One of the most important considerations in the hydraulics of irrigation systems is the amount of energy that is available in the water at any point within the system. Kinetic energy due to velocity Potential energy due to elevation Potential energy due to water pressure. HYDRAULICS Basic Hydraulics The potential energy due to elevation is a result of the location of the water relative to an arbitrary reference plane. and pressure head. elevation head. The letter Z will be used to represent elevation head or called gravitational head. 2. With water flow. HYDRAULICS Basic Hydraulics In this class. the energy in water is expressed as energy per unit weight of water. 3 . Hence. head.
stopped too quickly. Pressure surges are due to flow being stopped suddenly while the upstream water has a large amount of momentum. The pressure may be expressed as: HYDRAULICS Basic Hydraulics In general. HYDRAULICS Basic Hydraulics HYDRAULICS P =λh where: or h = P/λ Eq 2 P = pressure (lb per square inch) λ = weight of a unit volume of fluid (specific weight). the maximum recommended average velocity in an enclosed pipeline is 5 ft/sec. lb per ft . When the flow is momentum. lb per ft3 h = pressure head. P =λh where: or h = P/λ Equation 2 P = pressure (lb per square inch) λ = weight of a unit volume of fluid 3 (specific weight). Pressure is the force per unit area exerted on the walls of a container. hammer. ft. the rapid change in momentum results in impulsive force called water hammer. When the velocity in a pipeline exceeds 5 ft/sec. 4 .HYDRAULICS Basic Hydraulics The potential energy due to the pressurization of water can be a very large component in an irrigation system. there is a potential to develop very high pressure surges which may damage pipelines.
One column has a crosscross2 2 sectional area of 1 in .433 psi / ft Equation 3 NOTE: THE PRESSURE IS INDEPENDENT OF THE SURFACE AREA OF THE COLUMN. P HYDRAULICS Basic Hydraulics The PRESSURE IS INDEPENDENT OF THE SURFACE AREA! In English units.31 ft / psi WATER ONLY FOR 5 . P or h = P / λ Equation 2 3 2 2 2 P = 62. and 3 λ = 62. it is convenient to express: λ = 0. the other 10 in .33 lb/in P = 4.4 lb/ft Pressure. Given: Find: h = 10 ft.33 psi Or h = 10 ft.4 lb/ft Pressure. Find the pressure at the bottom of each column.4 lb/ft Pressure. and 3 λ = 62.33 psi P =λh HYDRAULICS EXAMPLE 1 Given: Find: Solution: P = 4.4 lb/ft (10 ft) (ft / 144 in ) = 4. 1/λ = 2.HYDRAULICS EXAMPLE 1 Two columns of water are filled to a height of 10 feet with water. P EXAMPLE 1 Given: Find: Solution: HYDRAULICS h = 10 ft. and 3 λ = 62.
In a hydraulic system. It is: H = + elevation head + pressure head + velocity head H = Z + h + V2/(2g) Equation 4 Velocity Head = V2 / (2g) Equation 1 where: V = average velocity at a point in a pipe or channel. HYDRAULICS Basic Hydraulics Another important concept of water flow is continuity. mass must continuity. be conserved. ft/sec. the continuity equation is expressed as: Q = VA where: Equation 5 Q = volumetric flow rate or discharge.2 2 ft/sec . g = gravitational constant.HYDRAULICS Basic Hydraulics Kinetic energy is the result of the movement of the fluid and the term VELOCITY HEAD is given by: HYDRAULICS Basic Hydraulics The sum of the energy forms the total energy per unit weight called HYDRAULIC HEAD (H). For incompressible fluid flow. V = average flow velocity A = crosssectional area of flow. 32. such as water. cross 6 .
V = Q/A. and Total Head Find: 7 .HYDRAULICS HYDRAULICS EXAMPLE 2 In the pipeline system shown on the next page. Velocity Head. find the hydraulic head at the inlet into the 4inch diameter pipeline. 4Given: Z = 15 feet P = 60 psi Q = 400 gpm d = 4 inch (internal diameter) h.
087 ft2 Q = 400 gpm/ (450 gpm/cfs) = 0.526 ft2 = 1.89 cfs (ft3/sec) V = Q/A = 0.HYDRAULICS EXAMPLE 2 Solution: h = 60 psi (2.087 ft2 = 10.69 ft/sec Find: 8 .23 ft/sec)2 / {2 (32.6 ft Total Head (H) = 15 ft + 139 ft + 1.5 in2 (ft2/144 in2) = 0.087 ft2 = 10.31 ft/psi) = 139 feet A = π/4 (4 in)2 = 12.89 ft3/sec / 0.57 in2 (ft2/144 in2) = 0.6 ft = 156 ft HYDRAULICS EXAMPLE 3 What is the velocity head at point 2 in EXAMPLE 2? Given: Q2 = Q1 = 400 gpm d2 = 10 inch A2 = π/4 d22 Velocity.2 ft/sec2)} = 1.23 ft/sec Velocity Head = V2/2g = (10. V Velocity Head at point 2 EXAMPLE 3 Solution: HYDRAULICS A2 = π/4 (10 in)2 = 78.89 cfs (ft3/sec) V = Q/A = 0.526 ft2 Q2 = Q1 = 400 gpm/ (450 gpm/cfs) = 0.23 ft/sec EXAMPLE 2 Solution: HYDRAULICS V = Q/A = 0.89 ft3/sec / 0.89 ft3/sec / 0.
9 .HYDRAULICS EXAMPLE 3 Solution: V = Q/A = 0. HYDRAULICS Basic Hydraulics An important law of fluid mechanics is conservation of energy.69 ft/sec Velocity Head = V2/2g = (1. which is given by: Equation. etc. the velocity head in the 10inch pipe is 10only 0.2 ft/sec2)} = 0. H2 = H1 .04 ft THUS.526 ft2 = 1. Conservation of energy energy.hL where: Equation 6 H1 = hydraulic head at point 1 in a system (upstream) H2 = hydraulic head at point 2 in a system (down stream) hL = head loss during flow from point 1 to point 2.69 ft/sec)2 / {2 (32. for irrigation systems is described by the Bernoulli Equation.025 times the velocity head in the 4inch 4pipe. HYDRAULICS Basic Hydraulics The head loss from point 1 to point 2 is due to friction loss from the resistance to flow along a pipeline and to minor pressure losses of energy through pipe fittings.89 ft3/sec / 0.
hf f L V Q k2 f L 5 D 2g D 2 2 where k2 conversion constant.HYDRAULICS Friction Loss in Pipes DarcyWeisbach Formula Darcy HYDRAULICS Friction Loss in Pipes Further. f is the Darcy . g is the acceleration of gravity (L/T2 ). for circular pipes. fluid properties and Reynolds number (dimensionless). the following substitutions can be made : hf f LV D 2g 2 where : h f is the friction loss (L). D is the internal pipe diameter (L) V is the mean fluid velocity in the pipe (L/T). L is the pipe length (L). HYDRAULICS HYDRAULICS 10 .Weisbach friction factor. which is a function of pipe roughness.
852 [1/D4. the solution of this equation is often a trial and error as the flow is not known and thus the Reynolds number (and thus the friction factor) is not known. k1 is a conversion factor to handle the units.852 1.Williams friction factor which is a function of pipe material. psi per 100 ft of pipe Q = flow rate.167 1. gpm D = inside pipe diameter.871 HYDRAULICS Computing Friction Loss D where : h f is the friction loss (L).866] Equation 8a Equation 8b C is the Hazen . for circular conduits. C is the Hazen .852 hf = 1054 [Q/C] 1.HYDRAULICS Friction Loss in Pipes The friction factor is a function of Reynolds Number and relative roughness of the pipe internal material. where: hf = friction loss. L is the pipe length (L).Williams friction factor. L is the pipe length (L). inches C = roughness coefficient 11 . Generally. D is the internal pipe diameter (L) V is the mean fluid velocity (L /T).852 [1/D4.852 where : h is the friction loss (L). Q C 1. the following simplification can be made : h f k1 L 4.852 1.866] Pf = 456 [Q/C] 1. ft of head per 100 ft of pipe Pf = friction loss. which is a function of pipe material. f K is a conversion factor to handle the units. D is the internal pipe diameter (L) Q is the flow rate (L3/T). HazenWilliams Formula Hazen h K f L V D C 1. 2 HYDRAULICS Friction Loss in Pipes Further.
04 . The value of C 1.49 54 .09 .52 .11 1.81 .95 2..26 1.22 2.37 .17 .15 2.HYDRAULICS Computing Friction Loss Representative values of C for different pipe materials are given in TABLE 1.16 .22 7.15 .27 1.60 .93 1.46 ..30 .158 ..36 .73 1.110 .57 1. Q (gal/min) 1in 1 1 in / 4 112in / 2in 212in / Q (gal/min) 4in 5in 6in 8in 10in 12in .26 6.51 18..194 .46 1. HYDRAULICS Computing Friction Loss TABLE 1.37 .24 .02 .90 ..54 1.12 .01 .06 .70 . of the materials listed in TABLE 1.03 .10 .61 .15 ...35 .Friction head loss in ft/100 ft .95 1.04 1.141 . = 100) while PVC is the smoothest (C = 150).71 .32 9.56 5.18 .125 .25 1.69 .49 1.31 .24 .03 3.03 6.2 4 6 8 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 .96 3.98 6.62 1.175 .14 1.26 1.43 1.86 .24 4.04 1.67 3.14 .58 1.10 1...46 8..22 2.. decreases as the roughness of the pipe wall decreases.10 .36 3.71 3.17 .23 .61 .19 .44 .18 3.54 .82 2.58 2.34 .04 ..28 . HAZENWILLIAMS C VALUES HAZENMATERIAL Aluminum pipe with couplers Aluminum pipe with gates Cement asbestos pipe Galvanized steel pipe Standard steel pipe PVC Class 160 irrigation pipe PVC pipe with gates C 120 110 140 140 100 150 130 Table 2 illustrates the friction loss for PVC pipe as a function of pipe size and flow rate..19 .77 .78 2.40 .09 .14 .87 .07 1.43 .02 2.56 4..06 .14 .90 2.18 2.04 4.36 .92 3.32 10....12 .060 .40 .46 5. HYDRAULICS Table 2 Friction loss for IPS PVC pipe.69 2.67 6.32 ..21 .75 .63 .28 2.89 2.75 12.50 .150 160 170 180 190 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 950 1000 1.95 1.02 9.. Note the friction losses in Table 2 are in ft per 100 ft and are for PVC pipe of an SDR of 21.30 .04 1.46 15.17 1.78 5. steel pipe is the roughest material (C 1.11 .11 .86 1.67 .45 2.28 .30 22.10 5.70 2.32 .41 1.26 .71 5.Friction head loss in ft/100 ft .02 .41 .44 3.78 4.86 .79 16.35 1.91 1.21 5 73 ..10 3.21 .30 1.34 ..70 3.. Accordingly.083 .096 .81 .213 233 12 .10 .44 1 58 .
856 10 10. Several are included here for reference. (in) PIPE I.00 7. Thus.00 3. ALUMINUM . HYDRAULICS SHOW EXAMPLES OF PVC PIPE HYDRAULICS Pipelines Discuss pipe sizes PVC .ID controlled (fittings are internal to pipe).00 2. pipe thickness does not impact pipe ID. HYDRAULICS Aluminum Pipe Sizes NOMINAL PIPE SIZE PIPE O.OD controlled (fittings are external to pipe).00 1. (in) (in) 2 2.818 NOTE: Aluminum Pipe with Couplers.D.00 9. pipe thickness reduces pipe ID.HYDRAULICS Pipe Sizes Both the internal and external pipe diameters are determined by the material used to manufacture the pipe and the “nominal” pipe nominal” diameter.OD controlled (fittings are external to pipe). BLACK POLY . Thus.00 6. C = 130 13 .906 5 5.902 3 3.872 8 8. Thus.00 4. These values are available in many different locations and standards. pipe thickness reduces pipe ID.884 7 7.896 6 6.00 5.D.914 4 4.
161 1.00 125 150 5 6 141.900 3.D.970 0.0 Psi psi psi Psi psi 4 8 250 200 160 315 250 200 160 125 100 80 63 50 43 22 250 200 160 125 100 80 63 50 40 200 160 125 100 80 63 50 40 30 160 125 100 80 63 50 40 30 25 100 80 64 50 40 200 160 125 80 64 50 40 31 160 125 100 63 10 15 20 25 32 40 50 65 80 90 100 11.620 1.714 21.D.939 2.050 1.068 4.450 6.657 SDR 5.562 6.445 1.(in) 0.135 6.845 5.189 1.800 1.625 8.930 1.622 0.36 4.(in) 0.026 Schedule 80 Pipe I.000 18.616 17. Pressure ratings (PR) for nonthreaded thermoplastic pipe. I.00 300 12 323.215 0.720 2.124 14.0 26.00 500 550 600 20 21 24 508. Based Pipe 5.676 2.500 4.80 20.096 17.28 156.564 1. Controlled.D.00 914.000 24.D.(in) 7.00 250 10 273.99 700 750 900 27 30 36 710.742 0.926 1. mm 219.D.890 2.93 26.5 50 ft head 9.924 9.176 18.774 2.64 35.609 Schedule 40 Pipe I.000 22.895 25.364 3.546 0.024 20.00 Average O.986 7.154 22.875 3.761 3.000 9.675 0.602 4.351 22.750 12.D.824 1.000 18.14 21.978 11.427 2.D.417 6.0 21.405 0.840 1.02 88.30 105.(in) SDR 21 Pipe I.900 2.953 30.118 15.800 8.000 5.(in) 7.301 5.000 4.088 3.857 15.900 2.D.972 14.540 0.364 0.89 52. mm 10.D.280 3.389 6.32 73.938 9.(in) 0.760 10.280 17.62 406.530 3.882 12.000 6.0 64.D.D.193 2.D.486 24.99 609. Pipe dimensions for PE pipe.648 12.049 1.380 1.323 2.0 51.D.D.40 42.729 3.72 17.606 18.(in) 7.726 7.760 1.122 17.154 1.D.226 9.160 10.(in) 0.478 4.05 259.240 14.831 26.D.218 1.90 101.957 1.291 6.538 11.993 4.0 PVC Pipe Sizes Nominal Pipe Size mm 200 Nominal Pipe Size In 8 Average O.0 32.423 0.840 5.D.526 1.000 11.(in) 0.469 3.004 5.119 SDR 9 Pipe O.(in) SDR 51 Pipe I.572 26.(in) 0.200 21.00 762.149 2.0 13.5 41.390 4.08 207.283 1.668 13.536 34.703 SDR 15 Pipe O.PVC Pipe Sizes SDR SDR PVC 1120 PVC 1220 PVC 2120 psi HYDRAULICS Table 1.D.500 4.(in) SDR 26 Pipe I.285 2.166 3.548 4.493 0.93 102.318 14.354 11.315 1.932 5.220 17.286 14.780 2.700 12.29 13.263 18.D.805 SDR 17 Pipe I.47 31.310 19.D.856 1.D.05 Average I.00 350 380 400 450 14 15 16 18 355.(in) SDR 41 Pipe I.026 6.972 4.349 1.770 16.844 14.804 4.095 2.02 SDR 26 Pipe I.070 2.05 40.909 5.971 22.(in) 0.527 SDR 7 Pipe O.575 23.049 1.140 IPS IPS IPS IPS IPS IPS IPS IPS IPS IPS IPS IPS IPS PIP IPS IPS PIP Pipe Class HYDRAULICS 50 ft head Pipe I.60 629.67 33.789 19.134 1.315 1.065 4.728 9.0 93.(in) 0.462 20.655 3.900 2.622 0.343 2.563 6.750 10.71 77.742 0.250 11.60 114.40 Average O. Nominal Pipe Size mm 16 21 27 35 41 52 63 78 102 154 Nominal Pipe Size In ½ ¾ 1 1¼ 1½ 2 2½ 3 4 6 Average I.D.982 9. mm 15.840 100 ft head Pipe I.589 28.218 2.(in) SDR 41 Pipe I.660 1.(in) 7. in 0.20 475.D.601 3.961 SDR 21 Pipe I.692 4.050 1.115 5.3 7.924 14.380 1.D.(in) 8.476 16.625 14 .60 388.(in) 0.85 311.230 3. PVC 2116 PVC 2112 PVC 2110 PE 3408 PE 3406 PE 3306 PE 2306 psi PE 2305 PVC Pipe Sizes Nominal Pipe Size mm Nominal Pipe Size In 1/8 ¼ 3/8 ½ ¾ 1 1¼ 1½ 2 2½ 3 3½ 4 Average O.072 0.271 17.068 3.128 11.(in) SDR 17 Pipe I.642 13.610 2.D.D.047 24.803 27.0 11.D.000 36.770 11.742 0.300 16.279 0.532 1.375 2.754 2.500 4.047 6.701 20.231 1.008 1.000 HYDRAULICS Pipe Class 50 ft head Pipe I.899 3.834 1.847 Schedule 40 Pipe O.D.134 5.D.830 23. Based Pipe I.205 7.D.183 23.944 1.50 62.875 3.803 27.762 10.(in) SDR 64 Pipe I.692 33.(in) IPS PIP IPS PIP IPS PIP IPS PIP IPS IPS PIP IPS PIP IPS PIP PIP IPS IPS 17.625 6.26 60.375 2. in 0.200 12.686 1.593 26.824 2. in 8.065 SDR 19 Pipe O.500 1.537 3.5 Pipe O.764 21.873 SDR 11.230 27.16 48.212 1.826 O.554 15.0 81.610 2.840 1.5 15.720 12.968 2.060 1.30 168.981 HYDRAULICS Table 3.(in) SDR 51 Pipe I.144 32.D.944 1.62 4.40 457.067 2.799 3.968 1.469 3.90 3.067 2.742 0.000 7.058 23.26 154.330 3.813 5.502 1.660 1.D.564 21.969 19.(in) Schedule 40 Pipe I.302 0.169 1.033 5.244 12.000 15.464 1.3 Pipe O.000 14.00 559.189 1.5 17.D.486 10.34 26.
22 0. thus velocity heads cancel h2 + 100 = h1 + 110 – losses h2 = 115.5 + 10 – losses Q gpm 600 300 losses ft/100 ft 2. P2 = ??.5 feet In this case.100 . P2 = ?? Pipe is 6 inch IPS PVC.5 + 110 .hL Equation 6 HYDRAULICS Basic Hydraulics Z1 = 110 feet.000 ft 22.HYDRAULICS Basic Hydraulics Bernoulli Equation H2 = H1 . Z2 = 100 feet P1 = 50 psi.4 P2 psi 44.10 h2 ft 103.losses h2 + Z2 + V22/2g = h1 + Z1 + V12/2g .7 HYDRAULICS EXAMPLE OF PIPE MATERIAL ON FRICTION LOSS 15 .3 119. V1 = V2. Z2 = 100 feet P1 = 50 psi.losses Z1 = 110 feet.7 51.2 6.31) = 115. h1 = 50 (2. SDR = 21 (200 psi) Length is 1.000 feet HYDRAULICS Basic Hydraulics h2 = 115.61 losses 1.
866] 1 inch SCH 40 PVC hf hf hf hf = = = = 1054 [Q/C] 1. ft of head per 100 ft of pipe Q = flow rate.866] 1054 [10/150] 1. Q = 10 gpm HYDRAULICS Computing Friction Loss HYDRAULICS Computing Friction Loss hf = 1054 [Q/C] 1. gpm D = inside pipe diameter.852 [1/D 4.5 ft/100ft 130.622 O.D.866] 5.4 psi/100ft 16 . 1.852 [1/D4.848 C 150 100 150 where: hf = friction loss.D.866] 1054 [10/150] 1.852 [1/D 4.049 4.5 psi/100ft hf = 1054 [Q/C] 1.866] ½ inch SCH 40 PVC hf hf hf hf = = = = 1054 [Q/C] 1.315 1.852 [1/0.852 [1/D 4.541 ft/100ft 2.049 1. 1.049 0. inches C = roughness coefficient.HYDRAULICS Computing Friction Loss HYDRAULICS Computing Friction Loss hf = 1054 [Q/C] 1.622 4.852 [1/D 4.315 0.852 [1/1.866] Equation 8a Pipe Size 1 in 1 in ½ in Pipe Material Sch 40 PVC Sch 40 Steel Sch 40 PVC I.866] 70.
5. etc.866 hf = 1054 [Q/C] 1. Head losses in fittings. These head losses are due to the friction in the fitting. valves. V = velocity of flow.. ft K = resistance coefficient for fitting..08 psi/100ft 1 INCH STEEL . ft/sec 17 . can be described by: hm = K {V2/2g} where: Equation 9 hm = head loss in fitting.74 ft/100ft 5.08 PSI/100FT STEEL HAS TWICE THE LOSS OF PVC DOUBLE SIZE HAS APPROXIMATELY 1/6 LOSS HYDRAULICS Head Loss Minor or Fitting Losses Head losses also occur in the fittings used in construction of a system.852 [1/D4.HYDRAULICS Computing Friction Loss HYDRAULICS Computing Friction Loss COMPARISONS BETWEEN PIPES 4.866] 11.4 PSI/100FT 1 inch SCH 40 STEEL hf hf hf hf = = = = 1054 [Q/C] 1.5 PSI/100 FT 2. plus losses resulting from the turbulence and changes in the direction of flow. etc.049 4. can be described by: Head Loss HYDRAULICS Minor or Fitting Losses Head losses in fittings.852 [1/D ] ½ INCH PVC 1 INCH PVC  30.852 [1/1. valves.866] 1054 [10/100] 1.
7 .18 0.28 0.25 .70 0.3 5.70 .27 .25 .HYDRAULICS Head Loss Table 4 Resistance coefficient K for use determining head losses in fittings and valves.17 0.17 .90 1.4 EXAMPLE Q = 40 GPM.09 5.30 .17 0.16 .11 .33 .20 .5 INCH V2/(2g) = 2. Currently.34 .12 .54 = 0.20 .594 * 103 (gpm2)/I.2 mm) 4 in (101.80 0.0 mm) 6 in (152.21 14 6.18 .075 5.5 .0 .0 6.16 12 6.52 7.2 mm) 10 in (254 mm) Fitting or valve Minor or Fitting Losses Resistance coefficients for various types of fittings and valves are given in TABLE 4.06 HYDRAULICS Head Loss VELOCITY HEAD (practical guide) V2/(2g) = 2.26 .16 . ID = 1.58 .4 mm) 7 in (177. the most common materials used for above ground sprinkler systems and gatedpipe surface irrigation gatedsystems are aluminum and ultraviolet radiation protected PVC (polyvinyl chloride plastic).31 .6 .28 0.25 0.29 0.19 . Standard pipe Nominal diameter 3 in (76.30 .90 1.82 ft Pipelines HYDRAULICS Irrigation pipelines are made of many materials.18 .10 .60 .13 .22 .15 . Bends: Return flanged Return screwed Elbows: Regular flanged 90° Long radius flanged 90° Long radius flanged 45° Regular screwed 90° Long radius screwed 90° Regular screwed 45° Tees: Flanged line flow Flanged branch flow Screwed line flow Screwed branch flow Valves: Globe flanged Globe screwed Gate flanged Gate screwed 0.73 .8 mm) 8 in (203.0 .10 .09 .27 0.D.8 .65 .80 .594*103 (402)/1.6 mm) 5 in (127. 18 .30 .14 .28 .56 .13 5.14 .68 . Centerpivot and lateral systems Centercommonly use galvanized steel as the pipeline material.7 .24 0.23 .30 0.11 5.17 0.
54 1. 87 .HYDRAULICS Pipelines For pipelines that are buried below the ground. 51 18 ..02 .06 .70 2..4 1.2 5 19 ..32 9 .32 10 .961 9. HYDRAULICS Pipeline flow rates.1 7 .35 .16 . The typical flow ranges for aluminum pipe and class 160 PVC pipe at various nominal sizes and reasonable flow velocities are shown below.02 ..3 0 .0 4 1.2 1 .754 2.06 .0 7 .9 5 2 .86 1 .154 6.03 3 .4 6 8.75 12 .9 3.67 ..40 .0 4 .18 2.3 7 .9 11/9 24 44 186 426 764 1199 1733 Class 160 PVC ID Q in gpm 1.0 4 .9 9.0 7 1 .11 .1 7 .02 .36 .1 0 .6 3 .2 4 6 8 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 .0 2 9.49 ..0 3 6.09 .71 3.15 .7 5 .05 .23 ..86 .91 1.. PE is also commonly used for aboveground microabovemicroirrigation systems. the most common material in agricultural applications is PVC and in landscape and turf application it is either PVC or PE (polyethylene plastic). Pipelines HYDRAULICS Sizing mainlines is usually based on a maximum of 5 to 6 ft/sec average velocity.115 7.60 .19 . 46 15 .32 .0 2 . VELOCITY = 5 ft/sec Nominal Size in 1½ 2 4 6 8 10 12 Aluminum ID Q in gpm 1.1 3 .770 38 59 211 458 776 1205 1695 Q ( ga l/min) HYDRAULICS Ta ble 8 .98 6.7 0 3.13 .27 1.04 .01 ..32 .14 .03 .9 7.46 5 .09 .01 .193 4.924 11.2 Fr ic tion loss for I P S P VC p ipe.9 5.7 8 5.19 .22 7 .7 8 2.79 16 .30 22 ..49 1..0 1 .50 .30 . 1 in 1 1/4in 4 1 1 1/2in 2 2 in 1 2 1/2in 2 3 in 3 1/2in 2 .15 2.Fr iction hea d loss in ft/100 ft .25 .
Lateral Design The irrigation planner and designer is interested in two basic problems related to pipeline hydraulics. (dimensionless). a multiple outlet factor. Air Vent Valve C = Check Valve or Backflow Preventer G = Shutoff Valve PR = Pressure Relief D = Automatic Drain Valve HYDRAULICS Computing Friction Loss A pipeline with outlets has a lower friction loss than a conveyance pipe because the velocity decreases with distance along the pipe. F is used. The first is concerned with the flow of water in pipes with multiple outlets (sprinkler laterals or drip irrigation laterals) and flow of water in pipelines without multiple outlets. L is the pipe length (L). sub VA = Vacuum. the friction loss in pipes can be expressed as the following : L V h K D where : m f n h is the friction loss (L). In general. and the friction loss formula chosen. To correct for the effect of outlets. m is the velocity exponent. 20 . such as main lines and submains. D is the internal pipe diameter (L). V is the mean fluid velocity (L/T). The value of F is one. for pipelines without outlets. f K is a conversion factor to handle the units. and n is the pipe diameter exponent (dimensionless).
Further. the head loss in section two and the next sections are calculated as: The total head loss in the entire lateral in now the sum of the head loss from each section of the lateral. the following simplification can be made : hf K L Vm Q and V n A D L Vm D n or V Q 2 D 4 m Assume the sprinkler spacings (S) are all equal and that the total number of sprinklers is N. or h f 2 k3 S D 2 mn ( 2q) m hT m h fi i 1 N h f 3 k3 S D 2 mn S D 2 mn (3q) S hT L / N 3 S (iq) m k 3 2 mn D i 1 N m h fi k 3 (iq) m h i 1 N fi k i 1 N L / N (iq) D 2 mn k3 2 mn D L / N (iq) m i 1 N 21 . h f k 3 D 2mn Likewise. The head loss in section one of the above figure is calculated as: Thus. h f K K L n Qm D 2 D 4 L Q m h f 1 k3 S D 2 mn qm Thus in general.Further. the sprinkler lateral length (L) is given as SN. the total flow into the lateral is Q and each sprinkler flow (q) is equal to Q/N.
Head loss if the lateral were a main line * Factor F. finally recall that for the entire lateral. then the factor F must be adjusted. Factor F i i 1 N m N m 1 1 1 m 1 m 1 2N 6N 2 22 . If the first sprinkler outlet is located ½ spacing from the inlet to the lateral. if it were a mainline. These are given in the attached tables.q Q/N hT k3 D 2mn L / N (iQ / N ) m k3 L Q m D 2 mn N N m i 1 N NOW. the friction loss is (i ) m i 1 N h f k3 L D 2 mn hf Qm N hT k3 D 2 mn L Q N m m 1 (i i 1 N m ) hT k3 D 2 mn L Q m (i ) m 1 N i 1 m N 1 N m 1 (i i 1 N m ) hf i N m i 1 m 1 hT hT Head loss if the lateral were a main line * Factor to account for multiple outlets.
use TABLE 3. The lateral must be large enough to carry the needed flow rate so that the pressure loss along the lateral is not excessive.30 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 Lateral Design The sizing of sprinkler laterals is a fundamental consideration for sprinkler systems. F = 0 . For center * p ivots. of No.55 0.359 0.480 0.363 0. the centersprinkler discharge increases with distance from the pivot point.368 0.0 0. These factors are given at the bottom. No.410 0.419 0.392 0.345 F = 0.377 0.379 16 17 18 19 20 22 24 26 28 30 35 40 50 100 More than 100 0.370 0.60 0.357 0.528 0.45 0.634 0.402 0.54 for center p ivots without end g uns.350 0.35 0.373 0.433 0. Number of Sprinklers on the Lateral 23 .355 0. Table 3 Multiple out let factors for laterals with equally sp read out lets o f the same d ischarge.372 0. A standard has been established by the American Society of Agricultural Engineers for maximum variations of discharge along a sprinkler lateral.384 0.451 0.364 0.40 0. see footnote*.366 0. M ultiple Outlet Factor (F) 0.388 0.396 0. o f outlets F out lets F 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 * * 1.50 0.362 0.381 0.Computing Friction Loss For lateral pipelines with constant spaced outlets and nearly the same discharge per outlet. With centerpivots.376 0.65 0.56 for center p ivots w ith end g uns.
The pressure distribution along a lateral placed on level ground is illustrated in Figure (NEXT). The pressure at the inlet of the lateral is determined by the pressure available from the mainline. The pressure loss in the first several joints of the lateral is nearly the same as for a mainline of the same diameter and pipe material. the 10% discharge variation is equivalent to a maximum permissible pressure variation of 20%. as water is discharged from the sprinklers on the lateral the flow rate decreases with distance along the lateral. the only flow in the last joint of the lateral is that discharged from the last sprinkler on the lateral. 24 .Lateral Design To achieve an acceptable uniformity the standard requires that the discharge variation from the sprinkler with the largest flow to the sprinkler with the smallest flow not exceed 10% of the average discharge. Lateral Design However. The diagram in Figure (NEXT) shows that the friction loss for a lateral is about 35% of the loss encountered in a mainline pipe of the same diameter when flow rate into the mainline and lateral are the same. Of course there is very little loss in the lateral for such a small flow. Since the discharge from a nozzle is related to the square root of the pressure. Ultimately. Lateral Design The variation of pressure along a lateral can be due to elevation changes along the lateral and friction loss in the lateral and fittings.
Sprinkler systems are usually designed to select the nozzle size for the average pressure along the lateral. Obviously since pressure varies along the lateral the discharge also varies.Lateral Design The average pressure along the lateral on level ground occurs at a location about 1/4 to 1/3 of the way from the inlet of the lateral. For practical purposes the pressure at each end of a lateral on level ground can be computed by: Pi = Pa + ¾ Pl Pd = Pa – ¼ Pl Equation 5 Equation 6 25 . Lateral Design The diagram in the pressure loss Figure shows that the average pressure is closer to the pressure at the distal end of the lateral than to the pressure at the inlet of the lateral. Then the pressure at each end of the lateral is computed.
Equation 5 Lateral Design From a practical perspective. pressure of the lateral.3 psi.Lateral Design Pi = Pa + ¾ Pl Pd = Pa – ¼ Pl where: lateral Pi = pressure at the inlet into the lateral (psi).31 where: Ei = the elevation of the inlet to the lateral (ft) and Ed = the elevation of the distal end of the lateral (ft). An elevation change of 10 feet is equal to a pressure change of 4. Lateral Design (EQUATION 7) 3 1 E Ed Pi Pa Pl i 4 2 2. Pa = average pressure along the (psi). when laterals run downhill there is less pressure variation from the inlet to the distal end than for laterals on level ground because the slope provides some pressure increase.4% of the average. or design. the change in elevation causes changes in pressure. the maximum acceptable pressure loss along a lateral placed on level ground equals 23. When laterals run uphill the pressure in the lateral drops because of friction and because of the change in elevation.234 Pa Equation 6 Lateral Design When a lateral runs up or down hill.31 1 1 E Ed Pd Pa Pl i 4 2 2. Maximum Pl < 0. Thus. and Pl = pressure loss along the lateral (psi). Pd = pressure at the distal end of the lateral (psi). 26 . In other words.
320 feet long.5 psi where Pm = the pressure loss in a mainline of constant diameter and flow. There is one sprinkler outlet at the end of each joint of pipe. The sprinkler lateral is made of 4 inch diameter aluminum pipe with joints 30 feet long.866] = 21. Aluminum pipe with couplers has a C value of 120 in the HazenWilliams equation so the Hazenfriction loss for a mainline with a flow rate of 220 gpm through a 4 inch aluminum pipe is given by: Example 4 Pm = 4. b) The pressure at each end of the lateral if the lateral runs down a uniform 2% grade.. The lateral is 1. Which of these systems meet the ASAE criteria for pressure variation in laterals Example 4 Solution: There are 44 sprinklers on the lateral Solution: (i.56 [Q/C] 1.320 feet with 30 feet between sprinklers).852 [1/4. c) The pressure at each end of the lateral if the lateral runs up a uniform 2% grade. With 5/32 inch nozzles. 27 .Example 4 A sprinkler lateral was designed for Given: Given: an average pressure of 50 psi and sprinkler heads with one 5/32 inch nozzle in each sprinkler head.0 4.866] Equation 8b Pm = 4. the average flow is 5 gpm per sprinkler and the total flow for the lateral is 220 gpm (5 x 44 sprinklers). Lateral Design Example 4 Find: a) The pressure at the inlet and Find: distal ends of the lateral if the lateral is on level ground. 1.e.56 [220/120] 1.852 [1/D 4.
28 .02 x 1320 ft = 26.4% of the average pressure and is less than the maximum permissible pressure variation so the lateral meets the ASAE standard.36 x 21.7 psi. So the inlet is about 26 feet above the distal end. The pressure at the distal end of the lateral for level ground is: Pd = Pa .75 x 7.7 = 48 psi. Example 4 The pressure at the inlet to the lateral for level ground is: Pi = Pa + 3/4 Pl = 50 + 0.7 = 56 psi.36 so the friction loss for the lateral is: Pl = F Pm = 0.Lateral Design Example 4 The multiple outlet friction factor (F) for a lateral with 44 sprinklers is about 0. the elevation change along the lateral is: Ei .5 psi = 7. Example 4 When the lateral runs down a 2% grade.Ed = 0. The variation is 15. Example 4 The pressure variation along the lateral is 7.7 psi compared to the average pressure of 50 psi.4 ft.0.1/4 Pl = 50 .25 x 7.
75 X 7.5 (Ei .7 + 0.4/2. 29 .31 = 53. Using this value (E and the method in Part B the pressures at the ends of the lateral are: Example 11.31 (Equation 7) (E = 50 .4 Pi = 61.5 x 26. well within the allowable variation.Example 4 The pressures at the inlet and distal ends are then: Pi = Pa + 3/4 Pl .7 .8 psi Here the pressure variation is only 3.0. When the lateral runs uphill the elevation of the inlet is now below the distal end so the value of (Ei . Now the pressure variation is about 19 psi or 38% of the average pressure which is unacceptable according to the standard. Note that the highest pressure occurs at the distal end of the lateral for this case.5 X 26.0.4/2.Ed)/2.0.1 psi Pd = Pa .Ed) = 26.5 (Ei .25 X 7.1/4 Pl + 0.7 psi.4 psi.4 feet.31Pi (Equation 7) (E = 50 + 0.5 psi and Pd = 42.31 = 50.Ed)/2.
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